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Sample records for lamprey lampetra fluviatilis

  1. [Liver monoamine oxidase activity of the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis. the substrate-inhibitory specificity].

    PubMed

    Iagodina, O V; Basova, I N

    2013-01-01

    Based on data of substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of specific inhibitors--deprenyl, chlorgi-lin--and specific substrates--serotonin, noradrenalin, benzylamine, beta-phenylethylamine, and N-methylhistamine--a suggestion is put forward about the possible existence of one molecular form of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in liver of mature individuals of the European lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis. There are determined kinetic parameters of monoamine oxidase deamination of eight substrates, which indicates the large spectrum of substrate specificity of the lamprey liver MAO. The studied enzyme does not deaminate histamine and putrescine and is not sensitive to 10(-2) M semicarbaside. Results of study of the substrate-inhibitor specificity allow us to suggest some resemblance of catalytic properties of the lamprey liver MAO and the mammalian form A MAO. The revealed low activity of the enzyme at deamination of all used substrates seems to be connected with low detoxational functional of the lamprey liver.

  2. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Brown, J A; Rankin, J C

    2010-10-01

    Intravenous infusion of angiotensin II ([Asn¹ Val⁵]-Ang II) at 10⁻⁹ mol min⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body mass produced a significant antidiuresis in river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, captured during upstream migration and maintained in fresh water. Although the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) is now recognized in jawless fishes, until this study, the role of homologous Ang II in L. fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates.

  3. Electrical excitation of the heart in a basal vertebrate, the European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Haverinen, Jaakko; Egginton, Stuart; Vornanen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Hagfishes and lampreys (order Cyclostomata) are living representatives of an ancient group of jawless vertebrates (class Agnatha). Studies on cyclostome hearts may provide insights into the evolution of the vertebrate heart and thereby increase our understanding of cardiac function in higher vertebrates, including mammals. To this end, electrical excitability of the heart in a basal vertebrate, the European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), was examined. Ion currents of cardiac myocytes, action potentials (APs) of atrial and ventricular muscle, and electrocardiogram (in vivo) were measured using the patch-clamp method, intracellular microelectrodes, and trailing wires, respectively. The characteristic features of fairly high heart rate (28.4 ± 3 beats min(-1)) and short AP duration (550 ± 44 and 122.1 ± 28.5 for ventricle and atrium, respectively) at low ambient temperature (5°C) are shared with cold-active teleost fishes. However, the ion current basis of the ventricular AP differs from that of other fishes. For inward currents, sodium current density (INa) is lower and calcium current density (ICa) higher than in teleost ventricles, while the kinetics of INa is slow and that of ICa is fast in comparison. Among the ventricular repolarizing currents, the delayed rectifier K(+) current is smaller than in myocytes of several teleost species. Unlike mammalian hearts, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels are constitutively open under normoxic conditions, thus contributing to negative resting membrane potential and repolarization of APs. Upstroke velocity of AP (5.4 ± 0.9 and 6.3 ± 0.6 V s(-1) for ventricular and atrial myocytes, respectively) is slower than in teleost hearts. Excitability of the lamprey heart seems to possess both primitive and advanced characteristics. Short APs are appropriate to support brief and vigorous contractions (in common with higher vertebrates), while relatively low AP upstroke velocities enable only relatively slow propagation of

  4. Development of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive systems in the brain of the larval lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Simons, Jacqueline; Repérant, Jacques; Mahouche, Mohamed; Ward, Roger

    2002-05-27

    The development of the catecholaminergic system of the brain of the lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) was studied with immunocytochemistry in a series of larvae of different sizes by using two different antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine synthesis. In group 1 larvae (length: 29-54 mm, ages: 8 months to 1.5 years), the only TH-immunoreactive somata observed were located in the caudal wall of the recessus praeopticus (RP) and in the nucleus tuberculi posterioris (NTP). In group 2 larvae (length: 55-80 mm, ages: 1.5-2.5 years), the somata of immunolabeled cells of the NTP give rise to fibers, most of which are ascending and terminate in the corpus striatum. Additional immunoreactive cells are observed in the nucleus praeopticus (NP), which has differentiated, and in the spinal cord. In group 3 larvae (length: 81-110 mm, ages: 2.5-4 years), the spatial distribution of TH-immunoreactive elements (somata, fibers, and terminals) bears many resemblances to that seen in the adult. Immunolabeled cells may be observed in the olfactory bulb, in the nucleus commissurae postopticae (NCP), and in the nucleus dorsalis hypothalami (NDH). Nevertheless, some groups of TH-immunoreactive cells found in the adult are not observed in group 3 larvae; these may appear during the metamorphic phase. By comparative analysis, we show that, in spite of several differences, the spatiotemporal sequence of appearance of TH-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in the lamprey presents many similarities to that described in gnathostomes.

  5. Distribution of a Y1 receptor mRNA in the brain of two Lamprey species, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the river Lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A

    2013-02-01

    The neuropeptide Y system consists of several neuropeptides acting through a broad number of receptor subtypes, the NPY family of receptors. NPY receptors are divided into three subfamilies (Y1, Y2, and Y5) that display a complex evolutionary history due to local and large-scale gene duplication events and gene losses. Lampreys emerged from a basal branch of the tree of vertebrates and they are in a key position to shed light on the evolutionary history of the NPY system. One member of the Y1 subfamily has been reported in agnathans, but the phylogenetic tree of the Y1 subfamily is not yet clear. We cloned the sequences of the Y1-subtype receptor of Petromyzon marinus and Lampetra fluviatilis to study the expression pattern of this receptor in lampreys by in situ hybridization and to analyze the phylogeny of the Y1-subfamily receptors in vertebrates. The phylogenetic study showed that the Y1 receptor of lampreys is basal to the Y1/6 branch of the Y1-subfamily receptors. In situ hybridization showed that the Y1 receptor is widely expressed throughout the brain of lampreys, with some regions showing numerous positive neurons, as well as the presence of numerous cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells in the spinal cord. This broad distribution of the lamprey Y1 receptor is more similar to that found in other vertebrates for the Y1 receptor than that of the other members of the Y1 subfamily: Y4, Y8, and Y6 receptors. Both phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern suggest that this receptor is a Y1 receptor.

  6. Embryonic expression of Tbx1, a DiGeorge syndrome candidate gene, in the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Le Mentec, Chantal; Lepage, Mario; Mazan, Sylvie

    2002-11-01

    We report the embryonic expression in the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis of Tbx1, the main candidate gene involved in DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS). From the end of neurulation to stage 26, Tbx1 becomes progressively expressed in all developing pharyngeal arches, as they form. Transcripts are mainly restricted to the mesodermal core and to the posterior pharyngeal endoderm, excluding ingressing neural crest cells. They are also present in the otic vesicle, in a ventral and posterior location. From a later stage (stage 27) onwards, additional expression domains in the head mesenchyme, later contributing to labial muscle precursors, and in the cloacal region, become visible. The comparison of these data with those reported in the chick and the mouse indicates a high conservation of Tbx1 expression in the pharyngeal arches among vertebrates.

  7. On the mechanism(s) of membrane permeability transition in liver mitochondria of lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L.: insights from cadmium.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, Elena A; Emelyanova, Larisa V; Korotkov, Sergey M; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Savina, Margarita V

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have shown that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in its low conductance state is the case in hepatocytes of the Baltic lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis L.) during reversible metabolic depression taking place in the period of its prespawning migration when the exogenous feeding is switched off. The depression is observed in the last year of the lamprey life cycle and is conditioned by reversible mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial uncoupling in winter and coupling in spring). To further elucidate the mechanism(s) of induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the lamprey liver, we used Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) plus Pi as the pore inducers. We found that Ca(2+) plus Pi induced the high-amplitude swelling of the isolated "winter" mitochondria both in isotonic sucrose and ammonium nitrate medium while both low and high Cd(2+) did not produce the mitochondrial swelling in these media. Low Cd(2+) enhanced the inhibition of basal respiration rate of the "winter" mitochondria energized by NAD-dependent substrates whereas the same concentrations of the heavy metal evoked its partial stimulation on FAD-dependent substrates. The above changes produced by Cd(2+) or Ca(2+) plus Pi in the "winter" mitochondria were only weakly (if so) sensitive to cyclosporine A (a potent pharmacological desensitizer of the nonselective pore) added alone and they were not sensitive to dithiothreitol (a dithiol reducing agent). Under monitoring of the transmembrane potential of the "spring" lamprey liver mitochondria, we revealed that Cd(2+) produced its decrease on both types of the respiratory substrates used that was strongly hampered by cyclosporine A, and the membrane potential was partially restored by dithiothreitol. The effects of different membrane permeability modulators on the lamprey liver mitochondria function and the seasonal changes in their action are discussed.

  8. Apoptotic death in erythrocytes of lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis induced by ionomycin and tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Agalakova, Natalia I; Ivanova, Tatiana I; Gusev, Gennadii P; Nazarenkova, Anna V; Sufiyeva, Dina A

    2017-04-01

    The work examined the effects of Ca(2+) overload and oxidative damage on erythrocytes of river lamprey Lampetra fluvialtilis. The cells were incubated for 3h with 0.1-5μM Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin in combination with 2.5mM Ca(2+) and 10-100μM pro-oxidant agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). The sensitivity of lamprey RBCs to studied compounds was evaluated by the kinetics of their death. Both toxicants induced dose- and time dependent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (annexin V-FITC labeling) and loss of membrane integrity (propidium iodide uptake). Highest doses of ionomycin (1-2μM) increased the number of PS-exposed erythrocytes to 7-9% within 3h, while 100μM tBHP produced up to 50% of annexin V-FITC-positive cells. Caspase inhibitor Boc-D-FMK (50μM), calpain inhibitor PD150606 (10μM) and broad protease inhibitor leupeptin (200μM) did not prevent ionomycin-induced PS externalization, whereas tBHP-triggered apoptosis was blunted by Boc-D-FMK. tBHP-dependent death of lamprey erythrocytes was accompanied by the decrease in relative cell size, loss of cell viability, activation of caspases 9 and 3/7, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, but all these processes were partially attenuated by Boc-D-FMK. None of examined death-associated events were observed in ionomycin-treated erythrocytes except activation of caspase-9. Incubation with ionomycin did not alter intracellular K(+) and Na(+) content, while exposure to tBHP resulted in 80% loss of K(+) and 2.8-fold accumulation of Na(+). Thus, lamprey erythrocytes appear to be more susceptible to oxidative damage. Ca(2+) overload does not activate the cytosolic death pathways in these cells.

  9. Chloride transport in red blood cells of lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for a novel anion-exchange system.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova AYu; Sherstobitov, A O; Gusev, G P

    1998-03-01

    The existence of a furosemide-sensitive Cl- transport pathway activated by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ has been demonstrated previously in studies of Cl- influx across the lamprey erythrocyte membrane. The aim of the present study was to characterize further specific Cl- transport pathways, especially those involved in Cl- efflux, in the red blood cell membrane of Lampetra fluviatilis. Cl- efflux was inhibited by 0.05 mmol l-1 dihydroindenyloxyalkanoic acid (DIOA) (81%), 1 mmol l-1 furosemide (76%) and 0.1 mmol l-1 niflumic acid (54%). Bumetanide (100 mumol l-1) and DIDS (100 mumol l-1) had no effect effect on Cl- efflux. Substitution of external Cl- by gluconate, but not by NO3-, led to a gradual decline of Cl- efflux. In addition, the removal of external Ca2+ resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of Cl- efflux. Membrane depolarization caused by increasing external K+ concentration or by inhibiting K+ channels with 1 mmol l-1 Ba2+ did not affect Cl- efflux. The furosemide-sensitive component of Cl- influx was a saturable function of external [Cl-] with an apparent K(m) of approximately 92 mmol l-1 and Vmax of approximately 17.8 mmol l-1 cells-1 h-1. Furosemide did not affect intracellular Cl- concentration (57.6 +/- 5.2 mmol l-1 cell water), measured using an ion-selective Cl- electrode, showing that a furosemide-sensitive pathway is not involved in net Cl- movement. A gradual fall (from 28.1 +/- 1.4 to 15.0 +/- 1.3 mmol l-1 cells-1 h-1) in unidirectional Cl- influx with time was observed within 3 h of cell preincubation in the standard physiological medium. These data provide evidence for the existence for an electroneutral furosemide-sensitive anion-exchange pathway in the lamprey erythrocyte membrane that accepts chloride and nitrate, but not bicarbonate or bromide.

  10. The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Merivirta, Lauri O; Lindström, Miia; Björkroth, K Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu J

    2006-06-15

    The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in river lampreys caught in Finnish rivers was determined for the first time using a quantitative PCR-MPN (most probable number) analysis. One of 67 raw whole lampreys (1.5%) was positive for the botulinum neurotoxin type E gene, with the estimated C. botulinum count being 100spores/kg. Two type E strains were isolated from the positive sample and confirmed as different genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the current procedure of bringing the charcoal-broiled lampreys to market has been without any further packaging or extended storage, interest towards increasing the shelf life of the product by vacuum-packaging is increasing. Our results demonstrate that C. botulinum type E may constitute a safety hazard in processed lampreys from the Baltic Sea area if packaging and extended shelf lives are to be used. To control the potential risk, a storage temperature of 3 degrees C or below should be recommended for these products.

  11. [Comparative characteristics of depolarization (potassium) and acetylcholine contracture of Lampetra fluviatilis lamprey phasic muscle].

    PubMed

    Skorobovichuk, N F; Nasledov, G A

    1978-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) contractures of thin bundle from m. longitudinal linguae of the lamprey differs by several parameters from depolarization (potassium) contracture, although Ach similar to K ions totally depolarizes the surface membrane of muscle fibers. Maximum tension of Ach contracture is 30--100% higher than that of K contracture, maximum of both contractures being observed at the same membrane potential level (approximately -10mV). The rate of rise of Ach contracture is 10 times higher, whereas the latent period is 3 times shorter as compared with the same parameters of K contracture. At higher Ach concentrations (10(-5)--10(-4) g/ml) the latent period of contracture is shorter than that of depolarization.

  12. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype II isolated from European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis in Finland during surveillance from 1999 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Tuija; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Ariel, Ellen; Koski, Perttu; Sihvonen, Liisa

    2010-02-17

    We examined the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the main spawning stocks of wild European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis in the rivers of Finland from 1999 to 2008. Pooled samples of internal organs (kidney, liver and heart or brain) from 2621 lampreys were examined for the presence of VHSV by standard virological techniques. VHSV was isolated from 5 samples from the rivers Lestijoki and Kalajoki, which flow from Finland into the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea. The presence of VHSV was confirmed by immunofluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), ELISA and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length VHSV glycoprotein (G) gene sequence revealed that the isolates were most closely related to the VHSV strain isolated in 1996 from herring Clupea harengus and sprat Sprattus sprattus in the Eastern Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea, and were therefore assigned to VHSV genotype II. The partial G gene sequences obtained (nt 1 to 672-1129) of all 5 lamprey VHSV isolates were identical, and so were the entire G genes (nt 1 to 1524) of 2 isolates sequenced. The virulence of one of the lamprey isolates was evaluated by an experimental infection trial in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry. No mortality was induced postinfection by waterborne and intraperitoneal challenge, respectively, while 2 genotype Id isolates originating from Finnish rainbow trout caused marked mortality under the same conditions. The infection in the European river lamprey is thought to be independent from the epidemic in farmed rainbow trout in Finnish brackish waters, because the isolates from rainbow trout were of a different genotype. This is the first report of VHSV found in the European river lamprey. The role of wild river lampreys in maintaining the infection in the marine environment remains unclear.

  13. Anthropogenic Influence on the Dynamics of the River Lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis Landings in the River Daugava Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birzaks, Janis; Abersons, Kaspars

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the Daugava hydro power station (HPS) cascade has significantly transformed Latvia's largest river the Daugava, reducing its importance in the natural reproduction of anadromous fish species. Currently in Latvia, as well as in other Baltic Sea countries, the river lamprey catch is decreasing, whereas the landings in the river Daugava have tended to increase. The dynamics of the river lamprey landings show the possible redistribution of lamprey stocks between the rivers Gauja and the Daugava. Possibly, this is a result of anthropogenic influence and changes in the river lamprey resource management may be necessary in the future.

  14. [PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND FATTY ACIDS IN ERYTHROCYTES OF THE LAMPREY LAMPETRA FLUVIATILIS DURING AUTUMN PRESPAWNING PERIOD AND THE ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THEIR LIPID EXTRACT].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskii, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Shukolyukova, E P; Krivchenko, A I

    2015-01-01

    The content of some classes of phospholipids and their fatty acid composition in erythrocytes of the lamprey Lampetrafluviatilis during the autumn period of its prespawning migration are investigated. It is found that the phospholipid spectrum of erythrocytes of the lamprey, the oldest representative of vertebrates, is similar to that of many mammals. A four-fold prevalence of phosphatidilcholine content over sphingomyelin content as well as prevalence of (ω3-acids over ω6-acids indicates the of lamprey's erythrocyte membranes - an important indicator of deformational ability of lamprey's erythrocytes. Phosphatidilethanol amine and its plasmalogenic form are the most unsaturated phospholipids (their unsaturation indices are 230 and 342, correspondingly). Phosphatidilcholine is the most saturated one (UI is 167). It is found that the basic acid indicators characterizing the fluidity of erythrocyte membranes remain unchanged during the whole period of prespawning migration of lampreys up to spawning. The blood contains several buffer systems, in particular, membrane phospholipids which neutralize acids and alkali incoming into the blood. In the process of organism life a change of pH inside erythrocytes occurs. One can suppose that the base of the system associated with buffer properties of the blood is water dissociation. Inside thin vessels of the circulatory system the hemoglobin attaches and returns molecules of oxygen due to interaction of the buffer systems with water. The property of water to dissociate as well as ion transfer produce in erythrocytes, lying within narrow vessels of the circulatory system, a local pH alteration allowing displacing/attaching the molecule of oxygen from hemoglobin.

  15. Swimming behaviour of juvenile Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-02-01

    Actively migrating juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata Richardson, 1836) were collected from hydroelectric bypass facilities in the Columbia River and transferred to the laboratory to study their diel movement patterns and swimming ability. Volitional movement of lamprey was restricted mainly to night, with 94% of all swimming activity occurring during the 12-hr dark period. Burst speed of juvenile lamprey ranged from 56 to 94 cm/s with a mean of 71 ±5 cm/s or an average speed of 5.2 body lengths (BL)/s. Sustained swim speed for 5-min test intervals ranged from 0 to 46 cm/s with a median of 23 cm/s. Critical swimming speed was 36.0±10.0 cm/s and 2.4±0.6 BL/s. There was no significant relationship between fish length and critical swimming speed. Overall swimming performance of juvenile Pacific lamprey is low compared to that of most anadromous teleosts. Their poor swimming ability provides a challenge during the freshwater migration interval to the Pacific Ocean.

  16. Giant American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, in the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Purvis, Harold A.

    1971-01-01

    Five female American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, collected in lakes Michigan and Huron averaged nearly twice as long and about six times as heavy as American brook lampreys of normal size. Three factors suggested that the giant lampreys may have fed parasitically after metamorphosis: morphological adaptations of the species for parasitic life, their large size, and absence of extremely large ammocetes among a million sampled.

  17. Genetic diversity, endemism and phylogeny of lampreys within the genus Lampetra sensu stricto (Petromyzontiformes: Petromyzontidae) in western North America.

    PubMed

    Boguski, D A; Reid, S B; Goodman, D H; Docker, M F

    2012-11-01

    Phylogenetic structure of four Lampetra species from the Pacific drainage of North America (western brook lamprey Lampetra richardsoni, Pacific brook lamprey Lampetra pacifica, river lamprey Lampetra ayresii and Kern brook lamprey Lampetra hubbsi) and unidentified Lampetra specimens (referred to as Lampetra sp.) from 36 locations was estimated using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inferences did not correspond with any taxonomic scheme proposed to date. Rather, although L. richardsoni (from Alaska to California) and L. ayresii (from British Columbia to California) together constituted a well-supported clade distinct from several genetically divergent Lampetra populations in Oregon and California, these two species were not reciprocally monophyletic. The genetically divergent populations included L. pacifica (from the Columbia River basin) and L. hubbsi (from the Kern River basin) and four Lampetra sp. populations in Oregon (Siuslaw River and Fourmile Creek) and California (Kelsey and Mark West Creeks). These four Lampetra sp. populations showed genetic divergence between 2.3 and 5.7% from any known species (and up to 8.0% from each other), and may represent morphologically cryptic and thus previously undescribed species. A fifth population (from Paynes Creek, California) may represent a range extension of L. hubbsi into the Upper Sacramento River.

  18. Status Report of the Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra Trzdentata) in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.; Parker, Blaine; James, gary

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes.

  19. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  20. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases.

  1. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin D homologue from lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Zhang, Zhilin; Wang, Hongyan; Han, Yinglun; Gou, Meng; Li, Bowen; Duan, Dandan; Wang, Jihong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-03-01

    Cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5) is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase of the pepsin superfamily which participates in various digestive processes within the cell. In the present study, the full length cDNA of a novel cathepsin D homologue was cloned from the buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica) for the first time, including a 124-bp 5' terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), a 1194-bp open reading frame encoding 397 amino acids, and a 472-bp 3'-UTR. Lamprey cathepsin D is composed of a signal peptide (Met 1-Ala 20), a propeptide domain (Leu 21-Ala 48) and a mature domain (Glu 76-Val 397), and has a conserved bilobal structure. Cathepsin D was widely distributed in the buccal glands, immune bodies, hearts, intestines, kidneys, livers, and gills of lampreys. After challenging with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus, the expression level of lamprey cathepsin D in the buccal gland was 8.5-fold or 6.5-fold higher than that in the PBS group. In addition, lamprey cathepsin D stimulated with Escherichia coli was also up-regulated in the hearts, kidneys, and intestines. As for the Staphylococcus aureus challenged group, the expression level of lamprey cathepsin D was found increased in the intestines. The above results revealed that lamprey cathepsin D may play key roles in immune response to exogenous pathogen and could serve as a potential antibacterial agent in the near future. In addition, lamprey cathepsin D was subcloned into pcDNA 3.1 vector and expressed in the human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The recombinant lamprey cathepsin D could degrade hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and serum albumin which are the major components in the blood, suggested that lamprey cathepsin D may also act as a digestive enzyme during the adaptation to a blood-feeding lifestyle.

  2. Characterization of Brachyury genes in the dogfish S. canicula and the lamprey L. fluviatilis. Insights into gastrulation in a chondrichthyan.

    PubMed

    Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Baratte, Blandine; Lepage, Mario; Mazan, Sylvie

    2003-11-15

    In order to gain insights into the evolution of gastrulation mechanisms among vertebrates, we have characterized a Brachyury-related gene in a lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis, and in a chondrichthyan, Scyliorhinus canicula. These two genes, respectively termed LfT and ScT, share with their osteichthyan counterparts prominent expression sites in the developing notochord, the tailbud, but also a transient expression in the prechordal plate, which is likely to be ancestral among vertebrates. In addition, the lamprey LfT gene is transcribed in the endoderm of the pharyngeal arches and the epiphysis, two expression sites that have not been reported thus far in gnathostomes, and, as in the chick, in the differentiating nephrotomes. Since Brachyury expression in nascent mesoderm and endoderm is highly conserved among vertebrates as well as cephalochordates, we have used this marker to identify these cell populations during gastrulation in the dogfish. The results suggest that these cells are initially present over the whole margin of the blastoderm and are displaced during gastrulation to its posterior part, which may correspond to the site of mesoderm and endoderm internalization. These data provide the first molecular characterization of gastrulation in a chondrichthyan. They indicate that gastrulation in the dogfish and in some amniotes shares striking similarities despite the phylogenetic distance between these species. This supports the hypothesis that the extensively divergent morphologies of gastrulae among vertebrates largely result from adaptations to the presence of yolk.

  3. Identification of larval Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), river lampreys (L. ayresi), and western brook lampreys (L. richardsoni) and thermal requirements of early life history stages of lampreys. Annual report 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Reiche, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  4. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  5. Suppression of neuronal excitability by the secretion of the lamprey (Lampetra japonica) provides a mechanism for its evolutionary stability.

    PubMed

    Chi, Shaopeng; Xiao, Rong; Li, Qingwei; Zhou, Liwei; He, Rongqiao; Qi, Zhi

    2009-07-01

    Lampreys are one of the most primitive vertebrates still living today. They attach themselves to the body surface of the host fish through their sucker-like mouths and suck blood of the host for days. Recent fossil evidence has indicated that morphology of lampreys in the late Devonian period, over 360 million years ago, already possessed the present day major characteristics, suggesting the evolutionary stability of a highly specialized parasitic feeding habit. Obviously, nociceptive responses and hemostasis of the host are two major barriers to long-term feeding of the parasitic lamprey. It has been found, to counteract hemostasis of the host, that paired buccal glands of lampreys secrete antihemostatic compounds to prevent blood of the host from coagulation. However, it is not known how lampreys make the host lose nociceptive responses. Here, we prepared components of the crude extract from the buccal glands of the lampreys (Lampetra japonica). Then, we show that crude extract and one of its purified components reduce the firing frequency of neuronal action potentials probably through inhibiting the voltage-dependent Na(+) channels. As the voltage-gated Na(+) channels are highly conserved throughout evolution, we argue that the secretion of the lampreys could exert the similar effect on the Na(+) channels of their host fish as well. Therefore, together with its antihemostatic effect, the secretion due to its inhibitory effect on neuronal excitability might provide a mechanism for the parasitic lampreys to keep their evolutionary stability.

  6. A novel protein tyrosine kinase Tec identified in lamprey, Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranran; Su, Peng; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Ting; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-08-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase Tec, a kind of non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is primarily found to be expressed in T cells, B cells, hematopoietic cells, and liver cells as a cytoplasmic protein. Tec has been proved to be a critical modulator of T cell receptor signaling pathway. In the present study, a homolog of Tec was identified in the lamprey, Lampetra japonica. The full-length Tec cDNA of L. japonica (Lja-Tec) contains a 1923 bp open reading frame that encodes a 641-amino acid protein. The multi-alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of Lja-Tec with typical vertebrate Tecs showed that it possesses all conserved domains of the Tec family proteins, indicating that an ortholog of Tec exists in the extant jawless vertebrate. In the phylogenetic tree that was reconstructed with 24 homologs of jawless and jawed vertebrates, the Tecs from lampreys and hagfish were clustered as a single clade. The genetic distance between the outgroup and agnathan Tecs' group is closer than that between outgroup and gnathostome Tecs' group, indicating that its origin was far earlier than any of the jawed vertebrates. The mRNA levels of Lja-Tec in lymphocyte-like cells and gills were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that it was significantly upregulated under stimulation with mixed pathogens. This result was further confirmed by western blot analysis. All these results indicated that Lja-Tec plays an important role in immune response. Our data will provide a reference for the further study of lamprey Tec and its immunological function in jawless vertebrates.

  7. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and molecular evolution of the spleen tyrosine kinase in lamprey, Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Su, Peng; Li, Ranran; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-04-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a member of Syk family of cytoplasmic non-receptor tyrosine kinases, is a key component of B cell receptor signaling and regulates multiple physiological functions of B lymphocytes in vertebrates. In the current study, a Syk homologue was identified in the lamprey Lampetra japonica (Lj-Syk). The cDNA fragment of Lj-Syk contains a 1953-bp open reading frame which encodes 651 amino acids, a 12-bp fragment of 5'-untranslated region, and a 1029-bp 3'-untranslated region. The same as vertebrate's Syks, Lj-Syk protein also contains a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain which functions as its kinase activity center and two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains which are the targets when Syk is recruited by phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It is revealed by multiple sequence alignment that the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain and two SH2 domains are conserved throughout the Syk gene family in vertebrates. The evolutionary dynamics of Syks were analyzed by MEME software using conserved motifs as markers. Among 19 conserved motifs elicited from 22 Syks or Syk-like proteins, 12 motifs that locate at N-terminal, two tandem SH2, Inter SH2, and Tyrkc domains are conserved in Syks from jawless to jawed vertebrates. From the absence and existence of the other seven motifs, it can be concluded that the primary Syk gene evolved to modern functional gene through short insertion and deletion strategy in their gene sequence rather than gene duplication. The expression of lamprey Syk was examined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot methods in leukocyte cells, gills, supraneural myeloid bodies, kidneys, and hearts of lampreys before and after the animals were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The transcriptional level of lamprey Syk was upregulated in gill, kidney, heart, and leukocyte cells, and the protein expression level is upregulated in leukocyte cells and supraneural myeloid bodies after stimulated with LPS. It

  8. Characterization, phylogenetic analysis and cDNA cloning of natterin-like gene from the blood of lamprey, Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Liu, Xin; Pang, Yue; Yu, Tao; Xiao, Rong; Jin, Minli; Han, Yinglun; Su, Peng; Wang, Jihong; Lv, Li; Wu, Fenfang; Li, Qingwei

    2012-01-01

    Lamprey as a "living fossil" of immunological origin and "rich treasure" of biological pharmaceutical development has caused attention of scholars. The cDNA library construction and EST sequencing of blood had been done previously in our lab, and bioinformatics analysis provided a gene fragment which is highly homologous with natterin family, named natterin-like. To elucidate the characterization and phylogeny of natterin-like genes in early evolution, we cloned the full-length cDNA of natterin-like gene from the blood of Lampetra japonica. The open reading frame of this sequence contained 942bp and encoded 313 amino acids, including a lectin-like domain and a pore-forming toxin-like domain. Using reverse transcription PCR, natterin-like mRNA was also detected in lamprey blood, kidney, heart, liver, medullary, gonad, but absent in lamprey intestine and gill. Our results suggested that in lampreys and most of other species, there might be only one natterin-like gene, which was fused by certain sequences during evolution and encoded proteins with more functions. It is similar between C terminal of natterin-like protein and Aerolysin in space structure and the lectin-like domain of natterin-like equivalent to glycoprotein binding motif of Aerolysin in function. We also propose that the defense mechanism against specific predators in historical evolution of lamprey. Our findings may provide insights into the function and characterization of natterin-like genes as well as other gene families in vertebrates and provide a foundation for identification and structural, functional, and evolutionary analyses of more natterin-like genes and other gene families.

  9. Selection and preference of benthic habitat by small and large ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.M.; Welsh, S.A.; Turk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we quantified substrate selection by small (<50 mm) and large (100-150 mm) ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). In aquaria, ammocoetes were given a choice to burrow into six equally-available substrate types: small gravel (2.360-4.750 mm), coarse sand (0.500-1.400 mm), fine sand (0.125-0.500 mm), organic substrate (approximately 70% decomposing leaves/stems and organic sediment particles, and 30% silt and fine sand), an even mixture of silt, clay, and fine sand, and silt/clay (<0.063 mm). Fine sand was selected with a significantly higher probability than any other substrate. Fine sand habitat is limited in many streams, in part owing to geology, but also as a result of channelization and excessive silt/clay sedimentation, which is a conservation concern. Our results indicate that ammocoetes of least brook lampreys are habitat specialists that prefer fine sand habitat. Hence, availability of fine sand habitat may limit distributions and population sizes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Selection and preference of benthic habitat by small and large Ammocoetes of the Least Brook Lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Dustin M.; Welsh, Stuart; Turk, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we quantified substrate selection by small (<50 mm) and large (100–150 mm) ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). In aquaria, ammocoetes were given a choice to burrow into six equally-available substrate types: small gravel (2.360–4.750 mm), coarse sand (0.500–1.400 mm), fine sand (0.125–0.500 mm), organic substrate (approximately 70% decomposing leaves/stems and organic sediment particles, and 30% silt and fine sand), an even mixture of silt, clay, and fine sand, and silt/clay (<0.063 mm). Fine sand was selected with a significantly higher probability than any other substrate. Fine sand habitat is limited in many streams, in part owing to geology, but also as a result of channelization and excessive silt/clay sedimentation, which is a conservation concern. Our results indicate that ammocoetes of least brook lampreys are habitat specialists that prefer fine sand habitat. Hence, availability of fine sand habitat may limit distributions and population sizes.

  11. First evidence of protein G-binding protein in the most primitive vertebrate: serum lectin from lamprey (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Zhen; Xiao, Rong; Jin, Minli; Han, Yinglun; Su, Peng; Lv, Li; Wang, Jihong; Li, QingWei

    2013-12-01

    The intelectins, a recently identified subgroup of extracellular animal lectins, are glycan-binding receptors that recognize glycan epitopes on foreign pathogens in host systems. Here, we have described NPGBP (novel protein G-binding protein), a novel serum lectin found in the lamprey, Lampetra japonica. RT-PCR yielded a 1005 bp cDNA sequence from the lamprey liver encoding a 334 amino acid secretory protein with homology to mammalian and aquatic organism intelectins. Gene expression analyses showed that the NPGBP gene was expressed in the blood, intestines, kidney, heart, gill, liver, adipose tissue and gonads. NPGBP was isolated by protein G-conjugated agarose immunoprecipitation, and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that NPGBP migrated as a specific band (∼35 and ∼124 kDa under reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively). These results suggested that NPGBP forms monomers and tetramers. NPGBP gene expression was induced by in vivo bacterial stimulation, and NPGBP showed different agglutination activities against pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The induction of NPGBP suggested that it plays an important role in defense against microorganisms in the internal circulation system of the lamprey. When incubated with an unrelated antibody, the specific binding between NPGBP and protein G was competitively inhibited, indicating that NPGBP and the Fc region of Ig bind to the same site on protein G. We thus assume that the tertiary structure of NPGBP is similar to that of the Fc region of Ig. Additionally, NPGBP can effectively promote endothelial cell mitosis. These findings suggest that NPGBP plays a role in the immune defense against microorganisms, and this study represents one of the few examples of the characterization and functional analysis of an aquatic organism intelectin.

  12. Preparation, identfication, and activity assay of lamprey (lampetra japonica) natural intelectins.

    PubMed

    Su, Peng; Zheng, Zhen; Pang, Yue; Xue, Zhuang; Gou, Meng; Han, Yinglun; Liu, Ge; Zan, Qi; Li, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    Intelectins play an important role in innate immune response. In a previous study, lamprey inteletins purified by galactose-Sepharose were inactive and insoluble. Herein, we provided a simple and effective method to purify natural intelectins from the serum of lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) using proteinG agarose. SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to analyze the purified proteins. The purified proteins were identified to be lamprey serum lectin and intelectinB. The activity analysis results indicated that the proteins had certain extent agglutination activity. The effective method will be useful to study their immune functions and molecular mechanisms.

  13. [Peculiarities of dopamine receptors on the membrane of spinal cord multipolar neurons of the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri].

    PubMed

    Bukinich, A a; Tsvetkov, E A; Veselkin, N P

    2007-01-01

    On isolated multiporal neurons of spinal cord of amniocoete larva of the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri, by the patch-clamp method in configuration "the whole cell", a modulating effect of dopamine on potential-activated Na+ currents was studied. Application of dopamine (10 microM) was shown to produce a complex action on the sodium current amplitude. In some cases a decrease of the amplitude, on average, by 13.5 +/- 2.2% was found, while in others--an increase, on average, by 8.6 +/- 6.1%. The modulation dopamine effect was not accompanied by any changes either of the threshold of the current appearance or of resistance of neuronal cell membranes. Pharmacological analysis with use of dopamine agonist has shown that the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM) decreases the Na+ current amplitude, whereas the agonist of D2-receptors (-)-quinpirole (10 microM) can produce in different cells both an increase, by 30.7 +/- 17.0 %, and a decrease, by 13.2 +/- 3.1%, of the Na+ current amplitude. The obtained data indicate the existence of D1- and D2-receptors on the membrane of multipolar spinal neurons of the amniocoete larva of the brook lamprey. Study of action of antagonists has shown that the antagonist of D1-receptors (+)-SCH-23390 (10 microM) does not affect action of the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM); the antagonist of D2-receptors (-)-sulpiride (10 microM) blocks completely effects both of the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM) and of the agonist of D2-receptors (-)-quinpirole (10 microM). The antagonist of D1-receptors (+)-SCH-23390 (10 microM) produced no effect on action of the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM). The obtained data indicate peculiarities of dopamine receptors of Cyclostomata as compared with those in mammals.

  14. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and phylogenetic analysis of a tetraspanin CD82-like molecule in lamprey Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Song, Xueying; Su, Peng; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2016-03-01

    CD82, a member of the tetraspanins, is originally identified as an accessory molecule in T cell activation, and it participates in the formation of immune synapse both in T cells and antigen-presenting cells of jawed vertebrates. In the present study, a CD82 homologous complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence is identified in the lamprey Lampetra japonica. The open reading frame of this sequence is 801 bp long and encodes a 266-amino acid protein. The multialignment of this sequence with several typical CD82s and CD37s of jawed vertebrates shows that it also possesses their conserved four transmembrane domains and a six-cysteine motif Cys-Cys-Gly…Cys-Ser-Cys…Cys…Cys, which is a characteristic motif of CD82 and CD37 vertebrate tetraspanin sequences. Since it is close to CD82s in sequence similarity, we name it as Lja-CD82-like. From the distribution profile of the conserved motifs of CD82-like, CD82, and CD37 molecules from molluscas to mammals, it seems that the CD82s and CD37s evolved from a common ancestral gene through a gene duplication event to their modern forms by a short insertion or substitution approaches. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that CD82 and CD37 molecules of jawed vertebrates originated from a common ancestral gene which is close to agnathan CD82-like and evolved into two distinct paralogous groups maybe after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. An expression vector with trigger factor (TF) was constructed to ensure that Lja-CD82-like express in prokaryotic expression host. The expressions of Lja-CD82-like messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in immune-related tissues of lamprey were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Results showed that the mRNA and the protein levels of Lja-CD82-like were significantly upregulated in lymphocyte-like cells, gills, and supraneural myeloid bodies after stimulation with mixed antigens, respectively. Our data provided a foundation for the further study

  15. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Lampreys inhabit temperate regions in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Typically, lampreys spawn in fresh water streams where, after hatching, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) burrow into soft substrate and spend an extended larval period filtering particulate matter from the water column. During this larval period, lampreys are characterized by greatly reduced subcutaneous eyes, reduced fins, unidirectional flow of water from the mouth through the gill pores for filter feeding, and the absence of tooth-like keratin plates (the structure most often used to differentiate lamprey species). After approximately three to seven years (Hardisty and Potter 1971a) lampreys go through a metamorphosis marked by drastic physiological and morphological changes. The resulting juvenile lampreys exhibit fully developed eyes, fins, and characteristic dentition patterns.

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel IκB-ε-like gene from lamprey (Lampetra japonica) with a role in immune response.

    PubMed

    Su, Peng; Liu, Xin; Han, Yinglun; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Ge; Li, Jing; Li, Qingwei

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear factor of kappa B (NF-κB) is a stimuli-activated transcription factor, regulates the expression of a diverse array of genes. Inhibitor of kappa B-epsilon (IκB-ε) is an inhibitor of NF-κB, which retains NF-κB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. Lampreys (Lampetra japonica) belong to the lowest class of vertebrates with little information about its IκBs. We have identified a cDNA sequence IκB-ε-like in the lamprey and the deduced amino acid sequence of IκB-ε-like. It contains a conserved DSGxxS motif and six consecutive ankyrin repeats, which are necessary for signal-induced degradation of the molecule. Phylogenetic analysis indicated it had high sequence homology with IκB-εs from other vertebrates. FACS analysis showed that IκB-ε-like located in cytoplasm of leukocytes. The degradation of IκB-ε-like could be observed in leukocytes of L. japonica stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that IκB-ε proteins are conserved across vertebrates and the NF-κB-like signaling pathway may exist in the oldest agnatha.

  17. Two lamprey Hedgehog genes share non-coding regulatory sequences and expression patterns with gnathostome Hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Kano, Shungo; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Osório, Joana; Ekker, Marc; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Müller, Ferenc; Casane, Didier; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Rétaux, Sylvie

    2010-10-13

    Hedgehog (Hh) genes play major roles in animal development and studies of their evolution, expression and function point to major differences among chordates. Here we focused on Hh genes in lampreys in order to characterize the evolution of Hh signalling at the emergence of vertebrates. Screening of a cosmid library of the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis and searching the preliminary genome assembly of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus indicate that lampreys have two Hh genes, named Hha and Hhb. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Hha and Hhb are lamprey-specific paralogs closely related to Sonic/Indian Hh genes. Expression analysis indicates that Hha and Hhb are expressed in a Sonic Hh-like pattern. The two transcripts are expressed in largely overlapping but not identical domains in the lamprey embryonic brain, including a newly-described expression domain in the nasohypophyseal placode. Global alignments of genomic sequences and local alignment with known gnathostome regulatory motifs show that lamprey Hhs share conserved non-coding elements (CNE) with gnathostome Hhs albeit with sequences that have significantly diverged and dispersed. Functional assays using zebrafish embryos demonstrate gnathostome-like midline enhancer activity for CNEs contained in intron2. We conclude that lamprey Hh genes are gnathostome Shh-like in terms of expression and regulation. In addition, they show some lamprey-specific features, including duplication and structural (but not functional) changes in the intronic/regulatory sequences.

  18. Paradoxical exploitation of protected fishes as bait for anglers: evaluating the Lamprey bait market in Europe and developing sustainable and ethical solutions.

    PubMed

    Foulds, William L; Lucas, Martyn C

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation.

  19. Paradoxical Exploitation of Protected Fishes As Bait for Anglers: Evaluating the Lamprey Bait Market in Europe and Developing Sustainable and Ethical Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, William L.; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation. PMID:24936643

  20. Contrasting population genetic structure among freshwater-resident and anadromous lampreys: the role of demographic history, differential dispersal and anthropogenic barriers to movement.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Fiona S A; Hoelzel, A Rus; Hume, John B; Lucas, Martyn C

    2015-03-01

    The tendency of many species to abandon migration remains a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology that may play an important role in promoting species radiation by both allopatric and sympatric mechanisms. Anadromy inherently offers an opportunity for the colonization of freshwater environments, and the shift from an anadromous to a wholly freshwater life history has occurred in many families of fishes. Freshwater-resident forms have arisen repeatedly among lampreys (within the Petromyzontidae and Mordaciidae), and there has been much debate as to whether anadromous lampreys, and their derived freshwater-resident analogues, constitute distinct species or are divergent ecotypes of polymorphic species. Samples of 543 European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (mostly from anadromous populations) and freshwater European brook lamprey Lampetra planeri from across 18 sites, primarily in the British Isles, were investigated for 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, and 108 samples from six of these sites were sequenced for 829 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We found contrasting patterns of population structure for mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers, such that low diversity and little structure were seen for all populations for mtDNA (consistent with a recent founder expansion event), while fine-scale structuring was evident for nuclear markers. Strong differentiation for microsatellite DNA loci was seen among freshwater-resident L. planeri populations and between L. fluviatilis and L. planeri in most cases, but little structure was evident among anadromous L. fluviatilis populations. We conclude that postglacial colonization founded multiple freshwater-resident populations with strong habitat fidelity and limited dispersal tendencies that became highly differentiated, a pattern that was likely intensified by anthropogenic barriers.

  1. Contrasting population genetic structure among freshwater-resident and anadromous lampreys: the role of demographic history, differential dispersal and anthropogenic barriers to movement

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Fiona S A; Hoelzel, A Rus; Hume, John B; Lucas, Martyn C

    2015-01-01

    The tendency of many species to abandon migration remains a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology that may play an important role in promoting species radiation by both allopatric and sympatric mechanisms. Anadromy inherently offers an opportunity for the colonization of freshwater environments, and the shift from an anadromous to a wholly freshwater life history has occurred in many families of fishes. Freshwater-resident forms have arisen repeatedly among lampreys (within the Petromyzontidae and Mordaciidae), and there has been much debate as to whether anadromous lampreys, and their derived freshwater-resident analogues, constitute distinct species or are divergent ecotypes of polymorphic species. Samples of 543 European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (mostly from anadromous populations) and freshwater European brook lamprey Lampetra planeri from across 18 sites, primarily in the British Isles, were investigated for 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, and 108 samples from six of these sites were sequenced for 829 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We found contrasting patterns of population structure for mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers, such that low diversity and little structure were seen for all populations for mtDNA (consistent with a recent founder expansion event), while fine-scale structuring was evident for nuclear markers. Strong differentiation for microsatellite DNA loci was seen among freshwater-resident L. planeri populations and between L. fluviatilis and L. planeri in most cases, but little structure was evident among anadromous L. fluviatilis populations. We conclude that postglacial colonization founded multiple freshwater-resident populations with strong habitat fidelity and limited dispersal tendencies that became highly differentiated, a pattern that was likely intensified by anthropogenic barriers. PMID:25689694

  2. Olfactory sensitivity of Pacific Lampreys to lamprey bile acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, T. Craig; Sorensen, Peter W.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Seelye, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata are in decline throughout much of their historical range in the Columbia River basin. In support of restoration efforts, we tested whether larval and adult lamprey bile acids serve as migratory and spawning pheromones in adult Pacific lampreys, as they do in sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The olfactory sensitivity of adult Pacific lampreys to lamprey bile acids was measured by electro-olfactogram recording from the time of their capture in the spring until their spawning in June of the following year. As controls, we tested L-arginine and a non-lamprey bile acid, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLS). Migrating adult Pacific lampreys were highly sensitive to petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone) and 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey sex pheromone) when first captured. This sensitivity persisted throughout their long migratory and overwinter holding period before declining to nearly unmeasurable levels by the time of spawning. The absolute magnitudes of adult Pacific lamprey responses to lamprey bile acids were smaller than those of the sea lamprey, and unlike the sea lamprey, the Pacific lamprey did not appear to detect TLS. No sexual dimorphism was noted in olfactory sensitivity. Thus, Pacific lampreys are broadly similar to sea lampreys in showing sensitivity to the major lamprey bile acids but apparently differ in having a longer period of sensitivity to those acids. The potential utility of bile acid-like pheromones in the restoration of Pacific lampreys warrants their further investigation in this species.

  3. Use of an extensive radio receiver network to document Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) entrance efficiency at fishways in the Lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moser, M.L.; Matter, A.L.; Stuehrenberg, L.C.; Bjornn, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    We used an extensive network of more than 170 radio receiving stations to document fine-scale passage efficiency of adult anadromous Pacific lamprey at Bonneville and The Dalles Dams in the lower Columbia River in the northwestern U.S.A. Each spring from 1997 to 2000, we released 197-299 lamprey with surgically implanted radio transmitters. Unique transmitter codes and the date and time of reception at each antenna site were downloaded electronically, and initial processing was conducted to eliminate false positive signals. The resulting large Oracle database was analyzed using an Arc View-based coding protocol. Underwater antennas positioned outside the fishway entrances detected lamprey approaches, and antennas positioned immediately inside the entrances indicated successful entries. Entrance efficiency (the number of lamprey that successfully entered a fishway divided by the number that approached that fishway) was compared for different types of entrances (main entrances versus orifice entrances) and entrance locations (powerhouse versus spillway). Lamprey used orifice-type entrances less frequently than main entrances, and passage success was generally low (< 50%) at all entrances to fishways at Bonneville Dam (the lowest dam in the system). Lamprey activity at the entrances was highest at night, and entrance success was significantly higher at The Dalles Dam (the next dam upstream from Bonneville Dam) than at Bonneville Dam. In 1999 and 2000, construction modifications were made to Bonneville Dam spillway entrances, and water velocity at these entrances was reduced at night. Modifications to increase lamprey attachment at the entrances improved lamprey entrance efficiency, but entrance efficiency during reduced velocity tests was not significantly higher than during control conditions.

  4. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation between European river and brook lampreys.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Q; Gaigher, A; Lasne, E; Côte, J; Coke, M; Besnard, A-L; Launey, S; Evanno, G

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here, we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetic analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000 individuals of the migratory parasitic river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and freshwater-resident nonparasitic brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) distributed in 10 sympatric and parapatric population pairs in France. Mating trials, parentage analyses and artificial fertilizations demonstrated a low level of reproductive isolation between species even though size-assortative mating may contribute to isolation. Most parapatric population pairs were strongly differentiated due to the joint effects of geographic distance and barriers to migration. In contrast, we found variable levels of gene flow between sympatric populations ranging from panmixia to moderate differentiation, which indicates a gradient of divergence with some population pairs that may correspond to alternative morphs or ecotypes of a single species and others that remain partially isolated. Ecologically based divergent selection may explain these variable levels of divergence among sympatric population pairs, but incomplete genome swamping following secondary contact could have also played a role. Overall, this study illustrates how highly differentiated phenotypes can be maintained despite high levels of gene flow that limit the progress towards speciation.

  5. Tachykinins with unusual structural features from a urodele, the amphiuma, an elasmobranch, the hammerhead shark, and an agnathan, the river lamprey.

    PubMed

    Waugh, D; Bondareva, V; Rusakov, Y; Bjenning, C; Nielsen, P F; Conlon, J M

    1995-01-01

    Tachykinins were purified from extracts of gastrointestinal tissues of the urodele, Amphiuma tridactylum (three-toed amphiuma), and the elasmobranch Sphyrna lewini (hammerhead shark), and from the brain of the agnathan Lampetra fluviatilis (river lamprey). The amphiuma substance P (SP) (DNPSVGQFYGLM-NH2) contains 12 amino residues compared with 11 for mammalian SP and lacks the Arg/Lys-Pro-Xaa-Pro motif that is characteristic of NK1 receptor-selective agonists. Lampetra SP (RKPHPKEFVGLM-NH2) is identical to SP from the sea lamprey and the shark SP-related peptide (AKFDKFYGLM-NH2) is identical to dogfish scyliorhinin I. Amphiuma neurokinin A (NKA) (HKDAFIGLM-NH2) and lamprey NKA (HFDEFVGLM-NH2) contain 9 amino acid residues compared with 10 for mammalian NKA. The shark NKA-related peptide (ASGPTQAGIV10GRKRQKGEMF20VGLM-NH2) shows limited structural similarity to mammalian neuropeptide gamma and the teleost tachykinin, carassin but contains 24 rather than 21 amino acid residues. The data show that the primary structures of the tachykinins have been very poorly conserved during vertebrate evolution and that pressure has acted only to maintain the functionally important sequence -Phe-Xaa-Gly Leu-Met-NH2 at the COOH-termini of the peptides.

  6. Calcium currents and GABAB receptors in the dorsal sensory cells of the lamprey spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Batueva, I V; Buchanan, J T; Tsvetkov, E A; Sagatelyan, A K; Veselkin, N P

    1999-01-01

    Patch-clamp studies were performed on the isolated dorsal sensory cells of the spinal cords of three species of lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, Petromyzon marinus, and Lampetra fluviatilis, to measure changes in the amplitudes of calcium current induced by GABA and its specific antagonists and agonists. The experiments showed that GABA (4 mM) reduced the peak amplitude of the calcium current by 28.5 +/- 4.9%, with subsequent recovery to 96.2 +/- 9.2% of control (n = 45). The GABAB agonist baclofen had similar effects. The GABAA agonists glycine and taurine had no effect on the Ca2+ current. The inhibitory effect of GABA was blocked by 2-hydroxysaclofen (a GABAB antagonist), but persisted in the presence of bicuculline (a GABAA antagonist). These results are evidence that the membranes of dorsal sensory cells contain GABAB receptors, which significantly increases our understanding of the mechanisms of presynaptic inhibition in the spinal cords of the cyclostomata.

  7. European Lampreys: New Insights on Postglacial Colonization, Gene Flow and Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Catarina Sofia; Almeida, Pedro Raposo; Mesquita, Natacha; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Alves, Maria Judite

    2016-01-01

    Ice ages are known to be the most dominant palaeoclimatic feature occurring on Earth, producing severe climatic oscillations and consequently shaping the distribution and the population structure of several species. Lampreys constitute excellent models to study the colonization of freshwater systems, as they commonly appear in pairs of closely related species of anadromous versus freshwater resident adults, thus having the ability to colonize new habitats, through the anadromous species, and establish freshwater resident derivates. We used 10 microsatellite loci to investigate the spatial structure, patterns of gene flow and migration routes of Lampetra populations in Europe. We sampled 11 populations including the migratory L. fluviatilis and four resident species, L. planeri, L. alavariensis, L. auremensis and L. lusitanica, the last three endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. In this southern glacial refugium almost all sampled populations represent a distinct genetic cluster, showing high levels of allopatric differentiation, reflecting long periods of isolation. As result of their more recent common ancestor, populations from northern Europe are less divergent among them, they are represented by fewer genetic clusters, and there is evidence of strong recent gene flow among populations. These previously glaciated areas from northern Europe may have been colonized from lampreys expanding out of the Iberian refugia. The pair L. fluviatilis/L. planeri is apparently at different stages of speciation in different locations, showing evidences of high reproductive isolation in the southern refugium, and low differentiation in the north. PMID:26871930

  8. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999-2000. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin.

  9. The Nuclear DNA Content and Genetic Diversity of Lampetra morii

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinyu; Meng, Wenbin; Wu, Fenfang; Xu, Anlong; Chen, Shangwu; Huang, Shengfeng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear DNA content and genetic diversity of a river lamprey, the Korean lamprey Lampetra morii, which is distributed in the northeast of China. L. morii spends its whole life cycle in fresh water, and its adult size is relatively small (~160 mm long) compared with that of other lampreys. The haploid nuclear DNA content of L. morii is 1.618 pg (approximately 1.582 Gb) in germline cells, and there is ~15% germline DNA loss in somatic cells. These values are significantly smaller than those of Petromyzon marinus, a lamprey with a published draft genome. The chromosomes of L. morii are small and acrocentric, with a diploid modal number of 2n = 132, lower than some other lampreys. Sequence and AFLP analyses suggest that the allelic polymorphism rate (~0.14% based on examined nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences) of L. morii is much lower than that (~2%) of P. marinus. Phylogenetic analysis based on a mitochondrial DNA fragment confirms that L. morii belongs to the genus Lampetra, which, together with the genus Lethenteron, forms a sister group to P. marinus. These genetic background data are valuable for subsequent genetic and genomic research on L. morii. PMID:27388621

  10. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Camille; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jérôme; Launey, Sophie; Evanno, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and brook lamprey (L. planeri) show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC) and Isolation with Migration (IM) models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history. PMID:27077007

  11. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Aaron D.; Hatch, Douglas R.; Close, David A.

    1998-08-05

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations as well. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam.

  12. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of 12 microsatellite loci for the Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus (Petromyzontidae), and cross-amplification in five other lamprey species.

    PubMed

    Spice, E K; Whitesel, T A; McFarlane, C T; Docker, M F

    2011-12-22

    The Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is an anadromous fish that is of conservation concern in North America and Asia. Data on Pacific lamprey population structure are scarce and conflicting, impeding conservation efforts. We optimized 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Pacific lamprey. Three to 13 alleles per locus were observed in a sample of 51 fish collected from the West Fork Illinois River, Oregon. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.235 to 0.902 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.214 to 0.750. Cross-species amplification produced 8 to 12 polymorphic loci in four other Entosphenus species and in the western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni). Two loci appear to be diagnostic for distinguishing Entosphenus from Lampetra. These markers will be valuable for evaluating population structure and making conservation decisions for E. tridentatus and other lamprey species.

  14. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  15. Distribution of Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus in watersheds of Puget Sound Based on smolt monitoring data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Hays, Richard; Rubin, Stephen P.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hallock, Molly; Cook-Tabor, Carrie; Luzier, Christina W.; Moser, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Lamprey populations are in decline worldwide and the status of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is a topic of current interest. They and other lamprey species cycle nutrients and serve as prey in riverine ecosystems. To determine the current distribution of Pacific lamprey in major watersheds flowing into Puget Sound, Washington, we sampled lamprey captured during salmonid smolt monitoring that occurred from late winter to mid-summer. We found Pacific lamprey in 12 of 18 watersheds and they were most common in southern Puget Sound watersheds and in watersheds draining western Puget Sound (Hood Canal). Two additional species, western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) and river lamprey (L. ayresii) were more common in eastern Puget Sound watersheds. Few Pacific lamprey macrophthalmia were found, suggesting that the majority of juveniles migrated seaward during other time periods. In addition, “dwarf” adult Pacific lamprey (< 300 mm) were observed in several watersheds and may represent an alternate life history for some Puget Sound populations. Based on genetic data, the use of visual techniques to identify lamprey ammocoetes as Entosphenus or Lampetra was successful for 97% (34 of 35) of the samples we evaluated.

  16. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jennifer; Pirtle, Jody; Barndt, Scott A.

    2002-03-31

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River Basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. This annual report describes the activities and results of the second year of this project. Adult (n = 24), metamorphosed (n = 247), transforming (n = 4), and ammocoete (n = 387) stages from both species were examined in 2001. Lamprey were captured using adult fish ladders, lamprey pots, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers. Twenty-nine spawning ground surveys were conducted. Nine strategic point-specific habitat surveys were performed to assess habitat requirements of juvenile lamprey.

  17. Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration in the Lower Columbia River: 2007 Radiotelemetry and Half-duplex Pit Tag Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    ADULT PACIFIC LAMPREY MIGRATION IN THE LOWER COLUMBIA RIVER: 2007 RADIOTELEMETRY AND HALF-DUPLEX PIT TAG STUDIES A Report for Study Code ADS-P-00-8...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration in the Lower Columbia River: 2007 Radiotelemetry and Half-duplex Pit Tag Studies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Monitoring Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) run size and migration behaviors in the Columbia River basin is difficult given their cryptic and photo

  18. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jennifer

    2001-03-31

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River Basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. Adult (n = 40), metamorphosed (n = 116), transforming (n = 10), and ammocoete (n = 870) stages from both species were examined in 2000. Lamprey were captured using adult fish ladders, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers, and spawning ground surveys were conducted. US Forest Service level II and strategic point-specific habitat surveys were conducted to assess habitat requirements of both adult and larval lamprey. Multivariate statistics will be applied to determine relationships between abundance and habitat.

  19. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pirtle, Jodi; Stone, Jennifer; Barndt, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) and river lamprey (L. ayresi) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. This annual report describes the activities and results of the third year of this project. Adult (n = 62), metamorphosed (n = 76), transforming (n = 4), and ammocoete (n = 315) stages of Pacific and western brook lamprey were examined in 2002. Lampreys were captured using adult fish ladders, lamprey pots, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers. In addition, fifty-four spawning ground surveys were conducted during which 124 Pacific lamprey and 13 western brook lamprey nests were identified. Stream gradient of spawning grounds were surveyed to better understand spawning habitat requirements.

  20. [Cloning and expression of VLRB of Lampetra japonica and generation of the corresponding monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen-Fang; Ma, Ning; Chen, Li-Yong; Su, Peng; Li, Qing-Wei

    2012-04-01

    The agnathans (lampreys and hagfishes) are representatives of the jawless vertebrates. The receptor molecules of adaptive immune system in lampreys are different from the antigen receptors in mammal vertebrates. The unique receptor molecules of lampreys are known as variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR). There are three types of VLRs in lampreys, VLRA, VLRB, and VLRC. Multimeric antigen-specific VLRB antibodies are secreted by VLRB+ lymphocytes and constitute the major components of the humoral arm of the lamprey adaptive immune system. Oligomeric VLRB antibodies are composed of four or five disulfide-linked dimeric subunits, which are similar to IgM antibodies in structure and function. In this study, the conservative c-terminal of Lampetra japonica VLRB was cloned and expressed in BL21 E. coli. The recombinant VLRB protein was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography column. After Balb/c mice immunity, cell fusion, the positive clones were screened by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the hybridoma cells that produced specific anti-VLRB monoclonal antibodies were obtained. In order to get a large number of antibodies against VLRB, the hybridoma cells were injected into the abdominal cavity of Balb/c mice and the antibodies were purified by protein G sepharose. The results of ELISA indicated that the valence of anti-VLRB antibodies was 1:40000. Western blotting assay showed that the antibodies were able to detect both recombinant VLRB and secreted VLRB in lamprey sera. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed the existence of VLRB on the surface of lymphocytes. In summary, the anti-VLRB monoclonal antibodies provided a major tool for studying lamprey adaptive immune system.

  1. Novel neutrophil inhibitory factor homologue in the buccal gland secretion of Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Wu, Yu; Yu, Shui Yan; Guo, Ren Yong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract To identify the functional gene fragment, a neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) like protein was found in the buccal gland of Lampetra japonica, suggesting that this related lamprey protein represents a novel class of integrin receptor antagonists. The recombinant Lampetra japonica-NIF like (rLj-NIF) was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified by using His·Bind affinity chromatography. Effect of rLj-NIF on neutrophil migration suggested that rLj-NIF can act as a neutrophil inhibitory factor. Besides that, oxidative burst activity of neutriphil was tested by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR123) as a fluorogenic substrate, and the data suggested that the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased compared with positive controls (p<0.01). All above results indicated that rLj-NIF could also prevent the binding of β2 integrins to the surface of PMN and its FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (p<0.05). These data suggest that Lampetra japonica-NIF like protein is secreted by the stage of the parasite at the site of attachment. rLj-NIF plays an essential role in physiological reaction of neutrophil by a novel class of β2 integrin receptor antagonists. The activity of immunosuppressant of L. japonica-NIF could have potential medicinal value in anti-inflammation and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

  2. Morphology and aging precision of statoliths from larvae of Columbia river basin lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The general morphology and precision associated with age determination of statoliths from larval Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni found within the Columbia River basin were examined. Significant positive correlations were observed between the size of left and right statoliths from individuals. Principal components analysis indicated an allometric relationship between lamprey length and statolith size as well as a potential species grouping based on these measurements. Discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify more than 94% of Pacific lampreys and 92% of western brook lampreys based on lamprey length and statolith size, and Pacific lamprey statoliths tended to be larger than western brook lamprey statoliths for lampreys of a given size. Reader bias in age estimates of statoliths was greater for older lampreys. Multiple independent age readings of both statoliths from individual lampreys indicated that the overall average percent error was 16.7% for Pacific lampreys and 33.0% for western brook lampreys. Within-individual average percent error ranged from 5.1% to 20.1% among species and readers. Within-reader average percent error ranged from 6.4% to 17.8% among species and readers. The average percent error observed in this study was greater than that observed in studies of other species of lampreys; however, statoliths that were ambiguous or difficult to read were not excluded from this study. In general, the modal separation of age-groups observed in length-frequency distributions for lampreys is poor, as seen in this study; therefore, statolith-based ages may verify or provide better estimates of population age structure. These data demonstrate that estimates of precision are necessary before management actions founded on statolith-based age structure determination are implemented. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  3. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Aaron D.

    1997-01-01

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations. The Pacific lamprey is an important part of the food web of North Pacific ecosystems, both as predator and prey. Lamprey (a.k.a. eels) are also a valuable food and culture resource for American Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. Depressed Pacific lamprey runs have impacted treaty secured fishing opportunities by forcing tribal members to gather this traditional food in lower Columbia River locations. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of The Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam. The initial objectives of the project are to determine the past and current abundance of Pacific lamprey stocks in major mid Columbia tributaries and at various hydroelectric facilities, and to determine factors limiting Pacific lamprey abundance and distribution. Ultimately, Pacific lamprey restoration plans will be developed and implemented. Part (A)-CTUIR: (1) determine past and present abundance and distribution in NE Oregon and SE Washington tributaries; and (2) determine limiting habitat factors. Part (B)-CRITFC: (1) adult abundance monitoring at Columbia and Snake River dams; (2) juvenile abundance monitoring at Columbia and Snake River dams; and (3) juvenile passage impediments and needed improvements at Columbia and Snake River dams. Part (C)- OSU: (1) adult passage impediments and needed improvements at Columbia and Snake River dams; and (2) juvenile passage impediments and needed improvements at Columbia and Snake River dams.

  4. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David; Aronsuu, Kimmo; Jackson, Aaron

    2003-07-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993, Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers (Moser et al. 2002), thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin (Moser and Close in press). Adult Pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River (Close and Jackson 2001). In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River (Close 1999). To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2002.

  5. Comparative embryology of five species of lampreys of the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Allen J.; Howell, John H.; Piavis, George W.

    1968-01-01

    The four species of lampreys native to the upper Great Lakes (American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamotteni; chestnut lamprey, Ichthyomyzon castaneus; northern brook lamprey, I. fossor; and silver lamprey, I. unicuspis) were collected in various stages of their life cycle and maintained in the laboratory until sexually mature. Secondary sex characters of the four native species are compared. Several batches of eggs of each species were reared at 18.4A?C and their development was compared to that of the exotic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The temperature of 18.4A?C was previously determined to be optimum for development of the sea lamprey. The high percentage survival of many batches of eggs of native species to prolarvae indicated that 18.4A?C was near the optimum for them. Survival to the burrowing stage varied considerably among different batches of eggs from the same species; some batches failed to produce prolarvae. The staging characteristics used for the sea lamprey were applicable to the native species, except for the end point of the burrowing stage. Embryos of the native species in each stage of development appeared according to the time sequence established for the sea lamprey.

  6. A Noninvasive Tool to Assess the Distribution of Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael K.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is an anadromous fish once abundant throughout coastal basins of western North America that has suffered dramatic declines in the last century due primarily to human activities. Here, we describe the development of an environmental DNA (eDNA) assay to detect Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River basin. The eDNA assay successfully amplified tissue derived DNA of Pacific lamprey collected from 12 locations throughout the Columbia River basin. The assay amplifies DNA from other Entosphenus species found outside of the Columbia River basin, but is species-specific within this basin. As a result, the assay presented here may be useful for detecting Entosphenus spp. in geographic range beyond the Columbia River Basin. The assay did not amplify tissue or synthetically derived DNA of 14 commonly sympatric non-target species, including lampreys of the genus Lampetra, which are morphologically similar to Pacific lamprey in the freshwater larval stage. PMID:28068358

  7. Ecological and Cultural Importance of a Species at Risk of Extinction, Pacific Lamprey, 1964-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.

    2002-07-01

    The cultural and ecological values of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) have not been understood by Euro-Americans and thus their great decline has almost gone unnoticed except by Native Americans, who elevated the issue and initiated research to restore its populations, at least in the Columbia Basin. They regard Pacific lamprey as a highly valued resource and as a result ksuyas (lamprey) has become one of their cultural icons. Ksuyas are harvested to this day as a subsistence food by various tribes along the Pacific coast and are highly regarded for their cultural value. Interestingly, our review suggests that the Pacific lamprey plays an important role in the food web, may have acted as a buffer for salmon from predators, and may have been an important source of marine nutrients to oligotrophic watersheds. This is very different from the Euro-American perception that lampreys are pests. We suggest that cultural biases affected management policies.

  8. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.

    2001-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1996 through 1999. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of Pacific lampreys from tribal members within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation was useful in gaining baseline life history information. Tribal members described harvesting two types of lampreys from spring through fall, the short brown type and the long dark type. Lamprey spawning distribution was from the mouth to the headwaters in the Umatilla River. Larval lampreys were observed in the mud and sand areas of the river. Tribal members observed major declines in lampreys within the Columbia River basin. Larval Pacific lampreys were distributed throughout the John Day River basin. Larval distribution in the other subbasins was patchy and limited to the lower reaches of the streams. Larval densities were highly variable in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, as opposed to the Main stem John Day River. Larval lengths varied little in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, but were highly variable in the Main stem John Day River. Larval abundance decreased as we moved upstream in the Columbia and Snake rivers. In addition, we found strong evidence for lack of larval recruitment as distance increased from the mouth of the Columbia River. We identified clinical indicators of stress in adult Pacific lampreys. Plasma glucose became elevated soon after acute stress and remained elevated for one week. Plasma lactate also became elevated by 30 minutes; however, it decreased to resting levels by one hour after application of the stressor

  9. [Genetic basis of immune response of lymphocyte-like cells in the mucosal immune system of Lampetra japonica].

    PubMed

    Xin, Liu; Xueying, Song; Xiaoping, Zhang; Yinglun, Han; Ting, Zhu; Rong, Xiao; Qingwei, Li

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the antigen recognition mechanism based on variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) was found in agnathan lamprey. To illuminate the genetic basis of immune response of lymphocyte-like cells in the mucosal immune system of lamprey and explore the evolutionary relationship of adaptive immune responses between the jawless and jawed vertebrates, we constructed cDNA libraries of lamprey (Lampetra japonica) gills before and after stimulation, and then performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and analysis. Through functional annotation of 88 525 assembled unigenes, 21 704 and 9769 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, respectively. Among 999 unigenes involved in multiple pathways of immune system, 184 unigenes were highly homologous to 51 TCR (T cell receptor) and BCR (B cell receptor) signalling molecules in higher vertebrates, indicating that molecules involved in adaptive immune signalling pathways in higher vertebrates also exist in lampreys. In addition, identification of five VLRA, seven VLRB and four VLRC molecules suggest that at least three types of lymphocyte subsets are distributed in lamprey gill mucosal immune tissues. The results of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that the expression levels of Lck, Fyn and Zap70 were up-regulated after immune stimulation while those of Syk, Btk and Blnk were not changed significantly, indicating the activation of TCR-like signal transduction pathway after antigen stimulation in lamprey gill tissues. Our studies preliminaryly proved that two parallel adaptive immune systems in jawless and jawed vertebrates have common genetic basis, and also provided valuable clues to the exploration of signalling processes of VLRA⁺, VLRB⁺, and VLRC⁺ lymphocyte-like cells in response to antigens.

  10. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  11. Variations in the presence of chloride cells in the gills of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Bartels, H; Docker, M F; Krappe, M; White, M M; Wrede, C; Potter, I C

    2015-04-01

    Although confined to fresh water, non-parasitic species of lampreys and the landlocked parasitic sea lamprey, all of which were derived relatively recently from an adromous ancestors, still develop chloride cells, whose function in their ancestors was for osmoregulation in marine waters during the adult parasitic phase. In contrast, such cells are not developed by the non-parasitic least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera, which has been separated from its ancestor for >2 million years, nor by the freshwater parasitic species of the genus Ichthyomyzon. The length of time that a non-parasitic species or landlocked parasitic form or species has spent in fresh water is thus considered the overriding factor determining whether chloride cells are developed by those lampreys.

  12. Identification and characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 from Lampetra japonica and its protective role against cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Dan; Feng, Bin; Gou, Meng; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-09-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which oxidize aldehyde to corresponding acids, play a major role in the detoxification of various endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. In this study, we cloned and characterized ALDH9 (designated LjALDH9) from Arctic lamprey Lampetra japonica. The open reading frame of LjALDH9 was 1566 bp, encoding 521 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 55.68 kDa. LjALDH9 protein had a signal peptide and Aldedh domain with the active site Cys315. In addition, LjALDH9 shares high sequence homology with ALDH9 of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that LjALDH9 was highly expressed in the buccal gland. A reactive LjALDH9 protein was obtained by prokaryotic expression, two-step-denaturing and refolding and affinity purification. During enzyme activity analysis of recombinant LjALDH9, we found that the most suitable reaction conditions were pH7.0, 16-23 °C and Mn(2+) as the activator. Our study provides theoretical proof that LjALDH9 plays an important role in the parasitic life phase of lamprey.

  13. Characterisation of the bacterial community structures in the intestine of Lampetra morii.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Xie, Wenfang; Li, Qingwei

    2016-07-01

    The metagenomic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing method were used to investigate the bacterial community in the intestines of Lampetra morii. The bacterial community structure in L. morii intestine was relatively simple. Eight different operational taxonomic units were observed. Chitinophagaceae_unclassified (26.5 %) and Aeromonas spp. (69.6 %) were detected as dominant members at the genus level. The non-dominant genera were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (1.4 %), Candidatus Bacilloplasma (2.5 %), Enterobacteria spp. (1.5 %), Shewanella spp. (0.04 %), Vibrio spp. (0.09 %), and Yersinia spp. (1.8 %). The Shannon-Wiener (H) and Simpson (1-D) indexes were 0.782339 and 0.5546, respectively. The rarefaction curve representing the bacterial community richness and Shannon-Wiener curve representing the bacterial community diversity reached asymptote, which indicated that the sequence depth were sufficient to represent the majority of species richness and bacterial community diversity. The number of Aeromonas in lamprey intestine was two times higher after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide than PBS. This study provides data for understanding the bacterial community harboured in lamprey intestines and exploring potential key intestinal symbiotic bacteria essential for the L. morii immune response.

  14. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have declined in the Columbia River basin. One factor that may have contributed to this reduction in population size is an excessive use of energy by adult lampreys as they negotiate fishways at dams during spawning migrations. To gain an understanding of the performance capacity of Pacific lampreys, we estimated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and documented physiological responses of radio-tagged and untagged adult lampreys exercised to exhaustion. The mean (??SD) Ucrit of untagged lampreys was 86.2 ?? 7.5 cm/s at 15??C, whereas the Ucrit for radio-tagged lampreys was 81.5 ?? 7.0 cm/s, a speed that was significantly lower than that of untagged fish. The physiological responses of tagged and untagged lampreys subjected to exhaustive exercise included decreases in blood pH of 0.3-0.5 units, a 40% decrease in muscle glycogen levels, a 22% increase in hematocrit for untagged fish only, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in muscle and a 40- to 100-fold increase in plasma lactate concentrations. These physiological changes were significant compared with resting control fish and usually returned to resting levels by 1-4 h after fatigue. Our estimates of Ucrit for Pacific lampreys are the first quantitative measures of their swimming performance and suggest that these fish may have difficulty negotiating fishways at dams on the Columbia River, which can have water velocities approaching 2 m/s. Our physiological results indicate that tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys show similar metabolic dysfunction after exhaustive exercise but recover quickly from a single exposure to such a stressor.

  15. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork

  16. Morphometric discrimination of early life stage Lampetra tridentata and L richardsoni (Petromyzonidae) from the Columbia river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Reiche, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of morphometric and meristic characteristics for taxonomic discrimination of Lampetra tridentata and L. richardsoni (Petromyzonidae) during embryological, prolarval, and early larval stages (i.e., age class 1) were examined. Mean chorion diameter increased with time from fertilization to hatch and was significantly greater for L. tridentata than for L. richardsoni at 1, 8, and 15 days postfertilization. Lampetra tridentata larvae had significantly more trunk myomeres than L. richardsoni; however, trunk myomere numbers were highly variable within species and deviated from previously published data. Multivariate examinations of prolarval and larval L. tridentata (7.2-11.0 mm; standard length) and L. richardsoni (6.6-10.8 mm) were conducted based on standard length and truss element lengths established from eight homologous landmarks. Principal components analysis indicated allometric relationships among the morphometric characteristics examined. Changes in body shape were indicated by groupings of morphometric characteristics associated with body regions (e.g., oral hood, branchial region, trunk region, and tail region). Discriminant function analysis using morphometric characteristics was successful in classifying a large proportion (>94.7%) of the lampreys sampled. 

  17. Developmental anatomy of lampreys.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael K; Admiraal, Jeroen; Wright, Glenda M

    2010-02-01

    Lampreys are a group of aquatic chordates whose relationships to hagfishes and jawed vertebrates are still debated. Lamprey embryology is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it may shed light on vertebrate origins. For this and other reasons, lamprey embryology has been extensively researched by biologists from a range of disciplines. However, many of the key studies of lamprey comparative embryology are relatively inaccessible to the modern scientist. Therefore, in view of the current resurgence of interest in lamprey evolution and development, we present here a review of lamprey developmental anatomy. We identify several features of early organogenesis, including the origin of the nephric duct, that need to be re-examined with modern techniques. The homologies of several structures are also unclear, including the intriguing subendothelial pads in the heart. We hope that this review will form the basis for future studies into the phylogenetic embryology of this interesting group of animals.

  18. Lamprey variable lymphocyte receptors mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenfang; Chen, Liyong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Huaying; Su, Peng; Han, Yinglun; Feng, Bo; Qiao, Xu; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Ning; Liu, Huijie; Zheng, Zhen; Li, Qingwei

    2013-02-01

    An alternative adaptive-immune system is present in the most basal vertebrates--lampreys and hagfish--the only surviving jawless vertebrates. These eel-like fish use leucine-rich repeat-based receptors for Ag recognition instead of the Ig-based receptors used in jawed vertebrates. We report that in Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica), variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR)B interacts with C1q and C3 proteins to mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity for bacteria and tumor cells. The immune-based lysis involves deposition of VLRB and C1q-like protein complex on the surface of target cells, activation of C3, and ultimate disruption of cell wall integrity. The demonstration of functional interaction between VLRB and complement components in lamprey provides evidence for the emergence of cooperative innate and adaptive-immune responses at a pivotal point in vertebrate evolution, before or in parallel with the evolution of Ig-based Abs and the classical complement-activation pathway.

  19. Determining Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River Subbasin, Oregon ; 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C.

    2009-06-26

    We will report results of an ongoing project in the Deschutes River Subbasin to describe Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) life history. Project objectives were to determine adult lamprey escapement from Sherars Falls located at Rkm 70.4 and determine lamprey focal spawning areas, spawn timing and habitat through radio telemetry. A mark-recapture study and tribal creel was conducted to determine adult escapement. Lamprey were radio tagged and are currently being mobile, aerial and fixed site tracked to describe spawning. Adult lamprey were collected at Sherars Falls using a long-handled dip net from June-September 2007. The fate of lamprey collected at Sherars Falls was determined based on girth measurements. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two markings for the mark-recapture estimation while those measuring 10.5 cm or greater were implanted with radio transmitters. Two-hundred and nine lamprey were marked during first event sampling, 2,501 lamprey inspected for marks and 64 recaptured during second event sampling. We estimate lamprey abundance to be 8,083 (6,352-10,279) with a relative precision of 19.8. Tribal harvest was 2,303 +/- 88. Escapement was estimated at 5,780 adult lamprey. Thirty-six lamprey received radio transmitters. Lamprey were transported upstream 6.3 Rkm for surgery, held to recover from anesthesia and released. Mobile tracking efforts started mid-July 2007 and are on-going. To date 35 of the 36 lamprey have been detected. Upon release, extensive ground-based tracking was conducted until fish became dormant in mid-October. Since, fixed site downloading and tracking have occurred weekly on the mainstem Deschutes River. Majority of lamprey (88%) are holding in the mainstem Deschutes River. Three lamprey moved upstream more than 70 Rkms into westside tributaries from August-December. Three moved approximately 18 Rkms downstream of the release site. Tracking will continue through the spawning season when redd characteristics will be

  20. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult returns in 1995-1999 were more than ten magnitudes less than returns in the early 1960's. Human activities in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 100 years and likely the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Logging, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass and collection systems, and spillway structures at lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities including the Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, impacted Pacific lamprey populations, however, the degree of impact is unknown (1920's-early 1970's). Hydroelectric dam construction (Harpster Dam) on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed salmonid passage in the mid-1900's. Habitat alterations in the Snake River basin and Clearwater River drainage have had numerous negative effects on salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead trout O. mykiss populations (wild fish), but the magnitude of impacts on lamprey productivity and survival is unknown. Thorough understanding of Pacific lamprey habitat use and life history processes is needed to facilitate management and restoration of the species. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game began investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2000. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine where Pacific lamprey persist

  1. Determining Adult Pacific Lamprey Abundance and Spawning Habitat in the Lower Deschutes River Sub-Basin, Oregon, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C.

    2009-04-30

    An adult Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) escapement estimate was generated in the lower Deschutes River during run year 2008. This included a mark-recapture study to determine adult abundance and a tribal subsistence creel. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two marks for the mark-recapture estimate while those measuring greater than 10.5 cm were surgically implanted with radio transmitters to monitor migration upstream of Sherars Falls (rkm 70.4). Radio telemetry was used to determine habitat, focal spawning areas and spawn timing. All fish were collected at the Sherars Falls fish ladder from July-October 2008 using a long handled dip-net. Escapement was generated using a two event mark-recapture experiment. Adult lamprey populations were estimated at 3,471 (95% CI = 2,384-5,041; M = 101; C = 885 R = 25) using Chapman's modification of the Peterson estimate. The relative precision around the estimate was 31.42. Tribal harvest was approximately 806 adult lamprey (95% CI = +/- 74) with a total escapement of 2,669. Fourteen lamprey received radio tags and were released at Lower Blue Hole recreation site (rkm 77.3). Movement was recorded by mobile, fixed site and aerial telemetry methods. Upstream movements of lamprey were documented from July through December 2008 with most lamprey over-wintering in the mainstem Deschutes River.

  2. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  3. Expression of foreign genes in lamprey embryos: an approach to study evolutionary changes in gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Rie; Tochinai, Shin; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2003-04-15

    Evolution in development can be viewed as a sequence of changes in gene regulation. To investigate the cross-species compatibility of 5' upstream regulatory regions, we introduced exogenous gene constructs derived from a gnathostome genome into fertilized eggs of the Japanese lamprey, Lampetra japonica, a sister group of the gnathostomes. Eggs were injected with gene constructs in which a sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) had been located downstream of either a virus promoter or 5' regulatory regions of medaka actin genes. Reporter gene expression was recorded for more than a month starting two days after injection. Although the expression patterns were highly mosaic and differed among individuals, GFP was expressed predominantly in the striated muscles of lamprey embryos when driven by the 5' upstream regions of the medaka muscle actin genes. This implies that a pan-vertebrate muscle-specific gene regulatory mechanism may have evolved before the agnathan/gnathostome divergence. This gene-transfer technique potentially facilitates the visualization of cells in various differentiating tissues throughout development. The introduction of developmental genes of the lamprey or other animals into lamprey embryos is another potentially important application, one that could provide us with information on the evolutionary changes in functions of genes or gene cascades.

  4. Embryology of the lamprey and evolution of the vertebrate jaw: insights from molecular and developmental perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, S; Nobusada, Y; Horigome, N; Shigetani, Y

    2001-01-01

    Evolution of the vertebrate jaw has been reviewed and discussed based on the developmental pattern of the Japanese marine lamprey, Lampetra japonica. Though it never forms a jointed jaw apparatus, the L. japonica embryo exhibits the typical embryonic structure as well as the conserved regulatory gene expression patterns of vertebrates. The lamprey therefore shares the phylotype of vertebrates, the conserved embryonic pattern that appears at pharyngula stage, rather than representing an intermediate evolutionary state. Both gnathostomes and lampreys exhibit a tripartite configuration of the rostral-most crest-derived ectomesenchyme, each part occupying an anatomically equivalent site. Differentiated oral structure becomes apparent in post-pharyngula development. Due to the solid nasohypophyseal plate, the post-optic ectomesenchyme of the lamprey fails to grow rostromedially to form the medial nasal septum as in gnathostomes, but forms the upper lip instead. The gnathostome jaw may thus have arisen through a process of ontogenetic repatterning, in which a heterotopic shift of mesenchyme-epithelial relationships would have been involved. Further identification of shifts in tissue interaction and expression of regulatory genes are necessary to describe the evolution of the jaw fully from the standpoint of evolutionary developmental biology. PMID:11604127

  5. Lamprey TLRs with properties distinct from those of the variable lymphocyte receptors.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Matsuo, Aya; Sawa, Hirofumi; Tsujita, Tadayuki; Shida, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    Fish express mammalian-type (M-type) TLRs consisting of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and Toll-IL-1R (TIR) homology domain for immunity, whereas invertebrates in deuterostomes appear to have no orthologs of M-type TLRs. Lampetra japonica (lamprey) belongs to the lowest class of vertebrates with little information about its TLRs. We have identified two cDNA sequences of putative TLRs in the lamprey (laTLRs) that contain LRRs and TIR domains. The two laTLRs were 56% homologous to each other, and their TIRs were similar to those of members of the human TLR2 subfamily, most likely orthologs of fish TLR14. We named them laTLR14a and laTLR14b. We raised a rabbit polyclonal Ab against laTLR14b and identified a 85-kDa protein in a human HEK293 transfectant by immunoblotting using the Ab. FACS, histochemical, and confocal analyses showed that laTLR14b is expressed intracellularly in lamprey gill cells and that the overexpressed protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum of human and fish (medaka) cell lines. Because natural agonists of TLR14 remained unidentified, we made a chimera construct of extracellular CD4 and the cytoplasmic domain of laTLR14. The chimera molecule of laTLR14b, when expressed in HEK293 cells, elicited activation of NF-kappaB and, consequently, weak activation of the IFN-beta promoter. laTLR14b mRNA was observed in various organs and leukocytes. This lamprey species expressed a variable lymphocyte receptor structurally independent of laTLR14 in leukocytes. Thus, the jawless vertebrate lamprey possesses two LRR-based recognition systems, the variable lymphocyte receptor and TLR, and the M-type TLRs are conserved across humans, fish, and lampreys.

  6. Hierarchical controls on native larval lamprey habitat in the Umpqua basin, southwestern Oregon, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K.; Mangano, J.; Keith, M. K.; O'Connor, J. E.; Dunham, J.; Heck, M.; Wise, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between streamflow and geomorphic processes at multiple spatial scales shape the ranges of habitats, species, and life stages that a river can support. Understanding these processes within a hierarchical context for Pacific Northwest rivers may be helpful for proactive monitoring and restoration of native western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsonii) and Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus). To that end, our study assessed the processes creating thick, fine-grained sediment deposits that lamprey larvae rely on as rearing habitat in the Umpqua River basin, southwestern Oregon. We first developed a spatial framework for characterizing basins based on expected fluxes of suspended and bed-material sediment and transport capacity. We then assessed the reach-scale controls on sediment deposition and erosion. Coupling remotely based watershed analyses and field sampling helped us assess the broad-scale spatial controls on sediment supply imposed by geology, and in turn, local factors that control sediment deposition and create larval lamprey habitat. Collectively, the results of this work aid in understanding the critical physical controls influencing the patterns in local habitat availability for larval lamprey within river networks.

  7. Upstream Migration of Pacific Lampreys in the John Day River : Behavior, Timing, and Habitat Use : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, Jennifer M.; Seelye, James G.; Robinson, T. Craig

    2001-04-12

    Historic accounts and recent observations of Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) at mainstem Columbia River dams indicate the number of Pacific lampreys migrating upriver has decreased dramatically over the last 60 years. Consequently, state, federal, and tribal governments have recently expressed concern for this species. Little is known about the biological and ecological characteristics of habitats suitable for upstream migrating Pacific lampreys. If rehabilitation efforts are to be done effectively and efficiently, we must gain knowledge of factors limiting survival and reproduction of Pacific lampreys. From data gathered in the first year of this project, we can for the first time, describe the timing, extent, and patterns of movements for Pacific lampreys. We have tested methods and gained information that will allow us to refine our objectives and approach in future work. Knowledge of behavior, timing, and the resulting quantification of habitat use will provide a means to assess the suitability of overwintering and spawning habitats and allow the establishment of goals for recovery projects. Further research is necessary, including multiple years of data collection, tracking of movement patterns through the spawning season, and more rigorously examining habitat use.

  8. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  9. Effectiveness of common fish screen materials to protect lamprey ammocoetes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of irrigation diversions on populations of Pacific lampreyLampetra tridentata in the Columbia River basin is needed for their recovery. We tested the effectiveness of five common fish screen materials for excluding lamprey ammocoetes: interlock (IL), vertical bar (VB), perforated plate (PP), and 12-gauge and 14-gauge wire cloth (WC12) and (WC14). When fish (28–153 mm) were exposed for 60 min to screen panels perpendicular to an approach velocity of 12 cm/s in a recirculating flume, the percentage of ammocoetes entrained (i.e., passed through the screen) was 26% for the IL, 18% for the PP, 33% for the VB, 62% for the WC14, and 65% for the WC12 screens. For all screens, most fish were entrained within the first 15–20 min. Fish length significantly influenced entrainment, with the PP, VB, and IL screens preventing fish greater than 50–65 mm from entrainment and the WC14 and WC12 screens preventing entrainment of fish greater than 90–110 mm. Fish of all sizes repeatedly became impinged (i.e., contacting the screen for more than 1 s) on the screens, with the frequency of impingement events increasing during the first 5 min and becoming relatively stable thereafter. Impingement ranges were highest on the IL screen (36–62%), lowest on the WC14 and WC12 screens (13–31%), and intermediate on the PP and VB screens (23–54%). However, the WC14 and WC12 screens had fewer and larger fish remaining as time elapsed because so many were entrained. For all screen types, injuries were rare and minor, and no fish died after overnight posttest holding. Our results indicate that wire cloth screens should be replaced, where practical, with perforated plate, vertical bar, or interlocking bar screens to reduce lamprey entrainment at water diversions.

  10. Survival and growth of juvenile Pacific lampreys tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT) in freshwater and seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Roon, Sean R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Tagging methods are needed for both adult and juvenile life stages of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata to better understand their biology and factors contributing to their decline. We developed a safe and efficient technique for tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We tested the short-term survival of PIT-tagged juvenile lampreys in freshwater at four temperatures (9, 12, 15, and 18°C) and their long-term growth and survival in seawater. For both experiments there was little to no tag loss, and juvenile lampreys in freshwater showed high survival at all temperatures at 7 d (95–100%) and 14 d (88–100%) posttagging. Prolonged holding (40 d) resulted in significantly lower survival (28–79%) at warmer temperatures (12–18°C). For juvenile lampreys tagged in freshwater and then transitioned to seawater, survival was 97% for tagged fish until day 94, and at the end of 6 months, survival was about 58% for both tagged and control fish. About half of the tagged and control fish that survived in seawater grew, but there was no difference in growth between the two groups. In freshwater, but not in seawater, most fish that died had an aquatic fungal infection. In both experiments, survival increased with increasing fish length at tagging. Our results indicate that tags similar in size to a 9-mm PIT tag are a feasible option for tagging metamorphosed juvenile lampreys migrating downstream and that when fungal infections are mitigated—as in seawater—long-term (at least 6 months) survival of tagged juvenile lampreys is high.

  11. War on lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffett, James W.

    1953-01-01

    Vampire-like sea lampreys look somewhat like short sections of garden hose, swim like eels, and live solely on the blood of fishes. Their voracious appetites have been especially harmful to fish in the Great Lakes, and it is there that methods of underwater electrocution are being applied in their control.

  12. Identification and characterisation of the anti-oxidative stress properties of the lamprey prohibitin 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiesong; Wang, Ying; Gao, Yang; Li, Qingwei

    2015-02-01

    The highly conserved protein prohibitin 2 (PHB2) has been implicated as a cell-surface receptor in the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, transcription, and mitochondrial protein folding. In the present study, we identified a Lampetra morii homologue of PHB2, Lm-PHB2, showing greater than 61.8% sequence identity with its homologues. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the position of Lm-PHB2 is consistent with lamprey phylogeny. Expression of the Lm-PHB2 protein was nearly equivalent in the heart, liver, kidneys, intestines, and muscles of normal lampreys. However, the Lm-PHB2 protein was down-regulated in the myocardia of lampreys challenged for 5 days with adriamycin (Adr), followed by a significant up-regulation 10 days after treatment. In vitro, recombinant Lm-PHB2 (rLm-PHB2) protein could significantly enhance the H2O2-induced oxidative stress tolerance in Chang liver (CHL) cells. Further mechanism studies indicated that the nucleus-to-mitochondria translocation of Lm-PHB2 was closely involved in the oxidative stress protection. Our results suggests that the strategies to modulate Lm-PHB2 levels may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for myocardial injury and liver inflammatory diseases, conditions in which oxidative stress plays a critical role in tissue injury and inflammation.

  13. Biliary atresia in lampreys.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H

    1993-01-01

    The preceding pages have described an organism that is far removed from mammals on the taxonomic scale of vertebrates but one that has proven to have a unique and most useful system for studies of liver function and, in particular, bile product transport and excretion. It is also an organism in which iron loading can be studied in the liver and other organs and tissues. Many of the events that occur in this animal during its life cycle with regard to bile pigment metabolism as normal programmed phenomena are unparalleled among the vertebrates. In the larval (ammocoete) period of lampreys, there is an intrahepatic gallbladder and a biliary tree that is well equipped for the storage, transport, and elimination of bile products into the intestine for ultimate excretion with the feces. The importance of the patency of these bile ducts to bile excretion is illustrated in one species of lampreys in which the bile ducts of young ammocoetes become infested with larval nematodes to a degree that bile pigment regurgitation into the blood results in a green serum that is identified as biliverdin. Despite having serum levels of biliverdin that would be toxic to humans, these individuals live a complete larval life. The larvae of all lamprey species undergo a phase of metamorphosis in which they transform into adults. During this phase the larval gallbladder, the bile canaliculi of the hepatocytes, and all the intrahepatic bile ducts completely regress in a developmental process called lamprey biliary atresia. The epithelium of the extrahepatic common bile duct transforms and expands into a caudal portion of the endocrine pancreas of the adult. Many of the events of lamprey biliary atresia resemble events occurring during experimental and pathological conditions of mammalian cholestasis, including disruption to the bile-blood barrier (intercellular junctions), accumulation of bile components in the cytoplasmic inclusions, and alteration of the distribution of membrane enzymes

  14. Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-05-31

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined drastically over the past 20 years. Possible causes include habitat degradation and instream flow obstacles, such as the mainstem hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. To determine why lamprey populations have declined a monitoring system to track their movements was needed to determine possible impacts. Juvenile lamprey were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and their detection rates determined while migrating through fish bypass facilities at McNary in 2001 and 2005 and John Day Dam in 2002. Juvenile Pacific lamprey (115–178 mm) were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility, transported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and surgically PIT-tagged. Lamprey were allowed to recover for 3 to 4 days following PIT tag implantation and subsequently were released upstream of the PIT tag detectors at both dams. Primary detector efficiency was 98% at McNary Dam and 97% at John Day Dam. Average in-river travel time for fish released at McNary Dam and detected at John Day Dam was 16.1 d in 2001 and 10 d in 2005. Mean detection rates at McNary Dam varied from 74% for gatewell releases to 69% for the collection channel. Follow up tests in 2005 at McNary Dam showed detections rates near 100% from collection channel releases. Detection rates from forebay releases at McNary Dam were lower, ranging from 0% to 38% (mean = 21%). Mean travel times from release point to the primary detectors at McNary Dam were; forebay (492 min), gatewell (323 min), and collection channel (245 min). The detection efficiency at the primary detectors was similar to that of PIT-tagged smolts and travel time within the bypass system showed that lamprey can hold in the bypass system for prolonged periods.

  15. Identification and characterization of the lamprey IRF gene.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yue; Liu, Shuang; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-04-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are named for their ability to bind to and regulate interferon genes when an organism becomes infected with a virus. Numerous studies have revealed the versatile and critical functions of IRFs. In this study, an IRF gene from Lampetra japonica was identified and analyzed using bioinformatic methods. The L. japonica IRF (Lj-IRF) shares high sequence homology with other vertebrate IRFs but low sequence homology with an ascidian IRF-like protein. We also used recombinant Lj-IRF protein (rLj-IRF) to immunize New Zealand rabbits to prepare specific anti-rLj-IRF polyclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Western blotting assays were performed to detect the valence and specificity of the antibody. FACS analysis revealed that the Lj-IRF protein was expressed in approximately 21.14% of leukocytes and 9.60% of supraneural body cells in L. japonica, with immunofluorescence staining indicating a cytoplasmic location. The immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that IRF is distributed in the epithelial cells of the heart, supraneural body, kidneys and gills but is not detectable in intestinals or oral gland tissues. However, the expression of IRF was upregulated in lamprey intestinal tissues upon stimulation with the rLj-HMGB1 protein. Lj-IRF gene expression levels were higher in the rLj-HMGB1-stimulated group than the control group, and the expression level of Lj-IRF was significantly increased in the intestines as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. These results provide a foundation for studying the origin and evolution of the innate immune system in lampreys.

  16. Survival and tag retention of Pacific lamprey larvae and macrophthalmia marked with coded wire tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Puls, A.L.; Bayer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the survival, tag retention, and growth of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata larvae and macrophthalmia marked with standard-length decimal coded wire tags and exposed to two levels of handling stress. The survival of marked individuals did not differ from that of unmarked individuals at either life stage for the duration of the experiment (56 d). Tag retention was 100% for all treatment combinations except larvae that were handled frequently (93 ?? 3%). The majority of tag loss occurred within 28 d of marking, and no tag loss was observed between 42 and 56 d after marking. The individuals that lost tags were among the smallest marked, and a logistic regression model indicated a relationship between larva length and the probability of tag retention. Size of larvae (length and mass) and macrophthalmia (mass) decreased over the duration of the experiment; however, changes in size were systematic among treatment combinations, indicating that factors other than tagging or handling affected growth. These data indicate that coded wire tags may be useful for field-based studies of Pacific lamprey larvae and macrophthalmia.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis).

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Buchinger, Tyler; Pu, Jiafei; Jia, Liang; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis) is reported. The two mitogenomes show a 13 bp length difference on the tRNA-Gly and two control regions. The gene order and contents are conserved in the two lampreys and identical to the lamprey mitogenomes published. Except for three indel polymorphic sites, there are 27 SNP sites which are all synonymous substitution sites and occurred on 9 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and one tRNA. The control region1 contains six consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings in both lampreys. A 7-nt repetitive string in the control region2 is repeated 3 and 5 times in northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey, respectively. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.74%) is consistent with the hypothesis that northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey represent two ecotypes of one species.

  18. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Multini, Laura Cristina; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i) Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii) as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city. PMID:27598889

  19. Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility (i.e., efficiency and onintrusiveness) of tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and to determine any associated impacts on survivorship and swimming ability. Juvenile Pacific lampreys were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility and tests were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 2001 and 2002. A new PIT-tagging procedure was used to inject 12-mm tags 5 mm posterior to the gill openings. ampreys were allowed to recover for 3–4 d following surgery before postmortality and swimming tests were conducted. The PIT tagging procedure during 2001 did not include a suture, and 2.6% of the tags were shed after 40 d. During 2002 a single suture was used to close the opening after inserting a tag, and no tag shedding was observed. Overall short-term mortality rates for lampreys 120–155 mm (total length) held for 40 d at 88C was 2.2% for tagged and 2.7% for untagged fish. Mortality increased significantly when tagged and untagged groups were held in warmer (19–238C) river water: 50% for tagged and 60% for untagged animals. Lengths did not significantly affect survival for either the tagged or untagged group held in warm water. A fungal infection was observed to be the cause of death when water temperature increased. Swimming tests to determine any adverse effects due to tag insertion showed no significant difference (P ¼ 0.12) between tagged and untagged lampreys for mean burst speed; however, maximum burst speeds were significantly lower for the PIT-tagged group.

  20. 76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and... (Service), announce a ] meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup... and implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide that are...

  1. The hydrodynamics of lamprey locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan C.

    The lamprey, an anguilliform swimmer, propels itself by undulating most of its body. This type of swimming produces flow patterns that are highly three-dimensional in nature and not very well understood. However, substantial previous work has been done to understand two-dimensional unsteady propulsion, the possible wake structures and thrust performance. Limited studies of three-dimensional propulsors with simple geometries have displayed the importance of the third dimension in designing unsteady swimmers. Some of the results of those studies, primarily the ways in which vorticity is organized in the wake region, are seen in lamprey swimming as well. In the current work, the third dimension is not the only important factor, but complex geometry and body undulations also contribute to the hydrodynamics. Through dye flow visualization, particle induced velocimetry and pressure measurements, the hydrodynamics of anguilliform swimming are studied using a custom built robotic lamprey. These studies all indicate that the undulations of the body are not producing thrust. Instead, it is the tail which acts to propel the animal. This conclusion led to further investigation of the tail, specifically the role of varying tail flexibility on hydrodymnamics. It is found that by making the tail more flexible, one decreases the coherence of the vorticity in the lamprey's wake. Additional flexibility also yields less thrust.

  2. Burrowing activities of the larval lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, Philip J.

    1959-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1950 of Applegate's work on the sea lamprey in Michigan (U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept.; Fish, No. 55) and the subsequent development of means to control lampreys in the Great Lakes, biologists have accumulated much additional information on adult lampreys. Larval lampreys, however, are difficult animals to observe in the field, and many facets of their behavior are still unknown. While working with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, I kept ammocetes in captivity, and was able to observe their burrowing activities.

  3. A thymus candidate in lampreys.

    PubMed

    Bajoghli, Baubak; Guo, Peng; Aghaallaei, Narges; Hirano, Masayuki; Strohmeier, Christine; McCurley, Nathanael; Bockman, Dale E; Schorpp, Michael; Cooper, Max D; Boehm, Thomas

    2011-02-03

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists have been debating the nature of the immune system of jawless vertebrates--lampreys and hagfish--since the nineteenth century. In the past 50 years, these fish were shown to have antibody-like responses and the capacity to reject allografts but were found to lack the immunoglobulin-based adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. Recent work has shown that lampreys have lymphocytes that instead express somatically diversified antigen receptors that contain leucine-rich-repeats, termed variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), and that the type of VLR expressed is specific to the lymphocyte lineage: T-like lymphocytes express type A VLR (VLRA) genes, and B-like lymphocytes express VLRB genes. These clonally diverse anticipatory antigen receptors are assembled from incomplete genomic fragments by gene conversion, which is thought to be initiated by either of two genes encoding cytosine deaminase, cytosine deaminase 1 (CDA1) in T-like cells and CDA2 in B-like cells. It is unknown whether jawless fish, like jawed vertebrates, have dedicated primary lymphoid organs, such as the thymus, where the development and selection of lymphocytes takes place. Here we identify discrete thymus-like lympho-epithelial structures, termed thymoids, in the tips of the gill filaments and the neighbouring secondary lamellae (both within the gill basket) of lamprey larvae. Only in the thymoids was expression of the orthologue of the gene encoding forkhead box N1 (FOXN1), a marker of the thymopoietic microenvironment in jawed vertebrates, accompanied by expression of CDA1 and VLRA. This expression pattern was unaffected by immunization of lampreys or by stimulation with a T-cell mitogen. Non-functional VLRA gene assemblies were found frequently in the thymoids but not elsewhere, further implicating the thymoid as the site of development of T-like cells in lampreys. These findings suggest that the similarities underlying the dual nature of the adaptive

  4. Development of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, John H.; Lech, John J.; Allen, John L.

    1980-01-01

    Larvicides are used to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. These larvicides are useful because they are more toxic to sea lamprey than fish species found in the same habitat. The lampricides come from two classes of chemical compounds: (1) halonitrophenols, and (2) halonitrosalicylanilides. Selectivity of the larvicides appears to be based on the differences in the ability of sea lamprey larvae and fishes to detoxify and/or excrete the chemicals. Glucuronide conjugation is an important mechanism for detoxification of these larvicides by fish, and selectivity of larvicides may be due to differences in glucuronyl transferase activity between lamprey and fishes. If more detailed information were available on uptake, metabolism, excretion, and the biochemistry and physiology of lamprey as compared to fishes, it might be possible to design chemicals that would be more selective than those now in use.

  5. Using stable isotopes and C:N ratios to examine the life-history strategies and nutritional sources of larval lampreys.

    PubMed

    Evans, T M; Bauer, J E

    2016-02-01

    Natural abundance stable-isotope analysis (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and C:N ratios were used to study the ammocoete phase of two common non-parasitic lamprey species (least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera and American brook lamprey Lethenteron appendix) in two tributaries of the Ohio River (U.S.A.). The C:N ratios suggest that each species employs different lipid accumulation strategies to support its metamorphosis and recruitment into an adult animal. Ammocoete δ(13)C values generally increased with increasing C:N values. In contrast to δ(13)C, ammocoete δ(15)N values were weakly related to the total length (LT) in L. aepyptera, but positively correlated to both LT and C:N ratios in L. appendix. In L. appendix, C:N also correlated positively with LT, and presumably age. A Bayesian mixing model using δ(13)C and δ(15)N was used to estimate nutritional subsidies of different potential food resources to ammocoetes at each site. The models suggested that although nutritional subsidies to ammocoetes varied as a function of site, ammocoetes were generally reliant on large contributions (42-62% at three sites) from aquatic plants. Contributions from aquatic sediment organic matter were also important at all sites (32-63%) for ammocoetes, with terrestrially derived plant materials contributing smaller amounts (4-33%). These findings provide important insights into the feeding ecology and nutrition of two species of lampreys. They also suggest that similar and other quantitative approaches are required to (1) fully understand how the observed stable-isotopes ratios are established in ammocoetes and (2) better assess ammocoete nutritional subsidies in different natal streams.

  6. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research

    PubMed Central

    XU, Yang; ZHU, Si-Wei; LI, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  7. Thrust Production in a Mechanical Swimming Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    To develop a comprehensive model of lamprey locomotion, we use a robotic lamprey as a means of investigating the surface pressure and wake structure during swimming. A programmable microcomputer actuates 11 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The waveform is based on the motion of the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), as described by Tytell and Lauder (2004) and kinematic studies of living lamprey. The amplitude of the phase-averaged surface pressure distribution along the centerline of the robot increases toward the tail, which is consistent with previous momentum balance experiments indicating that thrust is produced mainly at the tail. The phase relationship between the pressure signal and the vortex shedding from the tail is also examined. The project is supported by NIH CNRS Grant 1R01NS054271.

  8. Thrust production by a mechanical swimming lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, M. C.; Smits, A. J.

    2011-05-01

    To develop a comprehensive model of lamprey locomotion, we use a robotic lamprey to investigate the formation of the wake structure, the shedding vorticity from the body, and the relationship between thrust production and pressure on the surface of the robot. The robot mimics the motion of living lamprey in steady swimming by using a programmable microcomputer to actuate 13 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The amplitude of the phase-averaged surface pressure distribution along the centerline of the robot increases toward the tail, which is consistent with previous momentum balance experiments. This indicates that thrust is produced mainly at the tail. The phase relationship between the pressure signal and the vortex shedding from the tail is also examined, showing a clear connection between the location of vortex structures and the fluctuations of the pressure signal.

  9. Sensitivity of lamprey ammocoetes to six chemicals.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle B; Caldwell, Richard S; Toll, John; Do, Thai; Saban, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    As part of the ecological risk assessment for Portland Harbor Superfund site, a study was conducted to address the question of whether the use of surrogate species in the risk assessment would be protective of lamprey ammocoetes. The study evaluated the acute toxicity of six chemicals: pentachlorophenol, copper, diazinon, aniline, naphthalene, and lindane; these chemicals represent the toxic modes of action of oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, gill dysfunction, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, polar narcosis, narcosis, and central nervous system interference, respectively. Field-collected lamprey ammocoetes were exposed to each of the six chemicals in a definitive 96-h flow-through acute water-only toxicity test. LC(50)s were calculated for pentachlorophenol at 31 μg/l, copper at 46 μg/l, diazinon at 8.9 mg/l, and aniline at 430 mg/l. Species sensitivity distributions based on LC(50)s for aquatic organisms indicated that lamprey ammocoetes were relatively sensitive to pentachlorophenol (15th percentile). The sensitivity of lamprey ammocoetes to copper approximated the average of aquatic species tested (46th percentile). Lamprey ammocoetes were relatively insensitive to diazinon and aniline (72nd and 90th percentile, respectively). The 96-h LC(50) for naphthalene was estimated at 10 mg/l, based on 50% mortality in the highest concentration. Based on a comparison with LC(50)s for four other fish species, ranging from 2.0 to 6.6 mg/l, lamprey ammocoetes were relatively insensitive to naphthalene. A 96-h LC(50) could not be derived for lindane, with 12.5% mortality in the highest test concentration of 2.68 mg/l. LC(50)s for numerous other fish species ranged from 0.001 to 0.24 mg/l, indicating that lamprey ammocoetes were relatively insensitive to lindane. The study concluded that the use of surrogate species in the ecological risk assessment for Portland Harbor would be protective of lamprey ammocoetes.

  10. Pacific lamprey artificial propogation and rearing investigations: Rocky Reach Lamprey Management Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for developing this document is through implementing the Rocky Reach Pacific Lamprey Management Plan (PLMP), a component of the Rocky Reach Comprehensive Settlement Agreement, both of which are discussed more thoroughly in Section 1.2. The ultimate goal of the PLMP is to achieve No Net Impact (NNI) to Pacific lamprey of ongoing operations of the Rocky Reach Hydroelectric Project. Conducting artificial propagation of Pacific lamprey was considered by the state and federal fishery agencies and Tribes that are parties to the Settlement Agreement as a potential Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement measure (PME) for achieving NNI during the term of the current Rocky Reach license. This document is intended to provide guidance as to the feas ibility of culturing Pacific lamprey, the associated facilities necessary for culture practices, and identifying uncertainties for monitoring culture efficacy and rationale for implementing Pacific lamprey artificial propagation

  11. Resistance to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholefield, R.J.; Seelye, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used in the United States and Canada for more than 30 years to control populations of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. There is concern that sea lamprey might become resistant to TFM. Lampricide toxicity tests have been conducted at the Hammond Bay Biological Station, Millersburg, Michigan, since the 1950s and examination of TFM toxicity data for larval lamprey from 1963 to 1987 indicated that sea lamprey have not developed increased resistance to TFM. Maintenance of current control practices are unlikely to cause the development of TFM-resistant sea lamprey strains in the foreseeable future.

  12. Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era.

    PubMed

    McCauley, David W; Docker, Margaret F; Whyard, Steve; Li, Weiming

    2015-11-01

    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Here, we provide an overview of the ways in which genomic tools are currently being deployed to tackle diverse research questions and suggest several areas that may benefit from the availability of the sea lamprey genome.

  13. Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, David W.; Docker, Margaret F.; Whyard, Steve; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Here, we provide an overview of the ways in which genomic tools are currently being deployed to tackle diverse research questions and suggest several areas that may benefit from the availability of the sea lamprey genome. PMID:26951616

  14. Assessing Pacific Lamprey Status in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Mary L.; Close, David A.

    2003-06-01

    In the Columbia River drainage, salmonid-based monitoring programs have historically been used to assess status of both adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey. We compared adult lamprey counts at hydropower dams to recent radiotelemetry results and found that the counts underestimated losses between some dams and overestimated passage times through reservoirs. Count data were not correlated with trap captures of adults conducted in the same area and at the same time, likely due to lamprey-specific behaviors that result in inaccurate counts. We recommend maintenance of traditional count protocols, but emphasize the need for continued research to develop an accurate correction factor to apply to these data. Existing salmonid-based sampling for juvenile lamprey is inadequate and we highlight the need for standardized larval lamprey monitoring that provides both abundance and size distributions. Our electrofishing survey for juvenile lamprey indicated that this technique provides critical information on lamprey recruitment and is feasible over large spatial scales.

  15. A Study of a Mechanical Swimming Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan; Hultmark, Marcus; Smits, Alexander

    2007-11-01

    In order to develop a comprehensive model of lamprey locomotion, we use a swimming robotic lamprey as a means of investigating the surface pressure, thrust and wake structure. A programmable microcomputer actuates 13 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey's body. This waveform is based on the motion of the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), as described by Tytell and Lauder (2004). Dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to study the wake structure generated by the robot and the flowfield along the body. These visualization methods show that two distinct, oppositely signed vortices are shed each half cycle; whereas along the body, no large scale vortical shedding can be observed, suggesting that most of the thrust is produced by the tail. Thrust data based on momentum balances support this suggestion. The project is supported by NIH Grant 1RO1NS054271.

  16. Abnormal tooth development in a sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Hanson, Lee H.

    1977-01-01

    Sea lampreys en route to their spawning grounds have been captured at mechanical or electrical structures that have been in operation for 1 to 27 spawning seasons (1949-75) on some 167 tributaries of the upper Great Lakes; more than 750,000 were taken in 1949-70 (Smith 1971). Among these lampreys (all of which were routinely examined at the time of capture) was one female (length, 434 mm; weight, 130 g) with markedly underdeveloped teeth. It was captured in May 1968 at an electrical barrier in the Ocqueoc River, a Michigan tributary of Lake Huron

  17. Biology of the sea lamprey in its parasitic phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Phillip S.; Lennon, Robert E.

    1956-01-01

    The investigations conducted on sea lampreys in aquariums were concerned with the duration of the parasitic phase of life, feeding, growth, and the interrelations between predator and host fish. Observations on lampreys reared from metamorphosis to maturity were made at the Fish and Wildlife Service Laboratory at Hammond Bay, Michigan. Most of the experimental lampreys were mature and ripe after 14 to 18 months of parasitic life. They exhibited signs of irreversible physical degeneration which precedes death. Three specimens were immature after 14, 18, and 26 months in aquariums, thus indicating that under certain conditions, lampreys may extend their parasitic phase. The feeding activity, growth, and shrinkage in size of aquarium specimens were considered typical of lampreys in the Great Lakes, although the wild lampreys achieve greater average size. Female lampreys made more attacks, fed more, killed more fish, and grew larger than males. They also shrank proportionately more in length and weight as they approached sexual maturity, but their terminal average size was slightly larger than that of males. It is estimated that the average fish-kill by a wild lamprey exceeds, and could be approximately double, the 18.5 pounds of fish killed by a laboratory lamprey. The rate and extent of fish destruction depended on the size, sex, and stage in the parasitic phase of the lampreys, and on the species and size of the fish. There was an increase in the number of fish killed as the lampreys grew, and the fish were killed more quickly. Attacks made by experimental lampreys at any stage of their parasitic phase up to full maturity, and on any part of a prey fish except fins, usually resulted in death to the host. Some fish which survived lamprey attacks succumbed to fungus infections of the wounds. A small number of trout recovered from attacks, and their wounds healed.

  18. Available benthic habitat type may influence predation risk in larval lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Dustin M.; Welsh, Stuart; Turk, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Population declines of lamprey species have largely been attributed to habitat degradation, yet there still remain many unanswered questions about the relationships between lampreys and their habitats (Torgensen & Close 2004; Smith et al. 2011). One scarcely researched area of lamprey ecology is the effect of predation on lampreys (Cochran 2009). Specifically, the influence of available habitat on predation risk has not been documented for larval lampreys but may be important to the management and conservation of lamprey populations.

  19. Volumetric flow around a swimming lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Andrea M.; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Leftwich, Megan C.; Tytell, Eric D.

    2015-11-01

    A primary experimental technique for studying fluid-structure interactions around swimming fish has been planar dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). Typically, two components of the velocity vector are measured in a plane, in the case of swimming studies, directly behind the animal. While useful, this approach provides little to no insight about fluid structure interactions above and below the fish. For fish with a small height relative to body length, such as the long and approximately cylindrical lamprey, 3D information is essential to characterize how these fish interact with their fluid environment. This study presents 3D flow structures along the body and in the wake of larval lamprey, P etromyzon m arinus , which are 10-15 cm long. Lamprey swim through a 1000 cm3 field of view in a standard 10 gallon tank illuminated by a green laser. Data are collected using the three component velocimeter V3V system by TSI, Inc. and processed using Insight 4G software. This study expands on previous works that show two pairs of vortices each tail beat in the mid-plane of the lamprey wake. NSF DMS 1062052.

  20. Chemosterilization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical, P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), was found in laboratory studies to be an effective sterilant for both sexes of adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) when given intraperitoneally at a dosage of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight. A total of 300 normal spawning-run sea lampreys and 300 injected with bisazir were released into the Big Garlic River, Marquette County, Michigan, (a small stream divided into five sections by natural barriers), to determine the effect of bisazir on the nesting and spawning behavior of the adults and on the production of larvae. The lampreys constructed and spawned in 95 nests. Sterile adults showed no abnormal nest building or spawning behavior. Sterile males competed effectively with normal males for females. Egg samples taken from nests indicated that eggs in nests where sterile males spawned with sterile or normal females did not hatch, although some embryonic development occurred. Extensive surveys with electric shockers produced no larvae in stream sections where sterile males spawned, but yielded numerous larvae in sections where normal males spawned with normal females. These findings suggest that the release of sterile males may be an effective tool in an integrated approach to control of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes.

  1. Identification and characterisation of the immune response properties of Lampetra japonica BLNK

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yinglun; Liu, Xin; Shi, Biyue; Xiao, Rong; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Li, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    B cell linker protein (BLNK) is a central linker protein involved in B cell signal transduction in jawed vertebrates. In a previous study, we have reported the identification of a BLNK homolog named Lj-BLNK in lampreys. In this study, a 336 bp cDNA fragment encoding the Lj-BLNK Src homology 2 (SH2) domain was cloned into the vector pET-28a(+) and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant fragment of Lj-BLNK (rLj-BLNK) was purifiedby His-Bind affinity chromatography, and polyclonal antibodies against rLj-BLNK were raised in male New Zealand rabbits. Fluorescenceactivated cell sorting (FACS) analysisrevealed that Lj-BLNK was expressed in approximately 48% of the lymphocyte-like cells of control lampreys, and a significant increase in Lj-BLNK expression was observed in lampreys stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western blotting analysis showed that variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB) and Lj-BLNKwere distributed in the same immune-relevant tissues, and the levels of both were upregulated in supraneural myeloid bodies and lymphocyte-like cells after LPS stimulation. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that Lj-BLNK was localized in VLRB+ lymphocyte-like cells. These results indicate that the Lj-BLNK protein identified in lampreys might play an important role in the VLRB-mediated adaptive immune response. PMID:27126461

  2. Evidence for selective bacterial community structuring in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rodrigo; Keller-Costa, Tina; Gomes, Newton C M; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    To understand the functioning of sponges, knowledge of the structure of their associated microbial communities is necessary. However, our perception of sponge-associated microbiomes remains mainly restricted to marine ecosystems. Here, we report on the molecular diversity and composition of bacteria in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis inhabiting the artificial lake Vinkeveense Plassen, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed that the apparent diversities within the domain Bacteria and the phylum Actinobacteria were lower in E. fluviatilis than in bulk water. Enrichment of specific PCR-DGGE bands in E. fluviatilis was detected. Furthermore, sponge- and bulk water-derived bacterial clone libraries differed with respect to bacterial community composition at the phylum level. E. fluviatilis-derived sequences were affiliated with six recognized phyla, i.e., Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae and Verrucomicrobia, in order of relative abundance; next to the uncultured candidate phylum TM7 and one deeply rooted bacterial lineage of undefined taxonomy (BLUT). Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla in the freshwater clone library whereas sequences affiliated with Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria and Armatimonadetes were found at lower frequencies. Fine-tuned phylogenetic inference showed no or negligible overlaps between the E. fluviatilis and water-derived phylotypes within bacterial taxa such as Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. We also ascertained the status of two alphaproteobacterial lineages as freshwater sponge-specific phylogenetic clusters, and report on high distinctiveness of other E. fluviatilis specific phylotypes, especially within the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Chlamydia taxa. This study supports the contention that the composition and

  3. Testing and extension of a sea lamprey feeding model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Philip A.; Swink, William D.; Kinziger, Andrew P.

    1999-01-01

    A previous model of feeding by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus predicted energy intake and growth by lampreys as a function of lamprey size, host size, and duration of feeding attachments, but it was applicable only to lampreys feeding at 10°C and it was tested against only a single small data set of limited scope. We extended the model to other temperatures and tested it against an extensive data set (more than 700 feeding bouts) accumulated during experiments with captive sea lampreys. Model predictions of instantaneous growth were highly correlated with observed growth, and a partitioning of mean squared error between model predictions and observed results showed that 88.5% of the variance was due to random variation rather than to systematic errors. However, deviations between observed and predicted values varied substantially, especially for short feeding bouts. Predicted and observed growth trajectories of individual lampreys during multiple feeding bouts during the summer tended to correspond closely, but predicted growth was generally much higher than observed growth late in the year. This suggests the possibility that large overwintering lampreys reduce their feeding rates while attached to hosts. Seasonal or size-related shifts in the fate of consumed energy may provide an alternative explanation. The lamprey feeding model offers great flexibility in assessing growth of captive lampreys within various experimental protocols (e.g., different host species or thermal regimes) because it controls for individual differences in feeding history.

  4. An integrative CFD model of lamprey swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; McMillen, Tyler; Fauci, Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Swimming due to sinusoidal body undulations is observed across the full spectrum of swimming organisms, from microscopic flagella to fish. These undulations are achieved due to internal force-generating mechanisms, which, in the case of lamprey are due to a wave of neural activation from head to tail which gives rise to a wave of muscle activation. These active forces are also mediated by passive structural forces. Here we present recent results on a computational model of a swimming lamprey that couples activation of discrete muscle segments, passive elastic forces, and a surrounding viscous, incompressible fluid. The fluid dynamics is modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations at appropriate Reynolds numbers, where the resulting flow field and vortex shedding may be measured.

  5. Sensitivity of a tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis guianensis) to airborne sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Hanke, Wolf; Miersch, Lars; Dehnhardt, Guido; Sauerland, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Auditory systems of cetaceans are considered highly specialized for underwater sound processing, whereas the extent of their hearing capacity in air is still a point of issue. In this study, the sensitivity to airborne sound in a male tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis guianensis) was tested by means of a go/no go response paradigm. Auditory thresholds were obtained from 2 to 31.5 kHz. Compared to the hearing thresholds of other dolphins as well as of amphibian mammals, the sensitivity to airborne sound of the test subject is low from 2 to 8 kHz, with the highest threshold at 4 kHz. Thresholds at 16 and 31.5 kHz reveal a sharp increase in hearing sensitivity. Thus, although not obtained in this study, the upper aerial hearing limit is in the ultrasonic range. A comparison of the present data with the underwater audiogram of the same test subject referred to sound intensity indicates that the sensitivity of Sotalia to underwater sound is generally better than to airborne sound. .

  6. Biologically Based Undulatory Lamprey Auv Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    or cartilage . Stiffness is actively contolled by the muscle fiber contractions. We believe that the fish body as a whole is a self-tuning system so...of the cross sectional area. In Lamprey there is also a cartilageous vertebra column around the notochord. 2 Weight Distribu~on of Fish 11.5 in long...delay between activations, however, the myotome burst durations decrease from the snout to tail (Tactl >Tact2> Tactn). 4. Shark locomotor cycle. The

  7. A Study of a Mechanical Swimming Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2006-11-01

    To develop a comprehensive model of lamprey swimming, the wake structure generated by a swimming mechanical model is investigated using dye flow visualization. The eel is activated by 13 programmable servomotors and a traveling wave is generated along the length of the body. The waveform is based on the motion of an American eel (Anguilla rostrata) of Tytell and Lauder (2004). A laser scanning system is used to visualize the three-dimensional unsteady wake structure.

  8. 75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup). The... date. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont Fish and...

  9. Anesthetic effect of 4-styrylpyridine on lamprey and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, John H.; Thomas, Paul M.

    1964-01-01

    The anestheticp roperty of 4-styrylpyridine (4-SP) on fish and lamprey was first noticed during chemical screening search of a selective toxicant for larval lamprey (Applegate, Howell, Hall, and Smith, 1957). To assess the possible value of the compound as an anesthetic, we later conducted the experiments reviewed in this report.

  10. Patterns of proopiomelanotropin and proopiocortin gene expression and of immunohistochemistry for gonadotropin-releasing hormones (lGnRH-I and III) during the life cycle of a nonparasitic lamprey: relationship to this adult life history type.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Heinig, J A; Khanam, S F; Sower, S A; Kawauchi, H; Keeley, F W

    2006-08-01

    There are two adult life history types among lamprey species, nonparasitic and parasitic, with the former commencing the final interval of sexual maturation immediately after metamorphosis. There are no extensive studies that directly compare hormone profiles during the life cycles of nonparasitic and parasitic lamprey species, yet such data may explain differences in development, reproductive maturation, and feeding status. The present study uses immunohistochemistry to show the life cycle profiles for gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH-I and -III) in the brain of the nonparasitic species, the American brook lamprey, Lampetra appendix, for comparison with the extensive, published, immunohistochemical data on these hormones in the parasitic species, the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The complete cDNAs for the two lamprey prohormones, proopiocortin (POC), and proopiomelanotropin (POM), were cloned for L. appendix and both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those previously published for P. marinus. The POC and POM cDNAs for both species were used in expression studies, with Northern blotting, throughout their life cycles. Although GnRH-I and -III immunohistochemistry revealed a similar distribution of immunoreactive cells and fibers in the two species during the life cycles, a qualitative evaluation of staining intensity in L. appendix, implied early activity in the brains of metamorphosis of this species, particularly in GnRH-I. GnRH-III seems to be important in larval life and early metamorphosis in both species. A novel feature of this immunohistochemical study is the monthly observations of the distribution and relative intensity of the two GnRHs during the critical period of final sexual maturation that lead to spawning and then the spent animal. L. appendix POC and POM nucleotide sequences had 92.9 and 94.6% identity, respectively, with P. marinus POC and POM and there was an earlier increase in their expression during

  11. Studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species recorded in the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) in 2010-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Więcaszek, Beata; Sobecka, Ewa; Keszka, Sławomir; Stepanowska, Katarzyna; Dudko, Stanisław; Biernaczyk, Marcin; Wrzecionkowski, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species ( Spinachia spinachia, Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, Agonus cataphractus, Pholis gunnellus, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Cyclopterus lumpus) and one lamprey species ( Lampetra fluviatilis), recorded as bycatch during monitoring surveys in 2010-2013 in the Pomeranian Bay. Two species were observed for the first time in the Pomeranian Bay: A. cataphractus and E. cimbrius. Descriptions of parasite fauna are provided for C. lumpus and E. cimbrius, which were infected with four pathogenic species from Neomonada, Digenea, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Almost all parasite species were new in the hosts examined.

  12. A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gess, Robert W; Coates, Michael I; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2006-10-26

    Lampreys are the most scientifically accessible of the remaining jawless vertebrates, but their evolutionary history is obscure. In contrast to the rich fossil record of armoured jawless fishes, all of which date from the Devonian period and earlier, only two Palaeozoic lampreys have been recorded, both from the Carboniferous period. In addition to these, the recent report of an exquisitely preserved Lower Cretaceous example demonstrates that anatomically modern lampreys were present by the late Mesozoic era. Here we report a marine/estuarine fossil lamprey from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of South Africa, the identity of which is established easily because many of the key specializations of modern forms are already in place. These specializations include the first evidence of a large oral disc, the first direct evidence of circumoral teeth and a well preserved branchial basket. This small agnathan, Priscomyzon riniensis gen. et sp. nov., is not only more conventionally lamprey-like than other Palaeozoic examples, but is also some 35 million years older. This finding is evidence that agnathans close to modern lampreys had evolved before the end of the Devonian period. In this light, lampreys as a whole appear all the more remarkable: ancient specialists that have persisted as such and survived a subsequent 360 million years.

  13. Different forms of locomotion in the spinal lamprey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Zelenin, Pavel V

    2014-06-01

    Forward locomotion has been extensively studied in different vertebrate animals, and the principal role of spinal mechanisms in the generation of this form of locomotion has been demonstrated. Vertebrate animals, however, are capable of other forms of locomotion, such as backward walking and swimming, sideward walking, and crawling. Do the spinal mechanisms play a principal role in the generation of these forms of locomotion? We addressed this question in lampreys, which are capable of five different forms of locomotion - fast forward swimming, slow forward swimming, backward swimming, forward crawling, and backward crawling. To induce locomotion in lampreys spinalised at the second gill level, we used either electrical stimulation of the spinal cord at different rostrocaudal levels, or tactile stimulation of specific cutaneous receptive fields from which a given form of locomotion could be evoked in intact lampreys. We found that any of the five forms of locomotion could be evoked in the spinal lamprey by electrical stimulation of the spinal cord, and some of them by tactile stimulation. These results suggest that spinal mechanisms in the lamprey, in the absence of phasic supraspinal commands, are capable of generating the basic pattern for all five forms of locomotion observed in intact lampreys. In spinal lampreys, the direction of swimming did not depend on the site of spinal cord stimulation, but on the stimulation strength. The direction of crawling strongly depended on the body configuration. The spinal structures presumably activated by spinal cord stimulation and causing different forms of locomotion are discussed.

  14. 75 FR 54163 - Office of the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION... General Services Administration, has reestablished the charter for the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control... policy and technical advice on efforts to develop and implement sea lamprey control...

  15. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Christensen, E A F; Svendsen, M B S; Steffensen, J F

    2017-03-01

    The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20° C, where it was 28%. The results show that P. fluviatilis have capacity to osmoregulate in hyper-osmotic environments. This contradicts previous studies and indicates intraspecific variability in osmoregulatory capabilities among P. fluviatilis populations or habitat origins. An apparent cost of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity on MMR is possibly due to a reduction in gill permeability, initiated to reduce osmotic stress. An interaction between salinity and temperature on aerobic scope shows that high salinity habitats are energetically beneficial during warm periods (summer), whereas low salinity habitats are energetically beneficial during cold periods (winter). It is suggested, therefore, that the seasonal migrations of P. fluviatilis between brackish and fresh water is to select an environment that is optimal for metabolism and aerobic scope.

  16. Toxicity of 33 NCS to freshwater fish and sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marking, Leif L.; King, Everett L.; Walker, Charles R.; Howell, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The chemical 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) was evaluated as a fish control agent and as a larvicide for sea lampreys at the Fish Control Laboratories of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the Hammond Bay Biological Station of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The chemical is rapidly toxic to many species. Sea lampreys, bowfin, and channel catfish are the most sensitive species. Carp are more sensitive than trouts or sunfishes. Use of 33NCS in selective control of freshwater fishes or sea lampreys requires precise control because its toxicity is strongly influenced by variations in water quality.

  17. Artificial propagation of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    Observations on the gland products, gonads, and general characteristics of sexually mature sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), from Lake Huron, and a need to obtain some information on very young larval lampreys, prompted an experiment on the stripping and hatching of eggs. Seventeen specimens were selected from a group of spawning migrants which had been trapped in the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, during June and held in live-cars in the lake until early August.

  18. The Sea Lamprey as an Etiological Model for Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, inflammatory, and fibrosclerosing cholangiopathy in infants that results in obstruction of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. It is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult with steatohepatitis and fibrosis in the liver. In this paper, we present new histological evidence and compare the sea lamprey to existing animal models to highlight the advantages and possible limitations of using the sea lamprey to study the etiology and compensatory mechanisms of BA and other liver diseases. Understanding the signaling factors and genetic networks underlying lamprey BA can provide insights into BA etiology and possible targets to prevent biliary degeneration and to clear fibrosis. In addition, information from lamprey BA can be used to develop adjunct treatments for patients awaiting or receiving surgical treatments. Furthermore, the cholestatic adult lamprey has unique adaptive mechanisms that can be used to explore potential treatments for cholestasis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PMID:26101777

  19. Vulnerability of larval lamprey to Columbia River hydropower system operations—effects of dewatering on larval lamprey movements and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2015-08-27

    Numbers of adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey ( Entosphenus tridentatus ) in the upper Columbia River Basin of the interior Pacific Northwest have decreased from historical levels (Close and others, 2002), raising concerns f rom State and Federal agencies and Tribal entities. In 1994, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designated Pacific lamprey as a Category 2 candidate species and in 2003, the species was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Listing consideration and potential recovery planning are significantly hindered by a lack of information on the basic biology and ecology of lampreys, including limiting factors. To date (2015), several factors that may limit lamprey production require study, including dam passage issues, contaminants, and effects on habitat.

  20. Lake fisheries need lamprey control and research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffett, James W.

    1953-01-01

    Since 1921, when the first sea lamprey was recorded from Lake Erie, concern about this parasite in the Great Lakes above Niagara Falls, where previously it had never occurred, grew successively. At first, the concern was shared only in scientific circles, but as the parasite continued its persistent and rapid spread throughout the upper Great Lakes this concern was voiced by state conservation departments, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and interested fishermen. Catches of lake trout especially, and other species secondarily, began to fall below anything representing normal fluctuations in abundance. The fishing industry on Lake Huron and Lake Michigan became extremely concerned due to the fact that income was diminishing greatly. Producers on Lake Superior were fearful that the same decline in production would soon characterize their fishery.

  1. Parameterization of European perch Perca fluviatilis length-at-age data using stochastic Gompertz growth models.

    PubMed

    Troynikov, V S; Gorfine, H K; Ložys, L; Pūtys, Z; Jakubavičiūtė, E; Day, R W

    2011-12-01

    Three stochastic versions of the Gompertz growth model were used to parameterize total length (L(T) )-at-age data for perch Perca fluviatilis, an important target species for commercial and recreational fishers and a food species for predatory fishes and aquatic birds. Each model addresses growth heterogeneity by incorporating random parameters from a specific positive distribution: Weibull, gamma or log-normal. The modelling outputs for each version of the model provide L(T) distributions for selected ages and percentiles of L(T) at age for both males and females. The results highlight the importance of using a stochastic approach and the logistic-like growth pattern for analysing growth data for P. fluviatilis in Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania). Outputs from this modelling can be extended to a stochastic analysis of fish cohort dynamics, incorporating all length-based biological relationships, and the selectivity-related interactions between fish cohorts and fishing gear.

  2. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  3. Evidence for lack of homing by sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    Recently metamorphosed sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were captured in the Devil River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during summer and autumn 1990. They were tagged with a coded wire tag and returned to the river to continue their migration to Lake Huron to begin the parasitic (juvenile) phase of their life. During the spawning run in spring 1992 when the tagged animals were expected to mature and return to spawn, sea lampreys were trapped in nine tributaries to Lake Huron, including the Devil River; 47,946 animals were examined for coded wire tags, and 41 tagged animals were recovered. None of the 45 mature sea lampreys captured in the Devil River in 1992 were tagged, a proportion (0%) significantly lower than the proportion of the recently metamorphosed sea lampreys tagged in 1990. The distribution of tag recoveries among streams lakewide, however, was proportional to catch. Tagged sea lampreys did not appear to home, but instead seemed to select spawning streams through innate attraction to other sensory cues.

  4. A putative corticosteroid hormone in Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus.

    PubMed

    Rai, Satbir; Szeitz, András; Roberts, Brent W; Christie, Quill; Didier, Wesley; Eom, Junho; Yun, Sang-Seon; Close, David A

    2015-02-01

    Great efforts have been put forth to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress response in vertebrates and demonstrate the conserved response across different vertebrate groups, ranging from similarities in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to the release and role of corticosteroids. There is however, still very little known about stress physiology in the Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), descendants of the earliest vertebrate lineage, the agnathans. In this paper we demonstrate that 11-deoxycortisol, a steroid precursor to cortisol in the steroidogenic pathway, may be a functional corticosteroid in Pacific lamprey. We identified the putative hormone in Pacific lamprey plasma by employing an array of methods such as RIA, HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that plasma levels of 11-deoxycortisol significantly increased in Pacific lamprey 0.5 and 1 h after stress exposure and that lamprey corticotropin releasing hormone injections increased circulating levels of 11-deoxycortisol, suggesting that the stress response is under the control of the HPA/I axis as it is in higher vertebrates. A comprehensive understanding of vertebrate stress physiology may help shed light on the evolution of the corticosteroid signaling system within the vertebrate lineage.

  5. The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

  6. Metamorphosis of the landlocked sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Stauffer, Thomas M.

    1970-01-01

    The external metamorphosis of the sea lamprey was divided into four stages, based primarily on the condition of the mouth: mouth reduced, mouth fused, mouth enclosed, and mouth elongated. During metamorphosis, the eye enlarged greatly, the snout and mouth region changed from a fleshy hood enclosing a sieve apparatus to a large sucking disc, the nasopore membrane and the branchial area shrank, the branchiopores changed in shape, the general color changed from dark brown and yellow to an intense blue-black dorsally and white ventrally, and the total length increased. Metamorphosis began in early to mid-July and did not take place after August. The duration of external metamorphosis was about 3 months for lampreys transforming under natural conditions. The mean lengths of metamorphosing lampreys from tributaries of lakes Superior and Michigan were 145 and 136 mm, respectively.

  7. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  8. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Brantley R; Alder, Matthew N; Roux, Kenneth H; Sina, Christina; Ehrhardt, Götz R A; Boydston, Jeremy A; Turnbough, Charles L; Cooper, Max D

    2008-02-12

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates (lamprey and hagfish) is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) genes. Immunization with particulate antigens induces VLR-B-bearing lymphocytes to secrete antigen-specific VLR-B antibodies. Here, we describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus anthracis spores. The recombinant VLR-B antibodies possess 8-10 uniform subunits that collectively bind antigen with high avidity. Sequence analysis, mutagenesis, and modeling studies show that antigen binding involves residues in the beta-sheets lining the VLR-B concave surface. EM visualization reveals tetrameric and pentameric molecules having a central core and highly flexible pairs of stalk-region "arms" with antigen-binding "hands." Remarkable antigen-binding specificity, avidity, and stability predict that these unusual LRR-based monoclonal antibodies will find many biomedical uses.

  9. Turbine Intake Diversion Screens: Investigating Effects on Pacific Lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Moursund, Russell A.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Langeslay, Mike

    2003-03-01

    Our studies to date show that juvenile lamprey are not likely to be harmed by changes in pressure or shear conditions that occur during turbine passage. They are, however, vulnerable to impingement on 1/8-inch submersible bar screens because of their weak swimming ability and their tendency to use their tail to move about on the structure. Because of their tendency to swim low in the water column, the lamprey have a higher potential for turbine entrainment than do the anadromous salmonids.

  10. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  11. Contamination of metals in tissues of Ctenopharyngodon idella and Perca fluviatilis, from Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Baramaki Yazdi, Rahimeh; Ebrahimpour, Mohammad; Mansouri, Borhan; Rezaei, Mohammad Reza; Babaei, Hadi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr) in muscle, gill, liver, kidney and intestine of two freshwater fish, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Perca fluviatilis, in Anzali Wetland, Iran. The concentrations were different between the fish species as well as among the tissues of fish. Results showed that the metal concentrations in both fish species were in descending order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd. Results also showed that the Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the muscle of both fish from Anzali Wetland are below levels of concern for human consumption.

  12. Evidence for lamprey GnRH-I and -III-like molecules in the brains of the southern hemisphere lampreys Geotria australis and Mordacia mordax.

    PubMed

    Sower, S A; McGregor, A J; Materne, O L; Chase, C; Potter, I; Joss, J

    2000-11-01

    The present study has characterized gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH)-like molecules in the brains of representatives of the two southern hemisphere families of lampreys, Geotriidae and Mordaciidae. Chromatographic and immunocytochemical evidence showed that the brains of Geotria australis and Mordacia mordax contain two forms of GnRH-like molecules. These two forms correspond to lamprey GnRH-I and -III, which were first sequenced from the brain of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, a representative of the family Petromyzontidae that is found only in the northern hemisphere. In chromatographic studies (HPLC) using lamprey GnRH-I and -III antiserum, two early eluting GnRH forms coeluted with synthetic lamprey GnRH-I and -III standards. Our studies thus indicate that, despite their apparently long period of separation, the three families of extant lampreys have each retained both of the lamprey GnRH (-I and -III forms) molecules. Moreover, immunocytochemical localization of lamprey GnRH indicated that the pattern of its distribution in the adult brain of at least one of these southern hemisphere lampreys (G. australis) is similar to that previously described for P. marinus. Distribution of GnRH in the brain of larval G. australis was not as extensive as that in larval P. marinus, which may account for the later gonadal development in the former species. The fact that lamprey GnRH-I and -III are the dominant GnRH forms in all three families of lampreys implies that these neurohormones have an ancient origin.

  13. Sea lamprey abundance and management in Lake Superior 1957-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinrich, John W.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Klar, Gerald T.; Johnson, David A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Young, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The international sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program successfully laid the foundation for rehabilitation of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior and was well coordinated among management agencies during 1957–1999. The lampricide TFM was the primary control tool, with recurring treatments in 52 larval-producing streams. Barriers and sterile-male-release, as alternative control technologies, were significant elements of the program. Barriers blocked spawning sea lampreys from substantial areas of habitat for sea lamprey larvae during 1966–1999, and the sterile-male-release technique was used to reduce larval production during 1991–1996. Sea lamprey control resulted in the suppression of sea lamprey populations in Lake Superior, as evidenced by the linear decline in spawner abundance during 1962–1999. However, sea lamprey abundance was not as low as the targets specified in the fish community objectives. Most of the parasitic sea lampreys in Lake Superior probably originated from survivors of lampricide treatments. Self-sustaining populations of lake trout were restored in most of the lake by 1996, although many were killed annually by sea lampreys. Economic injury levels for damage to fish populations by sea lampreys are being developed and will be used to distribute sea lamprey control resources among the Great Lakes.

  14. Characterization of a cellular retinol-binding protein from lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    PubMed

    Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Yoshikawa, Kiwamu; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki; Yoshino, Hiroaki; Senoo, Haruki

    2012-03-01

    Lampreys are ancestral representatives of vertebrates known as jawless fish. The Japanese lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum, is a parasitic member of the lampreys known to store large amounts of vitamin A within its body. How this storage is achieved, however, is wholly unknown. Within the body, the absorption, transfer and metabolism of vitamin A are regulated by a family of proteins called retinoid-binding proteins. Here we have cloned a cDNA for cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) from the Japanese lamprey, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that lamprey CRBP is an ancestor of both CRBP I and II. The lamprey CRBP protein was expressed in bacteria and purified. Binding of the lamprey CRBP to retinol (Kd of 13.2 nM) was identified by fluorimetric titration. However, results obtained with the protein fluorescence quenching technique indicated that lamprey CRBP does not bind to retinal. Northern blot analysis showed that lamprey CRBP mRNA was ubiquitously expressed, although expression was most abundant in the intestine. Together, these results suggest that lamprey CRBP has an important role in absorbing vitamin A from the blood of host animals.

  15. The interrelationship of estrogen receptor and GnRH in a Basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Sower, Stacia A; Baron, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a vertebrate innovation and seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans. Lampreys are the earliest evolved vertebrates for which there is a demonstrated neuroendocrine system. Lampreys have three hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs; lGnRH-I, -II, and -III) and two and possibly three pituitary GnRH receptors involved in mediating reproductive processes. Estradiol is considered to be a major reproductive steroid in both male and female lampreys. The purpose of this study was to investigate estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the lamprey brain in adult sea lampreys. Expression of ER mRNA was confirmed in the adult lamprey brain using RT-PCR. Using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled probes, ER expression was shown to yield moderate, but distinct reaction products in specific neuronal nuclei of the lamprey brain, including the olfactory lobe, hypothalamus, habenular area, and hindbrain. Expression of ER in the hypothalamic area of the brain provides evidence of potential interaction between estradiol and GnRH(s), and is consistent with previous evidence showing estrogen feedback on GnRH in adult lamprey brain. Earlier studies have reported that there is a close distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; GABA-synthesizing enzyme) and lamprey GnRH in the preoptic region in adult lampreys. The establishment of a direct estradiol-kisspeptin-GABA-GnRH interaction in lamprey has yet to be determined and will require future functional and co-localization studies. The phylogenetic position of lampreys as a basal vertebrate allows lampreys to be a basis for understanding the molecular evolution of the neuroendocrine system that arose in the vertebrates.

  16. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Dettmers, John M; Blum, Joel D; Johnson, Marcus W

    2014-02-01

    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean=46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  17. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Dettmers, John M.; Blum, Joel D.; Johnson, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean = 46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  18. 11-Deoxycortisol is a corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Close, D.A.; Yun, S.-S.; McCormick, S.D.; Wildbill, A.J.; Li, W.

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones are critical for controlling metabolism, hydromineral balance, and the stress response in vertebrates. Although corticosteroid hormones have been well characterized in most vertebrate groups, the identity of the earliest vertebrate corticosteroid hormone has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that 11-deoxycortisol is the corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey, a member of the agnathans that evolved more than 500 million years ago. We used RIA, HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis to determine that 11-deoxycortisol is the active corticosteroid present in lamprey plasma. We also characterized an 11-deoxycortisol receptor extracted from sea lamprey gill cytosol. The receptor was highly specific for 11-deoxycortisol and exhibited corticosteroid binding characteristics, including DNA binding. Furthermore, we observed that 11-deoxycortisol was regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and responded to acute stress. 11-Deoxycortisol implants reduced sex steroid concentrations and upregulated gill Na+, K+-ATPase, an enzyme critical for ion balance. We show here that 11-deoxycortisol functioned as both a glucocorticoid and a mineralocorticoid in the lamprey. Our findings indicate that a complex and highly specific corticosteroid signaling pathway evolved at least 500 million years ago with the arrival of the earliest vertebrate.

  19. Characterization of lamprey IL-17 family members and their receptors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J.; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S.; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We have indentified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B and IL-17C) and six IL-17 receptor genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologues, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions in order to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to recombinant IL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with recombinant IL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  20. cDNA sequences of two apolipoproteins from lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.; Xu, X.; Graham, D.; Riley, M.; Doolittle, R.F.

    1987-03-24

    The messages for two small but abundant apolipoproteins found in lamprey blood plasma were cloned with the aid of oligonucleotide probes based on amino-terminal sequences. In both cases, numerous clones were identified in a lamprey liver cDNA library, consistent with the great abundance of these proteins in lamprey blood. One of the cDNAs (LAL1) has a coding region of 105 amino acids that corresponds to a 21-residue signal peptide, a putative 8-residue propeptide, and the 76-residue mature protein found in blood. The other cDNA (LAL2) codes for a total of 191 residues, the first 23 of which constitute a signal peptide. The two proteins, which occur in the high-density lipoprotein fraction of ultracentrifuged plasma, have amino acid compositions similar to those of apolipoproteins found in mammalian blood; computer analysis indicates that the sequences are largely helix-permissive. When the sequences were searched against an amino acid sequence data base, rat apolipoprotein IV was the best matching candidate in both cases. Although a reasonable alignment can be made with that sequence and LAL1, definitive assignment of the two lamprey proteins to typical mammalian classes cannot be made at this point.

  1. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  2. Environmental factors regulate the effects of roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius on perch Perca fluviatilis populations in small boreal forest lakes.

    PubMed

    Olin, M; Vinni, M; Lehtonen, H; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Saulamo, K; Ala-Opas, P

    2010-04-01

    In this study of 18 small boreal forest lakes, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors (roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius) on various population variables of perch Perca fluviatilis were examined. As a single variable, the gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) of R. rutilus was negatively related to the mean mass of small (< 200 mm) and the growth rate of young (1-2 years) P. fluviatilis. The mean mass of large (> or = 200 mm) P. fluviatilis was the highest at intermediate CPUE of R. rutilus. Redundancy analysis including environmental factors and P. fluviatilis population variables suggested that 'predation-productivity-humus' gradient affected P. fluviatilis populations by decreasing the CPUE and mean mass of small individuals but increasing these variables of large individuals. The CPUE of R. rutilus and lake area had a negative effect on small and a positive effect on large P. fluviatilis growth rate. In small boreal forest lakes, P. fluviatilis populations are affected by the partially opposite forces of competition by R. rutilus and predation by E. lucius, and the intensity of these interactions is regulated by several environmental factors.

  3. Domestication drive the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Jun; Qian, Long; Gaughan, Sarah; Xiang, Wei; Ai, Tao; Fan, Zhenming; Wang, Chenghui

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has altered a variety of traits within the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), including phenotypic, physiological and behavioral traits of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Little is known, however, about the genetic changes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. In this study, we assembled a high-quality de novo reference transcriptome and identified differentially expressed genes between wild and domesticated Eurasian perch. A total of 113,709 transcripts were assembled, and 58,380 transcripts were annotated. Transcriptomic comparison revealed 630 differentially expressed genes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. Within domesticated Eurasian perch there were 412 genes that were up-regulated including MHCI, MHCII, chia, ighm within immune system development. There were 218 genes including try1, ctrl, ctrb, cela3b, cpa1 and cpb1, which were down-regulated that were associated with digestive processes. Our results indicated domestication drives the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch. Our study not only provide valuable genetic resources for further studies in Eurasian perch, but also provide novel insights into the genetic basis of physiological changes in Eurasian perch during domestication process. PMID:28257494

  4. Domestication drive the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Jun; Qian, Long; Gaughan, Sarah; Xiang, Wei; Ai, Tao; Fan, Zhenming; Wang, Chenghui

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has altered a variety of traits within the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), including phenotypic, physiological and behavioral traits of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Little is known, however, about the genetic changes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. In this study, we assembled a high-quality de novo reference transcriptome and identified differentially expressed genes between wild and domesticated Eurasian perch. A total of 113,709 transcripts were assembled, and 58,380 transcripts were annotated. Transcriptomic comparison revealed 630 differentially expressed genes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. Within domesticated Eurasian perch there were 412 genes that were up-regulated including MHCI, MHCII, chia, ighm within immune system development. There were 218 genes including try1, ctrl, ctrb, cela3b, cpa1 and cpb1, which were down-regulated that were associated with digestive processes. Our results indicated domestication drives the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch. Our study not only provide valuable genetic resources for further studies in Eurasian perch, but also provide novel insights into the genetic basis of physiological changes in Eurasian perch during domestication process.

  5. The Freshwater Sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis Harbours Diverse Pseudomonas Species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Jousset, Alexandre; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Costa, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria are believed to play an important role in the fitness and biochemistry of sponges (Porifera). Pseudomonas species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) are capable of colonizing a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, but knowledge of their diversity and function in freshwater invertebrates is rudimentary. We assessed the diversity, structure and antimicrobial activities of Pseudomonas spp. in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis. Polymerase Chain Reaction – Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of the global regulator gene gacA revealed distinct structures between sponge-associated and free-living Pseudomonas communities, unveiling previously unsuspected diversity of these assemblages in freshwater. Community structures varied across E. fluviatilis specimens, yet specific gacA phylotypes could be detected by PCR-DGGE in almost all sponge individuals sampled over two consecutive years. By means of whole-genome fingerprinting, 39 distinct genotypes were found within 90 fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates retrieved from E. fluviatilis. High frequency of in vitro antibacterial (49%), antiprotozoan (35%) and anti-oomycetal (32%) activities was found among these isolates, contrasting less-pronounced basidiomycetal (17%) and ascomycetal (8%) antagonism. Culture extracts of highly predation-resistant isolates rapidly caused complete immobility or lysis of cells of the protozoan Colpoda steinii. Isolates tentatively identified as P. jessenii, P. protegens and P. oryzihabitans showed conspicuous inhibitory traits and correspondence with dominant sponge-associated phylotypes registered by cultivation-independent analysis. Our findings suggest that E. fluviatilis hosts both transient and persistent Pseudomonas symbionts displaying antimicrobial activities of potential ecological and biotechnological value. PMID:24533086

  6. Fine-scale pathways used by adult sea lampreys during riverine spawning migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson; McLaughlin, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Better knowledge of upstream migratory patterns of spawning Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive species in the Great Lakes, is needed to improve trapping for population control and assessment. Although trapping of adult Sea Lampreys provides the basis for estimates of lake-wide abundance that are used to evaluate the Sea Lamprey control program, traps have only been operated at dams due to insufficient knowledge of Sea Lamprey behavior in unobstructed channels. Acoustic telemetry and radiotelemetry were used to obtain movement tracks for 23 Sea Lampreys in 2008 and 18 Sea Lampreys in 2009 at two locations in the Mississagi River, Ontario. Cabled hydrophone arrays provided two-dimensional geographic positions from acoustic transmitters at 3-s intervals; depth-encoded radio tag detections provided depths. Upstream movements occurred at dusk or during the night (2015–0318 hours). Sea Lampreys were closely associated with the river bottom and showed some preference to move near banks in shallow glide habitats, suggesting that bottom-oriented gears could selectively target adult Sea Lampreys in some habitats. However, Sea Lampreys were broadly distributed across the river channel, suggesting that the capture efficiency of nets and traps in open channels would depend heavily on the proportion of the channel width covered. Lack of vertical movements into the water column may have reflected lamprey preference for low water velocities, suggesting that energy conservation was more beneficial for lampreys than was vertical searching in rivers. Improved understanding of Sea Lamprey movement will assist in the development of improved capture strategies for their assessment and control in the Great Lakes.

  7. Role of physical barriers in the control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Youngs, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical and electromechanical barriers played a significant role in the initial attempts to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the upper Great Lakes. More recently electromechanical weirs have been used to assess the relative abundance of spawning-run sea lampreys in Lake Superior. Development of an integrated control approach to sea lamprey control has stimulated an ongoing research program to define structural and/or velocity criteria that can be used to design barrier dams that block spawning runs of sea lamprey

  8. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  9. Behavior and potential threats to survival of migrating lamprey ammocoetes and macrophthalmia

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Mary L.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    Upon metamorphosis, anadromous juvenile lamprey (macrophthalmia) exhibit distinct migration behaviors that take them from larval rearing habitats in streams to the open ocean. While poorly studied, lamprey larvae (ammocoetes) also engage in downstream movement to some degree. Like migrating salmon smolts, lamprey macrophthalmia undergo behavioral changes associated with a highly synchronized metamorphosis. Unlike salmon smolts, the timing of juvenile migration in lamprey is protracted and poorly documented. Lamprey macrophthalmia and ammocoetes are not strong swimmers, attaining maximum individual speeds of less than 1 m s-1, and sustained speeds of less than 0.5 m s-1. They are chiefly nocturnal and distribute throughout the water column, but appear to concentrate near the bottom in the thalweg of deep rivers. At dams and irrigation diversions, macrophthalmia can become impinged on screens or entrained in irrigation canals, suffer increased predation, and experience physical injury that may result in direct or delayed mortality. The very structures designed to protect migrating juvenile salmonids can be harmful to juvenile lamprey. Yet at turbine intakes and spillways, lampreys, which have no swim bladder, can withstand changes in pressure and shear stress large enough to injure or kill most teleosts. Lamprey populations are in decline in many parts of the world, with some species designated as species of concern for conservation that merit legally mandated protections. Hence, provisions for safe passage of juvenile lamprey are being considered at dams and water diversions in North America and Europe.

  10. Complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yuri L; Yura, Kei; Shindo, Miyuki; Kusakabe, Rie; Hayashi, Keiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys are eel-like jawless fishes evolutionarily positioned between invertebrates and vertebrates, and have been used as model organisms to explore vertebrate evolution. In this study we determined the complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the Japanese river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum, using next-generation sequencers. The sequence was 16,272 bp in length. The gene content and order were identical to those of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, which has been the reference among lamprey species. However, the sequence similarity was less than 90%, suggesting the need for the whole-genome sequencing of L. japonicum.

  11. Comparison of electrofishing techniques to detect larval lampreys in wadeable streams in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Chelgren, Nathan D.; Heck, Michael P.; Clark, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the probability of detecting larval lampreys using different methods of backpack electrofishing in wadeable streams in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Our primary objective was to compare capture of lampreys using electrofishing with standard settings for salmon and trout to settings specifically adapted for capture of lampreys. Field work consisted of removal sampling by means of backpack electrofishing in 19 sites in streams representing a broad range of conditions in the region. Captures of lampreys at these sites were analyzed with a modified removal-sampling model and Bayesian estimation to measure the relative odds of capture using the lamprey-specific settings compared with the standard salmonid settings. We found that the odds of capture were 2.66 (95% credible interval, 0.87–78.18) times greater for the lamprey-specific settings relative to standard salmonid settings. When estimates of capture probability were applied to estimating the probabilities of detection, we found high (>0.80) detectability when the actual number of lampreys in a site was greater than 10 individuals and effort was at least two passes of electrofishing, regardless of the settings used. Further work is needed to evaluate key assumptions in our approach, including the evaluation of individual-specific capture probabilities and population closure. For now our results suggest comparable results are possible for detection of lampreys by using backpack electrofishing with salmonid- or lamprey-specific settings.

  12. Life history of the sea lamprey of Cayugaf Lake, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigley, Roland L.

    1959-01-01

    A life history study of the sea lamprey, Petromyson marinus Linnaeus, in Cayuga Lake, N.Y., was conducted during 1950, 1951, and 1952. One of the major objectives was to obtain biological data concerning this endemic stock of sea lampreys for comparison with the newly established stocks in the Great Lakes. Sexually mature sea lampreys captured on their spawning migration in Cayuga Inlet were the basis of much of this study. Such items as meristic counts, body proportions, body color, sex ratios, lengths and weights, fecundity, rate of upstream travel, effect of dams in retarding upstream movement, nesting habits, parasites, predators, estimates of abundance, and morphological changes were based on mature upstream migrants. Sea lampreys were procured by weir and trap operations and captured by hand. Tagging and marking' programs each spring made it possible to determine movements and morphological changes of individual lampreys, in addition to estimating the number of upstream migrants. Growth of parasitic-phase sea lampreys was estimated from measurements of specimens captured in Cayuga Inlet and Cayuga Lake proper. The incubation period of lamprey eggs and the habits of ammocoetes and transforming lampreys were ascertained from specimens kept in hatchery troughs and raceways. Length-frequency and weight-frequency distributions, together with the length-weight regression, of ammocoetes from Cayuga Inlet were utilized for estimating the duration of their larval life. Lake trout, Salvelinus n. namayc"Ush (Walbaum), from Cayuga Lake and Seneca Lake were the subject of an inquiry into the effects of sea lamprey attacks. Incidence of sea lamprey attacks on the white sucker, Catosto7llus c. commerson/: (LacepMe), was investigated. Three methods are suggested for reducing the number of sea lampreys in Cayuga Lake.

  13. An inhibitory receptor of VLRB in the agnathan lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fenfang; Chen, Liyong; Ren, Yong; Yang, Xiaojing; Yu, Tongzhou; Feng, Bo; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2016-01-01

    Lamprey, the primitive jawless vertebrate, uses variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) as alternative adaptive immune system instead of immunoglobulin (Ig)-based receptors used in jawed vertebrates. In the present study, we characterized a potential inhibitory receptor of VLRB from leucocytes in lamprey. It is a novel ITIM-containing IgSF protein and was therefore named as NICIP. NICIP has two Ig-like domains in extracellular region, a transmembrane domain and two classical ITIM motifs in cytoplasmic domain. It is mainly expressed on the surface of granulocytes and monocytes and can interact with VLRB. In transiently transfected HEK293T cells, it was confirmed again that it could interact with VLRB and the two phosphorylated ITIM motifs could recruit SHP-1 and SHP-2. These results imply that NICIP may play a role as a potential inhibitory receptor of VLRB and involve in negative regulation of immune response mediated by VLRB. PMID:27762335

  14. Flowfield measurements in the wake of a robotic lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Hultmark, Marcus; Leftwich, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Experiments are reported on the hydrodynamics of a swimming robotic lamprey under conditions of steady swimming and where the thrust exceeds the drag. The motion of the robot was based on the swimming of live lampreys, which is described by an equation similar to that developed for the American eel by Tytell and Lauder (J Exp Biol 207:1825–1841, 2004). For steady swimming, the wake structure closely resembles that of the American eel, where two pairs of same sign vortices are shed each tail beat cycle, giving the wake a 2P structure. Force estimates suggest that the major part of the thrust is produced at or close to the end of the tail. PMID:19946623

  15. Flowfield measurements in the wake of a robotic lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultmark, Marcus; Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander J.

    2007-11-01

    Experiments are reported on the hydrodynamics of a swimming robotic lamprey under conditions of steady swimming and where the thrust exceeds the drag. The motion of the robot was based on the swimming of live lampreys, which is described by an equation similar to that developed for the American eel by Tytell and Lauder (J Exp Biol 207:1825-1841, 2004). For steady swimming, the wake structure closely resembles that of the American eel, where two pairs of same sign vortices are shed each tail beat cycle, giving the wake a 2P structure. Force estimates suggest that the major part of the thrust is produced at or close to the end of the tail.

  16. Flowfield measurements in the wake of a robotic lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultmark, Marcus; Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander J.

    Experiments are reported on the hydrodynamics of a swimming robotic lamprey under conditions of steady swimming and where the thrust exceeds the drag. The motion of the robot was based on the swimming of live lampreys, which is described by an equation similar to that developed for the American eel by Tytell and Lauder (J Exp Biol 207:1825-1841, 2004). For steady swimming, the wake structure closely resembles that of the American eel, where two pairs of same sign vortices are shed each tail beat cycle, giving the wake a 2P structure. Force estimates suggest that the major part of the thrust is produced at or close to the end of the tail.

  17. Thrust Production and Wake Structure of an Actuated Lamprey Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, James; Smits, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    Thrust generation is studied for a flexible lamprey model which is actuated periodically to produce a streamwise traveling wave. Shape memory alloy actuators are used to achieve this deformation. The flow field is investigated using DPIV and flow visualization for a range of Strouhal numbers based on peak-to-peak amplitude of the trailing edge. The vortex kinematics in the spanwise and streamwise planes are examined, and a three-dimensional unsteady vortex model of the wake will be discussed.

  18. Mercury concentrations in Pacific lamprey ( Entosphenus tridentatus ) and sediments in the Columbia River basin: Mercury in Columbia River Pacific lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Linley, Timothy; Krogstad, Eirik; Mueller, Robert; Gill, Gary; Lasorsa, Brenda

    2016-06-21

    We investigated mercury accumulation in Pacific lamprey and sediments in the Columbia River basin. Mercury concentrations in larval lamprey differed significantly among sample locations (P < 0.001) and were correlated with concentrations in sediments (r2 = 0.83), whereas adult concentrations were highly variable (range 0.1–9.5 µg/g) and unrelated to holding time after collection. The results suggest that Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River basin may be exposed to mercury levels that have adverse ecological effects.

  19. Distribution of ferric iron in larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L.

    PubMed

    Hall, S J; Youson, J H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of ferric iron in larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) were investigated using light microscopy and the Prussian blue stain. Animals from various watersheds contained different concentrations of iron, although the sites of deposition were the same for all animals. A major portion of iron is within adipose tissue, while the liver, and cartilage contain predominantly low to trace amounts of iron, respectively. Iron is associated with fibrous connective tissue in several places in the body, and this association may have particular significance in the inner ear. Iron is also located in cells of the meninges. The presence of iron in the epithelial cells of the posterior intestine may reflect elimination of the metal through the extrusion of iron-loaded cells into the intestinal lumen. Iron within mucous cells of the epidermis, suggest elimination of iron during mucous secretion. Iron-loaded cells of bipolar shape are also present in the epidermis, but are particularly prominent around the branchiopore. Low concentrations of iron are observed within in melanin-containing macrophages (melano-macrophages) in regions of iron absorption, erythrophagocytosis, and haemopoiesis. High levels of iron in the epithelia and lumina of pronephric tubules are concomitant with degeneration of this organ. These data are evidence of the wide spread distribution of iron in lamprey tissues and additional evidence for the potential value of lampreys for the study of iron metabolism in vertebrates.

  20. Evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues in lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Ke; Huertas, Mar; Baker, Cindy F.; Jia, Liang; Hayes, Michael C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on a mosaic of complex information to find and evaluate mates. Pheromones, often comprised of multiple components, are considered to be particularly important for species-recognition in many species. While the evolution of species-specific pheromone blends is well-described in many insects, very few vertebrate pheromones have been studied in a macro-evolutionary context. Here, we report a phylogenetic comparison of multi-component male odours that guide reproduction in lampreys. Chemical profiling of sexually mature males from eleven species of lamprey, representing six of ten genera and two of three families, indicated the chemical profiles of sexually mature male odours are partially shared among species. Behavioural assays conducted with four species sympatric in the Laurentian Great Lakes indicated asymmetric female responses to heterospecific odours, where Petromyzon marinus were attracted to male odour collected from all species tested but other species generally preferred only the odour of conspecifics. Electro-olfactogram recordings from P. marinusindicated that although P. marinus exhibited behavioural responses to odours from males of all species, at least some of the compounds that elicited olfactory responses were different in conspecific male odours compared to heterospecific male odours. We conclude that some of the compounds released by sexually mature males are shared among species and elicit olfactory and behavioural responses in P. marinus, and suggest that our results provide evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues among lampreys. Further characterization of the chemical identities of odour components is needed to confirm shared pheromones among species.

  1. Discovery of fossil lamprey larva from the Lower Cretaceous reveals its three-phased life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mee-mann; Wu, Feixiang; Miao, Desui; Zhang, Jiangyong

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving jawless vertebrate groups and one of a few vertebrate groups with the best exemplified metamorphosis during their life cycle, which consists of a long-lasting larval stage, a peculiar metamorphosis, and a relatively short adulthood with a markedly different anatomy. Although the fossil records have revealed that many general features of extant lamprey adults were already formed by the Late Devonian (ca. 360 Ma), little is known about the life cycle of the fossil lampreys because of the lack of fossilized lamprey larvae or transformers. Here we report the first to our knowledge discovery of exceptionally preserved premetamorphic and metamorphosing larvae of the fossil lamprey Mesomyzon mengae from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. These fossil ammocoetes look surprisingly modern in having an eel-like body with tiny eyes, oral hood and lower lip, anteriorly positioned branchial region, and a continuous dorsal skin fin fold and in sharing a similar feeding habit, as judged from the detritus left in the gut. In contrast, the larger metamorphosing individuals have slightly enlarged eyes relative to large otic capsules, thickened oral hood or pointed snout, and discernable radials but still anteriorly extended branchial area and lack a suctorial oral disk, which characterize the early stages of the metamorphosis of extant lampreys. Our discovery not only documents the larval conditions of fossil lampreys but also indicates the three-phased life cycle in lampreys emerged essentially in their present mode no later than the Early Cretaceous. PMID:25313060

  2. Sea lamprey avoid areas scented with conspecific tissue extract in Michigan streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard; Johnson, Nicholas; Brege, Linnea; Imre, I.; Brown, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Three in-stream experiments were conducted to determine whether sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L., tissue extract (alarm cue) and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, a putative predator cue) influenced the distribution of migrating adult sea lamprey. Experiments evaluated sea lamprey movement when an odour was applied to (1) a tributary of a larger stream; and (2) half of a stream channel. Fewer sea lamprey entered the tributary and side of the river scented with sea lamprey tissue extract compared to the control treatment. Sea lamprey did not avoid the tributary and side of the river scented with PEA HCl. A final laboratory experiment found no difference in the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl mixed with river water vs PEA HCl mixed with water from Lake Huron. As such, the lack of sea lamprey response to PEA HCl in the stream was unlikely to have been caused by the presence of the river water. Rather, the difference between laboratory and field results may be attributed to the complexity of the physical environment.

  3. Discovery of fossil lamprey larva from the Lower Cretaceous reveals its three-phased life cycle.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mee-mann; Wu, Feixiang; Miao, Desui; Zhang, Jiangyong

    2014-10-28

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving jawless vertebrate groups and one of a few vertebrate groups with the best exemplified metamorphosis during their life cycle, which consists of a long-lasting larval stage, a peculiar metamorphosis, and a relatively short adulthood with a markedly different anatomy. Although the fossil records have revealed that many general features of extant lamprey adults were already formed by the Late Devonian (ca. 360 Ma), little is known about the life cycle of the fossil lampreys because of the lack of fossilized lamprey larvae or transformers. Here we report the first to our knowledge discovery of exceptionally preserved premetamorphic and metamorphosing larvae of the fossil lamprey Mesomyzon mengae from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. These fossil ammocoetes look surprisingly modern in having an eel-like body with tiny eyes, oral hood and lower lip, anteriorly positioned branchial region, and a continuous dorsal skin fin fold and in sharing a similar feeding habit, as judged from the detritus left in the gut. In contrast, the larger metamorphosing individuals have slightly enlarged eyes relative to large otic capsules, thickened oral hood or pointed snout, and discernable radials but still anteriorly extended branchial area and lack a suctorial oral disk, which characterize the early stages of the metamorphosis of extant lampreys. Our discovery not only documents the larval conditions of fossil lampreys but also indicates the three-phased life cycle in lampreys emerged essentially in their present mode no later than the Early Cretaceous.

  4. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  5. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  6. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  7. Control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior, 1953-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bernard R.; Tibbles, J. James; Johnson, B.G.H.

    1974-01-01

    Although sea lamprey control and heavy plantings of hatchery-reared stock had restored lake trout abundance to prelamprey levels in many areas by 1970, the trout had not yet become self-sustaining. Additional effort will be required to further reduce the effects of lamprey predation.

  8. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

  9. Research to support sterile-male-release and genetic alteration techniques for sea lamprey control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, review the current understanding of SMRT efficacy, and identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of the SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application. Key areas for additional research are in the sterilization process, effects of skewed sex ratios on mating behavior, enhancing attractiveness of sterilized males, techniques for genetic alteration of sea lampreys, and sources of animals to enhance or expand the use of sterile lampreys.

  10. Role of Flexibility in Thrust Production of a Mechanical Swimming Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    To develop a comprehensive model of lamprey locomotion, we use a robotic lamprey as a means of investigating the wake structure during swimming with an anatomically designed tail of varying degrees of flexibility. A programmable microcomputer actuates 11 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The waveform is based on kinematic studies of living lamprey. The shape of the tail is taken from CT scan data of the silver lamprey, and it is constructed of flexible PVC gel. Plastic inserts allow the the degree of flexibility to be changed. PIV measurements in the wake behind the most flexible tail show a 2P wake structure that quickly looses coherence as it is convected downstream. This is in contrast to the strongly coherent and symmetrical 2P wake seen in previous experiments using a rigid, rectangular tail. The project is supported by NIH CNRS Grant 1R01NS054271.

  11. Characterization of the Runx Gene Family in a Jawless Vertebrate, the Japanese Lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum)

    PubMed Central

    Nah, Giselle Sek Suan; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Osato, Motomi; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2014-01-01

    The cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates), comprising lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are hence an important group for the study of vertebrate evolution. In mammals, three Runx genes, Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3, encode transcription factors that are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation in major developmental pathways such as haematopoiesis, skeletogenesis and neurogenesis and are frequently associated with diseases. We describe here the characterization of Runx gene family members from a cyclostome, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). The Japanese lamprey contains three Runx genes, RunxA, RunxB, and RunxC. However, phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggest that they are not one-to-one orthologs of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3. The major protein domains and motifs found in gnathostome Runx proteins are highly conserved in the lamprey Runx proteins. Although all gnathostome Runx genes each contain two alternative promoters, P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal), only lamprey RunxB possesses the alternative promoters; lamprey RunxA and RunxC contain only P2 and P1 promoter, respectively. Furthermore, the three lamprey Runx genes give rise to fewer alternative isoforms than the three gnathostome Runx genes. The promoters of the lamprey Runx genes lack the tandem Runx-binding motifs that are highly conserved among the P1 promoters of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3 genes; instead these promoters contain dispersed single Runx-binding motifs. The 3′UTR of lamprey RunxB contains binding sites for miR-27 and miR-130b/301ab, which are conserved in mammalian Runx1 and Runx3, respectively. Overall, the Runx genes in lamprey seem to have experienced a different evolutionary trajectory from that of gnathostome Runx genes which are highly conserved all the way from cartilaginous fishes to mammals. PMID:25405766

  12. Characterization of the Runx gene family in a jawless vertebrate, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum).

    PubMed

    Nah, Giselle Sek Suan; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Osato, Motomi; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2014-01-01

    The cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates), comprising lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are hence an important group for the study of vertebrate evolution. In mammals, three Runx genes, Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3, encode transcription factors that are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation in major developmental pathways such as haematopoiesis, skeletogenesis and neurogenesis and are frequently associated with diseases. We describe here the characterization of Runx gene family members from a cyclostome, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). The Japanese lamprey contains three Runx genes, RunxA, RunxB, and RunxC. However, phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggest that they are not one-to-one orthologs of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3. The major protein domains and motifs found in gnathostome Runx proteins are highly conserved in the lamprey Runx proteins. Although all gnathostome Runx genes each contain two alternative promoters, P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal), only lamprey RunxB possesses the alternative promoters; lamprey RunxA and RunxC contain only P2 and P1 promoter, respectively. Furthermore, the three lamprey Runx genes give rise to fewer alternative isoforms than the three gnathostome Runx genes. The promoters of the lamprey Runx genes lack the tandem Runx-binding motifs that are highly conserved among the P1 promoters of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3 genes; instead these promoters contain dispersed single Runx-binding motifs. The 3'UTR of lamprey RunxB contains binding sites for miR-27 and miR-130b/301ab, which are conserved in mammalian Runx1 and Runx3, respectively. Overall, the Runx genes in lamprey seem to have experienced a different evolutionary trajectory from that of gnathostome Runx genes which are highly conserved all the way from cartilaginous fishes to mammals.

  13. Rapid proliferation of an endemic galaxiid following eradication of an alien piscivore (Perca fluviatilis) from a reservoir.

    PubMed

    Beatty, S J; Morgan, D L

    2017-03-01

    Following the complete eradication of the alien piscivorous perch Perca fluviatilis from a potable reservoir, the abundance of the endemic western minnow Galaxias occidentalis, which was previously undetectable prior to the initial eradication event, increased dramatically. The study reveals the potential of reservoirs to act as ecological refuges and has implications for understanding the relative effects of alien fishes v. habitat alteration on native freshwater fishes.

  14. The Modulation of the Symbiont/Host Interaction between Wolbachia pipientis and Aedes fluviatilis Embryos by Glycogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha Fernandes, Mariana; Martins, Renato; Pessoa Costa, Evenilton; Casagrande Pacidônio, Etiene; Araujo de Abreu, Leonardo; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Moreira, Luciano A.; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Logullo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally transmitted bacterium that colonizes arthropods, may affect the general aspects of insect physiology, particularly reproduction. Wolbachia is a natural endosymbiont of Aedes fluviatilis, whose effects in embryogenesis and reproduction have not been addressed so far. In this context, we investigated the correlation between glucose metabolism and morphological alterations during A. fluviatilis embryo development in Wolbachia-positive (W+) and Wolbachia-negative (W−) mosquito strains. While both strains do not display significant morphological and larval hatching differences, larger differences were observed in hexokinase activity and glycogen contents during early and mid-stages of embryogenesis, respectively. To investigate if glycogen would be required for parasite-host interaction, we reduced Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) levels in adult females and their eggs by RNAi. GSK-3 knock-down leads to embryonic lethality, lower levels of glycogen and total protein and Wolbachia reduction. Therefore, our results suggest that the relationship between A. fluviatilis and Wolbachia may be modulated by glycogen metabolism. PMID:24926801

  15. The modulation of the symbiont/host interaction between Wolbachia pipientis and Aedes fluviatilis embryos by glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Fernandes, Mariana; Martins, Renato; Pessoa Costa, Evenilton; Pacidônio, Etiene Casagrande; Araujo de Abreu, Leonardo; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Moreira, Luciano A; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Logullo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally transmitted bacterium that colonizes arthropods, may affect the general aspects of insect physiology, particularly reproduction. Wolbachia is a natural endosymbiont of Aedes fluviatilis, whose effects in embryogenesis and reproduction have not been addressed so far. In this context, we investigated the correlation between glucose metabolism and morphological alterations during A. fluviatilis embryo development in Wolbachia-positive (W+) and Wolbachia-negative (W-) mosquito strains. While both strains do not display significant morphological and larval hatching differences, larger differences were observed in hexokinase activity and glycogen contents during early and mid-stages of embryogenesis, respectively. To investigate if glycogen would be required for parasite-host interaction, we reduced Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) levels in adult females and their eggs by RNAi. GSK-3 knock-down leads to embryonic lethality, lower levels of glycogen and total protein and Wolbachia reduction. Therefore, our results suggest that the relationship between A. fluviatilis and Wolbachia may be modulated by glycogen metabolism.

  16. Lamprey IGF-Binding Protein-3 Has IGF-Dependent and -Independent Actions

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yingbin; Duan, Cunming

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are multifunctional proteins that possess IGF-dependent and -independent actions. Recent studies suggest that its IGF-independent action appeared early and that the IGF-binding function may have been acquired later in evolution. The timing of the emergence of IGF-dependent actions is unclear. Here, we identified and characterized an igfbp gene from sea lamprey, an agnathan, which was separated from the jawed vertebrates 450 million years ago. Phylogenetic and structural analyses suggested that the encoded protein belongs to the IGFBP-3 clade in the IGFBP family. Lamprey IGFBP-3 contains an IGF-binding domain (IBD), nuclear localization signal, and transactivation (TA) domain. Biochemical and functional analyses showed that these domains are all functional. Lamprey IGFBP-3 can bind IGFs and modulate IGF signaling when tested in mammalian cells. Lamprey IGFBP-3 also has the capacity to enter the nucleus and has strong TA activity. Forced expression of lamprey IGFBP-3, but not its IBD mutant, in zebrafish embryos decreased body growth and developmental speed. Lamprey IGFBP-3 inhibited BMP2 signaling in cultured cells and in zebrafish embryos, and this action is independent of its IGF-binding function. These results suggest that lamprey IGFBP-3 has both IGF-dependent and -independent actions and provide new insights into the functional evolution of the IGFBP family. PMID:28149290

  17. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in Lake Michigan, 1971-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1980-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was exterminated in Lake Michigan by the mid-1950s as a result of the combined effects of an intensive fishery and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The widespread application of lampricide in tributary streams had greatly reduced the abundance of lampreys by the early 1960s, and a program to restore self-sustaining populations of lake trout through stocking of yearlings and fingerlings was initiated in 1965. Although the hatchery-reared fish spawned widely in Lake Michigan each year after 1970, no progeny were observed except in an isolated area in Grand Traverse Bay. During 1971–78, sea lamprey abundance was generally greater in Wisconsin than in other parts of the lake. However, the rate of occurrence of sea lamprey wounds on lake trout dropped dramatically there in 1978 after the Peshtigo River, a tributary to Green Bay, was treated with lampricide. Application of Lake Michigan wounding rates to a regression model relating mortality to lamprey wounding developed from Lake Superior data, yielded lamprey-induced mortality estimates in 1977 of 5% in Michigan plus Indiana (combined) and 31% in Wisconsin; corresponding estimates for 1978 were 5 and 15%.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey predation, abundance, Lake Michigan

  18. How the bending kinematics of swimming lampreys build negative pressure fields for suction thrust.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Brad J; Fogerson, Stephanie M; Costello, John H; Morgan, Jennifer R; Dabiri, John O; Colin, Sean P

    2016-12-15

    Swimming animals commonly bend their bodies to generate thrust. For undulating animals such as eels and lampreys, their bodies bend in the form of waves that travel from head to tail. These kinematics accelerate the flow of adjacent fluids, which alters the pressure field in a manner that generates thrust. We used a comparative approach to evaluate the cause-and-effect relationships in this process by quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of body kinematics at the body-fluid interface of the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, during steady-state swimming. We compared the kinematics and hydrodynamics of healthy control lampreys to lampreys whose spinal cord had been transected mid-body, resulting in passive kinematics along the posterior half of their body. Using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a method for quantifying pressure fields, we detail how the active bending kinematics of the control lampreys were crucial for setting up strong negative pressure fields (relative to ambient fields) that generated high-thrust regions at the bends as they traveled all along the body. The passive kinematics of the transected lamprey were only able to generate significant thrust at the tail, relying on positive pressure fields. These different pressure and thrust scenarios are due to differences in how active versus passive body waves generated and controlled vorticity. This demonstrates why it is more effective for undulating lampreys to pull, rather than push, themselves through the fluid.

  19. Electrical guidance efficiency of downstream-migrating juvenile Sea Lamprey decreases with increasing water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution of Sea Lampreys shifted from right to left across the width of the flume toward the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active at water velocities less than 25 cm/s. The VEPDC appeared to have no effect on Sea Lamprey distribution in the flume at water velocities greater than 25 cm/s. We also conducted separate tests to determine the threshold at which Sea Lampreys would become paralyzed. Individuals were paralyzed at a mean power density of 37.0 µW/cm3. Future research should investigate the ability of juvenile Sea Lampreys to detect electric fields and their specific behavioral responses to electric field characteristics so as to optimize the use of this technology as a nonphysical guidance tool across variable water velocities.

  20. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  1. Evidence for at least six Hox clusters in the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum).

    PubMed

    Mehta, Tarang K; Ravi, Vydianathan; Yamasaki, Shinichi; Lee, Alison P; Lian, Michelle M; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Yanai, Seiji; Tay, Alice; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2013-10-01

    Cyclostomes, comprising jawless vertebrates such as lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and hence an important group for understanding the origin and diversity of vertebrates. In vertebrates and other metazoans, Hox genes determine cell fate along the anteroposterior axis of embryos and are implicated in driving morphological diversity. Invertebrates contain a single Hox cluster (either intact or fragmented), whereas elephant shark, coelacanth, and tetrapods contain four Hox clusters owing to two rounds of whole-genome duplication ("1R" and "2R") during early vertebrate evolution. By contrast, most teleost fishes contain up to eight Hox clusters because of an additional "teleost-specific" genome duplication event. By sequencing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and the whole genome, here we provide evidence for at least six Hox clusters in the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). This suggests that the lamprey lineage has experienced an additional genome duplication after 1R and 2R. The relative age of lamprey and human paralogs supports this hypothesis. Compared with gnathostome Hox clusters, lamprey Hox clusters are unusually large. Several conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) were predicted in the Hox clusters of lamprey, elephant shark, and human. Transgenic zebrafish assay indicated the potential of CNEs to function as enhancers. Interestingly, CNEs in individual lamprey Hox clusters are frequently conserved in multiple Hox clusters in elephant shark and human, implying a many-to-many orthology relationship between lamprey and gnathostome Hox clusters. Such a relationship suggests that the first two rounds of genome duplication may have occurred independently in the lamprey and gnathostome lineages.

  2. Characterization of a native angiotensin from an anciently diverged serine protease inhibitor in lamprey.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty K S; Takei, Yoshio

    2011-04-01

    Angiotensinogen belongs to family A serine protease inhibitors (SERPIN family) and we have cloned and characterized SERPIN genes in two lamprey species, which possess all the properties of angiotensinogen. The putative angiotensinogens in lampreys can be considered as an evolutionary link between SERPIN and other angiotensinogen according to the phylogenetic analyses. The inferred sea lamprey angiotensinogen gene was expressed abundantly in liver and to a lesser extent in other tissues. The predicted lamprey angiotensin I (Ang I) sequence was unique and different from the teleost-type Ang I identified previously by the incubation of lamprey plasma with its kidney extract. Therefore, we characterized and compared the biochemical and physiological properties of this native lamprey Ang II (LpAng II) (EEDYDERPYMQPF) with teleost-type Ang II (NRVYVHPF). Using a newly developed RIA for LpAng II, plasma levels in Japanese lamprey were measured (157.4 ± 35.2 fmol/ml, n=6), but teleost-type Ang II was undetectable. In conscious cannulated lamprey, LpAng II at 100 pmol/kg elicited a transient vasodepressor effect. At doses higher than 300 pmol/kg, a biphasic cardiovascular response with an initial vasodepressor effect followed by a transient rebound vasopressor effect was observed in a dose-dependent manner. However, teleost-type Ang II was not vasoactive up to 1 nmol/kg. In Japanese eel, LpAng II injection up to 3 nmol/kg did not alter the cardiovascular parameters. Our results suggested that the renin-angiotensin system first appeared in cyclostomes, and LpAng II could be important for the regulation of cardiovascular dynamics in lampreys because of its potent and acute vasoactive effect.

  3. Treatment of East Bay, Alger County, Michigan, with toxaphene for control of sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaylord, William E.; Smith, Bernard R.

    1966-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether toxaphene can be used to eradicate lake-dwelling sea lampreys and to determine its effect on fish populations. In East Bay, a 78-acre lake on the Sucker River, Alger County, Mich., an estimated concentration of 100 parts per billion was maintained for 14 days. The sea lamprey larvae were more resistant to toxaphene than were the fish, but a complete kill was indicated. One year after treatment, sea lampreys were absent from the lake, while the fish population had recovered.

  4. Toxicity of 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) to freshwater fish and sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marking, Leif L.; King, Everett L.; Walker, Charles R.; Howell, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The chemical 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) was evaluated as a fish control agent and as a larvicide for sea lampreys at the Fish Control Laboratories of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the Hammond Bay Biological Station of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The chemical is rapidly toxic to many species. Sea lampreys, bowfin, and channel catfish are the most sensitive species. Carp are more sensitive than trouts or sunfishes. Use of 33NCS in selective control of freshwater fishes or sea lampreys requires precise control because its toxicity is strongly influenced by variations in water quality.

  5. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, Patrick M; Hudson, Patrick L

    2004-02-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  6. Flowing recirculated-water system for inducing laboratory spawning of sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a water-recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) held under laboratory conditions. Water temperature in the system was gradually increased to and maintained at 18 +/- 2 degrees C, the optimal temperature for spawning. About 10% freshwater was added daily to prevent buildup of waste products. Sea lampreys were provided substrate (approximately 3-6 cm in diameter) to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.2-0.3 m/s was maintained with an electric trolling motor. Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline.

  7. Telemetry narrows the search for sea lamprey spawning locations in the St. Clair-Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Jubar, Aaron K.; Barber, Jessica M.; Tallon, Kevin; Hondorp, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) abundance in Lake Erie has remained above targets set by fishery managers since 2005, possibly due to increased recruitment in the St. Clair-Detroit River System (SCDRS). Sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS poses an enormous challenge to sea lamprey control and assessment in Lake Erie because the SCDRS contains no dams to facilitate capture and discharge is at least an order of magnitude larger in the SCDRS than most other sea lamprey-producing tributaries in the Great Lakes. As a first step toward understanding population size, spatial distribution, and spawning habitat of adult sea lampreys in the SCDRS, we used acoustic telemetry to determine where sea lampreys ceased migration (due to spawning, death, or both) among major regions of the SCDRS. All tagged sea lampreys released in the lower Detroit River (N = 27) moved upstream through the Detroit River and entered Lake St. Clair. After entering Lake St. Clair, sea lampreys entered the St. Clair River (N = 22), Thames River (N = 1), or were not detected again (N = 4). Many sea lampreys (10 of 27) were last observed moving downstream (“fallback”) but we were unable to determine if those movements occurred before or after spawning, or while sea lampreys were dead or alive. Regardless of whether estimates of locations where sea lampreys ceased migration were based on the most upstream region occupied or final region occupied, most sea lampreys ceased migration in the St. Clair River or Lake St. Clair. Results suggest that spawning and rearing in the St. Clair River could be an important determinant of sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS and may direct future assessment and control activities in that system.

  8. Whistles of small groups of Sotalia fluviatilis during foraging behavior in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pivari, Daniela; Rosso, Sergio

    2005-10-01

    Whistle emissions were recorded from small groups of marine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia fluviatilis) in two beaches located in an important biological reserve in the Cananéia estuary (25 degrees 03'S, 47 degrees 58'W), southeastern Brazil. A total of 17 h of acoustic data was collected when dolphins were engaged in a specific feeding foraging activity. The amount of 3235 whistles was recorded and 40% (n=1294) were analyzed. Seven acoustic whistle parameters were determined: duration (ms), number of inflection points, start and end frequency (kHz), minimum and maximum frequency (kHz), and frequency range (kHz). Whistles with up to four inflection points were found. Whistles with no inflection points and rising frequency corresponded to 85% (n=1104) of all analyzed whistles. Whistle duration varied from 38 to 627 ms (mean=229.6+/-109.9 ms), with the start frequency varying between 1 and 16 kHz (mean=8.16+/-3.0 kHz) and the end frequency between 2 and 18 kHz (mean=14.35+/-3.0 kHz). The importance of this study requires an accurate measurement of the whistles' emissions in an unusual foraging feeding behavior situation on two beaches where several tucuxis, mostly mother-calf pairs, are frequently present. These two beaches are located in a federal and state environment Environmental Protected Area threatened by the progressive increase of tourism.

  9. Responses of Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) to chemical cues from perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Åbjörnsson, Kajsa; Wagner, Bálint M A; Axelsson, Anna; Bjerselius, Rickard; Olsén, K Håkan

    1997-07-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that the presence of chemical stimuli from a hungry predator would initiate anti-predator responses, while stimuli from a satiated predator would not. We used chemical stimuli released from starved perch (Perca fluviatilis) and from satiated perch (predator). As prey we used adult Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The reaction of the beetles to different predator conditions was tested during daytime. We also tested the reaction to starved perch during the night. A. sulcatus activity decreased when it was exposed to stimuli released from starved perch during daytime when visibility was poor, due to the presence of artificial vegetation. There was, however, no reaction to satiated perch under the same experimental conditions. These results indicate that A. sulcatus can discriminate between chemical cues from hungry and satiated fish predators. When visibility was good and the concentration of chemical cues was constant, the beetles did not react to starved perch in the daytime, but their activity decreased at night in response to stimuli released from starved perch. Visual as well as chemical cues seem to be important for detecting a potential predator. When visibility is good, beetles seem to rely on visual stimuli, while in darkness they seem to use chemical stimuli to detect the presence of predators.

  10. Fitness aspects of transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquitoes expressing a Plasmodium-blocking molecule.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maíra N; Nogueira, Paula M; Dias, Fernando B S; Valle, Denise; Moreira, Luciano A

    2010-12-01

    Vector-born diseases cause millions of deaths every year globally. Alternatives for the control of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever are urgently needed and the use of transgenic mosquitoes that block parasite/virus is a sound strategy to be used within control programs. However, prior to use transgenic mosquitoes as control tools, it is important to study their fitness since different biological aspects might influence their ability to disseminate and compete with wild populations. We previously reported the construction of four transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquito lines expressing a Plasmodium- blocking molecule (mutated bee venom phospholipase A(2)-mPLA(2)). Presently we studied two aspects of their fitness: body size, that has been used as a fitness-related status, and the expression of major enzymes classes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including insecticides. Body size analysis (recorded by geometric wing morphometrics) indicated that both male and female mosquitoes were larger than the non-transgenic counterparts, suggesting that this characteristic might have an impact on their overall fitness. By contrast, no significant difference in the activity of enzymes related to metabolic insecticide resistance was detected in transgenic mosquitoes. The implication on fitness advantage of these features, towards the implementation of this strategy, is further discussed.

  11. Water Transparency Drives Intra-Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Svanbäck, Richard; Eklöv, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization. PMID:22912895

  12. Water transparency drives intra-population divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E; Svanbäck, Richard; Eklöv, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization.

  13. Identification of human plasma cells with a lamprey monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuiling; Liu, Yanling; Chan, Justin Tze Ho; Tong, Jiefei; Li, Zhihua; Shi, Mengyao; Davani, Dariush; Parsons, Marion; Khan, Srijit; Zhan, Wei; Kyu, Shuya; Grunebaum, Eyal; Campisi, Paolo; Propst, Evan J.; Jaye, David L.; Trudel, Suzanne; Moran, Michael F.; Ostrowski, Mario; Herrin, Brantley R.; Lee, F. Eun-Hyung; Sanz, Ignacio; Cooper, Max D.; Ehrhardt, Götz R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ab-producing plasma cells (PCs) serve as key participants in countering pathogenic challenges as well as being contributors to autoimmune and malignant disorders. Thus far, only a limited number of PC–specific markers have been identified. The characterization of the unique variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) Abs that are made by evolutionarily distant jawless vertebrates prompted us to investigate whether VLR Abs could detect novel PC antigens that have not been recognized by conventional Abs. Here, we describe a monoclonal lamprey Ab, VLRB MM3, that was raised against primary multiple myeloma cells. VLRB MM3 recognizes a unique epitope of the CD38 ectoenzyme that is present on plasmablasts and PCs from healthy individuals and on most, but not all, multiple myelomas. Binding by the VLRB MM3 Ab coincides with CD38 dimerization and NAD glycohydrolase activity. Our data demonstrate that the lamprey VLRB MM3 Ab is a unique reagent for the identification of plasmablasts and PCs, with potential applications in the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of PC or autoimmune disorders. PMID:27152361

  14. A pheromone outweighs temperature in influencing migration of sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Cory O.; Li, Ke; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Organisms continuously acquire and process information from surrounding cues. While some cues complement one another in delivering more reliable information, others may provide conflicting information. How organisms extract and use reliable information from a multitude of cues is largely unknown. We examined movement decisions of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) exposed to a conspecific and an environmental cue during pre-spawning migration. Specifically, we predicted that the mature male-released sex pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) will outweigh the locomotor inhibiting effects of cold stream temperature (less than 15°C). Using large-scale stream bioassays, we found that 3kPZS elicits an increase (more than 40%) in upstream movement of pre-spawning lampreys when the water temperatures were below 15°C. Both warming temperatures and conspecific cues increase upstream movement when the water temperature rose above 15°C. These patterns define an interaction between abiotic and conspecific cues in modulating animal decision-making, providing an example of the hierarchy of contradictory information. PMID:26064660

  15. A pheromone outweighs temperature in influencing migration of sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brant, Cory O.; Li, Ke; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Organisms continuously acquire and process information from surrounding cues. While some cues complement one another in delivering more reliable information, others may provide conflicting information. How organisms extract and use reliable information from a multitude of cues is largely unknown. We examined movement decisions of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) exposed to a conspecific and an environmental cue during pre-spawning migration. Specifically, we predicted that the mature male-released sex pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) will outweigh the locomotor inhibiting effects of cold stream temperature (less than 15°C). Using large-scale stream bioassays, we found that 3kPZS elicits an increase (more than 40%) in upstream movement of pre-spawning lampreys when the water temperatures were below 15°C. Both warming temperatures and conspecific cues increase upstream movement when the water temperature rose above 15°C. These patterns define an interaction between abiotic and conspecific cues in modulating animal decision-making, providing an example of the hierarchy of contradictory information.

  16. A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M. Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G.; Bryan, Mara B.; Brown, C. Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the ‘rope’ tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, P-3 more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.

  17. [Expression and bioactivity effects to Hela of recombinant toxin protein rLj-RGD3 from Lampetra japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Piqiao; Wang, Jihong; Liu, Xin; Chu, Dan; Li, Qingwei

    2009-05-01

    Lj-RGD3 was a toxin from the saliva gland of Lampetra japonica. To study the anti-tumor function of rLj-RGD3 and confirm its biological status and significance, we extracted total RNA from the saliva gland and amplified the cDNA of Lj-RGD3 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of Lj-RGD3 was 357 bp long and encoded a polypeptide composed of 118 amino acids including 2 cysteines, 17 histidines and 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs. We cloned the cDNA into the plasmid pET23b, and expressed the recombinant protein rLj-RGD3 in Escherichia coli BL21. Fusion rLj-RGD3 with the C-terminal his-tag was a 15 kD soluble protein. Using the His-Bind affinity chromatography, we purified rLj-RGD3. Furthermore, we determined the biological activities of rLj-RGD3. To examine the ability of rLj-RGD3 inhibiting Hela cells proliferation, we used MTT assay. The results showed that, rLj-RGD3 inhibited bFGF induced proliferation of Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner, the IC50 value was 2.6 micromol/L. Hoechst staining assay revealed that, the nuclei of the cells treated with rLj-RGD3 were stained much brighter than that of untreated cells due to chromatin condensation. Furthermore, the DNA ladder patterns from the cells treated with rLj-RGD3 were also observed. These results demonstrated that rLj-RGD3 could induce apoptosis of Hela cells. Cell adhesion, migration and invasion are critical processes in tumor metastasis. rLj-RGD3 significantly inhibited adhesion of Hela cells to vironectin in a dose-dependent manner. In order to determine the effect of rLj-RGD3 on Hela cells migration toward bFGF, we used Transwell containing insert filter. rLj-RGD3 showed a significant inhibition on Hela cells migration, the inhibition rate was 60%. In the invasion assay, the Matrigel and Transwell were used to imitate environment in vivo. The results of invasion assay revealed that, rLj-RGD3 significantly inhibited bFGF induced invasion of Hela cells. Taken together, these results revealed that rLj-RGD3 had typical functions

  18. An aquarium experiment on the American eel as a predator on larval lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlmutter, Alfred

    1951-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, has in recent years spread throughout Lakes Huron and Michigan and is now firmly established in these waters (Applegate, 1949, Mich. Cons., 18 (4): 13-15). Coincident with their spread, the abundance of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, has declined in both lakes (Hile, 1949, Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 76 (1946): 121-147) and the lake trout as well as other species of fishes are showing an increase in scarring from lamprey attacks. For Lake Michigan the analysis of fishermen's questionnaires gave an increase in percentage by weight of lamprey-scarred lake trout from 31 percent in 1947 to 41 percent in 1948. The sea lamprey is now spreading through Lake Superior, the last of the Great Lakes containing a large population of lake trout.

  19. How-to-Do-It: Maintaining Parasitic Lampreys in Closed Laboratory Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Philip A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes modifications and procedures needed for parasitic lampreys to be kept in a closed system. Presents information dealing with obtaining the organisms, tank modifications, temperature, feeding, disease prevention, and animal welfare. A discussion is included. (RT)

  20. Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

  1. Classification of lentic habitat for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvae using a remote seabed classification device

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodale, Michael F.; Bronte, Charles R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Adams, Jean V.

    2003-01-01

    Lentic populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are suspected of being a major source of recruitment to parasitic stocks in some areas of the Great Lakes, and methods are needed to estimate habitat and population sizes. A deepwater electroshocker has been used to quantitatively assess larval sea lamprey populations in deepwater areas, however a method has not been developed to efficiently identify the most promising locations to sample in this environment. A remote seabed classification device (RoxAnn™) was used to identify soft substrates in a lentic area where sea lamprey larvae have been found in Batchawana Bay (Ontario) in eastern Lake Superior, and related those substrate types to larval distribution and occurrence. Presence of larvae was significantly related to substrate type, distance from the stream mouth, and slope of the lake bottom. Remote seabed classification would be a useful tool in the Sea Lamprey Control Program to identify the most promising locations to conduct larval surveys in lentic areas.

  2. Host selection and lethality of attacks by sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in laboratory studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are difficult to study in the wild. A series of laboratory studies (1984-1995) of single attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and burbot (Lota lota) examined host size selection; determined the effects of host size, host species, host strain, and temperature on host mortality; and estimated the weight of hosts killed per lamprey. Rainbow trout were more able and burbot less able to survive attacks than lake trout. Small sea lampreys actively selected the larger of two small hosts; larger sea lampreys attacked larger hosts in proportion to the hosts' body sizes, but actively avoided shorter hosts (a?? 600 mm) when larger were available. Host mortality was significantly less for larger (43-44%) than for smaller hosts (64%). However, the yearly loss of hosts per sea lamprey was less for small hosts (range, 6.8-14.2 kg per sea lamprey) than larger hosts (range, 11.4-19.3 kg per sea lamprey). Attacks at the lower of two temperature ranges (6.1-11.8A?C and 11.1-15.0A?C) did not significantly reduce the percentage of hosts killed (54% vs. 69%, p > 0.21), but longer attachment times at lower temperatures reduced the number of hosts attacked (33 vs. 45), and produced the lowest loss of hosts (6.6 kg per sea lamprey). Low temperature appeared to offset other factors that increase host mortality. Reanalysis of 789 attacks pooled from these studies, using forward stepwise logistic regression, also identified mean daily temperature as the dominant factor affecting host mortality. Observations in Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario support most laboratory results.

  3. Factors Influencing Capture of Invasive Sea Lamprey in Traps Baited With a Synthesized Sex Pheromone Component.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-10-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10(-12) M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20-40%) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  4. Acute toxicity of methyl mercury to the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Mallatt, J.; Barron, M.G.; McDonough, C.

    1986-08-01

    Mercury compounds pollute many aquatic habitats and are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity of waterborne methyl mercury has been studied in several teleost species. Lampreys are taxonomically distant from teleosts and are used for comparative toxicological purposes. Landlocked sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, inhabit the Great Lakes region, and their larvae (ammocoetes) burrow in stream sediments. In this study, the authors present toxicity curves for ammocoetes exposed acutely to methyl mercuric chloride solutions. Susceptibility was related to temperature and animal size.

  5. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  6. Upstream migration of Pacific lampreys in the John Day River, Oregon: Behavior, timing, and habitat use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, T. Craig; Bayer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Adult Pacific lamprey migration and habitat preferences for over-winter holding and spawning, and larval rearing in tributaries to the Columbia River are not well understood. The John Day River is one such tributary where larval and adult stages of this species have been documented, and its free-flowing character provided the opportunity to study migration of Pacific lampreys unimpeded by passage constraints. Forty-two adult Pacific lampreys were captured in the John Day River near its mouth during their upstream migration. Pacific lampreys were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and released onsite, and tracked by fixed-site, aerial, and terrestrial telemetry methods for nearly one year. Adults moved upstream exclusively at night, with a mean rate of 11.1 ?? 6.3 km/day. They halted upstream migration by September, and held a single position for approximately six months in the lateral margins of riffles and glides, using boulders for cover. More than half of Pacific lampreys resumed migration in March before ending movement in early May. Pacific lampreys that resumed migration in spring completed a median of 87% of their upstream migration before over-winter holding. Upon completing migration. Pacific lampreys briefly held position before beginning downstream movement at the end of May. Though not directly observed, halting migration and movement downstream were likely the result of spawning and death. Gains in adult Pacific lamprey passage through the Columbia River hydrosystem and tributaries may be made by improvements that would expedite migration during spring and summer and increase the quantity and variety of cover and refuge opportunities. ?? 2005 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of synthesis of 15α-hydroxylated steroids in males of four North American lamprey species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Mara B.; Young, Bradley A.; Close, David A.; Semeyn, Jesse; Robinson, T. Craig; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Li, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that 15α-hydroxytestosterone (15α-T) and 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) are produced in vitro and in vivo in adult male sea lampreys (Petromyzonmarinus), and that circulatory levels increase in response to injections with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). We examined four species from the Petromyzontidae family including silver lampreys (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), chestnut lampreys (I. castaneus), American brook lampreys (Lethenteron appendix), and Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) to determine if these unusual steroids were unique to sea lampreys or a common feature in lamprey species. In vitro production was examined through incubations of testis with tritiated precursors, and 15α-T and 15α-P production was confirmed in all species through co-elution with standards on both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layerchromatography. In vivo production was proven by demonstrating that HPLC-fractionated plasma had peaks of immunoreactive 15α-T and 15α-P that co-eluted with standards through using previously developed radioimmunoassays for 15α-T and 15α-P. The possible functionality of 15α-T and 15α-P was further examined in silver and Pacific lampreys by investigating the effect of injection of either type of lamprey GnRH on plasma concentrations of 15α-T and 15α-P. Injections with exogenous GnRH did not affect circulatory levels of either steroid in silver lampreys, and only GnRH III elicited higher levels of both steroids in Pacific lampreys. The 15α-hydroxylase enzyme(s) for steroids appeared to present in adult males of all species examined, but the question of whether 15α-hydroxylated steroids are functional in these lamprey species, and the significance of the 15-hydroxyl group, requires further research.

  8. Contribution of manipulable and non-manipulable environmental factors to trapping efficiency of invasive sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather A.; Bravener, Gale; Beaulaurier, Joshua; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Twohey, Michael; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    We identified aspects of the trapping process that afforded opportunities for improving trap efficiency of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in a Great Lake's tributary. Capturing a sea lamprey requires it to encounter the trap, enter, and be retained until removed. Probabilities of these events depend on the interplay between sea lamprey behavior, environmental conditions, and trap design. We first tested how strongly seasonal patterns in daily trap catches (a measure of trapping success) were related to nightly rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention (outcomes of sea lamprey behavior). We then tested the degree to which variation in rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention were related to environmental features that control agents can manipulate (attractant pheromone addition, discharge) and features agents cannot manipulate (water temperature, season), but could be used as indicators for when to increase trapping effort. Daily trap catch was most strongly associated with rate of encounter. Relative and absolute measures of predictive strength for environmental factors that managers could potentially manipulate were low, suggesting that opportunities to improve trapping success by manipulating factors that affect rates of encounter, entry, and retention are limited. According to results at this trap, more sea lamprey would be captured by increasing trapping effort early in the season when sea lamprey encounter rates with traps are high. The approach used in this study could be applied to trapping of other invasive or valued species.

  9. Investigations of novel unsaturated bile salts of male sea lamprey as potential chemical cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated bile salts function as chemical cues that coordinate reproduction in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. 7α, 12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) is the most abundant known bile salt released by sexually mature male sea lampreys and attracts ovulated females. However, previous studies showed that the male-produced pheromone consists of unidentified components in addition to 3kPZS. Here, analysis of water conditioned with mature male sea lampreys indicated the presence of 4 oxidized, unsaturated compounds with molecular weights of 466 Da, 468 Da, and 2 of 470 Da. These compounds were not detectable in water conditioned with immature male sea lampreys. By using mass spectrometry, 4 A-ring unsaturated sulfated bile salts were tentatively identified from male washings as 2 4-ene, a 1-ene, and a 1,4-diene analogs. These were synthesized to determine if they attracted ovulated female sea lampreys to spawning nests in natural streams. One of the novel synthetic bile salts, 3 keto-1-ene PZS, attracted ovulated females to the point of application at a concentration of 10-12 M. This study reveals the structural diversity of bile salts in sea lamprey, some of which have been demonstrated to be pheromonal cues.

  10. Recommendations for assessing sea lamprey damages: toward optimizing the control program in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Lupi, Frank; Rutter, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program currently allocates stream treatments to optimize the number of juvenile sea lampreys killed for a given level of control. Although the economic benefits derived from control appear to outweigh the dollars spent on control efforts, optimizing the number of sea lampreys killed will not necessarily optimize the economic benefits provided by the fish communities. These benefits include both non-consumptive and fishery values. We emphasize that the biological damages caused by each juvenile sea lamprey will vary, as will the economic value associated with each host that is killed. We consider issues related to assessing damages due to sea lampreys, taking into account effects on the fish community and fisheries, so as to improve the sea lamprey control program. We recommend a consolidation of information regarding the valuation of benefits, better understanding of variation in host-parasite interactions among the Great Lakes, and integration of the control program with other fisheries management objectives and activities. Adoption of these recommendations should promote lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes, healthy fish communities and prudent use of limited fishery management resources.

  11. Neuronal release and successful astrocyte uptake of aminoacidergic neurotransmitters after spinal cord injury in lampreys.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Blanca; Valle-Maroto, Silvia María; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to mammals, the spinal cord of lampreys spontaneously recovers from a complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Understanding the differences between lampreys and mammals in their response to SCI could provide valuable information to propose new therapies. Unique properties of the astrocytes of lampreys probably contribute to the success of spinal cord regeneration. The main aim of our study was to investigate, in the sea lamprey, the release of aminoacidergic neurotransmitters and the subsequent astrocyte uptake of these neurotransmitters during the first week following a complete SCI by detecting glutamate, GABA, glycine, Hu and cytokeratin immunoreactivities. This is the first time that aminoacidergic neurotransmitter release from neurons and the subsequent astrocytic response after SCI are analysed by immunocytochemistry in any vertebrate. Spinal injury caused the immediate loss of glutamate, GABA and glycine immunoreactivities in neurons close to the lesion site (except for the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting GABA cells). Only after SCI, astrocytes showed glutamate, GABA and glycine immunoreactivity. Treatment with an inhibitor of glutamate transporters (DL-TBOA) showed that neuronal glutamate was actively transported into astrocytes after SCI. Moreover, after SCI, a massive accumulation of inhibitory neurotransmitters around some reticulospinal axons was observed. Presence of GABA accumulation significantly correlated with a higher survival ability of these neurons. Our data show that, in contrast to mammals, astrocytes of lampreys have a high capacity to actively uptake glutamate after SCI. GABA may play a protective role that could explain the higher regenerative and survival ability of specific descending neurons of lampreys.

  12. Lampreys have a single gene cluster for the fast skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Daisuke; Ono, Yosuke; Hirano, Shigeki; Kan-no, Nobuhiro; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissues contain the most classic sarcomeric myosin, called myosin II, which consists of 2 heavy chains (MYHs) and 4 light chains. In the case of humans (tetrapod), a total of 6 fast skeletal-type MYH genes (MYHs) are clustered on a single chromosome. In contrast, torafugu (teleost) contains at least 13 fast skeletal MYHs, which are distributed in 5 genomic regions; the MYHs are clustered in 3 of these regions. In the present study, the evolutionary relationship among fast skeletal MYHs is elucidated by comparing the MYHs of teleosts and tetrapods with those of cyclostome lampreys, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates (agnathans). We found that lampreys contain at least 3 fast skeletal MYHs, which are clustered in a head-to-tail manner in a single genomic region. Although there was apparent synteny in the corresponding MYH cluster regions between lampreys and tetrapods, phylogenetic analysis indicated that lamprey and tetrapod MYHs have independently duplicated and diversified. Subsequent transgenic approaches showed that the 5'-flanking sequences of Japanese lamprey fast skeletal MYHs function as a regulatory sequence to drive specific reporter gene expression in the fast skeletal muscle of zebrafish embryos. Although zebrafish MYH promoters showed apparent activity to direct reporter gene expression in myogenic cells derived from mice, promoters from Japanese lamprey MYHs had no activity. These results suggest that the muscle-specific regulatory mechanisms are partially conserved between teleosts and tetrapods but not between cyclostomes and tetrapods, despite the conserved synteny.

  13. Bioinformatic Characterization of Genes and Proteins Involved in Blood Clotting in Lampreys.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2015-10-01

    Lampreys and hagfish are the earliest diverging of extant vertebrates and are obvious targets for investigating the origins of complex biochemical systems found in mammals. Currently, the simplest approach for such inquiries is to search for the presence of relevant genes in whole genome sequence (WGS) assemblies. Unhappily, in the past a high-quality complete genome sequence has not been available for either lampreys or hagfish, precluding the possibility of proving gene absence. Recently, improved but still incomplete genome assemblies for two species of lamprey have been posted, and, taken together with an extensive collection of short sequences in the NCBI trace archive, they have made it possible to make reliable counts for specific gene families. Particularly, a multi-source tactic has been used to study the lamprey blood clotting system with regard to the presence and absence of genes known to occur in higher vertebrates. As was suggested in earlier studies, lampreys lack genes for coagulation factors VIII and IX, both of which are critical for the "intrinsic" clotting system and responsible for hemophilia in humans. On the other hand, they have three each of genes for factors VII and X, participants in the "extrinsic" clotting system. The strategy of using raw trace sequence "reads" together with partial WGS assemblies for lampreys can be used in studies on the early evolution of other biochemical systems in vertebrates.

  14. Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Everett Louis

    1980-01-01

    Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.Key words: sea lamprey, attack marks, lake trout, Great Lakes

  15. The effect of the lamprey larvicide, 3-trifluormethyl-4-nitrophenol, on selected aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Allen J.

    1967-01-01

    The chemical compound 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is used to control the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the upper Great Lakes. It is introduced into streams in which sea lampreys have spawned, to kill the larvae. These 'treatments' are carried out at intervals shorter than the larval phase of the sea lamprey's life cycle (about 4 to 7 years) to prevent movement of the metamorphosed parasitic lampreys into the lakes. Most of the streams which contain sea lamprey larvae also have valuable resident fish or serve as spawning and nursery areas for fish of the Great Lakes. These species must be protected from both the direct toxic effects of the control method and from indirect effects such as destruction of food supplies. Studies have shown that TFM is nontoxic to most species of fish when used at the concentrations that kill larval lampreys. Information on the effect of TFM on aquatic invertebrates is meager. Applegate et al. reported that TFM was not harmful to selected invertebrates which they included in simulated stream tests. They also stated that no harmful effects to invertebrates were observed during actual stream application. The variety of invertebrate species used in simulated stream tests was limited, and close observation of invertebrates under stream conditions is difficult. Therefore, the present laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the toxicity of TFM to representatives of a number of groups of invertebrates.

  16. Use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey: Potential directions for population management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, I.; Brown, G.E.; Bergstedt, R.A.; McDonald, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sea lamprey invaded the Great Lakes in the early 20th century and caused an abrupt decline in the population densities of several native fish species. The integrated management of this invasive species is composed of chemical (lampricide) applications, low-head barrier dams, adult trapping and sterile male release. Recently, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of control methods alternative to lampricide applications. We propose as an alternative-control method the use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey population management. Based on the available evidence at this time, we suggest that injury-released chemical alarm cues show promise as repellents for sea lamprey and further research should be directed at determining whether sea lamprey show an avoidance response to these types of chemosensory cues. From a management perspective, these chemosensory cues could be used to restrict sea lamprey access to spawning grounds. Repellents could also be used together with attractants like sex pheromones to manipulate sea lamprey behavior, similar to the "push-pull" strategies utilized with insect pests. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  18. New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Sea lamprey mark type, marking rate, and parasite-host relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  20. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  1. High efficiency of meiotic gynogenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinchard, J.; Dabrowski, K.; Garcia-Abiado, M. -A.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of androgenesis and gynogenesis by applying a pressure (PS) or heat shock (HS) to double the haploid chromosomal set results in progenies possessing only chromosomes from a single parent. This has never been accomplished in representatives of Agnatha. The objective of this study was to induce gynogenesis and androgenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. For gynogenesis experiments, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated sperm was used to activate sea lamprey eggs and HS or PS were applied to inhibit the second meiotic division and consequently induce diploidy in the embryos. The UV irradiation of immobilized sperm was performed for 1 min at 1,719 J m-2. HS of 35 ?? 1??C for 2 min and PS of 9,000 psi for 4 min were applied at different times after egg activation (8, 12, 20, and 24 min or 8, 16, and 24 min for HS or PS, respectively). Regardless of the induction time of the HS, survivals at pre-hatching stage were similar. In contrast, PS applied 8 min after activation appears to increase survival rate of pre-hatched embryos in comparison to 16 and 24 min after activation. In control groups, without shock treatment (no diploidization), there were no survivors. All deformed, gynogenetic embryos were confirmed to be haploids and died prior to burying themselves in the sand. We confirmed by flow cytometry that progenies produced using both shock methods surviving to the next stage, burying in the substrate, were diploid gynogenetic. For the androgenesis experiments, UV-irradiated eggs (1,719 J m-2 for 1 min) were fertilized with non-treated sperm and HS was applied to restore diploidy of the eggs. Several attempts have been made to optimize the parameters used. HS of 35 ?? 1??C was applied 110, 140, 170, 200, and 230 min after activation for 2 min. Low yields of androgens were obtained and all animals died within a week after hatching. These techniques will allow to establish meiotic gynogenetic lines of sea lamprey for determining sex differentiation in this species

  2. Chronic environmental warming alters cardiovascular and haematological stress responses in European perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Ekström, Andreas; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Fredrik Sundström, L; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Sandblom, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Environmental warming and acute stress increase cardiorespiratory activity in ectothermic animals like fish. While thermal acclimation can buffer the direct thermal effects on basal cardiorespiratory function during chronic warming, little is known about how acclimation affects stress-induced cardiorespiratory responses. We compared cardiovascular and haematological responses to chasing stress in cannulated wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from a reference area at natural temperature (16 °C) with perch from the 'Biotest enclosure'; an experimental system chronically warmed (22 °C) by effluents from a nuclear power plant. Routine blood pressure was similar, but Biotest perch had slightly higher resting heart rate (59.9 ± 2.8 vs 51.3 ± 2.9 beats min(-1)), although the Q 10 for heart rate was 1.3, indicating pronounced thermal compensation. Chasing stress caused hypertension and a delayed tachycardia in both groups, but the maximum heart rate increase was 2.5-fold greater in Biotest fish (43.3 ± 4.3 vs 16.9 ± 2.7 beats min(-1)). Moreover, the pulse pressure response after stress was greater in reference fish, possibly due to the less pronounced tachycardia or a greater ventricular pressure generating capacity and thermally mediated differences in aortic compliance. Baseline haematological status was also similar, but after chasing stress, the haematocrit was higher in Biotest fish due to exacerbated red blood cell swelling. This study highlights that while eurythermal fishes can greatly compensate routine cardiorespiratory functions through acclimation processes, stress-induced responses may still differ markedly. This knowledge is essential when utilising cardiorespiratory variables to quantify and compare stress responses across environmental temperatures, and to forecast energetic costs and physiological constraints in ectothermic animals under global warming.

  3. Establishment and interspecific associations in two species of Ichthyocotylurus (Trematoda) parasites in perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-infections of multiple parasite species in hosts may lead to interspecific associations and subsequently shape the structure of a parasite community. However, few studies have focused on these associations in highly abundant parasite species or, in particular, investigated how the associations develop with time in hosts exposed to co-infecting parasite species for the first time. We investigated metacercarial establishment and interspecific associations in the trematodes Ichthyocotylurus variegatus and I. pileatus co-infecting three age cohorts of young perch (Perca fluviatilis). Results We found that the timing of transmission of the two Ichthyocotylurus species was very similar, but they showed differences in metacercarial development essentially so that the metacercariae of I. pileatus became encapsulated faster. Correlations between the abundances of the species were significantly positive after the first summer of host life and also within the main site of infection, the swim bladder. High or low abundances of both parasite species were also more frequent in the same host individuals than expected by chance, independently of host age or size. However, the highest abundances of the species were nevertheless observed in different host individuals and this pattern was consistent in all age cohorts. Conclusions The results suggest similar temporal patterns of transmission, non-random establishment, and facilitative rather than competitive associations between the parasite species independently of the age of the infracommunities. However, we suggest that spatial differences in exposure are most likely responsible for the segregation of the parasite species observed in the few most heavily infected hosts. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the result suggests that between-species associations should be interpreted with caution along with detailed examination of the parasite distribution among host individuals. PMID:21599910

  4. Adaptive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation in two native Baltic Sea fishes (perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca) with comparisons to an introduced and disease susceptible population in Australia (P. fluviatilis): assessing the risk of disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Faulks, L K; Östman, Ö

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation and structure in two percid species, perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca, in a unique brackish ecosystem, the Baltic Sea. In addition, to assess the importance of MHC diversity to disease susceptibility in these populations, comparisons were made to an introduced, disease susceptible, P. fluviatilis population in Australia. Eighty-three MHC class II B exon 2 variants were amplified: 71 variants from 92 P. fluviatilis samples, and 12 variants from 82 S. lucioperca samples. Microsatellite and MHC data revealed strong spatial genetic structure in S. lucioperca, but not P. fluviatilis, across the Baltic Sea. Both microsatellite and MHC data showed higher levels of genetic diversity in P. fluviatilis from the Baltic Sea compared to Australia, which may have facilitated the spread of an endemic virus, EHNV in the Australian population. The relatively high levels of genetic variation in the Baltic Sea populations, together with spatial genetic structure, however, suggest that there currently seems to be little risk of disease epidemics in this system. To ensure this remains the case in the face of ongoing environmental changes, fisheries and habitat disturbance, the conservation of local-scale genetic variation is recommended.

  5. RNA interference technology to control pest sea lampreys--a proof-of-concept.

    PubMed

    Heath, George; Childs, Darcy; Docker, Margaret F; McCauley, David W; Whyard, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin) reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0-fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species.

  6. Neurogenesis In The Lamprey CNS Following Spinal Cord Transection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guixin; Pizarro, Ivonne Vidal; Swain, Gary P.; Kang, Shin H.; Selzer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    After spinal cord transection, lampreys recover functionally and axons regenerate. It is not known whether this is accompanied by neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested a baseline level of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the spinal cord and rhombencephalon (where most supraspinal projecting neurons are located). To determine whether cell proliferation increases after injury and whether this includes neurogenesis, larval lampreys were spinally transected and injected with BrdU at 0-3 weeks post-transection. Labeled cells were counted in the lesion site, within 0.5 mm rostral and caudal to the lesion, and in the rhombencephalon. One group of animals was processed in the winter, and a second group was processed in the summer. The number of labeled cells was greater in winter than in summer. The lesion site had the most BrdU labeling at all times, correlating with an increase in the number of cells. In the adjacent spinal cord the percentage of BrdU labeling was higher in the ependymal than in non-ependymal regions. This was also true in the rhombencephalon but only in summer. In winter, BrdU labeling was seen primarily in the subventricular and peripheral zones. Some BrdU-labeled cells were also double-labeled by antibodies to glial-specific (anti-keratin) as well as to neuron-specific (anti-Hu) antigens, indicating that both gliogenesis and neurogenesis occurred after spinal cord transection. However, the new neurons were restricted to the ependymal zone, were never labeled by anti-neurofilament antibodies, and never migrated away from the ependyma, even at 5 weeks after BrdU injection. They would appear to be CSF-contacting neurons. PMID:24151158

  7. Selection of the lamprey VLRC antigen receptor repertoire.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen J; Gao, Mingming; Hirano, Masayuki; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Luo, Ming; Schorpp, Michael; Cooper, Max D; Aravind, L; Mariuzza, Roy A; Boehm, Thomas

    2014-10-14

    The alternative adaptive immune system of jawless vertebrates is based on different isotypes of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and expressed by distinct B- and T-like lymphocyte lineages. VLRB is expressed by B-like cells, whereas VLRA and VLRC are expressed by two T-like lineages that develop in the thymoid, a thymus-like structure in lamprey larvae. In each case, stepwise combinatorial insertions of different types of short donor LRR cassettes into incomplete germ-line genes are required to generate functional VLR gene assemblies. It is unknown, however, whether the diverse repertoires of VLRs that are expressed by peripheral blood lymphocytes are shaped by selection after their assembly. Here, we identify signatures of selection in the peripheral repertoire of VLRC antigen receptors that are clonally expressed by one of the T-like cell types in lampreys. Selection strongly favors VLRC molecules containing four internal variable leucine-rich repeat (LRRV) modules, although VLRC assemblies encoding five internal modules are initially equally frequent. In addition to the length selection, VLRC molecules in VLRC(+) peripheral lymphocytes exhibit a distinct pattern of high entropy sites in the N-terminal LRR1 module, which is inserted next to the germ-line-encoded LRRNT module. This is evident in comparisons to VLRC gene assemblies found in the thymoid and to VLRC gene assemblies found in some VLRA(+) cells. Our findings are the first indication to our knowledge that selection operates on a VLR repertoire and provide a framework to establish the mechanism by which this selection occurs during development of the VLRC(+) lymphocyte lineage.

  8. Purification and characterization of a liver-derived beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from marine mammal Sotalia fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Gomes Júnior, J E; Souza, D S L; Nascimento, R M; Lima, A L M; Melo, J A T; Rocha, T L; Miller, R N G; Franco, O L; Grossi-de-Sa, M F; Abreu, L R D

    2010-04-01

    A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) was purified from hepatic extracts of Sotalia fluviatilis, order Cetacea. The protein was purified by using ammonium sulfate fractionation and four subsequent chromatographies (Biogel A 1.5 m, Chitin, Deae-Biogel and hydroxyapatite resins). After these purification steps, the enzyme was purified 380.5-fold with an 8.4% yield. The molecular mass (10 kDa) was estimated by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. A Km of 2.72 mM and Vmax 9.5 x 10(-6) micromol/(min x mg) were found for this enzyme, determined by p-nitrophenyl-beta-D: -hexosaminide substrate digestion. Optimal pH and temperature for beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase activity were 5.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Enzyme activity was inhibited by sodium selenate (Na(2)SeO(4)), mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (C(12)H(25)SO(4)Na), and activated by zinc, calcium, barium and lithium ions. Characterization of the beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase in Sotalia fluviatilis can be a basis for physiological studies in this species.

  9. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    PubMed

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys.

  10. Lamprey parasitism of sharks and teleosts: high capacity urea excretion in an extant vertebrate relic.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Michael P; Turnbull, Steven; Bird, Jonathan; Wang, Yuxiang S; Claude, Jaime F; Youson, John H

    2004-08-01

    We observed 10 sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) parasitizing basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), the world's second largest fish, in the Bay of Fundy. Due to the high concentrations of urea in the blood and tissues of ureosmotic elasmobranchs, we hypothesized that sea lampreys would have mechanisms to eliminate co-ingested urea while feeding on basking sharks. Post-removal urea excretion rates (J(Urea)) in two lampreys, removed from separate sharks by divers, were initially 450 ( approximately 9000 micromol N kg-1 h-1) and 75 times ( approximately 1500 micromol N kg-1 h-1) greater than basal (non-feeding) rates ( approximately 20 micromol N kg-1 h-1). In contrast, J(Urea) increased by 15-fold after parasitic lampreys were removed from non-ureosmotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Since activities of the ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) were relatively low in liver and below detection in intestine and muscle, it is unlikely that the excreted urea arose from de novo urea synthesis. Measurements of arginase activity suggested that hydrolysis of dietary arginine made a minor contribution to J(Urea.). Post-feeding ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) were 15- to 25-fold greater than basal rates in lampreys removed from both basking sharks and rainbow trout, suggesting that parasitic lampreys have a high capacity to deaminate amino acids. We conclude that the sea lamprey's ability to penetrate the dermal denticle armor of sharks, to rapidly excrete large volumes of urea and a high capacity to deaminate amino acids, represent adaptations that have contributed to the evolutionary success of these phylogenetically ancient vertebrates.

  11. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Buchinger, T J; Wang, H; Li, W; Johnson, N S

    2013-11-22

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  12. Midline signaling and evolution of the forebrain in chordates: a focus on the lamprey Hedgehog case.

    PubMed

    Rétaux, Sylvie; Kano, Shungo

    2010-07-01

    Lampreys are agnathans (vertebrates without jaws). They occupy a key phylogenetic position in the emergence of novelties and in the diversification of morphology at the dawn of vertebrates. We have used lampreys to investigate the possibility that embryonic midline signaling systems have been a driving force for the evolution of the forebrain in vertebrates. We have focused on Sonic Hedgehog/Hedgehog (Shh/Hh) signaling. In this article, we first review and summarize our recent work on the comparative analysis of embryonic expression patterns for Shh/Hh, together with Fgf8 (fibroblast growth factor 8) and Wnt (wingless-Int) pathway components, in the embryonic lamprey forebrain. Comparison with nonvertebrate chordates on one hand, and jawed vertebrates on the other hand, shows that these morphogens/growth factors acquired new expression domains in the most rostral part of the neural tube in lampreys compared to nonvertebrate chordates, and in jawed vertebrates compared to lampreys. These data are consistent with the idea that changes in Shh, Fgf8 or Wnt signaling in the course of evolution have been instrumental for the emergence and diversification of the telencephalon, a part of the forebrain that is unique to vertebrates. We have then used comparative genomics on Shh/Hh loci to identify commonalities and differences in noncoding regulatory sequences across species and phyla. Conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) can be detected in lamprey Hh introns, even though they display unique structural features and need adjustments of parameters used for in silico alignments to be detected, because of lamprey-specific properties of the genome. The data also show conservation of a ventral midline enhancer located in Shh/Hh intron 2 of all chordates, the very species which possess a notochord and a floor plate, but not in earlier emerged deuterostomes or protostomes. These findings exemplify how the Shh/Hh locus is one of the best loci to study genome evolution with regards to

  13. Effect of water temperature on sea lamprey growth and lake trout survival

    SciTech Connect

    Swink, W.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Percent mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks did not differ significantly between lower-temperature (mortality = 54%; temperature [le] 10[degrees]C; N = 33) and higher-temperature (mortality = 69%; temperature = 12.8-14.4[degrees]C; N = 45) laboratory studies conducted from 1 June to 28 November 1989. However, sea lampreys fed longer and killed fewer fish in colder water (mean attachment 467.0 h; 18 fish killed) than in warmer water (mean attachment 161.7 h; 31 fish killed), probably because food consumption was lower in colder water. These results indicate that the number of fish killed by sea lampreys could be much greater in warmer water and that temperature must be considered when fish losses from sea lamprey attacks are estimated. Previous studies (Swink and Hanson 1989; Swink 1990) of the effects of single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks on lake trout Salvelinus namaycush showed significantly less lake trout mortality at temperatures of 10[degrees]C and lower than at higher temperatures. The reduced host mortality, however, could not be attributed solely to lower temperature because warmwater and coldwater attacks occurred during different seasons. In those studies, the author was unable to hold water temperature at 10[degrees]C or less in late summer and early fall, when most fish are killed by sea lampreys in the Great Lakes (Christie and Kolenosky 1980; Bergstedt and Schneider 1988). Modifications to the fish holding facilities at the Hammond Bay Biological Station in 1988 allowed maintenance of a limited amount of water at 10[degrees]C or less throughout the year. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare sea lamprey-induced mortality of lake trout at 10[degrees]C or less with that at 12.8-14.4[degrees]C during the normal feeding season (June through November). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Buchinger, T. J.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Johnson, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey. PMID:24068361

  15. Infection of sea lamprey with an unusual strain of Aeromonas salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, Arfang; Loch, Thomas P.; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Winters, Andrew D.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the fish-parasitic sea lamprey has led to catastrophic consequences, including the potential introduction of fish pathogens. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes devastating losses worldwide. Currently, there are five accepted subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida: A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, and pectinolytica. We discuss the discovery of an isolate of A. salmonicida that is pathogenic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and exhibits unique phenotypic and molecular characteristics. We examined 181 adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Humber River (Lake Ontario watershed) and 162 adult sea lamprey from Duffins Creek (Lake Ontario watershed) during the spring seasons of 2005–11. Among those, 4/343 (1.2%) sea lamprey were culture positive for A. salmonicida, whereby biochemical and molecular studies identified three of the isolates as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The remaining isolate (As-SL1) recovered from Humber River sea lamprey was phenotypically more similar to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida than to the four other A. salmonicida subspecies. However, unlike A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, As-SL1 was sucrose positive, produced an acid-over-acid reaction on triple-sugar iron medium and did not amplify with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial stretches of the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B genes further confirmed that the As-SL1 isolate was not A. salmonicida subsp. masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, or pectinolytica. Based on our analyses, the As-SL1 isolate is either an unusual strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or a novel A. salmonicida subspecies. The four A. salmonicida isolates that were recovered from sea lamprey were pathogenic to rainbow trout in experimental challenge studies. Our study also underscores the potential role of sea lamprey in the ecology of

  16. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  17. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene

    PubMed Central

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis. PMID:23378972

  18. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  19. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J.; Scott, Anne M.; Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Brant, Cory O.; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  20. Blocking and guiding adult sea lamprey with pulsed direct current from vertical electrodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Thompson, Henry T.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Tix, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the invasion front of aquatic nuisance species is of high importance to resource managers. We tested the hypothesis that adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a destructive invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, would exhibit behavioral avoidance to dual-frequency pulsed direct current generated by vertical electrodes and that the electric field would not injure or kill sea lamprey or non-target fish. Laboratory and in-stream experiments demonstrated that the electric field blocked sea lamprey migration and directed sea lamprey into traps. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), species that migrate sympatrically with sea lamprey, avoided the electric field and had minimal injuries when subjected to it. Vertical electrodes are advantageous for fish guidance because (1) the electric field produced varies minimally with depth, (2) the electric field is not grounded, reducing power consumption to where portable and remote deployments powered by solar, wind, hydro, or a small generator are feasible, and (3) vertical electrodes can be quickly deployed without significant stream modification allowing rapid responses to new invasions. Similar dual-frequency pulsed direct current fields produced from vertical electrodes may be advantageous for blocking or trapping other invasive fish or for guiding valued fish around dams.

  1. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  2. Horizontal transfers of Tc1 elements between teleost fishes and their vertebrate parasites, lampreys.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Qiu, Huan; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been recognized to be an important mechanism that shaped the evolution and genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. However, HGT is regarded to be exceedingly rare among eukaryotes. We discovered massive transfers of a DNA transposon, a Tc1 element encoding a transposase, between multiple teleost fishes and lampreys that last shared a common ancestor over 500 Ma. Members of this group of Tc1 elements were found to exhibit a mosaic phylogenetic distribution, yet their sequences were highly similar even between distantly related lineages (95%-99% identity). Our molecular phylogenetic analyses suggested that horizontal transfers of this element happened repeatedly, involving multiple teleost fishes that are phylogenetically only distantly related. Interestingly, almost all the affected teleost lineages are also known to be subject to lamprey parasitism, suggesting that the horizontal transfers between vertebrates might have occurred through parasite-host interaction. The genomes of several northern hemisphere lamprey species, including that of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), were found to contain thousands of copies of the foreign elements. Impact of this event is discussed in relation to other peculiar genomic features of lampreys.

  3. Lethality of sea lamprey attacks on lake trout in relation to location on the body surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Schneider, Clifford P.; O'Gorman, Robert

    2001-01-01

    We compared the locations of healed attack marks of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus on live lake trout Salvelinus namaycush with those of unhealed attack marks on dead lake trout to determine if the lethality of a sea lamprey attack was related to attack location. Lake trout were collected from Lake Ontario, live fish with gill nets in September 1985 and dead fish with trawls in October 1983−1986. Attack location was characterized by the percent distances from snout to tail and from the ventral to the dorsal midline. Kolmogorov−Smirnov two-sample tests did not detect significant differences in the distribution of attack location along either the anteroposterior axis or the dorsoventral axis. When attack locations were grouped into six anatomical regions historically used to record sea lamprey attacks, dead fish did not exhibit a significantly higher proportion of attacks in the more anterior regions. Even if the differences in attack location on live and dead fish were significant, they were too small to imply substantial spatial differences in attack lethality that should be accounted for when modeling the effects of sea lampreys feeding on lake trout. We suggest that the tendency for sea lamprey attacks to occur on the anterior half of the fish is related to the lower amplitude of lateral body movement there during swimming and thus the lower likelihood of being dislodged.

  4. Evidence for early metamorphosis of sea lampreys in the Chippewa River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morkert, Sidney B.; Swink, William D.; Seelye, James G.

    1998-01-01

    We determined age at metamorphosis to the juvenile or parasitic phase for sea lampreysPetromyzon marinus in a highly productive Great Lakes tributary to determine if the age at metamorphosis was earlier than expected. Ages determined from statoliths, a structure analogous to otoliths in teleost fishes, indicated that many sea lampreys collected from the Chippewa River, Michigan, in September 1995 were undergoing metamorphosis at age 2, at least 1 year earlier than previously observed. In all, 141 newly metamorphosed lampreys were examined, and 81% were estimated to be only 2 years old. The length-frequency distribution of newly metamorphosed sea lampreys in the Chippewa River also indicated the possibility of metamorphsis at age 2, but to a lesser extent than indicated by statolith aging. The Chippewa River is a highly productive stream that might require more frequent treatment than previously suspected. More careful examination of other highly productive streams is needed to determine if, and to what extent, sea lampreys metamorphose at age 2 in the Chippewa River and other Great Lakes tributaries.

  5. Does DNA methylation regulate metamorphosis? The case of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an example.

    PubMed

    Covelo-Soto, Lara; Saura, María; Morán, Paloma

    2015-07-01

    Lampreys represent one of the most ancient vertebrate lineages enclosing a special interest for genetic and epigenetic studies. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is an anadromous species that experiences metamorphosis all the way up to the adult stage. Although representing a gradual process, metamorphosis in this species involves dramatic conversions with regard to physiological together with structural body changes preparing individuals for a marine and parasitic life; in consequence, multiple gene expression modifications are expected. The implications of thyroid hormones and HOX gene expression changes have previously been reported in this species and also in other vertebrate species. Nonetheless, information lacks on how these genes are regulated in lampreys. We here report about the existence of methylation pattern differences between the adult and the larvae sea lamprey life cycle stages making use of the Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Differentially methylated fragment sequencing allowed to establish homologous identities with HOX genes involved in morphogenesis, along with genes related to the water balance and to the osmotic homoeostasis, all associated to a marine environment adaptation. These results provide evidences revealing that DNA methylation plays a role in the epigenetic regulation of the P. marinus post-natal development representing a starting point for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which detects DNA methylation changes associated with metamorphosis in lampreys.

  6. A spatial age-structured model for describing sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The control of invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) presents large scale management challenges in the Laurentian Great Lakes. No modeling approach has been developed that describes spatial dynamics of lamprey populations. We developed and validated a spatial and age-structured model and applied it to a sea lamprey population in a large river in the Great Lakes basin. We considered 75 discrete spatial areas, included a stock-recruitment function, spatial recruitment patterns, natural mortality, chemical treatment mortality, and larval metamorphosis. Recruitment was variable, and an upstream shift in recruitment location was observed over time. From 1993–2011 recruitment, larval abundance, and the abundance of metamorphosing individuals decreased by 80, 84, and 86%, respectively. The model successfully identified areas of high larval abundance and showed that areas of low larval density contribute significantly to the population. Estimated treatment mortality was less than expected but had a large population-level impact. The results and general approach of this work have applications for sea lamprey control throughout the Great Lakes and for the restoration and conservation of native lamprey species globally.

  7. Genes predict long distance migration and large body size in a migratory fish, Pacific lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jon E; Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; McIlraith, Brian J; Moser, Mary L; Narum, Shawn R

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of genetic mechanisms underpinning migratory behavior could help predict how changes in genetic diversity may affect future spatiotemporal distribution of a migratory species. This ability would benefit conservation of one such declining species, anadromous Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus). Nonphilopatric migration of adult Pacific lamprey has homogenized population-level neutral variation but has maintained adaptive variation that differentiates groups based on geography, run-timing and adult body form. To investigate causes for this adaptive divergence, we examined 647 adult lamprey sampled at a fixed location on the Columbia River and radiotracked during their subsequent upstream migration. We tested whether genetic variation [94 neutral and adaptive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified from a genomewide association study] was associated with phenotypes of migration distance, migration timing, or morphology. Three adaptive markers were strongly associated with morphology, and one marker also correlated with upstream migration distance and timing. Genes physically linked with these markers plausibly influence differences in body size, which is also consistently associated with migration distance in Pacific lamprey. Pacific lamprey conservation implications include the potential to predict an individual's upstream destination based on its genotype. More broadly, the results suggest a genetic basis for intrapopulation variation in migration distance in migratory species. PMID:25558280

  8. Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

  9. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J; Scott, Anne M; Walaszczyk, Erin J; Brant, Cory O; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming

    2014-06-06

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called "CLARITY" was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  10. A reporter assay in lamprey embryos reveals both functional conservation and elaboration of vertebrate enhancers.

    PubMed

    Parker, Hugo J; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Bronner, Marianne; Elgar, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The sea lamprey is an important model organism for investigating the evolutionary origins of vertebrates. As more vertebrate genome sequences are obtained, evolutionary developmental biologists are becoming increasingly able to identify putative gene regulatory elements across the breadth of the vertebrate taxa. The identification of these regions makes it possible to address how changes at the genomic level have led to changes in developmental gene regulatory networks and ultimately to the evolution of morphological diversity. Comparative genomics approaches using sea lamprey have already predicted a number of such regulatory elements in the lamprey genome. Functional characterisation of these sequences and other similar elements requires efficient reporter assays in lamprey. In this report, we describe the development of a transient transgenesis method for lamprey embryos. Focusing on conserved non-coding elements (CNEs), we use this method to investigate their functional conservation across the vertebrate subphylum. We find instances of both functional conservation and lineage-specific functional evolution of CNEs across vertebrates, emphasising the utility of functionally testing homologous CNEs in their host species.

  11. Biallelic editing of a lamprey genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yao; Zhang, Xushuai; Ren, Jianfeng; Dong, Xuehong; Zhu, Zhe; Jia, Liang; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Weiming

    2016-03-23

    Lampreys are extant representatives of agnathans. Descriptions of lamprey development, physiology and genome have provided critical insights into early evolution of vertebrate traits. However, efficient means for genetic manipulation in agnathan species have not been developed, hindering functional studies of genes in these important Evo-Devo models. Here, we report a CRISPR/Cas system optimized for lamprey genomes and use it to disrupt genomic loci in the Northeast Chinese lamprey (Lethenteron morii) with efficiencies ranging between 84~99%. The frequencies of indels observed in the target loci of golden (gol), kctd10, wee1, soxe2, and wnt7b, estimated from direct sequencing of genomic DNA samples of injected lamprey larvae, were 68/69, 47/56, 38/39, 36/37 and 36/42, respectively. These indels often occurred in both alleles. In the CRISPR/Cas9 treatment for gol or kctd10, 38.6% or 85.3% of the targeted larvae had the respective recessive null-like phenotypes, further confirming the disruption of both loci. The kctd10 gRNA, designed against an essential functional region of Kctd10, resulted in null-like phenotypes and in-frame mutations in alleles. We suggest that the CRISPR/Cas-based approach has the potential for efficient genetic perturbation in organisms less amenable to germ line transmission based approaches.

  12. Wake structures behind a swimming robotic lamprey with a passively flexible tail.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Megan C; Tytell, Eric D; Cohen, Avis H; Smits, Alexander J

    2012-02-01

    A robotic lamprey, based on the silver lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, was used to investigate the influence of passive tail flexibility on the wake structure and thrust production during anguilliform swimming. A programmable microcomputer actuated 11 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The waveform was based on kinematic studies of living lamprey, and the shape of the tail was taken from a computer tomography scan of the silver lamprey. The tail was constructed of flexible PVC gel, and nylon inserts were used to change its degree of flexibility. Particle image velocimetry measurements using three different levels of passive flexibility show that the large-scale structure of the wake is dominated by the formation of two pairs of vortices per shedding cycle, as seen in the case of a tail that flexed actively according to a pre-defined kinematic pattern, and did not bend in response to fluid forces. When the tail is passively flexible, however, the large structures are composed of a number of smaller vortices, and the wake loses coherence as the degree of flexibility increases. Momentum balance calculations indicate that, at a given tailbeat frequency, increasing the tail flexibility yields less net force, but changing the cycle frequency to match the resonant frequency of the tail increases the force production.

  13. Prosomeric map of the lamprey forebrain based on calretinin immunocytochemistry, Nissl stain, and ancillary markers.

    PubMed

    Pombal, M A; Puelles, L

    1999-11-22

    The structural organization of the lamprey extratelencephalic forebrain is re-examined from the perspective of the prosomeric segmental paradigm. The question asked was whether the prosomeric forebrain model used for gnathostomes is of material advantage for interpreting subdivisions in the lamprey forebrain. To this aim, the main longitudinal and transverse landmarks recognized by the prosomeric model in other vertebrates were identified in Nissl-stained lamprey material. Lines of cytoarchitectural discontinuity and contours of migrated neuronal groups were mapped in a two-dimensional sagittal representation and were also classified according to their radial position. Immunocytochemical mapping of calretinin expression in adjacent sections served to define particular structural units better, in particular, the dorsal thalamus. These data were complemented by numerous other chemoarchitectonic observations obtained with ancillary markers, which identified additional specific formations, subdivisions, or boundaries. Emphasis was placed on studying whether such chemically defined neuronal groups showed boundaries aligned with the postulated inter- or intraprosomeric boundaries. The course of diverse axonal tracts was studied also with regard to their prosomeric topography. This analysis showed that the full prosomeric model applies straightforwardly to the lamprey forebrain. This finding implies that a common segmental and longitudinal organization of the neural tube may be primitive for all vertebrates. Interesting novel aspects appear in the interpretation of the lamprey pretectum, the dorsal and ventral thalami, and the hypothalamus. The topologic continuity of the prosomeric forebrain regions with evaginated or non-evaginated portions of the telencephalon was also examined.

  14. Anesthesia of juvenile Pacific Lampreys with MS-222, BENZOAK, AQUI-S 20E, and Aquacalm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Gee, Lisa P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Effective anesthetics are a critical component of safe and humane fish handling procedures. We tested three concentrations each of four anesthetics—Finquel (tricaine methanesulfonate, herein referred to as MS-222), BENZOAK (20% benzocaine), AQUI-S 20E (10% eugenol), and Aquacalm (metomidate hydrochloride)—for efficacy and safety in metamorphosed, outmigrating juvenile Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. The anesthetics MS-222 (100 mg/L) and BENZOAK (60 mg/L) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile Pacific Lampreys to a handleable state with minimal irritation to the fish. Fish anesthetized with BENZOAK also had lower rates of fungal infection than those exposed to MS-222, AQUI-S 20E, or no anesthetic. Exposure to AQUI-S 20E irritated juvenile Pacific Lampreys, causing them to leap or climb out of the anesthetic solution, and Aquacalm anesthetized fish to a handleable state too slowly and incompletely for effective use with routine handling procedures. Our results indicate that MS-222 and BENZOAK are effective anesthetics for juvenile Pacific Lampreys, but field studies are needed to determine whether exposure to MS-222 increases risk of fungal infection in juvenile Pacific Lampreys released to the wild.

  15. Lamprey type II collagen and Sox9 reveal an ancient origin of the vertebrate collagenous skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangjun; Miyamoto, Michael M; Cohn, Martin J

    2006-02-28

    Type II collagen is the major cartilage matrix protein in the jawed vertebrate skeleton. Lampreys and hagfishes, by contrast, are thought to have noncollagenous cartilage. This difference in skeletal structure has led to the hypothesis that the vertebrate common ancestor had a noncollagenous skeleton, with type II collagen becoming the predominant cartilage matrix protein after the divergence of jawless fish from the jawed vertebrates approximately 500 million years ago. Here we report that lampreys have two type II collagen (Col2alpha1) genes that are expressed during development of the cartilaginous skeleton. We also demonstrate that the adult lamprey skeleton is rich in Col2alpha1 protein. Furthermore, we have isolated a lamprey orthologue of Sox9, a direct transcriptional regulator of Col2alpha1 in jawed vertebrates, and show that it is coexpressed with both Col2alpha1 genes during skeletal development. These results reveal that the genetic pathway for chondrogenesis in lampreys and gnathostomes is conserved through the activation of cartilage matrix molecules and suggest that a collagenous skeleton evolved surprisingly early in vertebrate evolution.

  16. Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, Alberton L.

    1952-01-01

    Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crassus Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

  17. Growth, age at metamorphosis, and sex ratio of northern brook lamprey in a tributary of southern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, Harold A.

    1970-01-01

    Growth was studied of five year classes of the northern brook lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, collected from the Sturgeon River during intervals between treatment of the stream with a lampricide. Growth varied considerably among year classes. Larvae of the 1963 year class were slightly longer at age II and 30% longer at age III than the III-group larvae of the 1960 year class. About 6% of 558 III-group lampreys of the 1963 year class had metamorphosed by 17 August 1966. Although the sex ratio of larvae was about 1:1, 97% of the metamorphosed lampreys were males. The distribution of pigmentation on the caudal fin and upper lip in ammocoetes less than 40 mm long permitted accurate and rapid separation of northern brook lampreys from the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

  18. A practical method for obtaining useful quantities of pheromones from sea lamprey and other fishes for identification and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, J.M.; Sisler, S.P.; Vrieze, L.A.; Swink, W.D.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pheromonally-mediated trapping is currently being developed for use in sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes. To identify and test lamprey pheromones a practical procedure was needed to isolate relatively large quantities of pheromone from lamprey holding water. The present study developed such a technique. It employs Amberlite XAD7HP, an adsorbent resin which we found can extract over 80% of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone from larval holding water at low cost and with relative ease. This technique allowed its to collect tens of milligrams of all three components of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone, eventually permitting both identification and successful field testing. This technique might also be used to collect pheromones released by other species of fish.

  19. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, Amila A.; Wagner, C. Michael; Nair, Muraleedharan G.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus) is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g). Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue) that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55%) contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE), tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA) and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%), monounsaturated (40.7%) and polyunsaturated (17.4%) fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time. PMID:27992570

  20. Evidence that sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) complete their life cycle within a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes by parasitizing fishes in inland lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Twohey, Michael B.; Miehls, Scott M.; Cwalinski, Tim A; Godby, Neal A; Lochet, Aude; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Jubar, Aaron K.; Siefkes, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) invaded the upper Laurentian Great Lakes and feeds on valued fish. The Cheboygan River, Michigan, USA, is a large sea lamprey producing tributary to Lake Huron and despite having a renovated dam 2 km from the river mouth that presumably blocks sea lamprey spawning migrations, the watershed upstream of the dam remains infested with larval sea lamprey. A navigational lock near the dam has been hypothesized as the means of escapement of adult sea lampreys from Lake Huron and source of the upper river population (H1). However, an alternative hypothesis (H2) is that some sea lampreys complete their life cycle upstream of the dam, without entering Lake Huron. To evaluate the alternative hypothesis, we gathered angler reports of lamprey wounds on game fishes upstream of the dam, and captured adult sea lampreys downstream and upstream of the dam to contrast abundance, run timing, size, and statolith microchemistry. Results indicate that a small population of adult sea lampreys (n < 200) completed their life cycle upstream of the dam during 2013 and 2014. This is the most comprehensive evidence that sea lampreys complete their life history within a tributary of the upper Great Lakes, and indicates that similar landlocked populations could occur in other watersheds. Because the adult sea lamprey population upstream of the dam is small, complete elimination of the already low adult escapement from Lake Huron might allow multiple control tactics such as lampricides, trapping, and sterile male release to eradicate the population.

  1. Design of a closed system water tunnel for lamprey swimming analysis.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, C M; Knapp, C F; Jung, R

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a swim mill design that can be used to study locomotor behavior in intact awake lamprey. The design is constrained by the swimming characteristics and anatomy of young adult lamprey and allows for electrophysiological monitoring of muscle activity and imaging of motor behavior. The design has a test section for animal containment and monitoring of motor behavior, a water reservoir, a water pump, and equipment for biological adaptations (water purification, chilling, & aeration systems). The 36 sq. inch acrylic test section is preceded by a turbulence-reducing converging nozzle, while a 1400 gallon reservoir maintains the system's hydrostatic head and acts as a settling chamber. This swim mill design will be used to examine lamprey swimming behavior under different environmental conditions (e.g., water velocity, turbulence, external perturbations).

  2. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  3. Production of sea lamprey larvae from nests in two Lake Superior streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1968-01-01

    The life history of the landlocked sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, has been described by several authors, the two most recent of which are Applegate and Wigley. The only information on the production of larvae from nests of the sea lamprey was reported by Applegate, who counted the larvae from three nests in the Ocqueoc River, a tributary of Lake Huron. The present report presents data on the hatching success of sea lamprey larvae from 19 nests in two small tributaries of southern Lake Superior and indicates greater production per nest than that recorded by Applegate. Studies were conducted by personnel of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries on the Little Garlic River, Marquette County, Michigan, and on the Traverse River, Keweenaw County, Michigan.

  4. An integrated muscle mechanic-fluid dynamic model of lamprey swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; Tytell, Eric; Fauci, Lisa

    2009-11-01

    In an effort towards a detailed understanding of the generation and control of vertebrate locomotion, including the role of the CPG and its interactions with reflexive feedback, muscle mechanics, and external fluid dynamics, we study a simple vertebrate, the lamprey. Lamprey body undulations are a result of a wave of neural activation that passes from head to tail, causing a wave of muscle activation. These active forces are mediated by passive structural forces. We present recent results from a model that fully couples a viscous, incompressible fluid with nonlinear muscle mechanics. We measure the dependence of the phase lag between activation wave and mechanical wave as a function of model parameters, such as body stiffness and muscle strength. Simulation results are compared to experiments utilizing both real and synthetic lamprey.

  5. Do summer temperatures trigger spring maturation in pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clemens, B.J.; Van De Wetering, S.; Kaufman, J.; Holt, R.A.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, return to streams and use somatic energy to fuel maturation. Body size decreases, the lamprey mature, spawn, and then die. We predicted that warm, summer temperatures (>20 ??C) would accentuate shrinkage in body size, and expedite sexual maturation and subsequent death. We compared fish reared in the laboratory at diel fluctuating temperatures of 20-24 ??C (mean = 21.8 ??C) with fish reared at cooler temperatures (13.6 ??C). The results confirmed our predictions. Lamprey from the warm water group showed significantly greater proportional decreases in body weight following the summer temperature treatments than fish from the cool water group. A greater proportion of warm water fish sexually matured (100%) and died (97%) the following spring than cool water fish (53% sexually mature, 61% died). Females tended to mature and die earlier than males, most obviously in the warm water group. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Kinematics and flow fields in 3D around swimming lamprey using light field PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Andrea M.; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2016-11-01

    The fully time-resolved 3D kinematics and flow field velocities around freely swimming sea lamprey are derived using 3D light field imaging PIV. Lighthill's Elongated Body Theory (EBT) predicts that swimmers with anguilliform kinematics likened to lamprey, and similarly eels, will exhibit relatively poor propulsive efficiency. However, previous experimental studies of eel locomotion utilizing 2D PIV suggest disagreement with EBT estimates of wake properties; although, the thrust force generated by such swimmers has yet to be fully resolved using 3D measurements. A light field imaging array of multiple high-speed cameras is used to perform 3D synthetic aperture PIV around ammocoete sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Fluid mechanics equations are used to determine thrust force generation, leading experimental studies closer to underpinning the physical mechanisms that enable aquatic locomotion of long, slender undulatory swimmers.

  7. Purification and identification of cell surface antigens using lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuiling; Ali, Shabab; St. Germain, Jonathan; Liu, Yanling; Yu, Xuecong; Jaye, David L.; Moran, Michael F.; Cooper, Max D.; Ehrhardt, Götz R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) B antibodies of the evolutionary distant sea lamprey are structurally distinct from conventional mammalian antibodies. The different protein architecture and large evolutionary distance of jawless vertebrates suggest that VLR antibodies may represent promising tools for biomarker discovery. Here we report the generation of panels of monoclonal VLR antibodies from lamprey larvae immunized with human T cells and the use of a recombinant monoclonal VLR antibody for antigen purification and mass spectrometric identification. We demonstrate that despite predicted low affinity of individual VLR antigen binding units to the antigen, the high avidity resulting from decameric assembly of secreted VLR antibodies allows for efficient antigen capture and subsequent identification by mass spectometry. We show that VLR antibodies detect their antigens with high specificity and can be used in various standard laboratory application techniques. The lamprey antibodies are novel reagents that can complement conventional monoclonal antibodies in multiple scientific research disciplines. PMID:22964555

  8. Flowing-recirculated water system for inducing spawning phase sea lampreys to spawn in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a water-recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) held under laboratory conditions. Water temperature in the system was gradually increased to and maintained at 18 ± 2°C, the optimal temperature for spawning. About 10% freshwater was added daily to prevent buildup of waste products. Sea lampreys were provided substrate (approximately 3–6 cm in diameter) to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.2–0.3 m!s was maintained with an electric trolling motor. Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline.

  9. Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogenous data sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Robert J.; Jones, Michael L.; Bence, James R.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-recapture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lakewide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

  10. Optimizing larval assessment to support sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Richards, Jessica M.; Fodale, Michael F.; Larson, Geraldine L.; Ollila, Dale J.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Young, Robert J.; Zerrenner, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Elements of the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) assessment program that most strongly influence the chemical treatment program were analyzed, including selection of streams for larval surveys, allocation of sampling effort among stream reaches, allocation of sampling effort among habitat types, estimation of daily growth rates, and estimation of metamorphosis rates, to determine how uncertainty in each element influenced the stream selection program. First, the stream selection model based on current larval assessment sampling protocol significantly underestimated transforming sea lam-prey abundance, transforming sea lampreys killed, and marginal costs per sea lamprey killed, compared to a protocol that included more years of data (especially for large streams). Second, larval density in streams varied significantly with Type-I habitat area, but not with total area or reach length. Third, the ratio of larval density between Type-I and Type-II habitat varied significantly among streams, and that the optimal allocation of sampling effort varied with the proportion of habitat types and variability of larval density within each habitat. Fourth, mean length varied significantly among streams and years. Last, size at metamorphosis varied more among years than within or among regions and that metamorphosis varied significantly among streams within regions. Study results indicate that: (1) the stream selection model should be used to identify streams with potentially high residual populations of larval sea lampreys; (2) larval sampling in Type-II habitat should be initiated in all streams by increasing sampling in Type-II habitat to 50% of the sampling effort in Type-I habitat; and (3) methods should be investigated to reduce uncertainty in estimates of sea lamprey production, with emphasis on those that reduce the uncertainty associated with larval length at the end of the growing season and those used to predict metamorphosis.

  11. Evolutionary origin of the structure and function of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone: insights from lampreys.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Daukss, Dana; Gazda, Kristen; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Kosugi, Takayoshi; Nozaki, Masumi; Sower, Stacia A; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Gonadotropin (GTH)-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits GTH secretion in mammals and birds by acting on gonadotropes and GnRH neurons within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnIH and its orthologs that have an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) motif at the C terminus (LPXRFamide peptides) have been identified in representative species of gnathostomes. However, the identity of an LPXRFamide peptide had yet to be identified in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates, leaving open the question of the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral function(s). In this study, we identified an LPXRFamide peptide gene encoding three peptides (LPXRFa-1a, LPXRFa-1b, and LPXRFa-2) from the brain of sea lamprey by synteny analysis and cDNA cloning, and the mature peptides by immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry. The expression of lamprey LPXRFamide peptide precursor mRNA was localized in the brain and gonad by RT-PCR and in the hypothalamus by in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry showed appositions of lamprey LPXRFamide peptide immunoreactive fibers in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons, suggesting that lamprey LPXRFamide peptides act on GnRH-III neurons. In addition, lamprey LPXRFa-2 stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III protein in the hypothalamus and GTHβ mRNA expression in the pituitary. Synteny and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the LPXRFamide peptide gene diverged from a common ancestral gene likely through gene duplication in the basal vertebrates. These results suggest that one ancestral function of LPXRFamide peptides may be stimulatory compared with the inhibitory function seen in later-evolved vertebrates (birds and mammals).

  12. Neuropeptide Y family receptors Y1 and Y2 from sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Larhammar, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The vertebrate gene family for neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors expanded by duplication of the chromosome carrying the ancestral Y1-Y2-Y5 gene triplet. After loss of some duplicates, the ancestral jawed vertebrate had seven receptor subtypes forming the Y1 (including Y1, Y4, Y6, Y8), Y2 (including Y2, Y7) and Y5 (only Y5) subfamilies. Lampreys are considered to have experienced the same chromosome duplications as gnathostomes and should also be expected to have multiple receptor genes. However, previously only a Y4-like and a Y5 receptor have been cloned and characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two additional receptors from the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Sequence phylogeny alone could not with certainty assign their identity, but based on synteny comparisons of P. marinus and the Arctic lamprey, Lethenteron camtschaticum, with jawed vertebrates, the two receptors most likely are Y1 and Y2. Both receptors were expressed in human HEK293 cells and inositol phosphate assays were performed to determine the response to the three native lamprey peptides NPY, PYY and PMY. The three peptides have similar potencies in the nanomolar range for Y1. No obvious response to the three peptides was detected for Y2. Synteny analysis supports identification of the previously cloned receptor as Y4. No additional NPY receptor genes could be identified in the presently available lamprey genome assemblies. Thus, four NPY-family receptors have been identified in lampreys, orthologs of the same subtypes as in humans (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5), whereas many other vertebrate lineages have retained additional ancestral subtypes.

  13. Evolutionary implications of a third lymphocyte lineage in lampreys

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Masayuki; Guo, Peng; McCurley, Nathanael; Schorpp, Michael; Das, Sabyasachi; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D.

    2014-01-01

    Jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes) have different adaptive immune systems1,2. Gnathostomes use T- and B-cell antigen receptors belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily3,4. Cyclostomes, the lampreys and hagfish, instead use leucine-rich repeat proteins to construct variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), two types of which, VLRA and VLRB, are reciprocally expressed by lymphocytes resembling gnathostome T and B cells5–7. Here we define another lineage of T-cell-like lymphocytes that express the recently identified VLRC receptors8,9. Both VLRC+ and VLRA+ lymphocytes express orthologues of genes that gnathostome γδ and αβ T cells use for their differentiation, undergo VLRC and VLRA assembly and repertoire diversification in the ‘thymoid’ gill region, and express their VLRs solely as cell-surface proteins. Our findings suggest that the genetic programmes for two primordial T-cell lineages and a prototypic B-cell lineage were already present in the last common vertebrate ancestor approximately 500 million years ago. We propose that functional specialization of distinct T-cell-like lineages was an ancient feature of a primordial immune system. PMID:23934109

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythm generation in the lamprey.

    PubMed

    Bongianni, Fulvia; Mutolo, Donatella; Cinelli, Elenia; Pantaleo, Tito

    2016-04-01

    The isolated brainstem of the adult lamprey spontaneously generates respiratory activity. The paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory central pattern generator, has been anatomically and functionally characterized. It is sensitive to opioids, neurokinins and acetylcholine. Excitatory amino acids, but not GABA and glycine, play a crucial role in the respiratory rhythmogenesis. These results are corroborated by immunohistochemical data. While only GABA exerts an important modulatory control on the pTRG, both GABA and glycine markedly influence the respiratory frequency via neurons projecting from the vagal motoneuron region to the pTRG. Noticeably, the removal of GABAergic transmission within the pTRG causes the resumption of rhythmic activity during apnea induced by blockade of glutamatergic transmission. The same result is obtained by microinjections of substance P or nicotine into the pTRG during apnea. The results prompted us to present some considerations on the phylogenesis of respiratory pattern generation. They may also encourage comparative studies on the basic mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis of vertebrates.

  15. Inhibitory Conductance Changes at Synapses in the Lamprey Brainstem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Michael R.; Martin, A. R.

    1983-07-01

    Although the conductance and kinetic behavior of inhibitory synaptic channels have been studied in a number of nerve and muscle cells, there has been little if any detailed study of such channels at synapses in the vertebrate central nervous system or of the relation of such channels to natural synaptic events. In the experiments reported here, current noise measurements were used to obtain such information at synapses on Muller cells in the lamprey brainstem. Application of glycine to the cells activated synaptic channels with large conductances and relaxation time constants (70 picosiemens and 33 milliseconds, respectively, at 3 degrees to 10 degrees C). Spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents had a mean conductance of 107 nanosiemens and decayed with the same time constant. In addition, the glycine responses and the spontaneous currents had the same reversal potential and both were abolished by strychnine. These results support the idea that glycine is the natural inhibitory transmitter at these synapses and suggest that one quantum of transmitter activates about 1500 elementary conductance channels.

  16. Differences in osmotolerance in freshwater and brackish water populations of Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda: Neritidae) are associated with differential protein expression.

    PubMed

    Symanowski, Frauke; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2010-03-01

    The euryhaline gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis is found in northern Germany in freshwater or in brackish water habitats in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have revealed that individuals from both habitats are not distinguishable by morphological characters or by sequence comparison of DNA encoding 16S RNA or cytochrome C. As reported in this study, animals collected in the two habitats differ substantially in their physiological ability to adapt to different salinities. Comparison of accumulation rates of ninhydrin-positive substances (NPS) in foot muscle upon transfer of animals to higher medium salinities revealed that brackish water animals were perfectly able to mobilize NPS, while freshwater animals had only limited ability to do so. In an attempt to explore whether this difference in physiology may be caused by genetic differentiation, we compared protein expression patterns of soluble foot muscle proteins using 2D gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Of the 40 consistently detected protein spots, 27 showed similar levels in protein expression in animals collected from freshwater or brackish water habitats, respectively. In 12 spots, however, protein concentration was higher in brackish water than in freshwater animals. In four of these spots, expression levels followed increases or decreases in medium salinities. In a different set of 4 of these 12 spots, protein levels were always higher in brackish water as compared to freshwater animals, regardless of their physiological situation (14 days in artificial pond water or in medium with a salinity of 16 per thousand). The remaining 4 of the 12 spots had complex expression patterns. Protein levels of the remaining single spot were generally higher in freshwater animals than in brackish water animals. These expression patterns may indicate that freshwater and brackish water animals of T. fluviatilis belong to different locally adapted populations with subtle genetic differentiation.

  17. Critical uncertainties and research needs for the restoration and conservation of native lampreys in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the literature, queried selected researchers, and drew upon our own experience to describe some critical uncertainties and research needs for the conservation and restoration of native lampreys in North America. We parsed the uncertainties and research needs into five general categories: (1) population status; (2) systematics; (3) passage at dams, screens, and other structures; (4) species identification in the field; and (5) geneal biology and ecology. For each topic, we describe why the subject is important for lampreys, briefly smmarize our current state of knowledge, and discuss the key data or information gaps.

  18. Compensatory mechanisms in Great Lakes sea lamprey populations: implications for alternative control strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Slade, Jeffrey W.

    2003-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms are demographic processes that tend to increase population growth rates at lower population density. These processes will tend to reduce the effectiveness of actions that use controls on reproductive success to suppress sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an economically important pest in the Great Lakes. Historical evidence for compensatory mechanisms in sea lamprey populations was reviewed, and revealed: (1) strong evidence for shifts in sex ratios as sea lamprey abundance was reduced in the early years of the control program; (2) weak and equivocal evidence for increased growth rates of sea lamprey cohorts re-colonizing streams following a lampricide treatment; and (3) suggestions of other compensatory processes, such as earlier ages at metamorphosis, but with little empirical evidence. Larval size distribution data for cohorts in the first and second years following a lampricide treatment (26 pairs of cohorts in 20 streams) was analyzed and did not indicate a consistent pattern of more rapid growth of the first colonizing cohort (only 11 of 33 cases). To test for compensation between spawning and age-1 in sea lamprey populations, data were analyzed for 49 stream-years for which spawning female abundance was known and age-1 abundance was estimated in the following year. A fit of these data to a Ricker stock-recruitment function showed evidence for compensation, measured as reduced survival to age 1 at higher abundance of spawning females. More obvious, however, was a large amount of density-independent variation in survival, which tends to mask evidence for compensatory survival. The results were applied to a simple model that simulates sea lamprey populations and their control in a hypothetical lake. Control strategies that targeted reproductive success performed far less well than comparable strategies that targeted larval populations, because density-independent recruitment variation leads to occasional strong year classes even when

  19. Tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin receptor 1A expression in the retina of the sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Anadón, Ramón; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2015-06-01

    The dual development of the retina of lampreys is exceptional among vertebrates and offers an interesting EvoDevo (evolutionary developmental biology) model for understanding the origin and evolution of the vertebrate retina. Only a single type of photoreceptor, ganglion cell and bipolar cell are present in the early-differentiated central retina of lamprey prolarvae. A lateral retina appears later in medium-sized larvae (about 3 years after hatching in the sea lamprey), growing and remaining largely neuroblastic until metamorphosis. In this lateral retina, only ganglion cells and optic fibers differentiate in larvae, whereas differentiation of amacrine, horizontal, photoreceptor and bipolar cells mainly takes place during metamorphosis, which gives rise to the adult retina. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter found in the retina of vertebrates whose synthesis is mediated by the rate-limiting enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). TPH is also the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathways of melatonin in photoreceptor cells. The serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) is a major determinant of the activity of both serotonergic cells and their targets due to its pre- and post-synaptic location. Here, we report the developmental pattern of expression of tph and 5-ht1a transcripts in the sea lamprey retina by means of in situ hybridization. In larvae, strong tph mRNA signal was observed in photoreceptors and putative ganglion cells of the central retina, and in some neuroblasts of the lateral retina. In adults, strong tph expression was observed in bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells and in photoreceptors. In the prolarval (central) retina, all the differentiated retinal cells expressed 5-ht1a transcripts, which were not observed in undifferentiated cells. In larvae, photoreceptors, bipolar cells and ganglion cells in the central retina, and neuroblasts in the lateral retina, showed 5-ht1a expression. In the adult retina, expression of 5-ht1a transcript

  20. [Life Forms of Lampreys (Petromyzontidae) as a Manifestation of Intraspecific Diversity of Ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Makhrova, A A; Popov, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    Some lamprey genera include the forms that have significantly different life cycles (the most well-known are the "anadromous" and "resident," or the "parasitic" and "nonparasitic" forms). The analysis of data on the genetic characteristics of these forms shows that, in some cases, the nonparasitic lampreys independently derived from the parasitic ones in different aqueous systems. These data, together with the results of morphological analysis as well as data on the distribution, ecology, hybridization, and observations ofjoint spawning of parasitic and nonparasitic forms show that these forms belong to the same species (except the resident forms that were isolated long ago).

  1. Endocrine events associated with spawning behavior in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linville, Jane E.; Hanson, Lee H.; Sower, Stacia A.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were determined in plasma of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) undergoing certain behaviors associated with spawning in natural and artifical stream environments. Significantly higher levels of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were found in males than in females. In the artifical spawning channel, levels of estradiol were significantly higher in females exhibiting resting and swimming behaviors than in fanning, nest building, and spawning behaviors. No significant correlation was found with either progesterone or testosterone levels and the various reproductive behaviors. The data presented are the first experimental evidence that suggest gonadal steroids may be correlated with certain reproductive behaviors in the sea lamprey.

  2. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  3. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  4. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicolas S; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  5. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  6. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  7. The effect of rapid and sustained decompression on barotrauma in juvenile brook lamprey and Pacific lamprey: implications for passage at hydroelectric facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Brauner, Colin J.; Mueller, Robert P.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.

    2012-10-01

    Fish passing downstream through hydroelectric facilities may pass through hydroturbines where they experience a rapid decrease in barometric pressure as they pass by turbine blades, which can lead to barotraumas including swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, emboli, and hemorrhaging. In juvenile Chinook salmon, the main mechanism for injury is thought to be expansion of existing gases (particularly those present in the swim bladder) and the rupture of the swim bladder ultimately leading to exopthalmia, emboli and hemorrhaging. In fish that lack a swim bladder, such as lamprey, the rate and severity of barotraumas due to rapid decompression may be reduced however; this has yet to be extensively studied. Another mechanism for barotrauma can be gases coming out of solution and the rate of this occurrence may vary among species. In this study, juvenile brook and Pacific lamprey acclimated to 146.2 kPa (equivalent to a depth of 4.6 m) were subjected to rapid (<1 sec; brook lamprey only) or sustained decompression (17 minutes) to a very low pressure (13.8 kPa) using a protocol previously applied to juvenile Chinook salmon. No mortality or evidence of barotraumas, as indicated by the presence of hemorrhages, emboli or exopthalmia, were observed during rapid or sustained decompression, nor following recovery for up to 120 h following sustained decompression. In contrast, mortality or injury would be expected for 97.5% of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to a similar rapid decompression to these very low pressures. Additionally, juvenile Chinook salmon experiencing sustained decompression died within 7 minutes, accompanied by emboli in the fins and gills and hemorrhaging in the tissues. Thus, juvenile lamprey may not be susceptible to barotraumas associated with hydroturbine passage to the same degree as juvenile salmonids, and management of these species should be tailored to their specific morphological and physiological characteristics.

  8. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  9. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and in perch intestinal parasite (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the stream near Prague (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovska, Ivana; Miholova, Daniela; Lukesova, Daniela; Kalous, Lukas; Valek, Petr; Romocusky, Stepan; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Langrova, Iva; Cadkova, Zuzana

    2012-01-15

    We monitored concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in acantocephalan parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) and its final host (Perca fluviatilis). The concentrations in parasites were found to be significantly higher than those found in the muscle, gonads and liver of fish host. The bioaccumulation factor values were 194, 24.4, 2.2 and 4.7 for Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. This suggests a benefit for the host due to the high accumulation of toxic cadmium.

  10. Effects of lamprey PQRFamide peptides on brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone concentrations and pituitary gonadotropin-β mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Daukss, Dana; Gazda, Kristen; Kosugi, Takayoshi; Osugi, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Sower, Stacia A

    2012-06-01

    Within the RFamide peptide family, PQRFamide peptides that include neuropeptide FF and AF possess a C-terminal Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH(2) motif. We previously identified PQRFamide peptides, lamprey PQRFa, PQRFa-related peptide (RP)-1 and -RP-2 by immunoaffinity purification in the brain of lamprey, one of the most ancient vertebrate species [13]. Lamprey PQRFamide peptide precursor mRNA was expressed in regions predicted to be involved in neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus. However, the putative function(s) of lamprey PQRFamide peptides (PQRFa, PQRFa-RP-1 and PQRFa-RP-2) were not examined nor was the distribution of PQRFamide peptides examined in other tissues besides the brain. The objective of this study was to determine tissue distribution of lamprey PQRFamide peptide precursor mRNA, and to examine the effects of PQRFamide peptides on brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-I, -II, and -III protein concentrations, and pituitary gonadotropin (GTH)-β mRNA expression in adult lampreys. Lamprey PQRFamide peptide precursor mRNA was expressed in the eye and the brain. Lamprey PQRFa at 100 μg/kg increased brain concentrations of lamprey GnRH-II compared with controls. PQRFa, PQRFa-RP-1 and PQRFa-RP-2 did not significantly change brain protein concentrations of either lamprey GnRH-I, -III, or lamprey GTH-β mRNA expression in the pituitary. These data suggest that one of the PQRFamide peptides may act as a neuroregulator of at least the lamprey GnRH-II system in adult female lamprey.

  11. Predicting the potential distribution of main malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l. in Iran based on maximum entropy model.

    PubMed

    Pakdad, Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0.943, 0.974 and 0.956 for An. stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l respectively, which are considered as high potential power of model in the prediction of species niches. The biggest bioclimatic contributor for An. stephensi and An. fluviatilis s.l. was bio 15 (precipitation seasonality), 25.5% and 36.1% respectively, followed by bio 1 (annual mean temperature), 20.8% for An. stephensi and bio 4 (temperature seasonality) with 49.4% contribution for An. culicifacies s.l. This is the first step in the mapping of the country's malaria vectors. Hence, future weather situation can change the dispersal maps of Anopheles. Iran is under elimination phase of malaria, so that such spatio-temporal studies are essential and could provide guideline for decision makers for IVM strategies in problematic areas.

  12. Evidence that sea lamprey control led to recovery of the burbot population in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.; Witzel, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1987 and 2003, the abundance of burbot Lota lota in eastern Lake Erie increased significantly, especially in Ontario waters. We considered four hypotheses to explain this increase: (1) reduced competition with lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, the other major coldwater piscivore in Lake Erie; (2) increased abundance of the two main prey species, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and round goby Neogobius melanostomus; (3) reduced interference with burbot reproduction by alewives Alosa pseudoharengus; and (4) reduced predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus on burbot. Species abundance data did not support the first three hypotheses. Our results suggested that the apparent recovery of the burbot population of Lake Erie was driven by effective sea lamprey control. Sea lamprey predation appeared to be the common factor affecting burbot abundance in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. In addition, relatively high alewife density probably depressed burbot abundance in Lakes Ontario and Michigan. We propose that a healthy adult lake trout population may augment burbot recovery in some lakes by serving as a buffer against sea lamprey predation and will not negatively impact burbot through competition.

  13. Odor-conditioned rheotaxis of the sea lamprey: modeling, analysis and validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Jongeun; Jean, Soo; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Brant, Cory O.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms for orienting toward and locating an odor source are sought in both biology and engineering. Chemical ecology studies have demonstrated that adult female sea lamprey show rheotaxis in response to a male pheromone with dichotomous outcomes: sexually mature females locate the source of the pheromone whereas immature females swim by the source and continue moving upstream. Here we introduce a simple switching mechanism modeled after odor-conditioned rheotaxis for the sea lamprey as they search for the source of a pheromone in a one-dimensional riverine environment. In this strategy, the females move upstream only if they detect that the pheromone concentration is higher than a threshold value and drifts down (by turning off control action to save energy) otherwise. In addition, we propose various uncertainty models such as measurement noise, actuator disturbance, and a probabilistic model of a concentration field in turbulent flow. Based on the proposed model with uncertainties, a convergence analysis showed that with this simplistic switching mechanism, the lamprey converges to the source location on average in spite of all such uncertainties. Furthermore, a slightly modified model and its extensive simulation results explain the behaviors of immature female lamprey near the source location.

  14. Development of the serotonergic system in the central nervous system of the sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Abalo, Xesús M; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Meléndez-Ferro, Miguel; Pérez-Costas, Emma; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2007-09-01

    Lampreys belong to the most primitive extant group of vertebrates, the Agnathans, which is considered the sister group of jawed vertebrates. Accordingly, characterization of neuronal groups and their development appears useful for understanding early evolution of the nervous system in vertebrates. Here, the development of the serotonergic system in the central nervous system of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, was investigated by immunohistochemical analysis of specimens ranging from embryos to adults. The different serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neuronal populations that are found in adults were observed between the embryonic and metamorphic stages. The earliest serotonergic neurons were observed in the basal plate of the isthmus region of late embryos. In prolarvae, progressive appearance of new serotonergic cell groups was observed: firstly in the spinal cord, then in the pineal organ, tuberal region, zona limitans intrathalamica, rostral isthmus, and the caudal part of the rhombencephalon. In early larvae a new group of serotonergic cells was observed in the mammillary region, whereas in the pretectal region and the parapineal organ the first serotonergic cells were seen in the middle and late larval stages, respectively. The first serotonergic fibres appeared in early prolarvae, with fibres that ascend and descend from the isthmic cell group, and the number of immunoreactive fibres increased progressively until the adult stage. The results reveal strong resemblances between lampreys and other vertebrates in the spatio-temporal pattern of development of brainstem populations. This study also reveals a shared pattern of early ascending and descending serotonergic pathways in lampreys and jawed vertebrates.

  15. Distribution and size composition of the arctic lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. M.; Baitalyuk, A. A.; Pelenev, D. V.

    2014-03-01

    Results of the long-term study of the spatial and vertical distribution of the parasitic anadromous Arctic lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum (Tilesius, 1811) (Petromyzontidae) in the North Pacific and data on its size composition are given. This species is most frequent in the northwestern Sea of Japan and the western Bering Sea. The maximum concentrations are noted in waters of southern Primorye, southwestern Sakhalin, the northwestern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, and the northern part of the Bering Sea, which is probably explained by the increased number of its victims, Pacific salmon. Near the bottom, Pacific lampreys are extremely few and are primarily encountered at depths less that 400 m, and in the Pelagic zone, in the 100-m layer. The catches have contained Arctic lampreys having a total length of 15-79 cm. The lampreys of several size groups in the catches may indicate that L. camtschaticum spends not less than four years in the sea. No relationship has been found between the body length and the capture depth. Analyzed are the relationships between the body length and weight and the body length and the condition factor. The seasonal dynamics of these indices are considered.

  16. Odor-conditioned rheotaxis of the sea lamprey: modeling, analysis and validation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongeun; Jeon, Soo; Johnson, Nicholas S; Brant, Cory O; Li, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for orienting toward and locating an odor source are sought in both biology and engineering. Chemical ecology studies have demonstrated that adult female sea lamprey show rheotaxis in response to a male pheromone with dichotomous outcomes: sexually mature females locate the source of the pheromone whereas immature females swim by the source and continue moving upstream. Here we introduce a simple switching mechanism modeled after odor-conditioned rheotaxis for the sea lamprey as they search for the source of a pheromone in a one-dimensional riverine environment. In this strategy, the females move upstream only if they detect that the pheromone concentration is higher than a threshold value and drifts down (by turning off control action to save energy) otherwise. In addition, we propose various uncertainty models such as measurement noise, actuator disturbance, and a probabilistic model of a concentration field in turbulent flow. Based on the proposed model with uncertainties, a convergence analysis showed that with this simplistic switching mechanism, the lamprey converges to the source location on average in spite of all such uncertainties. Furthermore, a slightly modified model and its extensive simulation results explain the behaviors of immature female lamprey near the source location.

  17. Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

  18. Flexibility and Resonance in Thrust Production of a Mechanical Swimming Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    We use a robotic lamprey as a means of investigating the influence of flexibility on the wake structure and thrust production during anguilliform swimming. A programmable microcomputer actuates 11 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The waveform is based on kinematic studies of living lamprey. The shape of the tail is taken from CT scan data of the silver lamprey, and it is constructed of flexible PVC gel. Plastic inserts allow the the degree of flexibility to be changed. PIV measurements in the wake of the robot with three different flexible tails show that a 2P structure dominates the flexible wake. However, the large structure is composed of several small vortices (as opposed to the large coherent vortex seen behind a stiff tailed robot). Furthermore, the wake loses coherence as flexibility is increased. Additionally, momentum balance calculations indicate that increasing the tail flexibility yields less thrust. Finally, we find that changing the cycle frequency to match the resonance frequency of the tail increases the thrust production. The project is supported by NIH CNRS Grant 1R01NS054271.

  19. Investigating the Great Lakes Environment, Unit One: The Sea Lamprey Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Leslie; And Others

    Presented are 11 middle school activities dealing with the sea lamprey and its impact upon the Great Lakes. Included are background information, lesson outlines, references, masters for student worksheets, a wall map, game boards, and two filmstrip-tape units. Using these materials students can learn ecological concepts and some Great Lakes…

  20. Reducing fungal infections and testing tag loss in juvenile Pacific lampreys implanted with passive integrated transponders.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, H.E.; Gee, L.P.; Mesa, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus are facing severe population declines, yet little is known about juvenile lamprey passage, life history, or adult return rates because until now, these small fish could not be tagged for unique identification of live individuals. Previously, we developed a simple and effective method for tagging juvenile lampreys with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and showed that tagging per se did not affect survival. Mortality in tagged and untagged control fish, however, was frequently associated with fungal infection. In this study, we addressed two outstanding issues related to handling and tagging juvenile lampreys. First, we tried to mitigate freshwater fungal infections by reducing irritation and stress from anesthesia and by treating tagged fish briefly with a prophylactic immediately after tagging. We tested four anesthetics at three concentrations each and determined that 100 mg/L MS-222 and 60 mg/L BENZOAK® (benzocaine) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile lampreys to handleable while minimizing irritation. We also showed that fish anesthetized with BENZOAK® may have lower rates of fungal infection than those anesthetized with MS-222 or AQUI-S® 20E (eugenol). When fish anesthetized with MS-222 or BENZOAK® were given a 30 min prophylactic treatment with Stress Coat®, hydrogen peroxide, or salt immediately after tagging, few fish presented with fungal infections. However, untreated, tagged control fish also showed few fungal infections, making it difficult to determine if the prophylactic treatments were successful. The second question we addressed was whether activity would increase tag loss in PIT-tagged lampreys. We found that active swimming did not cause tag loss if fish were first held for 20–24 h after tagging. Therefore, we recommend anesthesia with MS-222 or BENZOAK® and then tagging with a 20–24 h recovery period followed by immediate release. If field studies show that lampreys are not

  1. Maturation characteristics and life history strategies of the Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clemens, Benjamin J.; van de Wetering, Stan; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2013-01-01

    Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) have persisted over millennia and now suffer a recent decline in abundance. Complex life histories may have factored in their persistence; anthropogenic perturbations in their demise. The complexity of life histories of lampreys is not understood, particularly for the anadromous Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus Gairdner, 1836. Our goals were to describe the maturation timing and associated characteristics of adult Pacific lamprey, and to test the null hypothesis that different life histories do not exist. Females exhibited early vitellogenesis – early maturation stages; males exhibited spermatogonia – spermatozoa. Cluster analyses revealed an “immature” group and a “maturing–mature” group for each sex. We found statistically significant differences between these groups in the relationships between (i) body mass and total length in males; (ii) Fulton’s condition factor and liver lipids in males; (iii) the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver lipids in females; (iv) GSI and total length in females; (v) mean oocyte diameter and liver lipids; and (vi) mean oocyte diameter and GSI. We found no significant difference between the groups in the relationship of muscle lipids and body mass. Our analyses support rejection of the hypothesis of a single life history. We found evidence for an “ocean-maturing” life history that would likely spawn within several weeks of entering fresh water, in addition to the formerly recognized life history of spending 1 year in fresh water prior to spawning—the “stream-maturing” life history. Late maturity, semelparity, and high fecundity suggest that Pacific lamprey capitalize on infrequent opportunities for reproduction in highly variable environments.

  2. Cyclic AMP stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey reticulospinal neurons without substantially altering their biophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Pale, T; Frisch, E B; McClellan, A D

    2013-08-15

    Reticulospinal (RS) neurons are critical for initiation of locomotor behavior, and following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, the axons of these neurons regenerate and restore locomotor behavior within a few weeks. For lamprey RS neurons in culture, experimental induction of calcium influx, either in the growth cone or cell body, is inhibitory for neurite outgrowth. Following SCI, these neurons partially downregulate calcium channel expression, which would be expected to reduce calcium influx and possibly provide supportive conditions for axonal regeneration. In the present study, it was tested whether activation of second messenger signaling pathways stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey RS neurons without altering their electrical properties (e.g. spike broadening) so as to possibly increase calcium influx and compromise axonal growth. First, activation of cAMP pathways with forskolin or dbcAMP stimulated neurite outgrowth of RS neurons in culture in a PKA-dependent manner, while activation of cGMP signaling pathways with dbcGMP inhibited outgrowth. Second, neurophysiological recordings from uninjured RS neurons in isolated lamprey brain-spinal cord preparations indicated that dbcAMP or dbcGMP did not significantly affect any of the measured electrical properties. In contrast, for uninjured RS neurons, forskolin increased action potential duration, which might have increased calcium influx, but did not significantly affect most other electrical properties. Importantly, for injured RS neurons during the period of axonal regeneration, forskolin did not significantly alter their electrical properties. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of cAMP signaling by dbcAMP stimulates neurite outgrowth, but does not alter the electrical properties of lamprey RS neurons in such a way that would be expected to induce calcium influx. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP pathways alone, without compensation for possible

  3. Classification of retinal ganglion cells in the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis (Cyclostomata).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Lee Norman; Coimbra, João Paulo; Rodger, Jennifer; Potter, Ian C; Gill, Howard S; Dunlop, Sarah A; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-03-01

    Lampreys are one of two extant representatives of the earliest group of vertebrates, the agnathans or jawless fishes. The single species of the southern hemisphere lamprey family Geotriidae, Geotria australis, possesses the potential for pentachromatic color discrimination opposed to the mono- or dichromacy found in other lampreys. However, little is known of the retinal ganglion cell types that contribute to visual processing in G. australis. A quantitative morphological approach was used to distinguish and describe retinal ganglion cell types in G. australis. The morphology of retinal ganglion cells was revealed by retrograde biocytin labeling from the optic disc. Cells were digitally reconstructed, and somatic area and position and dendritic field size, density, tortuosity, and stratification were subjected to quantitative morphometric analyses. Cluster analysis, in conjunction with similarity profile analysis (SIMPROF), statistically identified five discrete monostratified retinal ganglion cell types, one of which may comprise two subtypes. Two bistratified types were identified separately, including a biplexiform and a bistratified subtype. The use of cluster analysis with SIMPROF provided a robust statistical technique for objectively identifying cell types whose characteristics were similar and significantly different from those of other types and thus provides an objective resolution of the problems posed by "lumpers vs. splitters" when designating cell types. The diversity of retinal ganglion cells suggests that visual information in the lamprey G. australis is processed in parallel streams, as in gnathostomes. These findings, together with the results of previous studies, indicate that the visual system of the lamprey G. australis represents the upper limit of visual complexity in extant agnathans.

  4. Emergence of an Ancestral Glycoprotein Hormone in the Pituitary of the Sea Lamprey, a Basal Vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Sower, Stacia A; Decatur, Wayne A; Hausken, Krist N; Marquis, Timothy J; Barton, Shannon L; Gargan, James; Freamat, Mihael; Wilmot, Michael; Hollander, Lian; Hall, Jeffrey A; Nozaki, Masumi; Shpilman, Michal; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2015-08-01

    The gnathostome (jawed vertebrates) classical pituitary glycoprotein hormones, FSH, LH, and TSH, consist of a common α-subunit (GpA1) and unique β-subunits (Gpβ1, -2, and -3), whereas a recently identified pituitary glycoprotein hormone, thyrostimulin, consists of GpA2 and GpB5. This paper reports the identification, expression, and function of an ancestral, nonclassical, pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone (GpH) consisting of the thyrostimulin A2 subunit with the classical β-subunit in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a jawless basal vertebrate. Lamprey (l) GpA2, and lGpHβ were shown to form a heterodimer by coimmunoprecipitation of lGpA2 with FLAG-tagged lGpHβ after the overexpression in transiently transfected COS7 cells using a bipromoter vector. Dual-label fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed the coexpression of individual subunits in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. GnRH-III (1μΜ) significantly increased the expression of lGpHβ and lGpA2 in in vitro pituitary culture. Recombinant lamprey GpH was constructed by tethering the N terminal of lGpA2 to the C terminal of lGpHβ with a linker region composed of six histidine residues followed by three glycine-serine repeats. This recombinant lamprey GpH activated the lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor I as measured by increased cAMP/luciferase activity. These data are the first to demonstrate a functional, unique glycoprotein heterodimer that is not found in any other vertebrate. These data suggest an intermediate stage of the structure-function of the gonadotropin/thyroid-stimulating hormone in a basal vertebrate, leading to the emergence of the highly specialized gonadotropin hormones and thyroid stimulating hormones in gnathostomes.

  5. Adult sea lamprey tolerates biliary atresia by altering bile salt composition and renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shi-Ying; Lionarons, Daniël A.; Hagey, Lee; Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a genetically programmed animal model for biliary atresia as it loses its bile ducts and gallbladder during metamorphosis. However, in contrast to patients with biliary atresia or other forms of cholestasis who develop progressive disease, the post-metamorphosis lampreys grow normally to adult size. To understand how the adult lamprey thrives without the ability to secrete bile, we examined bile salt homeostasis in larval and adult lampreys. Adult livers were severely cholestatic with levels of bile salts >1 mM, but no evidence of necrosis, fibrosis, or inflammation. Interestingly, both larvae and adults had normal plasma levels (~10 μM) of bile salts. In larvae, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS) was the predominant bile salt, whereas the major bile salts in adult liver were sulfated C27 bile alcohols. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that PZS was highly toxic. Pharmacokinetic studies in free-swimming adults revealed that ~35% of intravenously injected bromosulfophthalein (BSP) was eliminated over a 72 hr period. Collection of urine and feces demonstrated that both endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including biliverdin, bile salts and BSP, were predominantly excreted via the kidney with minor amounts also detected in feces. Gene expression analysis detected marked up-regulation of orthologs of known organic anion and bile salt transporters in the kidney with lesser effects in the intestine and gills in adults compared to larvae. These findings indicate that adult lampreys tolerate cholestasis by altering hepatic bile salt composition, while maintaining normal plasma bile salt levels predominantly through renal excretion of bile products. Therefore, we conclude that strategies to accelerate renal excretion of bile salt and other toxins should be beneficial for patients with cholestasis. PMID:23175353

  6. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  7. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has been a serious pest since its introduction into the Great Lakes, where it contributed to severe imbalances in the fish communities by selectively removing large predators (Smith 1968; Christie 1974; Schneider et al.1996). Since the 1950s, restoration and maintenance of predator-prey balance has depended on the Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) sea lamprey management program. Initially, management relied primarily on stream treatments with a selective lampricide to kill larvae, on barriers to migration, and on trapping to remove potential spawners (Smith and Tibbles 1980). By the late 1970s, however, it was clear that the future of sea lamprey management lay in development of a larger array of control strategies, including more alternatives to lampricide applications (Sawyer 1980). Since then the only new alternative to chemical control to reach operational status is the release of sterilized male sea lampreys. Research on the concept began at the USGS, Hammond Bay Biological Station in Millersburg, MI (HBBS) during the 1970s (Hanson and Manion 1980). Development and evaluation continued through the 1980s, leading to the release of sterilized males in Great Lakes tributaries since 1991 (Twohey et al. 2003a). The objectives of this paper are 1) to review the implementation and evaluations of sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, 2) to review our current understanding of its efficacy, and 3) to identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application.

  8. Growth and survival of sea lampreys from metamorphosis to spawning in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Larval Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus live burrowed in stream bottoms and then metamorphose into their parasitic stage. Among larvae that metamorphose in a given year (i.e., parasitic cohort), autumn out-migrants (October–December) to the Laurentian Great Lakes can feed on fish for up to 6 months longer than spring outmigrants (March–May), which overwinter in streams without feeding. We evaluated whether the season of outmigration affected growth or survival of newlymetamorphosed Sea Lampreys in LakeHuron. Newlymetamorphosed individuals (n=2,718) from three parasitic cohorts were netted during their out-migration from BlackMallard Creek, Michigan, to LakeHuron during autumn 1997 through spring 2000; each out-migrant was injected with a sequentially numbered coded wire tag and was released back into the creek. After up to 18 months of feeding in the Great Lakes, 224 (8.2%) Sea Lampreys were recaptured (in 1999–2001) as upstream-migrating adults in tributaries to Lakes Huron and Michigan. Recovery rates of autumn and spring out-migrants as adults were 9.4% and 7.8%, respectively, and these rates did not significantly differ. Overwinter feeding (i.e., as parasites) by autumn out-migrants did not produce adult mean sizes greater than those of spring out-migrants. Because we detected no growth or survival differences between autumn and spring out-migrants, the capture of newly metamorphosed Sea Lampreys at any point during their out-migration should provide equal reductions in damage to Great Lakes fisheries. The absence of a difference in growth or survival between autumn and spring out-migrants is an aspect of Sea Lamprey life history that yields resiliency to this invasive parasite and complicates efforts for its control in the Great Lakes.

  9. Selecting Great Lakes streams for lampricide treatment based on larval sea lamprey surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, Gavin C.; Adams, Jean V.; Steeves, Todd B.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Young, Robert J.; Kuc, Miroslaw; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The Empiric Stream Treatment Ranking (ESTR) system is a data-driven, model-based, decision tool for selecting Great Lakes streams for treatment with lampricide, based on estimates from larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) surveys conducted throughout the basin. The 2000 ESTR system was described and applied to larval assessment surveys conducted from 1996 to 1999. A comparative analysis of stream survey and selection data was conducted and improvements to the stream selection process were recommended. Streams were selected for treatment based on treatment cost, predicted treatment effectiveness, and the projected number of juvenile sea lampreys produced. On average, lampricide treatments were applied annually to 49 streams with 1,075 ha of larval habitat, killing 15 million larval and 514,000 juvenile sea lampreys at a total cost of $5.3 million, and marginal and mean costs of $85 and $10 per juvenile killed. The numbers of juvenile sea lampreys killed for given treatment costs showed a pattern of diminishing returns with increasing investment. Of the streams selected for treatment, those with > 14 ha of larval habitat targeted 73% of the juvenile sea lampreys for 60% of the treatment cost. Suggested improvements to the ESTR system were to improve accuracy and precision of model estimates, account for uncertainty in estimates, include all potentially productive streams in the process (not just those surveyed in the current year), consider the value of all larvae killed during treatment (not just those predicted to metamorphose the following year), use lake-specific estimates of damage, and establish formal suppression targets.

  10. Predation by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern Lake Ontario, 1982-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, C.P.; Owens, R.W.; Bergstedt, R.A.; O'Gorman, R.

    1996-01-01

    Dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) killed by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) were collected from the bottom of Lake Ontario using bottom trawls. The number of dead lake trout per hectare could be predicted from the number of type A-1 sea lamprey marks observed on live fish in September gillnet surveys (r2 = 0.60, P P > 0.05) from those of live fish with A-1 marks in 5 of 6 years where comparisons could be made. Compared with Lake Superior strain lake trout, Seneca Lake strain fish were only 0.41 times as likely to be attacked by sea lamprey and were less likely to die from an attack (both differences P < 0.05). Conservative estimates of the numbers of lake trout killed by sea lamprey in southern Lake Ontario from October to mid-November ranged from 17 000 in 1988 to 121 000 in 1984.

  11. The effect of pinealectomy, continuous light, and continuous darkness on metamorphosis of anadromous sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, W.C.; Youson, J.H.

    1981-12-01

    The role of the pineal complex in lamprey metamorphosis was investigated by examining the influence of pinealectomy and continuous light and darkness on the initiation of this event in anadromous sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L. Larval lampreys, which on the basis of a condition factor were considered likely to enter metamorphosis in July, were separated in May of 1979 and 1980 into the following groups: (1) intact controls, (2) sham-operated controls, (3) pinealectomized individuals, (4) those exposed to continuous light, and (5) those exposed to continuous light or dark. The importance of the pineal complex to metamorphosis was supported by morphological evidence that, in all presumably pinealectomized individuals that entered metamorphosis, the complex had apparently not been removed during the surgical procedure. The ways in which the pineal complex may be involved in lamprey metamorphosis are discussed.

  12. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2003-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements and exploitation in lower Deschutes River tributaries is extremely limited. To assess the status of lampreys in the Deschutes River subbasin, baseline information is needed. We operated to rotary screw traps in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek to gain an understanding of species composition, migration time and production. We identified Pacific lampreys in two life stages, ammocoete and macropthalmia. It appears that Pacific lamprey macropthalmia out-migrate during winter in the Warm Springs River. We saw peak movements by ammocoetes in the spring in Shitike Creek and winter in the Warm Springs River. We found no relationship between stream discharge and the number of lamprey collected. Very few macropthalmia were collected in Shitike Creek. Ammocoete size in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek were different. The ammocoetes in the Shitike Creek trap were close in size to the macropthalmia collected in the Warm Springs River trap. We also completed planning and preparation for larval and associated habitat data collection. This preparation included purchasing necessary field equipment, selecting and marking sampling areas and attending training with US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Because lamprey identification is difficult we met with US Geological Survey (USGS) to assist us with larval lamprey identification techniques. We have also been working in coordination with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to prepare and implement creel surveys and a mark-recapture study at Sherar's Falls to estimate adult lamprey escapement.

  13. 75 FR 54647 - Revision of Information Collection; Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin; Correction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), Pacific lamprey (Lampetra... to Klamath Basin tribes (e.g., salmon, sturgeon, lamprey, eulachon), and some are at low levels of abundance or Endangered Species Act-listed (e.g., spring Chinook, lamprey, coho, eulachon). Studies on...

  14. 76 FR 9046 - Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin; Thirty-Day Notice Requesting Additional Public Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... (Oncorhynchus mykiss), green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentate), and... Basin tribes (e.g., salmon, sturgeon, lamprey, eulachon), and some are at low levels of abundance or Endangered Species Act-listed (e.g., spring Chinook, lamprey, coho, eulachon). Studies on the...

  15. White sucker Catostomus commersonii respond to conspecific and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus alarm cues but not potential predator cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordbro, Ethan J.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies proposed the use of chemosensory alarm cues to control the distribution of invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes and necessitate the evaluation of sea lamprey chemosensory alarm cues on valuable sympatric species such as white sucker. In two laboratory experiments, 10 replicate groups (10 animals each) of migratory white suckers were exposed to deionized water (control), conspecific whole-body extract, heterospecific whole-body extract (sea lamprey) and two potential predator cues (2-phenylethylamine HCl (PEA HCl) and human saliva) during the day, and exposed to the first four of the above cues at night. White suckers avoided the conspecific and the sea lamprey whole-body extract both during the day and at night to the same extent. Human saliva did not induce avoidance during the day. PEA HCl did not induce avoidance at a higher concentration during the day, or at night at the minimum concentration that was previously shown to induce maximum avoidance by sea lamprey under laboratory conditions. Our findings suggest that human saliva and PEA HCl may be potential species-specific predator cues for sea lamprey.

  16. Techniques and methods for estimating abundance of larval and metamorphosed sea lampreys in Great Lakes tributaries, 1995 to 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Heinrich, John W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Weise, Jerry G.; Weisser, John W.; Young, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Before 1995, Great Lakes streams were selected for lampricide treatment based primarily on qualitative measures of the relative abundance of larval sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus. New integrated pest management approaches required standardized quantitative measures of sea lamprey. This paper evaluates historical larval assessment techniques and data and describes how new standardized methods for estimating abundance of larval and metamorphosed sea lampreys were developed and implemented. These new methods have been used to estimate larval and metamorphosed sea lamprey abundance in about 100 Great Lakes streams annually and to rank them for lampricide treatment since 1995. Implementation of these methods has provided a quantitative means of selecting streams for treatment based on treatment cost and estimated production of metamorphosed sea lampreys, provided managers with a tool to estimate potential recruitment of sea lampreys to the Great Lakes and the ability to measure the potential consequences of not treating streams, resulting in a more justifiable allocation of resources. The empirical data produced can also be used to simulate the impacts of various control scenarios.

  17. Video evaluation of passage efficiency of American shad and sea lamprey in a modified Ice Harbor fishway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, A.; Kynard, B.

    1997-01-01

    Movement and behavior of adult American shad Alosa sapidissima and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus were monitored by closed-circuit video at several locations within a modified Ice Harbor fishway. American shad ascended and descended the fishway exclusively by surface weirs, while sea lampreys used both surface weirs and submerged orifices. Upstream movement of American shad during the day was higher than at night at both lower and middle fishway observation sites. Peak downstream movement of American shad at both locations was associated with decreasing light levels in the evening. Sea lampreys moved primarily at night at the lower and middle fishway sites. Mean daily passage efficiency was low (1% for American shad, -2% for sea lamprey) at the lower fishway surface weir, but passage efficiency at the middle fishway surface weir was moderate (70% for American shad, 35% for sea lamprey). High water velocity, air entrainment, and turbulence of the modified Ice Harbor fishway design appeared to inhibit American shad and sea lamprey passage by disrupting upstream migratory motivation and visual and rheotactic orientation.

  18. Passage and behavior of radio-tagged adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River basin have declined and passage problems at dams are a contributing factor. We used radio telemetry to monitor the passage of adult Pacific lampreys at the Willamette Falls Project (a hydroelectric dam integrated into a natural falls) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. In 2005 and 2006, fish were captured at the Project, implanted with a radio tag, and released downstream. We tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. Over 90% of the fish returned to the Project in 7 – 9 h and most were detected from 2000 – 2300 h. In 2005, 43 fish (34%) passed the dam via the fishway, with peak passage in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13% ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23%) passed the Project using the fishway, with most prior to 9 June when the powerhouse was off. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only two passed via this route. The time for fish to pass through the fishway ranged from 4 – 74 h, depending on route. Many fish stayed in the tailrace for hours to almost a year and eventually moved downstream. Our results indicate that passage of lampreys at the Project is lower than that for lampreys at dams on the Columbia River. Low passage success may result from low river flows, impediments in fishways, delayed tagging effects, changing environmental conditions, or performance or behavioral constraints.

  19. Sea lamprey mark type, wounding rate, and parasite-host preference and abundance relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  20. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  1. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR

  2. Varying Photoperiod, Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and CO2 Uptake in Thalassiosira fluviatilis (Bacillariophyceae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Louis A.; Morris, W. James.; Guest, Kathryn P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that acclimation of the unicellular marine alga, Thalassiosira fluviatilis Hustedt, to short photoperiods results in decreased cellular concentrations of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and decreased rates of light-saturated CO2 uptake. Cells were acclimated to photoperiods of 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6 h:h light:dark, and concentrations of the large subunit of the enzyme and responses of CO2 uptake to varying irradiance were measured. Concentrations of the large subunit, which weighed approximately 50 kilodaltons, were conserved while rates of CO2 uptake under light saturation and limitation, and cellular contents of chlorophyll a increased as photoperiod decreased. Apparently, these cells acclimate to short photoperiods by increasing rates of CO2 uptake under saturating irradiances by increasing in vivo activation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Also, chlorophyll-specific concentrations and specific activities of the enzyme appear to be lower and higher, respectively, in diatomaceous algae than in higher plants. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664500

  3. Parasite identification, succession and infection pathways in perch fry (Perca fluviatilis): new insights through a combined morphological and genetic approach.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2013-04-01

    Identification of parasite species is particularly challenging in larval and juvenile hosts, and this hampers the understanding of parasite acquisition in early life. The work described here employs a new combination of methods to identify parasite species and study parasite succession in fry of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Constance, Germany. Classical morphological diagnostics are combined with sequence comparisons between parasite life-stages collected from various hosts within the same ecosystem. In perch fry at different stages of development, 13 different parasite species were found. Incomplete morphological identifications of cestodes of the order Proteocephalidea, and trematodes of the family Diplostomatidae were complemented with sequences of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase 1) and/or nuclear (28 s rDNA) genes. Sequences were compared to published data and used to link the parasites in perch to stages from molluscs, arthropods and more easily identifiable developmental stages from other fishes collected in Lake Constance, which both aided parasite identification and clarified transmission pathways. There were distinct changes in parasite community composition and abundance associated with perch fry age and habitat shifts. Some parasites became more abundant in older fish, whereas the composition of parasite communities was more strongly affected by the ontogenetic shifts from the pelagic to the littoral zone.

  4. Host-parasite relationships as determinants of heavy metal concentrations in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and its intestinal parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalamún, Peter; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M

    2015-12-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were determined in two intestinal parasites, an acanthocephalan, Acanthocephalus lucii, a tapeworm, Proteocephalus percae, present in the same host, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.), in the heavily polluted Ružín reservoir in eastern Slovakia. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the fish organs and parasites was studied for acanthocephalan and tapeworm monoinfections or mixed infections by the two parasites and for the size of their parasitic infrapopulations. Bioconcentration factors (c[parasite]/c[muscle tissue]) showed that the concentrations of As, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher in mixed infections than in monoinfections. Negative correlations between heavy metal concentrations in perch organs and the parasites were found. For example, higher concentrations of Ni and Zn in both parasite species corresponded with lower metal concentrations in perch and hard roe. Likewise, significant negative relationships between metal concentrations in fish organs and number of parasites were noticed with lower levels of Pb in fish harbouring higher numbers of tapeworms. Similarly, in both parasite species the concentrations of some essential elements (Cr, Mn) were lower at high infection intensities compared to low intensities. Our study revealed that the differential concentration of heavy metals in perch organs was affected by the type of infection (mono- or mixed-infection), and needs to be considered in field ecotoxicological and parasitological studies as a potentially important factor influencing the pollutant concentrations in fish.

  5. Development of sperm vitrification protocols for freshwater fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) and marine fish (European eel, Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Kása, Eszter; Bernáth, Gergely; Kollár, Tímea; Żarski, Daniel; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Bokor, Zoltán; Hegyi, Árpád; Urbányi, Béla; Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Horváth, Ákos

    2016-05-09

    Vitrification was successfully applied to the sperm of two fish species, the freshwater Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and marine European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Sperm was collected, diluted in species-specific non-activating media and cryoprotectants and vitrified by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen without pre-cooling in its vapor. Progressive motility of fresh and vitrified-thawed sperm was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Additional sperm quality parameters such as sperm head morphometry parameters (in case of European eel) and fertilizing capacity (in case of Eurasian perch) were carried out to test the effectiveness of vitrification. The vitrification method for Eurasian perch sperm resulting the highest post-thaw motility (14±1.6%) was as follows: 1:5 dilution ratio, Tanaka extender, 30% cryoprotectant (15% methanol+15% propylene-glycol), cooling device: Cryotop, 2μl droplets, and for European eel sperm: dilution ratio 1:1, with 40% cryoprotectant (20% MeOH and 20% PG), and 10% FBS, cooling device: Cryotop, with 2μl of sperm suspension. Viable embryos were produced by fertilization with vitrified Eurasian perch sperm (neurulation: 2.54±1.67%). According to the ASMA analysis, no significant decrease in head area and perimeter of vitrified European eel spermatozoa were found when compared to fresh spermatozoa.

  6. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L.

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  7. The presence of teleost-type angiotensin components in lamprey buccal gland suggests a role in endocrine mimicry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty K S; Sower, Stacia A; Takei, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    Previous characterization of a native lamprey angiotensin II (LpAng II) that possesses a different sequence and function than teleost-type angiotensin II (Ang II) has raised a question as to the role of teleost-type angiotensin peptides in lampreys. In this study, teleost-type angiotensin like-peptides were identified in the buccal gland of lampreys by immunoassays and immunohistochemistry. The possible sources of angiotensin like-peptides were investigated in lampreys by manipulating their choice of host and food. Ang II immunoreactivity (irAng II) was detected in the buccal gland and plasma of feeding phase sea lampreys exposed to Atlantic cod, but was mostly absent in fasting lamprey. Qualitatively, the HPLC profiles of irAng II observed in the plasma, when present, were highly similar to those in buccal gland, implying that the buccal gland could be a source of plasma Ang II. Japanese lampreys force-fed with dogfish blood had significantly elevated concentrations of irAng II in their buccal glands when compared to unfed individuals, suggesting that feeding stimuli may have enhanced buccal gland activity. Teleost-type Ang II-containing proteins, other than angiotensinogen, are present in the buccal gland as trypsinization generated Ang II in vitro, and the HPLC profile of these irAng II was highly comparable to those naturally present in the buccal gland. [Asn(1), Val(5), Thr(9)]-Ang I that was identified in the buccal gland of Japanese lampreys has the same amino acid sequence to those previously isolated from the incubation of plasma and kidney extract, providing an alternative explanation for the previous isolation of teleost-type Ang I in lampreys. irAng I and irAng II were localized in the granule-like structures in the apical region of the secretory epithelia, suggesting that these peptides may be active components of lamphredin. The teleost-type angiotensin peptides in the buccal gland secretion suggested that these host-specific peptides could be part

  8. Evidence that lake trout served as a buffer against sea lamprey predation on burbot in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The population of burbot Lota lota in Lake Erie recovered during 1986–2003, mainly because of the control of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in 1986. Burbot populations continued to grow during 1996–1998, when sea lamprey control was substantially reduced. We calculated mortality parameters for burbot in Lake Erie by estimating age at capture for 2,793 burbot caught in annual gill-net surveys of eastern Lake Erie from 1994 to 2003. Based on catch-curve analysis, annual mortality in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 was estimated as 33%. Annual mortality of the 1992 year-class of burbot was estimated as 30%. The mortality of burbot during the years of reduced sea lamprey control was not different from that during the 3 years preceding reduced control and was significantly lower than that during the entire portion of the time series in which full sea lamprey control was conducted. These results suggest that the reduction in sea lamprey control did not lead to increased burbot mortality. The catch per gill-net lift of large burbot (total length > 600 mm), the size preferred by sea lampreys, was lower than that of adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (age 5 and older; total length > 700 mm) before lampricide application was reduced. Although adult lake trout populations declined, the abundance of large burbot did not change during the period of reduced lampricide application. These results support a hypothesis that a healthy population of adult lake trout can serve as a buffer species, acting to reduce predation of burbot by sea lampreys when sea lamprey populations increase. Burbot attained sexual maturity at a relatively early age (3 or 4 years) and a total length (approximately 500 mm) that was smaller than the preferred prey size for sea lampreys. These characteristics and the buffering effect of the lake trout population enabled growth of the burbot population during the brief period when lamprey control was reduced.

  9. Numerical analysis of a unique mode of locomotion: vertical climbing by Pacific lamprey.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Q; Moser, M; Kemp, P

    2011-03-01

    Pacific lampreys are capable of climbing vertical wetted surfaces through a two-phase (bending and stretching) locomotion mode using the oral disc for adherence. We investigate the physical mechanism and performance of this process by using a continuous beam model. Two mechanisms, one akin to the jumping process and the other related to the fast stretching of the body, have been identified. This locomotion mode may inspire biomimetic designs of anguilliform swimming devices capable of overcoming steep obstacles. By using a genetic algorithm simulation we identify the combination of kinematic parameters corresponding to optimal efficiency (defined as the gravitational potential energy gained in each climbing step divided by the energy spent to activate the motion). These parameters are similar to laboratory observations of lamprey motion, suggesting that this type of locomotion has been optimized for maximum efficiency through evolution.

  10. Blood cell lineage in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus (Pisces: Petromyzontidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Hiatt, James L.

    1971-01-01

    Blood cell types of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, are described and identified and the lineage of mature circulating cells in peripheral blood is traced to blast cells in the hematopoietic fat body. The fat body appears to be the phylogenetic precursor of bone marrow in higher forms, since blood cells originate and begin maturation in this tissue. Experimental animals were injected first with a hematopoietic stimulant and then (at an experimentally determined time) with pertussis vaccine to release proliferated blood cells into peripheral blood. Peripheral blood for smears was collected by cardiac exsanguination; hematopoietic tissue was extirpated for imprints; and leucocyte preparations were made by a special technique. Blood cells of the sea lamprey are apparently products of at least four distinct blast cells, each of which has a 'one end' maturation process. Results of this investigation support the polyphyletic theory of blood cell formation.

  11. Sensory Activation of Command Cells for Locomotion and Modulatory Mechanisms: Lessons from Lampreys.

    PubMed

    Daghfous, Gheylen; Green, Warren W; Alford, Simon T; Zielinski, Barbara S; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor transformation is one of the most fundamental and ubiquitous functions of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the general organization of the locomotor neural circuitry is relatively well understood, less is known about its activation by sensory inputs and its modulation. Utilizing the lamprey model, a detailed understanding of sensorimotor integration in vertebrates is emerging. In this article, we explore how the vertebrate CNS integrates sensory signals to generate motor behavior by examining the pathways and neural mechanisms involved in the transformation of cutaneous and olfactory inputs into motor output in the lamprey. We then review how 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) acts on these systems by modulating both sensory inputs and motor output. A comprehensive review of this fundamental topic should provide a useful framework in the fields of motor control, sensorimotor integration and neuromodulation.

  12. Flapping flexible fish. Periodic and secular body reconfigurations in swimming lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Shepherd, William; Long, John H.

    2007-11-01

    In order to analyze and model the body kinematics used by fish in a wide range of swimming behaviors, we developed a technique to separate the periodic whole-body motions that characterize steady swimming from the secular motions that characterize changes in whole-body shape. We applied this harmonic analysis technique to the study of the forward and backward swimming of lamprey. We found that in order to vary the unsteadiness of swimming, lamprey superimpose periodic and secular components of their body motion, modulate the patterns and magnitudes of those components, and change shape. These kinematic results suggest the following hydromechanical hypothesis: steady swimming is a maneuver that requires active suppression of secular body reconfigurations.

  13. A structural basis for antigen recognition by the T cell-like lymphocytes of sea lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Lu; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Xu, Gang; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Tasumi, Satoshi; Kerzic, Melissa C.; Flajnik, Martin F.; Aravind, L.; Pancer, Zeev; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2010-10-28

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates is mediated by leucine-rich repeat proteins called 'variable lymphocyte receptors' (VLRs). Two types of VLR (A and B) are expressed by mutually exclusive lymphocyte populations in lamprey. VLRB lymphocytes resemble the B cells of jawed vertebrates; VLRA lymphocytes are similar to T cells. We determined the structure of a high-affinity VLRA isolated from lamprey immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) in unbound and antigen-bound forms. The VLRA-HEL complex demonstrates that certain VLRAs, like {gamma}{delta} T-cell receptors (TCRs) but unlike {alpha}{beta} TCRs, can recognize antigens directly, without a requirement for processing or antigen-presenting molecules. Thus, these VLRAs feature the nanomolar affinities of antibodies, the direct recognition of unprocessed antigens of both antibodies and {gamma}{delta} TCRs, and the exclusive expression on the lymphocyte surface that is unique to {alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta} TCRs.

  14. Chemical control of the sea lamprey: the addition of a chemical to the environment.

    PubMed

    Menzie, C M; Hunn, J B

    1976-01-01

    Construction of the Welland Canal enabled shipping to by-pass Niagara Falls and enter the upper Great Lakes and also eliminated the barrier to the entry to the lakes by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus). Within forty years the commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes was almost eliminated by this parasitic cyclostome. A search for selective chemical control of the sea lamprey was undertaken in the 1950's and culminated with the discovery of TFM (3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol). At the request of the International Great Lakes Fishery Commission, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife undertook to assess the hazard of TFM to the aquatic ecosystem, to humans as well as to fish and wildlife. Studies were undertaken in Bureau laboratories as well as by contracts with university and private laboratories. Results of these studies to-date indicate that this material is not subject to biomagnification and does not pose a hazard to man or the the environment.

  15. Combined retrograde labeling and calcium imaging in spinal cord and brainstem neurons of the lamprey.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; McPherson, D; O'Donovan, M J

    1994-11-07

    Neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of the lamprey were retrogradely labeled with Calcium Green-dextran, an indicator dye that increases its fluorescence when intracellular calcium levels increase. Optical signals could be recorded from these labeled neurons during spinal cord stimulation, nerve stimulation, or spontaneous activity, up to 4 days after dye application and for distances of 5-14 mm away from the application site. Optical signals were enhanced by 4-AP, a potassium channel blocker, and blocked by cadmium, a calcium channel blocker. Taken together, the results suggest that the optical signals recorded from labeled neurons were due to calcium influx during electrical activity. Thus, retrograde labeling with calcium indicator dyes may provide a general purpose method for simultaneously monitoring the activity-related changes of intracellular calcium in anatomically identified groups of neurons in the lamprey nervous system.

  16. Sensory Activation of Command Cells for Locomotion and Modulatory Mechanisms: Lessons from Lampreys

    PubMed Central

    Daghfous, Gheylen; Green, Warren W.; Alford, Simon T.; Zielinski, Barbara S.; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor transformation is one of the most fundamental and ubiquitous functions of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the general organization of the locomotor neural circuitry is relatively well understood, less is known about its activation by sensory inputs and its modulation. Utilizing the lamprey model, a detailed understanding of sensorimotor integration in vertebrates is emerging. In this article, we explore how the vertebrate CNS integrates sensory signals to generate motor behavior by examining the pathways and neural mechanisms involved in the transformation of cutaneous and olfactory inputs into motor output in the lamprey. We then review how 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) acts on these systems by modulating both sensory inputs and motor output. A comprehensive review of this fundamental topic should provide a useful framework in the fields of motor control, sensorimotor integration and neuromodulation. PMID:27047342

  17. Apamin reduces the late afterhyperpolarization of lamprey spinal neurons, with little effect on fictive swimming.

    PubMed

    Meer, D P; Buchanan, J T

    1992-08-31

    The role of the late afterhyperpolarization (late AHP) in the firing properties of lamprey spinal neurons was tested by bath application of apamin, a selective blocker of the sk calcium-dependent potassium current. Intracellular recordings of identified motoneurons and interneurons were made with micropipette electrodes in the isolated lamprey spinal cord. Apamin reversibly reduced the amplitude of the late afterhyperpolarization without affecting other aspects of the action potential or the resting potential. The firing frequencies of the neurons were enhanced by apamin over a range of depolarizing current pulse injections. The effect of apamin was also tested on fictive swimming, which was induced in the isolated spinal cord by bath application of an excitatory amino acid (D-glutamate or N-methyl-D,L-aspartate). A concentration of apamin (10 microM) sufficient to substantially reduce the late AHP had no significant effect on the ventral root burst rate, intensity, or phase lag during fictive swimming.

  18. Mathematical Analysis and Simulations of the Neural Circuit for Locomotion in Lampreys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaoping, Li; Lewis, Alex; Scarpetta, Silvia

    2004-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the neural circuit of the lamprey central pattern generator. This analysis provides insight into how neural interactions form oscillators and enable spontaneous oscillations in a network of damped oscillators, which were not apparent in previous simulations or abstract phase oscillator models. We also show how the different behavior regimes (characterized by phase and amplitude relationships between oscillators) of forward or backward swimming, and turning, can be controlled using the neural connection strengths and external inputs.

  19. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1h exposure. After 2h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRH-I and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  20. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  1. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  2. Seasonal variation in sensitivity of larval sea lampreys to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholefield, R.J.; Slaght, K.S.; Stephens, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in a series of toxicity tests in spring and summer. Although noted previously, the seasonal variation in sensitivity to TFM had never been tested as a means of reducing TFM usage in stream treatments. A preliminary study consisted of three spring and four summer static toxicity tests conducted at 12??C. A more comprehensive study consisted of 12 spring and summer paired flow-through toxicity tests conducted both at seasonal water temperatures and at 12??C. The sensitivity of larval sea lampreys to TFM was greater in spring than in summer. The preliminary static toxicity tests indicated that the concentration of TFM needed to kill larval sea lampreys in spring (May and June) was about one-half that required in summer (August); the concentrations lethal to 50% and 99.9% of the test animals (the LC50 and LC99.9 values) were less in spring than in summer. Analysis of variance of the flow-through toxicity data indicated that season significantly affected both the LC50 and LC99.9 values. For all 12 paired flow-through toxicity tests, the spring LC50 and LC99.9 values were less than the corresponding summer values. For 9 of the 12 paired flow-through toxicity tests, the dose-response toxicity lines were parallel and allowed statistical comparison of the LC50 values. The spring LC50 values were significantly lower than the summer values in eight of the nine tests. Verification of a seasonal variation in the sensitivity of larval sea lampreys to TFM will allow inclusion of this factor in the selection model currently used by both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans-Canada to schedule lampricide stream treatments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  4. Development and implementation of an integrated program for control of sea lampreys in the St. Marys River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schleen, Larry P.; Christie, Gavin C.; Heinrich, John W.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Young, Robert J.; Morse, Terry J.; Lavis, Dennis S.; Bills, Terry D.; Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    The development and implementation of a strategy for control of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the St. Marys River formed the basis for rehabilitation of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other fish in Lakes Huron and Michigan. The control strategy was implemented by the Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) upon recommendations by the interagency Sea Lamprey Integration Committee, and many managers and scientists from United States and Canada federal, state, provincial, tribal, and private institutions. Analyses of benefits vs. costs of control options and modeling of the cumulative effects on abundance of parasitic-phase sea lampreys and lake trout produced a strategy that involved an integration of control technologies that included long- and short-term measures. The longterm measures included interference with sea lamprey reproduction by the trapping and removal of spawning-phase sea lampreys from the river and the sterilization and release of the trapped male sea lampreys. The theoretical reduction of larvae produced in the river from these two combined techniques averaged almost 90% during 1997 to 1999. Lampricide treatment with granular Bayluscide of 880 ha of plots densely populated with larvae occurred during 1998, 1999, and 2001 because modeling showed the sooner parasitic-phase sea lamprey populations declined in Lake Huron the greater the improvement for restoration of lake trout during 1995 to 2015. Post-treatment assessments showed about 55% of the larvae had been removed from the river. An adaptive assessment plan predicted high probability of detection of control effects because of many available indicators. The GLFC will face several critical decisions beyond 2001, and initiated a decision analysis project to aid in those decisions.

  5. wFlu: Characterization and Evaluation of a Native Wolbachia from the Mosquito Aedes fluviatilis as a Potential Vector Control Agent

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela da Silva; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest and practical progress in using the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia as a vector control agent for human vector-borne diseases. Such vector control strategies may require the introduction of multiple, different Wolbachia strains into target vector populations, necessitating the identification and characterization of appropriate endosymbiont variants. Here, we report preliminary characterization of wFlu, a native Wolbachia from the neotropical mosquito Aedes fluviatilis, and evaluate its potential as a vector control agent by confirming its ability to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, and measuring its effect on three parameters determining host fitness (survival, fecundity and fertility), as well as vector competence (susceptibility) for pathogen infection. Using an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. fluviatilis cured of its native Wolbachia by antibiotic treatment, we show that in its natural host wFlu causes incomplete, but high levels of, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, has high rates of maternal transmission, and no detectable fitness costs, indicating a high capacity to rapidly spread through host populations. However, wFlu does not inhibit, and even enhances, oocyst infection with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. The stage- and sex-specific density of wFlu was relatively low, and with limited tissue distribution, consistent with the lack of virulence and pathogen interference/symbiont-mediated protection observed. Unexpectedly, the density of wFlu was also shown to be specifically-reduced in the ovaries after bloodfeeding Ae. fluviatilis. Overall, our observations indicate that the Wolbachia strain wFlu has the potential to be used as a vector control agent, and suggests that appreciable mutualistic coevolution has occurred between this endosymbiont and its natural host. Future work will be needed to determine whether wFlu has virulent host effects and/or exhibits pathogen interference when

  6. Sea lamprey orient toward a source of a synthesized pheromone using odor-conditioned rheotaxis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Muhammad, Azizah; Thompson, Henry; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of vertebrate chemo-orientation strategies over long distances is difficult because it is often not feasible to conduct highly controlled hypothesis-based experiments in natural environments. To overcome the challenge, we couple in-stream behavioral observations of female sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) orienting to plumes of a synthesized mating pheromone, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), and engineering algorithms to systematically test chemo-orientation hypotheses. In-stream field observations and simulated movements of female sea lampreys according to control algorithms support that odor-conditioned rheotaxis is a component of the mechanism used to track plumes of 3kPZS over hundreds of meters in flowing water. Simulated movements of female sea lampreys do not support that rheotaxis or klinotaxis alone is sufficient to enable the movement patterns displayed by females in locating 3kPZS sources in the experimental stream. Odor-conditioned rheotaxis may not only be effective at small spatial scales as previous described in crustaceans, but may also be effectively used by fishes over hundreds of meters. These results may prove useful for developing management strategies for the control of invasive species that exploit the odor-conditioned tracking behavior and for developing biologically inspired navigation strategies for robotic fish.

  7. The activity of spinal commissural interneurons during fictive locomotion in the lamprey.

    PubMed

    Biró, Zoltán; Hill, Russell H; Grillner, Sten

    2008-08-01

    Commissural interneurons in the lamprey coordinate activity of the hemisegmental oscillators to ensure proper left-right alternation during swimming. The activity of interneuronal axons at the ventral commissure was studied together with potential target motoneurons during fictive locomotion in the isolated lamprey spinal cord. To estimate the unperturbed activity of the interneurons, axonal recordings were chosen because soma recordings inevitably will affect the level of membrane depolarization and thereby spike initiation. Of 227 commissural axons recorded during locomotor activity, 14 produced inhibitory and 3 produced excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in target motoneurons. The axons typically fired multiple spikes per locomotor cycle, with approximately 10 Hz sustained frequency. The average shortest spike interval in a burst corresponded to an instantaneous frequency of approximately 50 Hz for both the excitatory and inhibitory axons. The maximum number of spikes per locomotor cycle was inversely related to the locomotor frequency, in accordance with previous observations in the spinal hemicord preparation. In axons that fired multiple spikes per cycle, the mean interspike intervals were in the range in which the amplitude of the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is large, providing further support for the role of the sAHP in spike timing. One hundred ninety-five axons (86%) fired rhythmically during fictive locomotion, with preferred phase of firing distributed over either the segmental locomotor burst phase (40% of axons) or the transitional phase (between bursts; 60%). Thus in lamprey commissural interneurons, we found a broad distribution of firing rates and phases during fictive locomotion.

  8. Seasonal growth and duration of the parasitic life stage of the landlocked sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Swink, William D.

    1995-01-01

    We used lengths and weights of 2367 live parasitic-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from Lake Huron, 1984–1990, to calculate their mean size at half-month intervals. Growth in weight was linear during June through September; increments averaged 11.1 g per half month. Growth increased sharply in October to several times the summer rate. We speculate that the increase in growth in October is explained partly by water temperature and partly by an increase in appetite related to the onset of gonadal development. The greater compression of biomass accumulation in autumn than has been previously demonstrated better explains the autumn pulse of sea lamprey induced host mortality. Based on the seasonal pattern of growth and on recaptures of marked sea lampreys, we conclude that landlocked individuals grow to adult size and mature in one parasitic growth year. Regressions of weight (grams) on total length (millimetres) differed significantly among months, and the season of collection must be considered in predicting weight from length.

  9. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  10. Mixtures of Two Bile Alcohol Sulfates Function as a Proximity Pheromone in Sea Lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Cory O.; Huertas, Mar; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Unique mixtures of pheromone components are commonly identified in insects, and have been shown to increase attractiveness towards conspecifics when reconstructed at the natural ratio released by the signaler. In previous field studies of pheromones that attract female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.), putative components of the male-released mating pheromone included the newly described bile alcohol 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DkPES) and the well characterized 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS). Here, we show chemical evidence that unequivocally confirms the elucidated structure of DkPES, electrophysiological evidence that each component is independently detected by the olfactory epithelium, and behavioral evidence that mature female sea lamprey prefer artificial nests activated with a mixture that reconstructs the male-released component ratio of 30:1 (3kPZS:DkPES, molar:molar). In addition, we characterize search behavior (sinuosity of swim paths) of females approaching ratio treatment sources. These results suggest unique pheromone ratios may underlie reproductive isolating mechanisms in vertebrates, as well as provide utility in pheromone-integrated control of invasive sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. PMID:26885832

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia monitoring with a lamprey idiotope-specific antibody

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Hirotomo; Herrin, Brantley R; Alder, Matthew N; Catera, Rosa; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Cooper, Max D

    2013-01-01

    For antigen recognition, lampreys use leucine-rich repeats (LRR) instead of immunoglobulin V-(D)-J domains to generate variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) of three types, VLRA, VLRB, and VLRC. VLRB-bearing lymphocytes respond to immunization with proliferation and differentiation into plasmacytes that secrete multivalent VLRB antibodies. Here we immunized lampreys with B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to generate recombinant monoclonal VLRB antibodies, one of which, VLR39, was specific for the donor CLL cells. The target epitope of VLR39 was shown to be the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of the heavy chain variable region (VH) of the B cell receptor. Using this antibody to monitor the CLL donor after chemo-immunotherapy-induced remission, we detected VLR39+ B cells in the patient 51 months later, before significant increase in lymphocyte count or CD5+ B cells. This indication of reemergence of the leukemic clone was verified by VH sequencing. Lamprey antibodies can exhibit exquisite specificity for a protein epitope, a CLL signature VH CDR3 sequence in this case, and offer a rapid strategy for generating anti-idiotype antibodies for early detection of leukemia recurrence. PMID:24432304

  12. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia monitoring with a Lamprey idiotope-specific antibody.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hirotomo; Herrin, Brantley R; Alder, Matthew N; Catera, Rosa; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Cooper, Max D

    2013-10-01

    For antigen recognition, lampreys use leucine-rich repeats (LRR) instead of immunoglobulin V-(D)-J domains to generate variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) of three types, VLRA, VLRB, and VLRC. VLRB-bearing lymphocytes respond to immunization with proliferation and differentiation into plasmacytes that secrete multivalent VLRB antibodies. Here we immunized lampreys with B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to generate recombinant monoclonal VLRB antibodies, one of which, VLR39, was specific for the donor CLL cells. The target epitope of VLR39 was shown to be the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of the heavy chain variable region (VH) of the B cell receptor. Using this antibody to monitor the CLL donor after chemo-immunotherapy-induced remission, we detected VLR39(+) B cells in the patient 51 months later, before significant increase in lymphocyte count or CD5(+) B cells. This indication of reemergence of the leukemic clone was verified by VH sequencing. Lamprey antibodies can exhibit exquisite specificity for a protein epitope, a CLL signature VH CDR3 sequence in this case, and offer a rapid strategy for generating anti-idiotype antibodies for early detection of leukemia recurrence.

  13. Anatomical recovery of the spinal glutamatergic system following a complete spinal cord injury in lampreys

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-López, Blanca; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys recover locomotion following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Glutamate is necessary to initiate and control locomotion and recent data suggest a crucial role for intraspinal neurons in functional recovery following SCI. We aimed to determine whether, in lampreys, axotomized spinal glutamatergic neurons, which lose glutamate immunoreactivity immediately after SCI, recover it later on and to study the long-term evolution and anatomical recovery of the spinal glutamatergic system after SCI. We used glutamate immunoreactivity to study changes in the glutamatergic system, tract-tracing to label axotomized neurons and TUNEL labelling to study cell death. Transections of the cord were made at the level of the fifth gill. TUNEL experiments indicated that cell death is a minor contributor to the initial loss of glutamate immunoreactivity. At least some of the axotomized neurons lose glutamate immunoreactivity, survive and recover glutamate immunoreactivity 1 week post-lesion (wpl). We observed a progressive increase in the number of glutamatergic neurons/processes until an almost complete anatomical recovery at 10 wpl. Among all the glutamatergic populations, the population of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells is the only one that never recovers. Our results indicate that full recovery of the glutamatergic system is not necessary for the restoration of function in lampreys. PMID:27886236

  14. Identification and characterization of a ubiquitinconjugating enzyme UBE2A gene from lamprey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyong; Wu, Fenfang; Feng, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play an important role in the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer. Although in most species many of these enzymes share high sequence and structural conservation, their existence and functions in the lamprey remain unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBE2A)-like gene in lamprey. The gene, designated as LaUBE2A, contained a 456-bp open reading frame encoding a 152-amino acid protein with a typical UBC domain. Real-time PCR assay showed that LaUBE2A was expressed in various tissues of the adult lamprey, with higher levels in the leukocytes and muscle and lower levels in the skin and liver. The high conservation in amino acid sequence between LaUBE2A and UBE2As from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Cavia porcellus, and Alligator sinensi implied that the function of LaUBE2A may be similar to that of UBE2A.

  15. [Lampreys as an animal model in regeneration studies after spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Rodicio, María Celina; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón

    2012-08-01

    Spinal cord injuries are an important sanitary and economical problem for the society. In mammals, including humans, a traumatic injury to the spinal cord leads to a loss of motor and sensorial function, which is irreversible due to the low regenerative ability of the central nervous system. In contrast to mammals, functional recovery occurs spontaneously after a complete spinal cord transection in lampreys. Functional recovery occurs because in these animals about 50% of the reticulospinal axons regenerate after injury and also because of the occurrence of processes of reorganization and plasticity of the spinal circuits. In this review, we first analyze the characteristics and regeneration ability of lampreys as compared to mammals. Then, we compile the knowledge about the process of recovery after a spinal cord injury acquired in studies using the lampreys as animal model and finally we provide some general perspectives about the molecular processes implicated in regeneration that can be investigated in a very advantageous way in this animal model and which knowledge could allow to develop new therapies for patients suffering spinal cord injury.

  16. Full Anatomical Recovery of the Dopaminergic System after a Complete Spinal Cord Injury in Lampreys

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-López, Blanca; Romaus-Sanjurjo, Daniel; Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Gómez-Fernández, Sonia; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2015-01-01

    Following a spinal injury, lampreys at first are paralyzed below the level of transection. However, they recover locomotion after several weeks, and this is accompanied by the regeneration of descending axons from the brain and the production of new neurons in the spinal cord. Here, we aimed to analyse the changes in the dopaminergic system of the sea lamprey after a complete spinal transection by studying the changes in dopaminergic cell numbers and dopaminergic innervation in the spinal cord. Changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were also studied. We report the full anatomical regeneration of the dopaminergic system after an initial decrease in the number of dopaminergic cells and fibres. Numbers of dopaminergic cells were recovered rostrally and caudally to the site of injury. Quantification of dopaminergic profiles revealed the full recovery of the dopaminergic innervation of the spinal cord rostral and caudal to the site of injury. Interestingly, no changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were observed at time points in which a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the spinal cord was observed. Our observations reveal that in lampreys a spinal cord injury is followed by the full anatomical recovery of the dopaminergic system. PMID:25861481

  17. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  18. Guiding out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) with pulsed direct current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-physical stimuli can deter or guide fish without affecting water flow or navigation and therefore have been investigated to improve fish passage at anthropogenic barriers and to control movement of invasive fish. Upstream fish migration can be blocked or guided without physical structure by electrifying the water, but directional downstream fish guidance with electricity has received little attention. We tested two non-uniform pulsed direct current electric systems, each having different electrode orientations (vertical versus horizontal), to determine their ability to guide out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Both systems guided significantly more juvenile sea lamprey to a specific location in our experimental raceway when activated than when deactivated, but guidance efficiency decreased at the highest water velocities tested. At the electric field setting that effectively guided sea lamprey, rainbow trout were guided by the vertical electrode system, but most were blocked by the horizontal electrode system. Additional research should characterize the response of other species to non-uniform fields of pulsed DC and develop electrode configurations that guide fish over a range of water velocity.

  19. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.

    2017-01-01

    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Blocking Sea Lamprey from spawning habitat with physical barriers is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural stream flow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lamprey by eliminating access to Sea Lamprey spawning locations while maintaining natural stream flow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lamprey in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lamprey were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials with the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lamprey that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood of Sea Lamprey entering the blocked inflow channel, the control channel, or returning downstream.

  20. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  1. Evolution and development of a central pattern generator for the swimming of a lamprey.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, A J; Kodjabachian, J

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the design of neural control architectures for locomotion using an evolutionary approach. Inspired by the central pattern generators found in animals, we develop neural controllers that can produce the patterns of oscillations necessary for the swimming of a simulated lamprey. This work is inspired by Ekeberg's neuronal and mechanical model of a lamprey [11] and follows experiments in which swimming controllers were evolved using a simple encoding scheme [25, 26]. Here, controllers are developed using an evolutionary algorithm based on the SGOCE encoding [31, 32] in which a genetic programming approach is used to evolve developmental programs that encode the growing of a dynamical neural network. The developmental programs determine how neurons located on a two-dimensional substrate produce new cells through cellular division and how they form efferent or afferent interconnections. Swimming controllers are generated when the growing networks eventually create connections to the muscles located on both sides of the rectangular substrate. These muscles are part of a two-dimensional mechanical simulation of the body of the lamprey in interaction with water. The motivation of this article is to develop a method for the design of control mechanisms for animal-like locomotion. Such a locomotion is characterized by a large number of actuators, a rhythmic activity, and the fact that efficient motion is only obtained when the actuators are well coordinated. The task of the control mechanism is therefore to transform commands concerning the speed and direction of motion into the signals sent to the multiple actuators. We define a fitness function, based on several simulations of the controller with different commands settings, that rewards the capacity of modulating the speed and the direction of swimming in response to simple, varying input signals. Central pattern generators are thus evolved capable of producing the relatively complex patterns of

  2. Effects of salinity on upstream-migrating, spawning sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; Coimbra, J.; Antunes, C.; Wilson, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is an anadromous, semelparous species that is vulnerable to endangered in parts of its native range due in part to loss of spawning habitat because of man-made barriers. The ability of lampreys to return to the ocean or estuary and search out alternative spawning river systems would be limited by their osmoregulatory ability in seawater. A reduction in tolerance to salinity has been documented in migrants, although the underlying mechanisms have not been characterized. We examined the capacity for marine osmoregulation in upstream spawning migrants by characterizing the physiological effects of salinity challenge from a molecular perspective. Estuarine-captured migrants held in freshwater (FW) for ∼1 week (short-term acclimation) or 2 months (long-term acclimation) underwent an incremental salinity challenge until loss of equilibrium occurred and upper thresholds of 25 and 17.5, respectively, occurred. Regardless of salinity tolerance, all lamprey downregulated FW ion-uptake mechanisms [gill transcripts of Na+:Cl− cotransporter (NCC/slc12a3) and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC/scnn1) and kidney Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) protein and activity but not transcript]. At their respective salinity limits, lamprey displayed a clear osmoregulatory failure and were unable to regulate [Na+] and [Cl−] in plasma and intestinal fluid within physiological limits, becoming osmocompromised. A >90% drop in haematocrit indicated haemolysis, and higher plasma concentrations of the cytosolic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase indicated damage to other tissues, including liver. However, >80% of short-term FW-acclimated fish were able to osmoregulate efficiently, with less haemolysis and tissue damage. This osmoregulatory ability was correlated with significant upregulation of the secretory form of Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1/slc12a2) transcript levels and the re-emergence of seawater

  3. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water “brownification” in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager’s ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits

  4. Direct behavioral evidence that unique bile acids released by larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) function as a migratory pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerselius , Rickard; Li, Weiming; Teeter, John H.; Seelye, James G.; Johnson, Peter B.; Maniak, Peter J.; Grant, Gerold C.; Polkinghorne, Christine N.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Four behavioral experiments conducted in both the laboratory and the field provide evidence that adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) select spawning rivers based on the odor of larvae that they contain and that bile acids released by the larvae are part of this pheromonal odor. First, when tested in a recirculating maze, migratory adult lamprey spent more time in water scented with larvae. However, when fully mature, adults lost their responsiveness to larvae and preferred instead the odor of mature individuals. Second, when tested in a flowing stream, migratory adults swam upstream more actively when the water was scented with larvae. Third, when migratory adults were tested in a laboratory maze containing still water, they exhibited enhanced swimming activity in the presence of a 0.1 nM concentration of the two unique bile acids released by larvae and detected by adult lamprey. Fourth, when adults were exposed to this bile acid mixture within flowing waters, they actively swam into it. Taken together, these data suggest that adult lamprey use a bile acid based larval pheromone to help them locate spawning rivers and that responsiveness to this cue is influenced by current flow, maturity, and time of day. Although the precise identity and function of the larval pheromone remain to be fully elucidated, we believe that this cue will ultimately prove useful as an attractant in sea lamprey control.

  5. Crystal Structure of the Lamprey Variable Lymphocyte Receptor C Reveals an Unusual Feature in Its N-Terminal Capping Module

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Ryo; Sutoh, Yoichi; Kasamatsu, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi; Kasahara, Masanori; Ose, Toyoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors to mount adaptive immune responses. VLRs generate diversity that is comparable to immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors by a gene conversion-like mechanism, which is mediated by cytosine deaminases. Currently, three types of VLRs, VLRA, VLRB, and VLRC, have been identified in lampreys. Crystal structures of VLRA and VLRB in complex with antigens have been reported recently, but no structural information is available for VLRC. Here, we present the first crystal structure of VLRC from the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). Similar to VLRA and VLRB, VLRC forms a typical horseshoe-like solenoid structure with a variable concave surface. Strikingly, its N-terminal cap has a long loop with limited sequence variability that protrudes toward the concave surface, which is the putative antigen-binding surface. Furthermore, as predicted previously, its C-terminal cap lacks a highly variable protruding loop that plays an important role in antigen recognition by lamprey VLRA and VLRB. Recent work suggests that VLRC+ lymphocytes in jawless vertebrates might be akin to γδ T cells in jawed vertebrates. Structural features of lamprey VLRC described here suggest that it may recognize antigens in a unique manner. PMID:24465760

  6. Involvement of Hedgehog and FGF signalling in the lamprey telencephalon: evolution of regionalization and dorsoventral patterning of the vertebrate forebrain.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Aota, Shin-ichi; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Murakami, Yasunori; Takio-Ogawa, Yoko; Hirano, Shigeki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2011-03-01

    Dorsoventral (DV) specification is a crucial step for the development of the vertebrate telencephalon. Clarifying the origin of this mechanism will lead to a better understanding of vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) evolution. Based on the lamprey, a sister group of the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), we identified three lamprey Hedgehog (Hh) homologues, which are thought to play central signalling roles in telencephalon patterning. However, unlike in gnathostomes, none of these genes, nor Lhx6/7/8, a marker for the migrating interneuron subtype, was expressed in the ventral telencephalon, consistent with the reported absence of the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) in this animal. Homologues of Gsh2, Isl1/2 and Sp8, which are involved in the patterning of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) of gnathostomes, were expressed in the lamprey subpallium, as in gnathostomes. Hh signalling is necessary for induction of the subpallium identity in the gnathostome telencephalon. When Hh signalling was inhibited, the ventral identity was disrupted in the lamprey, suggesting that prechordal mesoderm-derived Hh signalling might be involved in the DV patterning of the telencephalon. By blocking fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling, the ventral telencephalon was suppressed in the lamprey, as in gnathostomes. We conclude that Hh- and FGF-dependent DV patterning, together with the resultant LGE identity, are likely to have been established in a common ancestor before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. Later, gnathostomes would have acquired a novel Hh expression domain corresponding to the MGE, leading to the obtainment of cortical interneurons.

  7. Crystal structure of the lamprey variable lymphocyte receptor C reveals an unusual feature in its N-terminal capping module.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Ryo; Sutoh, Yoichi; Kasamatsu, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi; Kasahara, Masanori; Ose, Toyoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors to mount adaptive immune responses. VLRs generate diversity that is comparable to immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors by a gene conversion-like mechanism, which is mediated by cytosine deaminases. Currently, three types of VLRs, VLRA, VLRB, and VLRC, have been identified in lampreys. Crystal structures of VLRA and VLRB in complex with antigens have been reported recently, but no structural information is available for VLRC. Here, we present the first crystal structure of VLRC from the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). Similar to VLRA and VLRB, VLRC forms a typical horseshoe-like solenoid structure with a variable concave surface. Strikingly, its N-terminal cap has a long loop with limited sequence variability that protrudes toward the concave surface, which is the putative antigen-binding surface. Furthermore, as predicted previously, its C-terminal cap lacks a highly variable protruding loop that plays an important role in antigen recognition by lamprey VLRA and VLRB. Recent work suggests that VLRC+ lymphocytes in jawless vertebrates might be akin to γδ T cells in jawed vertebrates. Structural features of lamprey VLRC described here suggest that it may recognize antigens in a unique manner.

  8. Time scale for cyclostome evolution inferred with a phylogenetic diagnosis of hagfish and lamprey cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The Cyclostomata consists of the two orders Myxiniformes (hagfishes) and Petromyzoniformes (lampreys), and its monophyly has been unequivocally supported by recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Under this updated vertebrate phylogeny, we performed in silico evolutionary analyses using currently available cDNA sequences of cyclostomes. We first calculated the GC-content at four-fold degenerate sites (GC(4)), which revealed that an extremely high GC-content is shared by all the lamprey species we surveyed, whereas no striking pattern in GC-content was observed in any of the hagfish species surveyed. We then estimated the timing of diversification in cyclostome evolution using nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We obtained divergence times of 470-390 million years ago (Mya) in the Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Periods for the interordinal split between Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes; 90-60 Mya in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Periods for the split between the two hagfish subfamilies, Myxininae and Eptatretinae; 280-220 Mya in the Permian-Triassic Periods for the split between the two lamprey subfamilies, Geotriinae and Petromyzoninae; and 30-10 Mya in the Tertiary Period for the split between the two lamprey genera, Petromyzon and Lethenteron. This evolutionary configuration indicates that Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes diverged shortly after the common ancestor of cyclostomes split from the future gnathostome lineage. Our results also suggest that intra-subfamilial diversification in hagfish and lamprey lineages (especially those distributed in the northern hemisphere) occurred in the Cretaceous or Tertiary Periods.

  9. Assessing assessment: Can the expected effects of the St. Marys River sea lamprey control strategy be detected?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Jean V.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Heinrich, John W.; Jones, Michael L.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Young, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 the Great Lakes Fishery Commission approved a 5-year (1998 to 2002) control strategy to reduce sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) production in the St. Marys River, the primary source of parasitic sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron. An assessment plan was developed to measure the success of the control strategy and decide on subsequent control efforts. The expected effects of the St. Marys River control strategy are described, the assessments in place to measure these effects are outlined, and the ability of these assessments to detect the expected effects are quantified. Several expected changes were predicted to be detectable: abundance of parasitic-phase sea lampreys and annual mortality of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) by 2001, abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys by 2002, and relative return rates of lake trout and sea lamprey wounding rates on lake trout by 2005. Designing an effective assessment program to quantify the consequences of fishery management actions is a critical, but often overlooked ingredient of sound fisheries management.

  10. Evaluating harvest-based control of invasive fish with telemetry: performance of sea lamprey traps in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Christopher M; Bergstedt, Roger A; Barber, Jessica; Bravener, Gale A; Jones, Michael L; Krueger, Charles C

    2016-09-01

    Physical removal (e.g., harvest via traps or nets) of mature individuals may be a cost-effective or socially acceptable alternative to chemical control strategies for invasive species, but requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of a population over time. We used acoustic telemetry to determine the current and possible future role of traps to control and assess invasive sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Exploitation rates (i.e., fractions of an adult sea lamprey population removed by traps) at two upstream locations were compared among three years and two points of entry to the system. Telemetry receivers throughout the drainage allowed trap performance (exploitation rate) to be partitioned into two components: proportion of migrating sea lampreys that visited trap sites (availability) and proportion of available sea lampreys that were caught by traps (local trap efficiency). Estimated exploitation rates were well below those needed to provide population control in the absence of lampricides and were limited by availability and local trap efficiency. Local trap efficiency estimates for acoustic-tagged sea lampreys were lower than analogous estimates regularly obtained using traditional mark-recapture methods, suggesting that abundance had been previously underestimated. Results suggested major changes would be required to substantially increase catch, including improvements to existing traps, installation of new traps, or other modifications to attract and retain more sea lampreys. This case study also shows how bias associated with telemetry tags can be estimated and incorporated in models to improve inferences about parameters that are directly relevant to fishery management.

  11. Evaluating harvest-based control of invasive fish with telemetry: Performance of sea lamprey traps in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bravener, Gale A; Jones, Michael L.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical removal (e.g., harvest via traps or nets) of mature individuals may be a cost-effective or socially acceptable alternative to chemical control strategies for invasive species, but requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of a population over time. We used acoustic telemetry to determine the current and possible future role of traps to control and assess invasive sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Exploitation rates (i.e., fractions of an adult sea lamprey population removed by traps) at two upstream locations were compared among three years and two points of entry to the system. Telemetry receivers throughout the drainage allowed trap performance (exploitation rate) to be partitioned into two components: proportion of migrating sea lampreys that visited trap sites (availability) and proportion of available sea lampreys that were caught by traps (local trap efficiency). Estimated exploitation rates were well below those needed to provide population control in the absence of lampricides and were limited by availability and local trap efficiency. Local trap efficiency estimates for acoustic-tagged sea lampreys were lower than analogous estimates regularly obtained using traditional mark–recapture methods, suggesting that abundance had been previously underestimated. Results suggested major changes would be required to substantially increase catch, including improvements to existing traps, installation of new traps, or other modifications to attract and retain more sea lampreys. This case study also shows how bias associated with telemetry tags can be estimated and incorporated in models to improve inferences about parameters that are directly relevant to fishery management.

  12. Regulation of a putative corticosteroid, 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene,3,20-one, in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Didier, Wes; Rai, Satbir; Johnson, Nicholas S; Libants, Scot; Yun, Sang-Seon; Close, David A

    2014-01-15

    In higher vertebrates, in response to stress, the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates production of either cortisol (F) or corticosterone (B) by the adrenal tissues. In lampreys, however, neither of these steroids is present. Instead, it has been proposed that the stress steroid is actually 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (11-deoxycortisol; S). However, there have been no studies yet to determine its mechanism of regulation or site of production. Here we demonstrate that (1) intraperitoneal injections of lamprey-CRH increase plasma S in a dose dependent manner, (2) intraperitoneal injections of four lamprey-specific ACTH peptides at 100μg/kg, did not induce changes in plasma S concentrations in either males or females; (3) two lamprey-specific gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH I and III) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT), all at single doses, stimulated S production as well as, or to an even greater extent than CRH; (4) sea lamprey mesonephric kidneys, in vitro, converted tritiated 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-P) into a steroid that had the same chromatographic properties (on HPLC and TLC) as S; (5) kidney tissues released significantly more immunoassayable S into the incubation medium than gill, liver or gonad tissues. One interpretation of these results is that the corticosteroid production of the sea lamprey, one of the oldest extant vertebrates, is regulated through multiple pathways rather than the classical HPI-axis. However, the responsiveness of this steroid to the GnRH peptides means that a reproductive rather than a stress role for this steroid cannot yet be ruled out.

  13. Regulation of a putative corticosteroid, 17, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene, 3, 20-one, in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Brent W.; Didier, Wes; Satbir, Rai; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Libants, Scot V.; Sang-Seon, Yun; Close, David

    2013-01-01

    In higher vertebrates, in response to stress, the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates production of either cortisol (F) or corticosterone (B) by the adrenal tissues. In lampreys, however, neither of these steroids is present. Instead, it has been proposed that the stress steroid is actually 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (11-deoxycortisol; S). However, there have been no studies yet to determine its mechanism of regulation or site of production. Here we demonstrate that (1) intraperitoneal injections of lamprey-CRH increase plasma S in a dose dependent manner, (2) intraperitoneal injections of four lamprey-specific ACTH peptides at 100 lg/kg, did not induce changes in plasma S concentrations in either males or females; (3) two lamprey-specific gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH I and III) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT), all at single doses, stimulated S production as well as, or to an even greater extent than CRH; (4) sea lamprey mesonephric kidneys, in vitro, converted tritiated 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-P) into a steroid that had the same chromatographic properties (on HPLC and TLC) as S; (5) kidney tissues released significantly more immunoassayable S into the incubation medium than gill, liver or gonad tissues. One interpretation of these results is that the corticosteroid production of the sea lamprey, one of the oldest extant vertebrates, is regulated through multiple pathways rather than the classical HPI-axis. However, the responsiveness of this steroid to the GnRH peptides means that a reproductive rather than a stress role for this steroid cannot yet be ruled out.

  14. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2006-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements, and exploitation in the lower Deschutes River Subbasin is extremely limited. During 2002, we began a multi-year study to assess the status of lamprey in the Deschutes River subbasin. The objectives of this project are to determine ammocoete (larval lamprey) distribution and associated habitats; Lampretra species composition; numbers of emigrants; adult escapement and harvest rates at Sherars Falls. This report describes the preliminary results of data collected during 2005. We continued documenting ammocoete (larval) habitat selection by surveying four perennial eastside tributaries to the Deschutes River (Warm Springs River, Badger, Beaver and Shitike creeks) within the known ammocoete distribution. The results of 2003-2005 sampling indicate that positive relationships exist between: presence of wood (P = < 0.001), depositional area (P = < 0.001), flow (P = < 0.001), and fine substrate (P = < 0.001). Out-migrants numbers were not estimated during 2005 due to our inability to recapture marked larvae. In Shitike Creek, ammocoete and microphthalmia out-migration peaked during November 2005. In the Warm Spring River, out-migration peaked for ammocoetes in April 2006 and December 2005 for microphthalmia. Samples of ammocoetes from each stream were retained in a permanent collection of future analysis. An escapement estimate was generated for adult Pacific lamprey in the lower Deschutes River using a two event mark-recapture experiment during run year 2005. A modified Peterson model was used to estimate the adult population of Pacific lamprey at 3,895 with an estimated escapement of 2,881 during 2005 (95% CI= 2,847; M = 143; C = 1,027 R = 37). A tribal creel was also conducted from mid-June through August. We estimated tribal harvest to be approximately 1,015 adult lamprey during 2005 (95% CI= +/- 74).

  15. Body wall development in lamprey and a new perspective on the origin of vertebrate paired fins.

    PubMed

    Tulenko, Frank J; McCauley, David W; Mackenzie, Ethan L; Mazan, Sylvie; Kuratani, Shigeru; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Kusakabe, Rie; Burke, Ann C

    2013-07-16

    Classical hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origin of paired appendages propose transformation of precursor structures (gill arches and lateral fin folds) into paired fins. During development, gnathostome paired appendages form as outgrowths of body wall somatopleure, a tissue composed of somatic lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) and overlying ectoderm. In amniotes, LPM contributes connective tissue to abaxial musculature and forms ventrolateral dermis of the interlimb body wall. The phylogenetic distribution of this character is uncertain because lineage analyses of LPM have not been generated in anamniotes. We focus on the evolutionary history of the somatopleure to gain insight into the tissue context in which paired fins first appeared. Lampreys diverged from other vertebrates before the acquisition of paired fins and provide a model for investigating the preappendicular condition. We present vital dye fate maps that suggest the somatopleure is eliminated in lamprey as the LPM is separated from the ectoderm and sequestered to the coelomic linings during myotome extension. We also examine the distribution of postcranial mesoderm in catshark and axolotl. In contrast to lamprey, our findings support an LPM contribution to the trunk body wall of these taxa, which is similar to published data for amniotes. Collectively, these data lead us to hypothesize that a persistent somatopleure in the lateral body wall is a gnathostome synapomorphy, and the redistribution of LPM was a key step in generating the novel developmental module that ultimately produced paired fins. These embryological criteria can refocus arguments on paired fin origins and generate hypotheses testable by comparative studies on the source, sequence, and extent of genetic redeployment.

  16. Retinal Amino Acid Neurochemistry of the Southern Hemisphere Lamprey, Geotria australis

    PubMed Central

    Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Collin, Shaun P.; Zhu, Yuan; Ready, Sarah; Acosta, Monica L.; Hunt, David M.; Potter, Ian C.; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells are more sensitive

  17. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduc-stertion in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

  18. Selective expression of CSPG receptors PTPσ and LAR in poorly regenerating reticulospinal neurons of lamprey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guixin; Hu, Jianli; Li, Shuxin; Huang, Lisa; Selzer, Michael E

    2014-06-15

    Disability following spinal cord injury is due to failure of axon regeneration, which has been ascribed to environmental factors in the central nervous system and a developmental loss of intrinsic growth capacity in neurons. Recently, the receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ) and leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase (LAR), have been identified as specific receptors for the regeneration-inhibiting matrix molecules chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). After spinal cord transection in lampreys, axons of the large, identified reticulospinal neurons have heterogeneous regenerative abilities. The bad-regenerating neurons also undergo a delayed form of axotomy-induced apoptosis. In the present study, a lamprey genomic database was used to identify homologs of CSPGs, clone PTPσ and LAR, and examine their mRNA expression. CSPG immunoreactivity was increased significantly near the lesion at 2 weeks post transection, and decreased thereafter. Both receptors were expressed selectively in the bad-regenerating neurons and had overlapping cellular distributions. PTPσ was upregulated with age (LAR was not evaluated). By 2 weeks post transection, neurons expressing PTPσ also showed caspase activation, suggesting apoptosis. The probability of axon regeneration for individual identified neurons was negatively correlated with the expression level of PTPσ in both control and spinal cord-transected lampreys. In an animal 7 weeks post transection, regenerated axons were labeled retrogradely from beyond the transection. PTPσ expression and caspase labeling was seen only in neurons whose axon had not regenerated. These results are consistent with a possible role for PTPσ (and LAR) in both retrograde neuronal death and the poor intrinsic regenerative ability of bad-regenerating neurons.

  19. Estimating lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes: extrapolating from sampled streams using regression models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullett, Katherine M.; Heinrich, John W.; Adams, Jean V.; Young, Robert J.; Henson, Mary P.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Fodale, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    Lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) can be used as one means to evaluate sea lamprey control efforts in the Great Lakes. Lake-wide abundance in each Great Lake was the sum of estimates for all streams thought to contribute substantial numbers of sea lampreys. A subset of these streams was sampled with traps and mark-recapture studies were conducted. When sea lampreys were captured in traps, but no mark-recapture study was conducted, abundance was estimated from a relation between trap catch and mark-recapture estimates observed in other years. In non-sampled streams, a regression model that used stream drainage area, geographic region, larval sea lamprey, production potential, the number of years since the last lampricide treatment, and spawning year was used to predict abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys. The combination of estimates from sampled and non-sampled streams provided a 20-year time series of spawning-phase sea lamprey abundance estimates in the Great Lakes.

  20. The olfactory system of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is specifically and acutely sensitive to unique bile acids released by conspecific larvae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Larval sea lamprey inhabit freshwater streams and migrate to oceans or lakes to feed after a radical metamorphosis; subsequently, mature adults return to streams to spawn. Previous observations suggested that lamprey utilize the odor of conspecific larvae to select streams for spawning. Here we report biochemical and electrophysiological evidence that this odor is comprised of two unique bile acids released by larvae. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry demonstrated that larval sea lamprey produce and release two unique bile acids, allocholic acid (ACA) and petromyzonol sulfate (PS). Electro-olfactogram (EOG) recording also demonstrated that the olfactory system of migratory adult sea lamprey is acutely and specifically sensitive to ACA and PS; detection thresholds for these compounds were approximately 10(-12) M. ACA and PS were the most potent of 38 bile acids tested and cross-adaptation experiments suggested that adult sea lamprey have specific olfactory receptor sites associated with independent signal transduction pathways for these bile acids. These receptor sites specifically recognize the key substituents of ACA and PS such as a 5 alpha-hydrogen, three axial hydroxyls, and a C-24 sulfate ester or carboxyl. In conclusion, the unique lamprey bile acids, ACA and PS, are potent and specific stimulants of the adult olfactory system, strongly supporting the hypothesis that these unique bile acids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey. PMID:7658193

  1. Surgical wound healing in radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held on different substrata.

    PubMed

    Mesa, M G; Magie, R J; Copeland, E S; Christiansen, H E

    2011-10-01

    Radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held in a raceway with Plexiglas-lined walls and bottom healed more slowly and retained sutures longer than fish held in an all-concrete raceway or one with Plexiglas walls and a cobble-lined bottom. On all substrata, healing depended on when sutures were lost, and fish that lost their sutures in <14 days post-surgery healed faster than those that kept sutures longer. Long-term suture retention led to tissue trauma, infection and poor survival.

  2. Evaluation of lamprey larvicides in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1969-01-01

    Bayluscide (5,2'-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide) and TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) were evaluated as selective larvicides for control of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake in Marquette County, Michigan. Population estimates and movement of ammocetes were determined from the recapture of marked ammocetes released before chemical treatment. In 1966 the estimated population of 3136 ammocetes off the stream mouth in Saux Head Lake was reduced 89% by treatment with granular Bayluscide; this percentage was supported by a population estimate of 120 ammocetes in 1967, an indicated reduction of 96% from 1966. Post-marking movement of ammocetes was greater upstream than downstream.

  3. Surgical wound healing in radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held on different substrata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, R.J.; Copeland, E.S.; Christiansen, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held in a raceway with Plexiglas-lined walls and bottom healed more slowly and retained sutures longer than fish held in an all-concrete raceway or one with Plexiglas walls and a cobble-lined bottom. On all substrata, healing depended on when sutures were lost, and fish that lost their sutures in <14 days post-surgery healed faster than those that kept sutures longer. Long-term suture retention led to tissue trauma, infection and poor survival.

  4. Expression of three GnRH receptors in specific tissues in male and female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus at three distinct life stages

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Daukss, Dana M.; Hayes, Mary K.; Marquis, Timothy J.; Morin, Scott J.; Kelleher, Thomas F.; Sower, Stacia A.

    2013-01-01

    Two recently cloned gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (lamprey GnRH-R-2 and lamprey GnRH-R-3) along with lamprey (l) GnRH-R-1 were shown to share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other vertebrate receptors. Here we report on our findings of RNA expression of these three GnRH receptors in the three major life stages (larval, parasitic, and adult phases) of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a basal vertebrate. For each stage, we examined the expression of messenger RNA encoding the receptors in the brain, pituitary, gonad, heart, muscle, liver, eye, intestine, kidney, skin, thyroid, gill, and endostyle by RT-PCR. In adult lampreys, the spatial expression of the three receptors in the brain and pituitary was investigated by in situ hybridization. In general, the receptors were more widely expressed in adult tissues as compared to parasitic-phase tissues and least widely expressed in the larval tissues. There were noted differences in male and female lampreys in the adult and parasitic phases for all three receptors. The data showed the presence of all three receptor transcripts in brain tissues for adult and parasitic phases and all three receptor transcripts were expressed in the adult pituitaries, but not in the parasitic pituitaries. However, in the larval phase, only lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the larval brain and pituitary. In situ hybridization revealed that lGnRH-R-2 and -3 were expressed in the pineal tissue of adult female lampreys while lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the pineal in adult male lampreys, all restricted to the pineal pellucida. In summary, these data provide an initial comparative analysis of expression of three lamprey GnRH receptors suggesting differential regulation within males and females at three different life/reproductive stages. PMID:23754972

  5. Changes in the lake trout population of southern Lake Superior in relation to the fishery, the sea lamprey, and stocking, 1950-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.; King, George R.

    1975-01-01

    Reduction of sea lamprey abundance resulted in an immediate increase in survival and abundance of lake trout, especially of the larger sizes. As abundance of lake trout progressively increased in 1962-70, survival of the smaller legal-size lake trout increased, probably due to reduction of the predator-prey ratio and an increase in availability of larger lake trout preferred by sea lampreys. Abundance of spawning-size lake trout was limited by high natural mortality in 1965-70. Circumstantial evidence suggested that sea lamprey predation contributed a major part of the high natural mortality.

  6. Lethal and sub-lethal responses of native freshwater mussels exposed to granular Bayluscide®, a sea lamprey larvicide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa; Boogaard, Michael A.; Gray, Brian R.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Schloesser, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) poses a substantial threat to fish communities in the Great Lakes. Efforts to control sea lamprey populations typically involve treating tributary streams with lampricides on a recurring cycle. The presence of a substantial population of larval sea lampreys in the aquatic corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie prompted managers to propose a treatment using the granular formulation of Bayluscide® that targets larval sea lampreys that reside in sediments. However, these treatments could cause adverse effects on native freshwater mussels—imperiled animals that also reside in sediments. We estimated the risk of mortality and sub-lethal effects among eight species of adult and sub-adult mussels exposed to Bayluscide® for durations up to 8 h to mimic field applications. Mortality was appreciable in some species, especially in sub-adults (range, 23–51%). The lethal and sub-lethal effects were positively associated with the duration of exposure in most species and life stage combinations. Estimates of the median time of exposure that resulted in lethal and sub-lethal effects suggest that sub-adults were often affected by Bayluscide® earlier than adults. Siphoning activity and burrowing position of mussels during exposure may have moderated the uptake of Bayluscide® and may have influenced lethal and sub-lethal responses. Given that the various species and life stages were differentially affected, it will be difficult to predict the effects of Bayluscide® treatments on mussels.

  7. Re-examination of sea lamprey control policies for the St. Marys River: Completion of an adaptive management cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Brenden, Travis O.; Irwin, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The St. Marys River (SMR) historically has been a major producer of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the early 2000s, a decision analysis (DA) project was conducted to evaluate sea lamprey control policies for the SMR; this project suggested that an integrated policy of trapping, sterile male releases, and Bayluscide treatment was the most cost-effective policy. Further, it concluded that formal assessment of larval sea lamprey abundance and distribution in the SMR would be valuable for future evaluation of control strategies. We updated this earlier analysis, adding information from annual larval assessments conducted since 1999 and evaluating additional control policies. Bayluscide treatments continued to be critical for sea lamprey control, but high recruitment compensation minimized the effectiveness of trapping and sterile male release under current feasible ranges. Because Bayluscide control is costly, development of strategies to enhance trapping success remains a priority. This study illustrates benefits of an adaptive management cycle, wherein models inform decisions, are updated based on learning achieved from those decisions, and ultimately inform future decisions.

  8. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates.

  9. Field evaluation of larval odor and mixtures of synthetic pheromone components for attracting migrating sea lampreys in rivers.

    PubMed

    Meckley, Trevor D; Wagner, C Michael; Luehring, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is a harmful invader of the Laurentian Great Lakes. The odor emitted by larval lampreys resident to streams attracts migrating adults to high quality spawning habitats. Three components of the larval pheromone have been identified and tested in laboratory settings: petromyzonol sulfate, petromyzosterol disulfate, and petromyzonamine disulfate. Here, we report the first field test of six mixtures of synthetic versions of these pheromone components, and we compare lamprey responses to these with those elicited by the complete larval odor in a natural stream. Exposure to larval odor both increased upstream movement and attracted migrants into the portion of a channel containing the odor. No tested combination of synthetic pheromone components proved similarly attractive. These findings suggest the existence of unknown additional components of the pheromone that await discovery and are likely necessary if the pheromone is to be useful in management of this pest. Further, we hypothesize that the complete pheromone mixture is necessary to attract migrants into spawning habitat at the conclusion of the migration, whereas a partial pheromone may be effective at the transition from lake to stream when natural factors both dilute and alter the ratio of components from that actually emitted by sea lamprey larvae.

  10. Ontogenetic shifts in brain scaling reflect behavioral changes in the life cycle of the pouched lamprey Geotria australis

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos A.; Yopak, Kara E.; Warrington, Rachael E.; Hart, Nathan S.; Potter, Ian C.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have described brain scaling in vertebrates throughout ontogeny and none in lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of the early agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution. The life cycle of anadromous parasitic lampreys comprises two divergent trophic phases, firstly filter-feeding as larvae in freshwater and secondly parasitism as adults in the sea, with the transition marked by a radical metamorphosis. We characterized the growth of the brain during the life cycle of the pouched lamprey Geotria australis, an anadromous parasitic lamprey, focusing on the scaling between brain and body during ontogeny and testing the hypothesis that the vast transitions in behavior and environment are reflected in differences in the scaling and relative size of the major brain subdivisions throughout life. The body and brain mass and the volume of six brain structures of G. australis, representing six points of the life cycle, were recorded, ranging from the early larval stage to the final stage of spawning and death. Brain mass does not increase linearly with body mass during the ontogeny of G. australis. During metamorphosis, brain mass increases markedly, even though the body mass does not increase, reflecting an overall growth of the brain, with particularly large increases in the volume of the optic tectum and other visual areas of the brain and, to a lesser extent, the olfactory bulbs. These results are consistent with the conclusions that ammocoetes rely predominantly on non-visual and chemosensory signals, while adults rely on both visual and olfactory cues. PMID:26283894

  11. Synthesis and olfactory activity of unnatural, sulfated 5β-bile acid derivatives in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Aaron C.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of unnatural bile acid derivatives (9a–9f) were synthesized and used to examine the specificity with which the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) olfactory system detects these compounds. These compounds are analogs of petromyzonol sulfate (PS, 1), a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone. Both the stereochemical configuration at C5 (i.e., 5α vs. 5β) and the extent and sites of oxygenation (hydroxylation or ketonization) of the bile acid derived steroid skeleton were evaluated by screening the compounds for olfactory activity using electro-olfactogram recording. 5β-Petromyzonol sulfate (9a) elicited a considerable olfactory response at sub-nanomolar concentration. In addition, less oxygenated systems (i.e., 9b–9e) elicited olfactory responses, albeit with less potency. The sea lamprey sex pheromone mimic 9f (5β-3-ketopetromyzonol sulfate) was also examined and found to produce a much lower olfactory response. Mixture studies conducted with 9a and PS (1) suggest that stimulation is occurring via similar modes of activation, demonstrating a relative lack of specificity for recognition of the allo-configuration (i.e., 5α) in sea lamprey olfaction. This attribute could facilitate design of pheromone analogs to control this invasive species. PMID:21145335

  12. Strategies for swimming: explorations of the behaviour of a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of the lamprey.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thelma L; McMillen, Tyler

    2015-02-06

    Experiments were performed on a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a lamprey, to explore the strategies for controlling swimming speed. The muscle component of the model was based on previous experiments on isolated lamprey muscle. The patterns of muscle activation were those found in EMG studies on swimming lampreys. The fluid mechanics were modelled with G.I. Taylor's simplification. Tail beat frequencies of 2-6 sec(-1) were combined with muscle activation strengths of 0.1% to 20% of maximum tetanic isometric strength. The resulting forward swimming speed and changing body shape were recorded. From the changing body shape the speed of the backward-travelling wave of curvature was calculated, as well as the ratio between the speeds of the waves of activation and curvature. For any given activation strength there was a tail beat frequency that gave maximal forward speed. Furthermore, for all the combinations of activation strength and tail beat frequency that gave such maximum swimming speeds, the ratio of the speed of the wave of curvature to the wave of muscle activation was approximately 0.75. This is similar to the ratio found in swimming lampreys.

  13. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  14. Population genomics of Pacific lamprey: adaptive variation in a highly dispersive species.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Close, David A; Docker, Margaret F; Narum, Shawn R

    2013-06-01

    Unlike most anadromous fishes that have evolved strict homing behaviour, Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) seem to lack philopatry as evidenced by minimal population structure across the species range. Yet unexplained findings of within-region population genetic heterogeneity coupled with the morphological and behavioural diversity described for the species suggest that adaptive genetic variation underlying fitness traits may be responsible. We employed restriction site-associated DNA sequencing to genotype 4439 quality filtered single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for 518 individuals collected across a broad geographical area including British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California. A subset of putatively neutral markers (N = 4068) identified a significant amount of variation among three broad populations: northern British Columbia, Columbia River/southern coast and 'dwarf' adults (F(CT) = 0.02, P ≪ 0.001). Additionally, 162 SNPs were identified as adaptive through outlier tests, and inclusion of these markers revealed a signal of adaptive variation related to geography and life history. The majority of the 162 adaptive SNPs were not independent and formed four groups of linked loci. Analyses with matsam software found that 42 of these outlier SNPs were significantly associated with geography, run timing and dwarf life history, and 27 of these 42 SNPs aligned with known genes or highly conserved genomic regions using the genome browser available for sea lamprey. This study provides both neutral and adaptive context for observed genetic divergence among collections and thus reconciles previous findings of population genetic heterogeneity within a species that displays extensive gene flow.

  15. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  16. Ontogenetic dynamics of mercury accumulation in Northwest Atlantic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drevnick, P.E.; Horgan, M.J.; Oris, J.T.; Kynard, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the ontogenetic dynamics of mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Connecticut River, USA. Mercury concentrations in eggs (mean 84 ng??g-1 wet weight) were lowest of all life stages and correlated to concentrations in females. There was a higher rate of maternal transfer of mercury to eggs compared with teleosts. Ammocoetes had high mercury concentrations for their trophic level (e.g., mean of age-4 ammocoetes 492 ng??g-1 wet weight). A further investigation of four streams showed that ammocoetes reflected the level of contamination in their nursery streams. Concentrations of mercury decreased during metamorphosis from ammocoete to adult. Mercury concentrations in adults ranged from 83 to 942 ng??g-1 wet weight and, unlike teleosts, showed no relation to sex, length, or weight. We provide evidence from stable isotope analyses that this high variability is due to feeding ecology. There are fundamental differences in mercury accumulation between sea lamprey and teleosts. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  17. Effects of coded-wire-tagging on stream-dwelling Sea Lamprey larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Dawson, Heather A.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of coded wire tagging Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus larvae from a known-aged stream-dwelling population were assessed. Tagged larvae were significantly shorter on average than untagged larvae from 3 to 18 months after tagging. However, 30 months after tagging, the length distribution of tagged and untagged larvae did not differ and tagged Sea Lampreys were in better condition (i.e., higher condition factor) and more likely to have undergone metamorphosis than the untagged population. The reason why tagged larvae were more likely to metamorphose is not clear, but the increased likelihood of metamorphosis could have been a compensatory response to the period of slower growth after tagging. Slower growth after tagging was consistent across larval size-classes, so handling and displacement from quality habitat during the early part of the growing season was likely the cause rather than the tag burden. The tag effects observed in this study, if caused by displacement and handling, may be minimized in future studies if tagging is conducted during autumn after growth has concluded for the year.

  18. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, S. D.; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osório, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L. F. C.; Wilson, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages. PMID:27703170

  19. Response of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) to pulsed DC electrical stimuli in laboratory experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Anjanette K.; Weisser, John W.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Famoye, Felix

    2003-01-01

    Four electrical factors that are used in pulsed DC electrofishing for larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were evaluated in two laboratory studies to determine the optimal values to induce larval emergence over a range of water temperatures and conductivities. Burrowed larvae were exposed to combinations of pulsed DC electrical factors including five pulse frequencies, three pulse patterns, and two levels of duty cycle over a range of seven voltage gradients in two separate studies conducted at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C and water conductivities of 25, 200, and 900 μS/cm. A four-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant (α = 0.05) influences of each electrical factor on larval emergence. Multiple comparison tests with Bonferroni adjustments were used to determine which values of each factor resulted in significantly higher emergence at each temperature and conductivity. Voltage gradient and pulse frequency significantly affected emergence according to the ANOVA model at each temperature and conductivity tested. Duty cycle and pulse pattern generally did not significantly influence the model. Findings suggest that a setting of 2.0 V/cm, 3 pulses/sec, 10% duty, and 2:2 pulse pattern seems the most promising in waters of medium conductivity and across a variety of temperatures. This information provides a basis for understanding larval response to pulsed DC electrofishing gear factors and identifies electrofisher settings that show promise to increase the efficiency of the gear during assessments for burrowed sea lamprey larvae.

  20. Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides Reduce Neurofilament Synthesis and Inhibit Axon Regeneration in Lamprey Reticulospinal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guixin; Jin, Li-qing; Hu, Jianli; Rodemer, William; Selzer, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey has been used as a model for the study of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Previous studies have suggested that, unlike developing axons in mammal, the tips of regenerating axons in lamprey spinal cord are simple in shape, packed with neurofilaments (NFs), and contain very little F-actin. Thus it has been proposed that regeneration of axons in the central nervous system of mature vertebrates is not based on the canonical actin-dependent pulling mechanism of growth cones, but involves an internal protrusive force, perhaps generated by the transport or assembly of NFs in the distal axon. In order to assess this hypothesis, expression of NFs was manipulated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO). A standard, company-supplied MO was used as control. Axon retraction and regeneration were assessed at 2, 4 and 9 weeks after MOs were applied to a spinal cord transection (TX) site. Antisense MO inhibited NF180 expression compared to control MO. The effect of inhibiting NF expression on axon retraction and regeneration was studied by measuring the distance of axon tips from the TX site at 2 and 4 weeks post-TX, and counting the number of reticulospinal neurons (RNs) retrogradely labeled by fluorescently-tagged dextran injected caudal to the injury at 9 weeks post-TX. There was no statistically significant effect of MO on axon retraction at 2 weeks post-TX. However, at both 4 and 9 weeks post-TX, inhibition of NF expression inhibited axon regeneration.

  1. Glycine uptake by lamprey spinal neurons demonstrated by light microscopic autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.H.; Youngs, L.J.; Krieger, N.R.; Selzer, M.E.

    1984-02-20

    We have mapped the neuronal uptake of 3H-glycine in the spinal cords of large larval sea lampreys: Petromyzon marinus. Spinal cords were incubated in 10(-6) M 3H-glycine for 15 minutes. They were rinsed in lamprey solution, fixed in phosphate-buffered 2% glutaraldehyde, and washed in phosphate buffer. They were then sectioned with a cryostat at 16-m thickness or dehydrated, embedded in Epon, and sectioned at 1-4 micron. Sections were coated with a photographic emulsion and maintained at 4 degrees C for 1-7 days. By sectioning horizontally, it was possible to obtain complete serial reconstructions of up to 1.5-mm lengths of cord in 100-150 sections. The outlines of labelled cells were traced with a Nikon drawing attachment. For one Epon-embedded spinal cord sectioned at 4 micron, tracings were superimposed to form complete maps for 0.6-1.5-mm lengths in three representative regions of cord: rostral (gill region), caudal (dorsal fin region), and midsection. The labelled neurons were small (5-10-micron diameter) cells distributed throughout the central gray columns. They numbered 22 cells per hemisegment in the rostral region, 33 in the midsection, and 43 in the caudal region. None of the previously identified cell types were labelled, including lateral interneurons, edge cells, giant interneurons, dorsal cells, and Mueller and Mauthner axons.

  2. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

  3. Mark-recapture population estimates of parasitic sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Wright, Gregory M.; Swink, William D.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2003-01-01

    Metamorphosed sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were collected and marked at two points in their life cycle. Recently metamorphosed juveniles were collected from streams, marked with coded wire tags, and returned to migrate to the Great Lakes. Juveniles already in the lakes and feeding on teleost hosts were obtained from incidental catches by sport or commercial fisheries. Sea lampreys in the Great Lakes spend only 1 feeding year as parasites, and marked animals were recaptured during the spawning runs. For one marked group in each of four parasitic cohorts (feeding years 1991 to 1994) and two marked groups in each of three cohorts (feeding years 1998 to 2000) we recovered from 1.1 to 10.2 percent of marked animals. The number of metamorphosed animals present in autumn before migration to Lake Huron was estimated for five cohorts, with estimates ranging from 639 to 803 thousand. The number of feeding, parasitic animals present in Lake Huron in mid summer was estimated for five cohorts, with estimates ranging from 515,000 to 2,342,000. The larger estimates later in the parasitic year suggested that animals collected and marked from sport or commercial fisheries did not survive at the same rate as unmarked animals. It is recommended that only estimates from recaptures of animals marked in the streams before migration be used until it can be established why survival of juveniles obtained from sport or commercial fisheries might be affected.

  4. Amphioxus and lamprey AP-2 genes: implications for neural crest evolution and migration patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type present in the most basal vertebrates, but not in cephalochordates. We have studied differences in regulation of the neural crest marker AP-2 across two evolutionary transitions: invertebrate to vertebrate, and agnathan to gnathostome. Isolation and comparison of amphioxus, lamprey and axolotl AP-2 reveals its extensive expansion in the vertebrate dorsal neural tube and pharyngeal arches, implying co-option of AP-2 genes by neural crest cells early in vertebrate evolution. Expression in non-neural ectoderm is a conserved feature in amphioxus and vertebrates, suggesting an ancient role for AP-2 genes in this tissue. There is also common expression in subsets of ventrolateral neurons in the anterior neural tube, consistent with a primitive role in brain development. Comparison of AP-2 expression in axolotl and lamprey suggests an elaboration of cranial neural crest patterning in gnathostomes. However, migration of AP-2-expressing neural crest cells medial to the pharyngeal arch mesoderm appears to be a primitive feature retained in all vertebrates. Because AP-2 has essential roles in cranial neural crest differentiation and proliferation, the co-option of AP-2 by neural crest cells in the vertebrate lineage was a potentially crucial event in vertebrate evolution.

  5. Id expression in amphioxus and lamprey highlights the role of gene cooption during neural crest evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; McCauley, David; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Neural crest cells are unique to vertebrates and generate many of the adult structures that differentiate them from their closest invertebrate relatives, the cephalochordates. Id genes are robust markers of neural crest cells at all stages of development. We compared Id gene expression in amphioxus and lamprey to ask if cephalochordates deploy Id genes at the neural plate border and dorsal neural tube in a manner similar to vertebrates. Furthermore, we examined whether Id expression in these cells is a basal vertebrate trait or a derived feature of gnathostomes. We found that while expression of Id genes in the mesoderm and endoderm is conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates, expression in the lateral neural plate border and dorsal neural tube is a vertebrate novelty. Furthermore, expression of lamprey Id implies that recruitment of Id genes to these cells occurred very early in the vertebrate lineage. Based on expression in amphioxus we postulate that Id cooption conferred sensory cell progenitor-like properties upon the lateral neurectoderm, and pharyngeal mesoderm-like properties upon cranial neural crest. Amphioxus Id expression is also consistent with homology between the anterior neurectoderm of amphioxus and the presumptive placodal ectoderm of vertebrates. These observations support the idea that neural crest evolution was driven in large part by cooption of multipurpose transcriptional regulators from other tissues and cell types.

  6. Microbial degradation of the lamprey larvicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol in sediment-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempe, Lloyd L.

    1973-01-01

    The selective lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), maintained in the water at concentrations of 1 to 6 I?g/ml for several hours, kills larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in tributaries of the Great Lakes. Because the fate of TFM in the environment is a matter of concern, the interactions of this chemical with river and lake sediments were studied in laboratory experiments. In mixtures of TFM, water, and sediment held in aquariums, the TFM decreased progressively and nearly or completely disappeared in 1 to 4 weeks; concentrations of the fluoride ion increased; and the systems became nontoxic for sea lamprey larvae and goldfish (Carassius auratus). If the reduction in TFM ceased before all of the chemical had disappeared, the process resumed when nutrient broth was added. Loss of TFM from the systems was prevented by the addition of an antiseptic (phenol) and by heat sterilization. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms isolated from stream and lake sediments degraded TFM in nutrient broths. I conclude that TFM is degraded by microorganisms that live in sediment-water systems.

  7. Field study suggests that sex determination in sea lamprey is directly influenced by larval growth rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in fishes lie along a genetic-environmental continuum and thereby offer opportunities to understand how physiology and environment interact to determine sex. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of sex determination in fishes are primarily garnered from teleosts, with little investigation into basal fishes. We tagged and released larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into unproductive lake and productive stream environments. Sex ratios produced from these environments were quantified by recapturing tagged individuals as adults. Sex ratios from unproductive and productive environments were initially similar. However, sex ratios soon diverged, with unproductive environments becoming increasingly male-skewed and productive environments becoming less male-skewed with time. We hypothesize that slower growth in unproductive environments contributed to the sex ratio differences by directly influencing sex determination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that growth rate in a fish species directly influences sex determination; other studies have suggested that the environmental variables to which sex determination is sensitive (e.g. density, temperature) act as cues for favourable or unfavourable growth conditions. Understanding mechanisms of sex determination in lampreys may provide unique insight into the underlying principles of sex determination in other vertebrates and provide innovative approaches for their management where valued and invasive.

  8. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, Stephen; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osorio, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L.F.C.; Wilson, Jonthan M

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages.

  9. The Globin Gene Repertoire of Lampreys: Convergent Evolution of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin in Jawed and Jawless Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Kim; Campbell, Kevin L.; Hankeln, Thomas; Storz, Jay F.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Agnathans (jawless vertebrates) occupy a key phylogenetic position for illuminating the evolution of vertebrate anatomy and physiology. Evaluation of the agnathan globin gene repertoire can thus aid efforts to reconstruct the origin and evolution of the globin genes of vertebrates, a superfamily that includes the well-known model proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the genome of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which revealed 23 intact globin genes and two hemoglobin pseudogenes. Analyses of the genome of the Arctic lamprey (Lethenteron camtschaticum) identified 18 full length and five partial globin gene sequences. The majority of the globin genes in both lamprey species correspond to the known agnathan hemoglobins. Both genomes harbor two copies of globin X, an ancient globin gene that has a broad phylogenetic distribution in the animal kingdom. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for an ortholog of neuroglobin in the lamprey genomes. Expression and phylogenetic analyses identified an ortholog of cytoglobin in the lampreys; in fact, our results indicate that cytoglobin is the only orthologous vertebrate-specific globin that has been retained in both gnathostomes and agnathans. Notably, we also found two globins that are highly expressed in the heart of P. marinus, thus representing functional myoglobins. Both genes have orthologs in L. camtschaticum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these heart-expressed globins are not orthologous to the myoglobins of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata), but originated independently within the agnathans. The agnathan myoglobin and hemoglobin proteins form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of functionally analogous myoglobins and hemoglobins of gnathostomes, indicating that specialized respiratory proteins for O2 transport in the blood and O2 storage in the striated muscles evolved independently in both lineages. This dual convergence of O2-transport and O2-storage proteins in

  10. Expression of a Novel D4 Dopamine Receptor in the Lamprey Brain. Evolutionary Considerations about Dopamine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous data reported in lampreys, which belong to the phylogenetically oldest branch of vertebrates, show that the dopaminergic system was already well developed at the dawn of vertebrate evolution. The expression of dopamine in the lamprey brain is well conserved when compared to other vertebrates, and this is also true for the D2 receptor. Additionally, the key role of dopamine in the striatum, modulating the excitability in the direct and indirect pathways through the D1 and D2 receptors, has also been recently reported in these animals. The moment of divergence regarding the two whole genome duplications occurred in vertebrates suggests that additional receptors, apart from the D1 and D2 previously reported, could be present in lampreys. We used in situ hybridization to characterize the expression of a novel dopamine receptor, which we have identified as a D4 receptor according to the phylogenetic analysis. The D4 receptor shows in the sea lamprey a more restricted expression pattern than the D2 subtype, as reported in mammals. Its main expression areas are the striatum, lateral and ventral pallial sectors, several hypothalamic regions, habenula, and mesencephalic and rhombencephalic motoneurons. Some expression areas are well conserved through vertebrate evolution, as is the case of the striatum or the habenula, but the controversies regarding the D4 receptor expression in other vertebrates hampers for a complete comparison, especially in rhombencephalic regions. Our results further support that the dopaminergic system in vertebrates is well conserved and suggest that at least some functions of the D4 receptor were already present before the divergence of lampreys. PMID:26778974

  11. The globin gene repertoire of lampreys: convergent evolution of hemoglobin and myoglobin in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Kim; Campbell, Kevin L; Hankeln, Thomas; Storz, Jay F; Hoffmann, Federico G; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-10-01

    Agnathans (jawless vertebrates) occupy a key phylogenetic position for illuminating the evolution of vertebrate anatomy and physiology. Evaluation of the agnathan globin gene repertoire can thus aid efforts to reconstruct the origin and evolution of the globin genes of vertebrates, a superfamily that includes the well-known model proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the genome of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which revealed 23 intact globin genes and two hemoglobin pseudogenes. Analyses of the genome of the Arctic lamprey (Lethenteron camtschaticum) identified 18 full length and five partial globin gene sequences. The majority of the globin genes in both lamprey species correspond to the known agnathan hemoglobins. Both genomes harbor two copies of globin X, an ancient globin gene that has a broad phylogenetic distribution in the animal kingdom. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for an ortholog of neuroglobin in the lamprey genomes. Expression and phylogenetic analyses identified an ortholog of cytoglobin in the lampreys; in fact, our results indicate that cytoglobin is the only orthologous vertebrate-specific globin that has been retained in both gnathostomes and agnathans. Notably, we also found two globins that are highly expressed in the heart of P. marinus, thus representing functional myoglobins. Both genes have orthologs in L. camtschaticum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these heart-expressed globins are not orthologous to the myoglobins of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata), but originated independently within the agnathans. The agnathan myoglobin and hemoglobin proteins form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of functionally analogous myoglobins and hemoglobins of gnathostomes, indicating that specialized respiratory proteins for O2 transport in the blood and O2 storage in the striated muscles evolved independently in both lineages. This dual convergence of O2-transport and O2-storage proteins in

  12. Multiple molecular forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain of an elasmobranch: evidence for IR-lamprey GnRH.

    PubMed

    Calvin, J L; Slater, C H; Bolduc, T G; Laudano, A P; Sower, S A

    1993-01-01

    These studies investigated brains of skate, Raja erinacea (order Rajiformes, class Chondrichthyes), for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptides by chromatograph and immunoreactivity with region-specific antisera raised against mammalian GnRH and lamprey GnRH. The region-specific antibody to lamprey GnRH-I was produced following conjugation to bovine serum albumin using the bis-diazotized benzidine method. This antibody was characterized by assaying a range of increasing dilutions of the known vertebrate GnRHs, as well as analogs to lamprey GnRH-I. Two analogs, lamprey [Phe2]GnRH-I and lamprey [Leu7]GnRH-I, were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis using a benzhydrylamine resin as the supporting medium and purified by chromatography. This antibody demonstrated less than 0.01% cross-reactivity with all GnRH peptides tested, suggesting a highly specific antibody with a region of amino acids 2-8 that appears essential for binding. In the skate brain, five immunoreactive (IR) GnRH forms were detected, four of which eluted in the same positions as synthetic mammal and chicken GnRH-I (which coelute): lamprey GnRH-I, salmon and chicken GnRH-II, and one that was an unidentified form. A minor peak coeluted with lamprey GnRH-III. The major form in the skate brain is considered to have eluted with synthetic mammalian GnRH. These studies confirm an earlier report of an IR-mammalian GnRH peptide and provide new evidence for IR-lamprey GnRH in the brain of an elasmobranch.

  13. Effect of pH on the toxicity of TFM to sea lamprey larvae and nontarget species during a stream treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of tributaries to the Great Lakes with the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) occasionally results in incomplete kills of sea lamprey larvae (Petromyzon marinus ) or excessive mortality of nontarget fish. In continuous-flow toxicity tests conducted on the Millecoquins River, Michigan, TFM remained selective for sea lamprey at the ambient stream pH and at an increased pH. At all but one concentration, TFM killed all sea lampreys and none of the target fish. Selectivity decreased when the pH was lowered by approximately 1 unit. TFM at the lowest tested concentration (2.3 mg/L) killed 100% of the sea lampreys, 50% of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ), and 40% of the fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas ). When the Millecoquins River was treated at a concentration of 4.2 mg/L of TFM, all the caged sea lampreys were killed at the ambient stream pH (8.35). Treated stream water that was diverted through stainless steel tanks killed only 55% of the sea lampreys and none of the nontarget organisms when the pH was raised to 9.23. All of the sea lampreys and nontarget organisms were killed when the pH of the treated water was lowered to 7.25. These results indicate that diurnal changes in stream pH of approximately 1 pH unit can either cause TFM to become toxic to nontarget organisms or render the treatment ineffective for killing sea lampreys.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus: a powerful tool for understanding ancestral gene functions in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Square, Tyler; Romášek, Marek; Jandzik, David; Cattell, Maria V.; Klymkowsky, Michael; Medeiros, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Lamprey is one of only two living jawless vertebrates, a group that includes the first vertebrates. Comparisons between lamprey and jawed vertebrates have yielded important insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrate physiology, morphology and development. Despite its key phylogenetic position, studies of lamprey have been limited by their complex life history, which makes traditional genetic approaches impossible. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a bacterial defense mechanism that was recently adapted to achieve high-efficiency targeted mutagenesis in eukaryotes. Here we report CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the genes Tyrosinase and FGF8/17/18 in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and detail optimized parameters for producing mutant F0 embryos. Using phenotype and genotype analyses, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 is highly effective in the sea lamprey, with a majority of injected embryos developing into complete or partial mutants. The ability to create large numbers of mutant embryos without inbred lines opens exciting new possibilities for studying development in lamprey and other non-traditional model organisms with life histories that prohibit the generation of mutant lines. PMID:26511928

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus: a powerful tool for understanding ancestral gene functions in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Square, Tyler; Romášek, Marek; Jandzik, David; Cattell, Maria V; Klymkowsky, Michael; Medeiros, Daniel M

    2015-12-01

    Lamprey is one of only two living jawless vertebrates, a group that includes the first vertebrates. Comparisons between lamprey and jawed vertebrates have yielded important insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrate physiology, morphology and development. Despite its key phylogenetic position, studies of lamprey have been limited by their complex life history, which makes traditional genetic approaches impossible. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a bacterial defense mechanism that was recently adapted to achieve high-efficiency targeted mutagenesis in eukaryotes. Here we report CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the genes Tyrosinase and FGF8/17/18 in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and detail optimized parameters for producing mutant F0 embryos. Using phenotype and genotype analyses, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 is highly effective in the sea lamprey, with a majority of injected embryos developing into complete or partial mutants. The ability to create large numbers of mutant embryos without inbred lines opens exciting new possibilities for studying development in lamprey and other non-traditional model organisms with life histories that prohibit the generation of mutant lines.

  16. Tradeoff between assessment and control of aquatic invasive species: A case study of sea lamprey management in the St. Marys River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Allocating resources between the gathering of information to guide management actions and implementing those actions presents an inherent tradeoff. This tradeoff is evident for control of the Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the St. Marys River, connecting Lakes Huron and Superior and a major source of parasitic Sea Lampreys to Lake Huron and northern Lake Michigan. Larval Sea Lampreys in the St. Marys River are controlled through the application of Bayluscide, which is applied to areas of high larval density. Bayluscide applications are guided with an annual deepwater electrofishing survey to estimate larval Sea Lamprey density at relatively fine spatial scales. We took a resampling approach to describe the effect of sampling intensity on the success of the larval Sea Lamprey management program and explicitly incorporated the economic tradeoff between assessment and control efforts to maximize numbers of larvae killed in the St. Marys River. When no tradeoff between assessment and control was incorporated, increasing assessment always led to more larvae killed for the same treatment budget. When the tradeoff was incorporated, the sampling intensity that maximized the number of larvae killed depended on the overall budget available. Increased sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under medium to large budgets (US \\$0.4 to \\$2.0 million), and intermediate sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under low budgets. Sea Lamprey control actions based on assessment information outperformed those that were implemented with no assessment under all budget scenarios.

  17. Life stage dependent responses to the lampricide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), provide insight into glucose homeostasis and metabolism in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Henry, Matthew; Birceanu, Oana; Clifford, Alexander M; McClelland, Grant B; Wang, Yuxiang S; Wilkie, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    The primary method of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes is the treatment of streams and rivers with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which targets larval sea lamprey. However, less is known about the effects of TFM on other stages of the sea lamprey's complex life cycle. The goal of this study was to determine how TFM affected internal energy stores, metabolites, and ion balance in larval, juvenile (parasitic) and adult sea lamprey. The larvae were more tolerant to TFM than the adults, with a 2-fold higher 12h TFM LC50 and a 1.5-fold higher LC99.9. Acute (3h) exposure of the larvae, parasites and adults to their respective 12h TFM LC99.9 led to marked reductions in glycogen and phosphocreatine in the adult brain, with lesser or no effect in the larvae and parasites. Increased lactate in the brain, at less than the expected stoichiometry, suggested that it was exported to the blood. Kidney glycogen declined after TFM exposure, suggesting that this organ plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. TFM-induced disturbances to ion balance were minimal. In conclusion, TFM perturbs energy metabolism in all major stages of the sea lamprey life cycle in a similar fashion, but the adults appear to be the most sensitive. Thus, the adult stage could be a viable and effective target for TFM treatment, particularly when used in combination with other existing and emerging strategies of sea lamprey control.

  18. rLj-RGD3, a Novel Recombinant Toxin Protein from Lampetra japonica, Protects against Cerebral Reperfusion Injury Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Involving the Integrin-PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junshu; Wang, Shengnan; Jia, Qilan; Wang, Yue; Li, Weiping; Zhou, Qin; Lv, Li; Li, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    Background The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model. We also explored the mechanism by which rLj-RGD3 acts by measuring protein and mRNA expression levels, with an emphasis on the FAK and integrin-PI3K/Akt anti-apoptosis pathways. Methods rLj-RGD3 was obtained from the buccal secretions of Lampetra japonica using gene recombination technology. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the following seven groups: a sham group; a vehicle-treated (VT) group; 100.0 μg·kg-1, 50.0 μg·kg-1 and 25.0 μg·kg-1 dose rLj-RGD3 groups; and two positive controls, including 1.5 mg·kg-1 Edaravone (ED) and 100.0 μg·kg-1 Eptifibatide (EP). MCAO was induced using a model consisting of 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Behavioral changes were observed in the normal and operation groups after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was applied. In addition, behavioral scores were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after reperfusion. Brain infarct volumes were determined based on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Pathological changes in brain tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays. We determined the expression levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K

  19. Conservation of Pax gene expression in ectodermal placodes of the lamprey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Ectodermal placodes contribute to the cranial ganglia and sense organs of the head and, together with neural crest cells, represent defining features of the vertebrate embryo. The identity of different placodes appears to be specified in part by the expression of different Pax genes, with Pax-3/7 class genes being expressed in the trigeminal placode of mice, chick, frogs and fish, and Pax-2/5/8 class genes expressed in the otic placode. Here, we present the cloning and expression pattern of lamprey Pax-7 and Pax-2, which mark the trigeminal and otic placodes, respectively, as well as other structures characteristic of vertebrate Pax genes. These results suggest conservation of Pax genes and placodal structures in basal and derived vertebrates.

  20. Lamprey VLRB response to influenza virus supports universal rules of immunogenicity and antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Altman, Meghan O; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Herrin, Brantley R

    2015-08-07

    Immunoglobulins (Igs) are a crown jewel of jawed vertebrate evolution. Through recombination and mutation of small numbers of genes, Igs can specifically recognize a vast variety of natural and man-made organic molecules. Jawless vertebrates evolved a parallel system of humoral immunity, which recognizes antigens not with Ig, but with a structurally unrelated receptor called the variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB). We exploited the convergent evolution of Ig and VLRB antibodies (Abs) to investigate if intrinsic chemical features of foreign proteins determine their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Surprisingly, we find lamprey VLRB and mouse Ig responses to influenza A virus are extremely similar. Each focuses ~80% of the response on hemagglutinin (HA), mainly through recognition of the major antigenic sites in the HA globular head domain. Our findings predict basic conservation of Ab responses to protein antigens, strongly supporting the use of animal models for understanding human Ab responses to viruses and protein immunogens.

  1. Functional Regeneration Following Spinal Transection Demonstrated in the Isolated Spinal Cord of the Larval Sea Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. H.; Mackler, S. A.; Selzer, M. E.

    1986-04-01

    Axons in the larval sea lamprey can regenerate across the site of a spinal cord transection and form functioning synapses with some of their normal target neurons. The animals recover normal-appearing locomotion, but whether the regenerating axons and their synaptic connections are capable of playing a functional role during this behavior is unknown. To test this, ``fictive'' swimming was induced in the isolated spinal cord by the addition of D-glutamate to the bathing solution. Ventral root discharges of segments above and below a healed transection showed a high degree of phase-locking. This strongly suggests that the behavioral recovery is mediated by regenerated functional synaptic connections subserving intersegmental coordination of the central pattern generator for locomotion.

  2. On the derivation and tuning of phase oscillator models for lamprey central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Várkonyi, Péter L; Kiemel, Tim; Hoffman, Kathleen; Cohen, Avis H; Holmes, Philip

    2008-10-01

    Using phase response curves and averaging theory, we derive phase oscillator models for the lamprey central pattern generator from two biophysically-based segmental models. The first one relies on network dynamics within a segment to produce the rhythm, while the second contains bursting cells. We study intersegmental coordination and show that the former class of models shows more robust behavior over the animal's range of swimming frequencies. The network-based model can also easily produce approximately constant phase lags along the spinal cord, as observed experimentally. Precise control of phase lags in the network-based model is obtained by varying the relative strengths of its six different connection types with distance in a phase model with separate coupling functions for each connection type. The phase model also describes the effect of randomized connections, accurately predicting how quickly random network-based models approach the determinisitic model as the number of connections increases.

  3. Anadromous sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are ecosystem engineers in a spawning tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Simon, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) disturb the substratum during nest construction and alter the physical habitat, potentially affecting other stream organisms. We quantified differences in depth, velocity, fine-sediment coverage, embeddedness, intragravel permeability and benthic invertebrate assemblages (density and diversity) among nest mounds, nest pits and undisturbed reference locations over a 4-month period after June spawning. In 2010 and 2011, immediate and persistent effects of nest construction were assessed in summer (July) and in autumn (late September to early October), respectively. Randomly selected nests were sampled annually (25 each in summer and autumn). Nest construction increased stream-bed complexity by creating and juxtaposing shallow, swift, rocky habitat patches with deep, slow, sandy habitat patches. Mounds had a 50–143% less cover of fine sediment, and a 30–62% reduction in embeddedness, compared to pits and reference locations. These physical changes persisted into the autumn (almost 4 months). Five insect families contributed 74% of the benthic invertebrate abundance: Chironomidae (27%), Hydropsychidae (26%), Heptageniidae (8%), Philopotamidae (7%) and Ephemerellidae (6%). Densities of Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae and Heptageniidae were up to 10 times greater in mounds than in pits and adjacent reference habitat. In summer, mounds had twice the density of Chironomidae than did pits, and 1.5 times more than reference habitats, but densities were similar among the habitats in autumn. These results suggest that spawning sea lampreys are ecosystem engineers. The physical disturbance caused by nest-building activity was significant and persistent, increasing habitat heterogeneity and favouring pollution-sensitive benthic invertebrates and, possibly, drift-feeding fish.

  4. Analysis of lamprey clustered Fox genes: insight into Fox gene evolution and expression in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karl R; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2011-12-01

    In the human genome, members of the FoxC, FoxF, FoxL1, and FoxQ1 gene families are found in two paralagous clusters. One cluster contains the genes FOXQ1, FOXF2, FOXC1 and the second consists of FOXF1, FOXC2, and FOXL1. In jawed vertebrates these genes are known to be expressed in different pharyngeal tissues and all, except FoxQ1, are involved in patterning the early embryonic mesoderm. We have previously traced the evolution of this cluster in the bony vertebrates, and the gene content is identical in the dogfish, a member of the most basally branching lineage of the jawed vertebrates. Here we extend these analyses to jawless vertebrates. Using genomic searches and molecular approaches we have identified homologues of these genes from lampreys. We identify two FoxC genes, two FoxF genes, two FoxQ1 genes and single FoxL1 gene. We examine the embryonic expression of one predominantly mesodermally expressed gene family, FoxC, and the endodermally expressed member of the cluster, FoxQ1. We identified FoxQ1 transcripts in the pharyngeal endoderm, while the two FoxC genes are differentially expressed in the pharyngeal mesenchyme and ectoderm. Furthermore we identify conserved expression of lamprey FoxC genes in the paraxial and intermediate mesoderms. We interpret our results through a chordate-wide comparison of expression patterns and discuss gene content in the context of theories on the evolution of the vertebrate genome.

  5. Sex ratios and sexual dimorphism among recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Thomas, M.L.H.

    1965-01-01

    The sex, length, and weight were determined of nearly all recently transformed sea lampreys migrating downstream in the Carp Lake River, Michigan, in the fall, winter, and spring of 1960-61. Similar data were collected from samples of an earlier run in the Carp Lake River and of runs in three other tributaries of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The sex ratio of the 1960-61 migrants in the Carp Lake River was 324 males:100 females. Sex ratios of migrants in the other runs varied from 77 to 86 males:100 females. The high proportion of males in the 1960-61 run in the Carp Lake River is attributed to the effective prevention of recruitment of sea lampreys in the river and transformation of the females at an earlier age than is characteristic of the males. A near equal sex ratio among recently transformed migrants is considered normal for the species. The sex composition of a run changed during the period of migration. The proportion of males among the migrants was greatest at the beginning of the run and declined steadily thereafter. The average size was smaller for males than for females. Differences in the mean lengths and weights of the sexes were statistically significant. The length-weight relation differed for the sexes and showed a slower rate of increase of weight with increase in length than is characteristic of other stages of the animals' life cycle. Seasonal changes in the length-weight relation had a trend toward lower weights among the migrants coming downstream in the later months of the run.

  6. Annual sex steroid and other physiological profiles of Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Bryan, Mara B.; Sower, Stacia A.

    2010-01-01

    We documented changes in plasma levels of estradiol 17-β (E2), progesterone (P), 15α-hydroxytestosterone (15α-T), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), protein, triglycerides (TGs), and glucose in adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) held in the laboratory in two different years. Levels of E2 in both sexes ranged from 0.5 to 2 ng/mL from September to March, peaked in late April (2–4 ng/mL), and decreased in May, with levels higher in males than in females. Levels of P were low from September through April, but then increased substantially during May (2–4 ng/mL), with levels again highest in males. Levels of 15α-T in males were around 0.75 ng/mL through the winter before exceeding 1 ng/mL in April and decreasing thereafter, whereas females showed a gradual increase from 0.25 ng/mL in November to 0.5 ng/mL in April before decreasing. Thyroxine concentrations differed between fish in each year, with most having levels ranging from 0.75 to 2.5 ng/mL in the fall and winter, and only fish in 2003 showing distinct peaks (3–4 ng/mL) in early April or May. Plasma T3 was undetectable from November through mid-March before surging dramatically in April (ca. 150 ng/mL) and decreasing thereafter. Levels of protein, TGs, and glucose decreased or were stable during the fall and winter with TGs and glucose surging in late April to early May for some fish. Our study is the first to document long-term physiological changes in Pacific lampreys during overwintering and sexual maturation and increases our understanding of the life history of this unique fish.

  7. D-serine is distributed in neurons in the brain of the sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina; Anadón, Ramón

    2010-05-15

    The amino acid D-serine is an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mammals that has been shown to play an important role in synaptic function, behavior, learning, and memory. The distribution and cellular location of D-serine in the brain of the sea lamprey was investigated by using immunofluorescence methods. One major finding of our study, unlike early studies of mammals, was the localization of D-serine immunoreactivity in perikarya and dendrites of neurons, whereas D-serine immunoreactivity was not generally observed in the lamprey glia. D-serine-immunoreactive neurons were observed in different brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, medial pallium, thalamus, torus semicircularis, isthmus, and reticular formation. The colocalization of D-serine with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was also studied with a double-immunofluorescence technique. The relationship between D-serine and glycine immunoreactivities was studied in alternate parallel series of sections stained for either D-serine/GABA or glycine/GABA. Colocalization with GABA was observed in various D-serine-immunoreactive populations, and codistribution and possible colocalization with glycine was also observed in some populations, mainly in the dorsal isthmic gray, medial octavolateral nucleus, dorsal column nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and reticular formation. Although numerous fibers were strongly GABA- and glycine-immunoreactive, D-serine immunoreactivity was observed mostly in cell perikarya and dendrites. The present results indicate that the D-serine immunoreactive cells are small to medium-sized neurons, some exhibiting classical inhibitory neurotransmitters, in which D-serine might be acting as a modulator. The neuronal distribution of D-serine and its frequent colocalization and/or codistribution with the two main inhibitory neurotransmitters appeared early in vertebrates.

  8. Female sea lamprey shift orientation toward a conspecific chemical cue to escape a sensory trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    The sensory trap model of signal evolution hypothesizes that signalers adapt to exploit a cue used by the receiver in another context. Although exploitation of receiver biases can result in conflict between the sexes, deceptive signaling systems that are mutually beneficial drive the evolution of stable communication systems. However, female responses in the nonsexual and sexual contexts may become uncoupled if costs are associated with exhibiting a similar response to a trait in both contexts. Male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) signal with a mating pheromone, 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), which may be a match to a juvenile cue used by females during migration. Upstream movement of migratory lampreys is partially guided by 3kPZS, but females only move toward 3kPZS with proximal accuracy during spawning. Here, we use in-stream behavioral assays paired with gonad histology to document the transition of female preference for juvenile- and male-released 3kPZS that coincides with the functional shift of 3kPZS as a migratory cue to a mating pheromone. Females became increasingly biased toward the source of synthesized 3kPZS as their maturation progressed into the reproductive phase, at which point, a preference for juvenile odor (also containing 3kPZS naturally) ceased to exist. Uncoupling of female responses during migration and spawning makes the 3kPZS communication system a reliable means of synchronizing mate search. The present study offers a rare example of a transition in female responses to a chemical cue between nonsexual and sexual contexts, provides insights into the origins of stable communication signaling systems.

  9. Ionoregulatory changes during metamorphosis and salinity exposure of juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reis-Santos, P.; McCormick, S.D.; Wilson, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Ammocoetes of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. spend many years in freshwater before metamorphosing and migrating to sea. Metamorphosis involves the radical transformation from a substrate-dwelling, filter feeder into a free-swimming, parasitic feeder. In the present work we examined osmoregulatory differences between ammocoetes and transformers (metamorphic juveniles), and the effects of salinity acclimation. We measured the expression of key ion-transporting proteins [Na+/K+-ATPase, vacuolar (V)-type H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA)] as well as a number of relevant blood parameters (hematocrit, [Na+] and [Cl -]). In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify and characterize the distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase and CA immunoreactive cells in the gill. Ammocoetes did not survive in the experiments with salinities greater than 10???, whereas survival in high salinity (???25-35???) increased with increased degree of metamorphosis in transformers. Plasma [Na+] and [Cl -] of ammocoetes in freshwater was lower than transformers and increased markedly at 10???. In transformers, plasma ions increased only at high salinity (>25???). Branchial Na+/K+-ATPase levels were ??? tenfold higher in transformers compared to ammocoetes and salinity did not affect expression in either group. However, branchial H +-ATPase expression showed a negative correlation with salinity in both groups. Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity was strongest in transformers and associated with clusters of cells in the interlamellar spaces. H+-ATPase (B subunit) immunoreactivity was localized to epithelial cells not expressing high Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity and having a similar tissue distribution as carbonic anhydrase. The results indicate that branchial Na+/K+-ATPase and salinity tolerance increase in metamorphosing lampreys, and that branchial H+-ATPase is downregulated by salinity.

  10. Effects of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes on aquatic plants, invertebrates and amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.; Johnson, B.G.H.

    1980-01-01

    The chemicals 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) or a combination of TFM and 2a??,5-dichloro-4a??-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) have been used to control the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes for about 20 yr. These chemicals cause some mortalities of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, immature forms of Ephemeroptera (Hexagenia sp.), and certain Trichoptera, Simuliidae, and Amphibia (Necturus sp.). The combination of TFM and Bayer 73 may affect some Pelecypoda and Gastropoda, but its overall effects on invertebrates are probably less than those of TFM alone. Granular Bayer 73 is likely to induce mortalities among oligochaetes, microcrustaceans, chironomids, and pelecypods. No evidence exists that the lampricides have caused the catastrophic decline or disappearance of any species. The overall impact of chemical control of sea lampreys on aquatic communities has been minor compared with the benefits derived.

  11. Experimental control of sea lampreys with electricity on the south shore of Lake Superior, 1953-60

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, Alberton L.; Smith, Bernard R.; Moore, Harry H.

    1965-01-01

    Electric devices of the type and design used are capable of blocking entire runs of adult sea lampreys. An accurate appraisal of the effectiveness of the barrier system is impossible, however. Most of the barriers were not operated long enough to reduce the contribution of parasites from the streams. Furthermore, a complete system of efficient electric barriers was never realized. The greatest weakness of this method of control lies in maintenance of the units in continuous, uninterrupted operation through consecutive migratory seasons.

  12. Ammocoetes of Pacific lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Jolley, C J.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Thompson, D.; Whitesel, A.T.; Gutenberger, S.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses.

  13. Ammocoetes of Pacific Lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Kurath, G; Jolley, J C; Thompson, T M; Thompson, D; Whitesel, T A; Gutenberger, S; Winton, J R

    2013-12-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses.

  14. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of chromosome site-specific repetitive sequences in the Arctic lamprey (Lethenteron camtschaticum, Petromyzontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ishijima, Junko; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nunome, Mitsuo; Nishida, Chizuko; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract All extant lamprey karyotypes are characterized by almost all dot-shaped microchromosomes. To understand the molecular basis of chromosome structure in lampreys, we performed chromosome C-banding and silver staining and chromosome mapping of the 18S–28S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and telomeric TTAGGG repeats in the Arctic lamprey (Lethenteron camtschaticum). In addition, we cloned chromosome site-specific repetitive DNA sequences and characterized them by nucleotide sequencing, chromosome in situ hybridization, and filter hybridization. Three types of repetitive sequences were detected; a 200-bp AT-rich repetitive sequence, LCA-EcoRIa that co-localized with the 18S–28S rRNA gene clusters of 3 chromosomal pairs; a 364-bp AT-rich LCA-EcoRIb sequence that showed homology to the EcoRI sequence family from the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), which contains short repeats as centromeric motifs; and a GC-rich 702-bp LCA-ApaI sequence that was distributed on nearly all chromosomes and showed significant homology with the integrase-coding region of a Ty3/Gypsy family long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon. All three repetitive sequences are highly conserved within the Petromyzontidae or within Petromyzontidae and Mordaciidae. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of these site-specific repeats showed that they may be correlated with programed genome rearrangement (LCA-EcoRIa), centromere structure and function (LCA-EcoRIb), and site-specific amplification of LTR retroelements through homogenization between non-homologous chromosomes (LCA-ApaI). PMID:28025319

  15. Survival and metamorphosis of low-density populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in streams following lampricide treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus control in the Great Lakes primarily involves application of lampricides to streams where larval production occurs to kill larvae prior to their metamorphosing and entering the lakes as parasites (juveniles). Because lampricides are not 100% effective, larvae that survive treatment maymetamorphose before streams are again treated. Larvae that survive treatment have not beenwidely studied, so their dynamics are notwell understood.Wetagged and released larvae in six Great Lake tributaries following lampricide treatment and estimated vital demographic rates using multistate tag-recovery models. Model-averaged larval survivals ranged from 56.8 to 57.6%. Model-averaged adult recovery rates, which were the product of juvenile survivals and adult capture probabilities, ranged from 6.8 to 9.3%. Using stochastic simulations, we estimated production of juvenile sea lampreys from a hypothetical population of treatment survivors under different growth conditions based on parameter estimates from this research. For fast-growing populations, juvenile production peaked 2 years after treatment. For slow-growing populations, juvenile production was approximately one-third that of fast-growing populations,with production not peaking until 4 years after treatment. Our results suggest that dynamics (i.e., survival, metamorphosis) of residual larval populations are very similar to those of untreated larval populations. Consequently, residual populations do not necessarily warrant special consideration for the purpose of sea lamprey control and can be ranked for treatment along with other populations. Consecutive lampricide treatments, which are under evaluation by the sea lamprey control program, would bemost effective for reducing juvenile production in large, fast-growing populations.

  16. Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xi, X.; Johnson, N.S.; Brant, C.O.; Yun, S.-S.; Chambers, K.L.; Jones, A.D.; Li, W.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L–1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3–11.6% and 4.8–9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L–1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L–1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L–1 or 0.24 ng L–1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L–1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

  17. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.

  18. Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaodan; Johnson, Nicholas S; Brant, Cory O; Yun, Sang-Seon; Chambers, Keali L; Jones, A Daniel; Li, Weiming

    2011-08-01

    We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [(2)H(5)]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L(-1) (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3-11.6% and 4.8-9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L(-1) and 5 ng 3kPZS L(-1). This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L(-1) or 0.24 ng L(-1). We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L(-1) during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

  19. New insights on the neuropeptide Y system in the larval lamprey brain: neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons, descending spinal projections and comparison with tyrosine hydroxylase and GABA immunoreactivities.

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Iglesias, A; Anadón, R; Rodicio, M C

    2010-05-05

    Lampreys are useful models for studying the evolution of the nervous system of vertebrates. Here we used immunofluorescence and tract-tracing methods to study new aspects of the neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (NPY-ir) system in larval sea lampreys. NPY-ir neurons were observed in brain nuclei that contain NPY-ir cells in other lamprey species. Moreover, a group of NPY-ir cells that migrated away the periventricular layer was observed in the lateral part of the dorsal hypothalamus, which suggests a role for NPY in feeding behavior in lampreys. We also report NPY-ir cells in the dorsal column nucleus, which appears to be unique among vertebrates, and in the habenula. A combination of tract-tracing and immunohistochemical labeling demonstrated the presence of spinal projecting NPY-ir reticular cells in the anterior rhombencephalic reticular formation, and the relationships between the NPY-ir system and the reticulospinal nuclei and some afferent systems. The colocalization of catecholamines and GABA in lamprey NPY-ir neurons was investigated by double immunofluorescence methods. Colocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NPY immunoreactivities was not observed in any brain neuron, although reported in amphibians and mammals. The frequent presence of NPY-ir terminals on TH-ir cells suggests that NPY modulates the activity of some dopaminergic nuclei in lampreys. Colocalization of NPY and GABA immunoreactivities was frequently observed in neurons of different rhombencephalic and diencephalic NPY-ir populations. These results in lampreys suggest that the coexpression of NPY and GABA in neurons appeared early on in the brains of vertebrates.

  20. Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) ammocoetes exposed to contaminated Portland Harbor sediments: Method development and effects on survival, growth, and behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unrein, Julia R.; Morris, Jeffrey M.; Chitwood, Rob S.; Lipton, Joshua; Peers, Jennifer; van de Wetering, Stan; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances have contributed to the decline of Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus), but potential negative effects of contaminants on lampreys are unclear. Lamprey ammocoetes are the only detritivorous fish in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, USA, and have been observed in Portland Harbor sediments. Their long benthic larval stage places them at risk from the effects of contaminated sediment. The authors developed experimental methods to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on the growth and behavior of field-collected ammocoetes reared in a laboratory. Specifically, they developed methods to assess individual growth and burrowing behavior. Burrowing performance demonstrated high variability among contaminated sediments; however, ammocoetes presented with noncontaminated reference sediment initiated burrowing more rapidly and completed it faster. Ammocoete reemergence from contaminated sediments suggests avoidance of some chemical compounds. The authors conducted long-term exposure experiments on individually held ammocoetes using sediment collected from their native Siletz River, which included the following: contaminated sediments collected from 9 sites within Portland Harbor, 2 uncontaminated reference sediments collected upstream, 1 uncontaminated sediment with characteristics similar to Portland Harbor sediments, and clean sand. They determined that a 24-h depuration period was sufficient to evaluate weight changes and observed no mortality or growth effects in fish exposed to any of the contaminated sediments. However, the effect on burrowing behavior appeared to be a sensitive endpoint, with potentially significant implications for predator avoidance.

  1. Complete Sequence of a Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) Mitochondrial Genome: Early Establishment of the Vertebrate Genome Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. J.; Kocher, T. D.

    1995-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mitochondrial genome has been determined. The lamprey genome is 16,201 bp in length and contains genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and two major noncoding regions. The order and transcriptional polarities of protein-coding genes are basically identical to those of other chordate mtDNAs, demonstrating that the common mitochondrial gene organization of vertebrates was established at an early stage of vertebrate evolution. The two major noncoding regions are separated by two tRNA genes. The first region probably functions as the control region because it contains distinctive conserved sequence blocks (CSB-II and III) common to other vertebrate control regions. The central conserved domain observed in other vertebrate control regions is not found in the lamprey, suggesting that it is a recently evolved functional domain in vertebrates. Noncoding segments are not found in the expected position of the origin of replication for the second strand, suggesting either that one of the tRNA genes has a dual function or that the second noncoding region may function as the second-strand origin. The base composition at the wobble positions of fourfold degenerate codon families is highly biased toward thymine (32.7%). Values of GC-and AT-skew are typical of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.genomes. PMID:7713438

  2. Iron and aluminum deposition in the meninges of the lamprey: identification of an aluminum-ferritin inclusion body

    SciTech Connect

    Youson, J.H.; Sargent, P.A.; Pearce, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    The meningeal tissue of the brain and spinal cord of larval and juvenile adults of lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) was examined by routine electron microscopy, electron microscopic histochemistry, and electron-probe x-ray microanalysis to locate sites of iron deposition. A magnetometer was used for identification of ferromagnetic iron. Ferritin particles, representing ferric iron, are present in abundance within the cytoplasmic matrices and in dense bodies of meningeal cells of both the brain and spinal cord of larvae and juveniles. These round cells of the meninges also contain abundant glycogen and lipid. Small quantities of ferrous iron are associated to the latter inclusion. Aluminum deposits are present within an electron-dense material of many ferritin-containing inclusions of meningeal cells of the larval brain. Ferromagnetic material was not detected in larval and upstream-migrant lampreys. The deposition of iron and aluminum in the meninges of lampreys may be related to physiological and environmental factors, respectively, and/or to an important interaction between the two metals.

  3. Complete sequence of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mitochondrial genome: Early establishment of the vertebrate genome organization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.J.; Kocher, T.D.

    1995-02-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mitochondrial genome has been determined. The lamprey genome is 16,201 bp in length and contains genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and two major noncoding regions. The order and transcriptional polarities of protein-coding genes are basically identical to those of other chordate mtDNAs, demonstrating that the common mitochondrial gene organization of vertebrates was established at early stage of vertebrate evolution. The two major noncoding regions are separated by two tRNA genes. The first region probably functions as the control region because it contains distinctive conserved sequence blocks (CSB-II and III) common to other vertebrate control regions. The central conserved domain observed in other vertebrate control regions is not found in the lamprey, suggesting that it is a recently evolved functional domain in vertebrates. Noncoding segments are not found in the expected position of the origin of replication for the second strand, suggesting either that one of the tRNA genes has a dual function or that the second noncoding region may function as the second-strand origin. The base composition at the wobble positions of fourfold degenerate codon families is highly biased toward thymine (32.7%). Values of GC- and AT-skew are typical of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. 38 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Sea lamprey carcasses exert local and variable food web effects in a nutrient-limited Atlantic coastal stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Resource flows from adjacent ecosystems are critical in maintaining structure and function of freshwater food webs. Migrating sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) deliver a pulsed marine-derived nutrient subsidy to rivers in spring when the metabolic demand of producers and consumers are increasing. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of these nutrient subsidies are not well characterized. We used sea lamprey carcass additions in a small stream to examine changes in nutrients, primary productivity, and nutrient assimilation among consumers. Algal biomass increased 57%–71% immediately adjacent to carcasses; however, broader spatial changes from multiple-site carcass addition may have been influenced by canopy cover. We detected assimilation of nutrients (via δ13C and δ15N) among several macroinvertebrate families including Heptageniidae, Hydropsychidae, and Perlidae. Our research suggests that subsidies may evoke localized patch-scale effects on food webs, and the pathways of assimilation in streams are likely coupled to adjacent terrestrial systems. This research underscores the importance of connectivity in streams, which may influence sea lamprey spawning and elicit varying food web responses from carcass subsidies due to fine-scale habitat variables.

  5. Roles for FGF in lamprey pharyngeal pouch formation and skeletogenesis highlight ancestral functions in the vertebrate head.

    PubMed

    Jandzik, David; Hawkins, M Brent; Cattell, Maria V; Cerny, Robert; Square, Tyler A; Medeiros, Daniel M

    2014-02-01

    A defining feature of vertebrates (craniates) is a pronounced head supported and protected by a cellularized endoskeleton. In jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), the head skeleton is made of rigid three-dimensional elements connected by joints. By contrast, the head skeleton of modern jawless vertebrates (agnathans) consists of thin rods of flexible cellular cartilage, a condition thought to reflect the ancestral vertebrate state. To better understand the origin and evolution of the gnathostome head skeleton, we have been analyzing head skeleton development in the agnathan, lamprey. The fibroblast growth factors FGF3 and FGF8 have various roles during head development in jawed vertebrates, including pharyngeal pouch morphogenesis, patterning of the oral skeleton and chondrogenesis. We isolated lamprey homologs of