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Sample records for land brandenburg hinweis

  1. Historic land use and land use changes in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, East Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolay, A.; Raab, A.; Raab, T. A.; Rösler, H.; Bönisch, E.

    2011-12-01

    In the apron of the active lignite open cast mine Jänschwalde (Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, East Germany) geoscientists from the BTU Cottbus and archaeologists from the Brandenburgisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologisches Landesmuseum jointly investigate the impact of prehistoric and historic land use on the landscape. In the study area evidence of different land use and land use change is abundant. Amongst others, the presumably largest charcoal production area in Germany was found which was used from medieval to modern times. Charcoal burning and related activities certainly had tremendous environmental impacts. Archaeological surveys and excavations offer excellent outcrop situations. Fieldwork started in 2010 and concentrates on an area where aeolian drift and coversands are widespread. We assume that the formation of these aeolian coversands is the result of deforestation for charcoal burning and agricultural land use. To study pedology, geomorphology and landscape development on a landscape scale several up to 150 m long and 2 m depth cross-sections were carried out. Field methods include topographical surveying (by differential GPS) and the description of soils and sediments. Laboratory methods (e.g., soil texture, TOC, contents of pedogenic oxides) are carried out for soil characterization. In addition, for chronological information radiocarbon (14C) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating as well as dendrochronological age determinations are applied on selected materials. Our preliminary results from several cross-sections show that the landscape was used in different ways. Buried topsoil horizons of the Roman Imperial period (50-315 AD) and the Migration period (375-600 AD) are found. Moreover agricultural soil horizons from the Slavic medieval period (600-1200 AD) are present. The former topsoils are covered by 10-150 cm thick aeolian drift sands which can be differentiated by pedological and sedimentological means into two phases

  2. Landscape change by prehistoric and historic land use in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A.; Takla, M.; Nicolay, A.; Rösler, H.; Bönisch, E.; Raab, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg) is known as energy region in Germany. During the last decades, lignite mining in the opencast mines destroyed whole landscapes comprising archaeological and cultural remains as well as e.g. vegetation, topography and soils. However, by law archaeological excavations have to be carried out and all archaeological findings have to be documented in the forefield of the five km wide open cast mine. In combination with the excellent outcrop situation the archaeological investigation offers ideal conditions to study the landscape history and land use change. Therefore recently, a joint project was launched for interdisciplinary long-term paleoenvironmental research and to reconstruct the anthropogenic landscape change in southern Brandenburg. The study area, the opencast mine Jänschwalde is situated about 100 km south of Berlin and c. 15 km NE of Cottbus. The climate is continental with an annual mean air temperature between 8 and 9 °C and an annual precipitation sum between 510 and 610 mm. The landscape was mainly formed by Pleistocene glaciations. One of the outcomes of the archaeological surveys and excavations is the detection of the presumably largest charcoal production area in Germany, which is archaeologically investigated. The charcoal was presumably used nearby in the iron works of Peitz where bog iron ore was smelted since 1567. Meanwhile remnants of more than 800 circular upright kilns are excavated and prospected. To charge those piles a large woodland area was necessary. Therefore charcoal burning and related activities had certainly severe consequences for the environment (e.g., clearing, vegetation change, soil erosion). To unravel the complex interrelation between the impact of former land use and the environment we use different methods and techniques (e.g., chemical, physical and mineralogical soil analyses, small-scale terrain survey, absolute age determination) combined in a multidisciplinary approach. The long-term aim

  3. Proxies of pre-industrial charcoal production and land use in lake sediments from South Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Alexandra; Frantiuc, Alexandru; Brademann, Brian; Ott, Florian; Hirsch, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decades, archaeological research has revealed that large-scale charcoal burning was carried out in Lower Lusatia (South Brandenburg) situated within the North Germany Lowland. From the 17th to the 19th century, charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork in Peitz. Within the framework of the ICLEA project lake sediments from two lakes, Byhleguhrer See and Großsee, are investigated to study the impact of pre-industrial charcoal production on the environment. The investigation area is situated c. 15 km ne of Cottbus in the Tauerscher Forst, an area mainly forested with pine. The climate is continental (mean annual air temperature: 8-9 °C, mean annual precipitation sum: 565 mm). The geology and geomorphology were formed by Quaternary glaciations. Two lakes, Großsee and Byhleguhrer See, were selected for our research. Großsee (51° 56,007' N, 14° 28,282' E, 63 m a.s.l., max. 9 m water depth) is c. 0.31 km2 large and lies in the central part of the Tauersche Forst. Byhleguhrer See (51° 55,41' N, 14° 9,922' E, 50 m a.s.l., max. 1 m water depth) is situated in c. 22 km linear distance W of Großsee at the western margin of the Tauersche Forst. This lake is c. 0.89 km2 large. During the last 50 years Byhleguhrer See and its surrounding was intensively used (fishing, wastewater discharge, agriculture). Three short sediment cores were gained from each lake. All cores were opened, described and photographed. Magnetic susceptibility (split-core logger) and total element contents (µXRF) were measured on selected cores. Based on the first data, two sediment cores were chosen for further analyses (CNS, 14C-dating, etc.). The sediment core from Großsee (GR13-SH-PO56) is 77 cm long. The sediments are quite homogenous and have a high organic content. S values are increased in the upper part (10-30 cm sediment depth) correlating with high magnetic susceptibility and iron values, which hint on the occurrence of pyrite in the sediment. 14C-dating of the

  4. Protecting Political Speech: "Brandenburg vs. Ohio" Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Examines the interpretation and application of the Supreme Court's decision in "Brandenburg vs. Ohio" which prohibits states from limiting political speech unless it is directed at inciting imminent lawless action. Presents four patterns in interpretation characterized by immediacy, speaker's intention, advocacy of nonviolent victimless…

  5. Protecting Political Speech: "Brandenburg vs. Ohio" Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Examines the interpretation and application of the Supreme Court's decision in "Brandenburg vs. Ohio" which prohibits states from limiting political speech unless it is directed at inciting imminent lawless action. Presents four patterns in interpretation characterized by immediacy, speaker's intention, advocacy of nonviolent victimless…

  6. Demographische Entwicklung in der Metropolregion Berlin-Brandenburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Wolf; Bluth, Friedrich

    〝Denn eins ist sicher: Die Rente.`` Der vielzitierte Satz des früheren Arbeits- und Sozialministers Norbert Blüm klingt heute vielen wie Hohn. Der Altersaufbau der deutschen Bevölkerung erinnert grafisch immer mehr an einen Baum auf dünnem Stämmchen als an eine Pyramide. Angesichts dessen rücken demographische Entwicklungen mehr und mehr in den Fokus der Öffentlichkeit. Besonders die neuen Bundesländer sind massiv von Abwanderung und einem nie dagewesenen Geburtenrückgang betroffen.DIPL.-GEOGR. UTE C. BAUERsprach mitFRIEDRICH BLUTHundWOLF BEYERüber die Besonderheiten der demographischen Prozesse in Berlin und Brandenburg. Beyer leitete bis Anfang 2004 das brandenburgische Referat für Raumbeobachtung. Seine Aufgabe bestand darin, Planungsgrundlagen für die Gemeinsame Landesplanung Berlin-Brandenburg(GL) zu schaffen. Dazu zählen auch Bevölkerungsprognosen für die Kreise und Städte Brandenburgs. Bluth ist in der Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung Berlin beschäftigt und leitet dort die Gruppe 〝Stadtwissen, Stadtentwicklungsmonitoring, Bevölkerungsprognose.``

  7. Towards an inventory of historic charcoal production fields in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Takla, Melanie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Bonhage, Alexander; Hirsch, Florian; Rösler, Horst

    2015-04-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. Based on our results from this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field, we attempted to detect and map other large occurrences of charcoal kiln remains in the state of Brandenburg. For the mine forefield, archaeological excavations provide certain and exact information on kiln site location and geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield, using a manual digitization for thorough mapping in forest areas north of Cottbus, and an automated mapping approach for detection of kiln sites for additional areas in Brandenburg. Potential areas of large-scale production were identified in a GIS-based analysis of environmental and historic data. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield. First results of mapping for larger areas indicate similar densities, but smaller diameters of kiln sites in other charcoal production fields; and show that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  8. Assessing the legacy effects of historic charcoal production in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Alexandra; Bonhage, Alexander; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal produced in kilns or hearths was an important source of energy in many regions of Europe and Northern America until the 19th century, and charcoal production in hearths is still common in many other regions of the world. The remains of charcoal hearths are therefore a widespread legacy of historic land use in forest areas. Soils on charcoal hearth sites are characterized by a technogenic layer rich in charcoal and ash on top of the soil profile, and by a pyrogenic modification of substrates below the former hearth. The aims of our study are to examine how these alterations to the natural soil profiles affect the soil water regime and other soil physical properties, and to assess the relevance of these effects on the landscape scale. We present first results of a mapping of hearth site occurrence in forest areas in the state of Brandenburg, Germany, and of a characterization of the infiltration behaviour on hearth sites as compared with undisturbed forest soils. Results of mapping small-scale relief features from LIDAR-based digital elevation models show that charcoal hearths occur in a high density in many large forest areas throughout Brandenburg. In the areas studied so far, up to almost 3% of the soil surface were found to be affected by the remains of historic hearths. First analyses of soil physical properties indicate differences in the infiltration characteristics of hearth site soils and undisturbed forest soils: Hood infiltrometer measurements show a very high spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity for hearth site soils, and water-drop-penetration-time tests reflect extremely high hydrophobicity of the technogenic layer on the sites. Results of dye tracer experiment show considerably strong preferential flow and therefore a higher spatial variability of soil wetness below the hearth remains. Overall, our first results therefore indicate that the legacy effects of historic charcoal production might significantly affect overall site

  9. Comment on Mars as the Parent Body of the CI Carbonaceous Chondrites by J. E. Brandenburg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    Geological and chemical data refute a martian origin for the CI carbonaceous chondrites. Here, I will first consider Brandenburg's [1996] proposal that the CI's formed as water-deposited sediments on Mars, and that these sediments had limited chemical interactions with their martian environment. Finally, I will address oxygen isotope ratios, the strongest link between the CIs and the martian meteorites.

  10. Teacher Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Finland and Brandenburg, Germany and the Issue of Extra Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saloviita, Timo; Schaffus, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Positive teacher attitudes are considered an important prerequisite for the successful inclusion of students with special educational needs in the mainstream classrooms. This study surveyed teacher opinions about inclusion in Finland (N = 298) and Brandenburg, Germany (N = 163), two educational systems in which the number of students transferred…

  11. Teacher Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Finland and Brandenburg, Germany and the Issue of Extra Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saloviita, Timo; Schaffus, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Positive teacher attitudes are considered an important prerequisite for the successful inclusion of students with special educational needs in the mainstream classrooms. This study surveyed teacher opinions about inclusion in Finland (N = 298) and Brandenburg, Germany (N = 163), two educational systems in which the number of students transferred…

  12. Human-induced landscape dynamics in South Brandenburg - findings from different geoarchives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    South Brandenburg is the central part of the North European Lowland (NEL) extending as a plain landscape from the North and Baltic Sea to the foothills of the Central European Highlands and reaching from the Netherlands to Poland. Since many decades lignite opencast mines have been operating in this region which is known as the Lusatian mining district. The total land demand in Lusatia is about 852 square kilometres and mining will continue for many more years or even decades. Large-scale outcrops resulting from these mining activities are excellent archives to study the younger Earth's history. The scope of our research in open cast mines is to reconstruct the Late Quaternary landscape development and to distinguishing natural from anthropogenic forcing and processes. In more detail, the aims are to identify and to quantify the impact of past land uses, i.e. changes of vegetation, landforms and soils induced by agriculture and/or forestry. Here, we are presenting latest results from our research and review important findings giving novel insights into man-induced environmental changes in Lusatia within the past thousands years and thus improving the general understanding of Late Quaternary landscape dynamics. Direct legacies of historical farming can be found in form of hook ploughs as well as ridge and furrow systems. Several sites have been documented within the last decades giving us nowadays a quite solid picture of the type and of the spatio-temporal dimension the former agricultural system. During years Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data help us to identify ridge and furrow systems under forest canopy and thus to support these findings. Sometimes hook ploughs and ridge and furrow systems are found buried under aeolian sediments proving a causal connection between farming and wind erosion. Obviously the well-drained, sandy and humus-poor soils are prone to dry out easily by agricultural overuse and thus can be eroded by wind. The flat landscape and missing

  13. [The contamination of feed, fruits and vegetables with benzo(a)pyrene in Land Brandenburg].

    PubMed

    Stoyke, M; Lusky, K; Doberschütz, K D; Göbel, R

    1994-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyren (BaP) was analysed in 218 samples of grass, hay, straw, grains, lettuce, curly kale and apples by means of thin-layer chromatography und analysing other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by capillary gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry. Despite the fact that normally BaP concentrations were relatively low, up to 13.5 micrograms BaP per kg hay (dry matter) and 19.3 micrograms BaP per kg lettuce (dry matter) could be detected at some places.

  14. Extensive historical charcoal production in Brandenburg (Germany) - identification of potential areas by GIS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian

    2017-04-01

    We used a GIS analysis of environmental and historical data to identify potential areas of extensive charcoal production in Brandenburg. The analysis was based on three assumptions (i to iii). Large charcoal kiln fields can be found in areas that i) are close to historical industrial sites, ii) are close to bog iron ore deposits, and iii) have been continuously covered by forest during the last centuries. Information on theses parameters was gathered in an archive and literature study and from historical and recent maps. Areas with a high probability of kiln site occurrence were then determined using a simple binary additive model. In the last step, shaded-relief maps (SRMs) were visually checked for clearly visible kiln sites and soil properties were analysed in the determined areas. In total, eight areas with a high probability of kiln site occurrence are identified for the state of Brandenburg. By visual interpretation of SRMs, high kiln site densities in these areas are confirmed. The analysis of soil maps shows that kiln fields are predominantly located on sandy soils with a low yield potential. Although further parameters and study areas need to be considered in the model in order to explain the spatial distribution patterns of charcoal production, the results indicate correlations between the location of bog iron ore deposits, historic ironworks and charcoal kiln fields.

  15. Laboratory investigation and comparison of Salmonella Brandenburg cases in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. M.; Brett, M.; Bennett, J.

    1998-01-01

    An apparent increase in the incidence of S. Brandenburg in New Zealand, coupled with the possibility that the virulence of the organism may also be changing, prompted this study. Three typing methods: macro-restriction fragment length polymorphism (MRFLP) profiling using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid profiling and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling were used to determine strain diversity amongst 115 recent and historical isolates of S. Brandenburg from both human cases and non-human sources. Antimicrobial resistance was noted only in three isolates. Plasmids of varying sizes were found in 31 isolates. MRFLP analysis resulted in 13 different patterns. Combining the three sets of typing data yielded 24 composite types. Comparison of composite type, isolation date and geographical location of case allowed the retrospective recognition of seven potential clusters during the 5-year study period. Composite types of 24 (80%) of the non-human isolates tested were indistinguishable from human isolates, suggesting that human infection may be via a number of vehicles. Although not cost-effective for routine use on all salmonella isolates, the methods used in this study are an important adjunct to serotyping for discrimination within an emerging serotype. PMID:9747755

  16. Air quality modelling in the Berlin-Brandenburg region using WRF-Chem v3.7.1: sensitivity to resolution of model grid and input data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuik, Friderike; Lauer, Axel; Churkina, Galina; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Fenner, Daniel; Mar, Kathleen A.; Butler, Tim M.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is the number one environmental cause of premature deaths in Europe. Despite extensive regulations, air pollution remains a challenge, especially in urban areas. For studying summertime air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg region of Germany, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is set up and evaluated against meteorological and air quality observations from monitoring stations as well as from a field campaign conducted in 2014. The objective is to assess which resolution and level of detail in the input data is needed for simulating urban background air pollutant concentrations and their spatial distribution in the Berlin-Brandenburg area. The model setup includes three nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 15, 3 and 1 km and anthropogenic emissions from the TNO-MACC III inventory. We use RADM2 chemistry and the MADE/SORGAM aerosol scheme. Three sensitivity simulations are conducted updating input parameters to the single-layer urban canopy model based on structural data for Berlin, specifying land use classes on a sub-grid scale (mosaic option) and downscaling the original emissions to a resolution of ca. 1 km × 1 km for Berlin based on proxy data including traffic density and population density. The results show that the model simulates meteorology well, though urban 2 m temperature and urban wind speeds are biased high and nighttime mixing layer height is biased low in the base run with the settings described above. We show that the simulation of urban meteorology can be improved when specifying the input parameters to the urban model, and to a lesser extent when using the mosaic option. On average, ozone is simulated reasonably well, but maximum daily 8 h mean concentrations are underestimated, which is consistent with the results from previous modelling studies using the RADM2 chemical mechanism. Particulate matter is underestimated, which is partly due to an underestimation of secondary organic aerosols

  17. Pre-industrial charcoal production in southern Brandenburg - A landscape laboratory for studies on the fate of terrestrial organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönisch, Eberhard; Rösler, Horst; Schopper, Franz; Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra

    2010-05-01

    Within the scope of the intensive landscape changes caused by modern lignite mining in southern Brandenburg und northern Saxony (East Germany) large-scale archaeological surveys and excavations are carried out to get information about past land uses and historic to prehistoric cultures. The hunger for energy of modern society leads us to a historical case of energy production: On the Jänschwalde hill area (Jänschwalder Höhe) one of the biggest archaeological investigated charcoal production areas - at least in Germany - was discovered. More than 400 production units (charcoal piles) were excavated during the last years. Approximately 4,000,000 square meters of woodland were necessary to charge those piles. The charcoal was probably used nearby in the iron works of Peitz where bog iron ore was smelted since 1567. The clearing of huge parts of the forest certainly had major environmental impacts and changed the character of the landscape tremendously - not only for the short-term but also on the long-run. At least for a while vegetation was substantially missing in the landscape and the open land was used as farmland although the soils are poor in nutrients and very sandy. Wind-blown sediments covering the charcoal piles traces prove that clearing and agricultural use has induced soil erosion and eolian remobilisation of Quaternary sands. By now the piles are not well dated. One of the main targets of the ongoing investigation is to build up a chronological framework of the local charcoal production. These findings have to be correlated with the major phases of the landscape dynamics which are documented by the relicts of soil erosive landforms, human-induced eolian sediments, and buried soils (palaeosoils). The Jänschwalde area may be used as an ideal test site to study the biogeochemical fate of organic carbon in soils and soil sediments in order to improve our understanding of the abiotic and biotic processes responsible for the cycling of terrestrial carbon

  18. [The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis)--no zoonotic risk for Brandenburg?].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Sabine; Sutor, Astrid; Mattis, Roswitha; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of the raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris [B.] procyonis), a dangerous zoonotic pathogen for humans, in raccoons living in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. In the years 2008 to 2013, a total of 762 raccoons, dating from hunting bags, were examined for intestinal helminths. No raccoon roundworm specimen was detected, but 27 samples were positive for Mesocestoides spp. Earlier studies had proved the presence of B. procyonis in Hesse and since 2005 the parasite has also been found in the western part of Saxony-Anhalt. The migration ability of raccoons may promote a further distribution of this parasite and could increase the risk for zoonotic infections in humans.

  19. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  20. Detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus (A.) vasorum is a nematode that causes angiostrongylosis in domestic and wild canids. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are suspected of providing a wildlife reservoir for A. vasorum infections in pet dogs. To obtain data on the occurrence of A. vasorum in wildlife, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of A. vasorum DNA by means of real-time PCR. A. vasorum DNA was detected in 11 out of 122 (9.0 %) lungs of red foxes and in none of the lung samples of raccoon dogs. These data suggest that red foxes are a reservoir of A. vasorum infections for pet dogs in this area.

  1. Insight into the incidence of acute aortic dissection in the German region of Berlin and Brandenburg.

    PubMed

    Kurz, S D; Falk, V; Kempfert, J; Gieb, M; Ruschinski, T M; Kukucka, M; Tsokos, M; Grubitzsch, H; Herbst, H; Semmler, J; Buschmann, C

    2017-08-15

    Stanford acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a potentially lethal condition. Epidemiology studies show a statistical incidence in Europe of approximately 2-16 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year. In Germany, the estimated incidence (here subsumed under "thoracic aortic dissection" with 4.63 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year) is mainly extracted from medical death certificates by the German Federal Statistical Office. The prehospital incidence of ATAAD deaths is largely unknown. Since patients often die in the pre-hospital setting, the incidence of ATAAD is therefore likely to be higher than current estimates. For the period from 2010 to 2014, we retrospectively analyzed all in-hospital ATAAD data from two of the largest cardiac surgical centers that treat ATAAD in the Berlin-Brandenburg region. In addition, autopsy reports of all forensic medicine institutes and of one large pathological provider in the region were analyzed to identify additional non-hospitalized ATAAD patients. Based on these findings, the regional incidence of ATAAD was calculated. In addition to in-hospital ATAAD patients (n=405), we identified additional 145 lethal ATAAD cases among 14,201 autopsy reports. The total of 550 ATAAD cases led to an estimated incidence of 11.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year for the whole Berlin-Brandenburg region. Arterial hypertension, pre-existing aortic dilatation, and hereditary connective tissue disorder were found in, respectively, 62.7%, 10%, and 1.8% of patients. ATAAD is more frequent than previously reported. Our results show that when patients who die outside of cardiac surgery centers are included, the incidence of ATAAD significantly exceeds the rate reported by the Federal Statistical Office. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Water footprint analysis for the assessment of milk production in Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drastig, K.; Prochnow, A.; Kraatz, S.; Klauss, H.; Plöchl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The working group "Adaptation to Climate Change" at the Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB) is introduced. This group calculates the water footprint for agricultural processes and farms, distinguished into green water footprint, blue water footprint, and dilution water footprint. The green and blue water demand of a dairy farm plays a pivotal role in the regional water balance. Considering already existing and forthcoming climate change effects there is a need to determine the water cycle in the field and in housing for process chain optimisation for the adaptation to an expected increasing water scarcity. Resulting investments to boost water productivity and to improve water use efficiency in milk production are two pathways to adapt to climate change effects. In this paper the calculation of blue water demand for dairy farming in Brandenburg (Germany) is presented. The water used for feeding, milk processing, and servicing of cows over the time period of ten years was assessed in our study. The preliminary results of the calculation of the direct blue water footprint shows a decreasing water demand in the dairy production from the year 1999 with 5.98×109 L/yr to a water demand of 5.00×109 L/yr in the year 2008 in Brandenburg because of decreasing animal numbers and an improved average milk yield per cow. Improved feeding practices and shifted breeding to greater-volume producing Holstein-Friesian cow allow the production of milk in a more water sustainable way. The mean blue water consumption for the production of 1 kg milk in the time period between 1999 to 2008 was 3.94±0.29 L. The main part of the consumed water seems to stem from indirect used green water for the production of feed for the cows.

  3. No evidence of Dirofilaria repens infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Pfeffer, Martin; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0%) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0%), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg.

  4. Prevalence of helminths in horses in the state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Barbara; Wirtherle, Nicole Catherine; Kyule, Moses; Miethe, Norbert; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of helminths in the horse population of the state of Brandenburg, Germany. One hundred and twenty-six horse farms in the state were selected by randomised stratified sampling. In total, 1,407 horses across all farms were examined coproscopically. The experimental unit was the horse farm: a farm was considered infected when at least one horse on the farm investigated was positive for helminth eggs. Animal details such as age, breed and sex were collected for all study horses and analysed for risk of infection. Risk was defined as horses having an above-average shedding of strongyle eggs. The following prevalence on horse farm level were established: Cyathostominae (98.4%), ascarids (16.7%), tapeworms (14.3%), pinworms (8.7%) and strongyloides (4,0%). The large strongyle Strongylus vulgaris was identified on only one farm. Liver flukes and lungworms were not found. Age, breed and sex were identified as risk factors for high shedding of strongyle eggs of individual animals: odds ratios for higher shedding intensities were 4.18 for yearlings and 2.42 for fillies compared to adult animals, and 3.69 for heavy breeds and 4.94 for wild horses compared to thoroughbreds. Mares and stallions did shed more strongyle eggs than geldings. Knowledge about the helminth prevalence will allow the issuance of specific treatment recommendations. Furthermore, the information on risk factors of individual horses will facilitate targeting single animals for selective treatments.

  5. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  6. [Influence of lifestyle on the use of supplements in the Brandenburg nutrition and cancer study].

    PubMed

    Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Kroke, A; Voss, S; Boeing, H

    1998-03-01

    Differences in dietary habits and lifestyle factors associated with a high dietary intake of fruit and vegetables are discussed and used to explain the disparity between results of observational epidemiologic studies consistently showing antioxidative vitamins to exert a protective effect on chronic diseases, and intervention studies so far not confirming this association. Within the scope of the "Brandenburger Ernährungs- und Krebsstudie", the East German contribution to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we examined whether study participants using supplements on a regular basis--minerals, vitamins, protein formulation, bran/linseed, fiber, yeast or garlic pills--differed from those who did not report use of supplements according to selected lifestyle factors and dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, fiber, cholesterol, and fat from food. The study sample consisted of 10,522 participants (4,500 men and 6,022 women) aged 35-65 years enrolled in the cohort from January 1995 to July 1996. Regular intake of one or more supplements during the past year was reported by 32.6% of women and 25.5% of men. Vitamin supplements were used by 18.8% of the women and 15.8% of the men. Figures for minerals were 14.2% for women and 8.6% for men, respectively. Garlic pills were taken regularly by 9.7% of men and 9.3% of women. Prevalence of supplement use was generally higher in women and was more pronounced in elderly participants. The most frequently used combinations were vitamin and mineral supplements, followed by a combination of garlic and either vitamin or mineral supplements. Increased use of supplements was significantly associated with higher level of education attained, regular engagement in sporting activities, health complaints, and dietary change during the previous year. No association between use of supplements and smoking status nor elevated alcohol consumption was observed. Body mass index above 30 was significantly related

  7. Mapping a paleosurface and archaeological site location in an inland dune area in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Hirsch, Florian; Wechler, Klaus-Peter; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Mapping and visualizing the position of archaeological remains in the surface relief provides important basic information for archaeological survey design and interpretation. Geomorphological processes in (pre)history can have resulted in a modification of the local relief around archaeological sites, especially in areas that are prone to sediment erosion and relocation, so that models of past surfaces are necessary for a correct interpretation of archaeological survey results. In this study, we combined terrestrial survey and remote sensing methods to reconstruct the palaeorelief around two archaeological excavation sites in an inland dune area in southern Brandenburg, Germany. Remains from two Mesolithic hunter-gatherer camps were documented in archaeological excavations and found to be associated with a buried soil horizon. To gather information on the relief of the buried soil surface, we used a combination of sedimentological and pedological profile description of archaeological survey trenches and geophysical prospection with Ground-Penetrating Radar; supplemented by microdrone photography and photogrammetry, GPS surveys and analysis of LIDAR-based elevation models. A digital elevation model of the buried surface was created by combining point data from these sources. The buried surface morphology and the position of the archeological remains within the reconstructed landscape were analyzed in GIS. The comparison of the generated paleosurface model with the recent surface elevation model shows that sand remobilization resulted in a considerable reshaping of the relief. Analysis of the buried surface model further shows that the relief position of the two archaeological sites in the study area was considerably more prominent in relation to the corresponding buried soil surface than in relation to the recent surface morphology. Results affirm the importance of considering Holocene relief modifications in archaeological surveys.

  8. Landscape and soil development in Lower Lusatia - results from archaeological and soil-geomorphological investigations on a small dune field nearby Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolay, Alexander; Schulz, Deborah; Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Within the apron of the opencast mine Jänschwalde (SE Brandenburg, Germany) archaeological excavations on a multiple populated small dune were complemented with soil-geomorphological investigations in the vicinity. Archaeological findings in the dune stratigraphy (especially cremation graves) are intercalated within aeolian sediments and/or buried soils and thus give a record of the Late Quaternary geomorphodynamic and soil development. The archaeological results confirm the presence of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations at the study site. The Mesolithic to Neolithic factory sites are preferably located on slightly elevated places like the remnants of late glacial dunes. On these late glacial aeolian sediments subsequently a podzol formation took place, indicating stable environmental conditions. At the excavation site, this soil was buried by aeolian drift sands in which a cemetery was found. According to grave goods and grave type the excavated bi-ritual cemetery was created at the end of the 3rd and used until the early 5th century AD (Late Roman Iron Age to Migration Period). Within this period the aeolian activity, proven by about 1 m deep drift sands, increased and a small dune was formed wherein 4 inhumation and approx. 26 cremation graves (Schichtgräberfeld) were documented. The cremation graves were mainly recorded as small reddish/gray 5-20 cm thick sandy layers which were separated by the drift sand layers. Soil-geomorphological investigations, two kilometers north of the excavated cremation and settle-ment site corroborate the detected phases of morphological stability and aeolian activity in this time period. Our complementing investigations indicate that the Late Roman Iron Age to Migration Period population had affected the landscape due to deforestation and agricultural land use.

  9. Modelling conductive and convective processes for the area of Brandenburg (NE German Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Cherubini, Yvonne; Onno Kaiser, Björn; Noack, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the internal heat transfer in sedimentary basins requires an assessment of the different physical processes that control heat transport in the subsurface. As faults may provide permeable pathways to fluids or hydraulic barriers they may additionally influence the geothermal field. We present 3D finite element simulations based on a regional structural model for the area of Brandenburg (Northeast German Basin) to quantify the relative influence of different heat transport processes and to assess the role of faults on the geothermal field. Ranging from the Permian to Cenozoic, the sediment fill resolved in the model is characterized by several aquifer complexes and a layer of mobilized Zechstein salt (Noack et al. 2010; Scheck and Bayer, 1999). The distribution of the salt plays a special role for both the thermal and fluid regime due to its high thermal conductivity and its function as a hydraulic barrier in the sedimentary succession. The southern basin margin is dissected by two major fault zones, which vertically offset the pre-Permian basement against the Permian to Cenozoic sediments by several km (Scheck et al. 2002). 3D conductive, coupled fluid and heat transport and full thermohaline models are carried out and compared to each other to assess the impact of moving fluids and to analyze to which degree variations in aquifer thickness and permeability control the regional thermal field. In a next step, fault zones are integrated into the numerical model and different scenarios are tested by varying the permeability of the fault zones. We conclude that conduction is the dominant heat transport mechanism in the study area, whereas the thermal field in the shallow 2 km is additionally influenced by forced convective heat transfer and related advective cooling. Free convective thermal anomalies occur only locally (where the pressure forces are weak) and are controlled by the thickness and permeability of the respective layers. The fault model

  10. Modeling Urban Air Quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg Region: Evaluation of a WRF-Chem Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuik, F.; Churkina, G.; Butler, T. M.; Lauer, A.; Mar, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution is the number one environmental cause of premature deaths in Europe. Despite extensive regulations, air pollution remains a challenging issue, especially in urban areas. For studying air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg region of Germany the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is set up and evaluated against meteorological and air quality observations from monitoring stations as well as from a field campaign conducted in 2014 (incl. black carbon, VOCs as well as mobile measurements of particle size distribution and particle mass). The model setup includes 3 nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 15km, 3km, and 1km, online biogenic emissions using MEGAN 2.0, and anthropogenic emissions from the TNO-MACC-II inventory. This work serves as a basis for future studies on different aspects of air pollution in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, including how heat waves affect emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban vegetation (summer 2006) and the impact of selected traffic measures on air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg area (summer 2014). The model represents the meteorology as observed in the region well for both periods. An exception is the heat wave period in 2006, where the temperature simulated with 3km and 1km resolutions is biased low by around 2°C for urban built-up stations. First results of simulations with chemistry show that, on average, WRF-Chem simulates concentrations of O3 well. However, the 8 hr maxima are underestimated, and the minima are overestimated. While NOx daily means are modeled reasonably well for urban stations, they are overestimated for suburban stations. PM10 concentrations are underestimated by the model. The biases and correlation coefficients of simulated O3, NOx, and PM10 in comparison to surface observations do not show improvements for the 1km domain in comparison to the 3km domain. To improve the model performance of the 1km domain we will include an

  11. [Child-"euthanasia" in Nazi-Germany--the case of the psychiatric clinic Brandenburg-Görden].

    PubMed

    Beddies, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article shows, through a study of the Berlin-Brandenburg region, that children and juveniles who were subjected to the killings of diseased and disabled, or mentally retarded persons during the Third Reich did not only fall victim to the operations of the "Reichsausschuss" ("Reich Commission for Registration of Severe Disorders in Childhood"). Many were also included in the gas chamber killings of the "T4"-action and in various decentralized killing actions. To gain scientific knowledge, the brains of many of these patients were examined by German neuropathologists. It will be shown that the purpose of the killings was not the painless ending of individual suffering, but that they constituted a means of freeing the public from so-called "ballast existences", whose lives were only prolonged if they could be of scientific use.

  12. The impact of traffic emissions on air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg region - a case study on cycling scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Many European cities continue to struggle with exceedances of NO2 limit values at measurement sites near roads, of which a large contribution is attributed to emissions from traffic. In this study, we explore how urban air quality can be improved with different traffic measures using the example of the Berlin-Brandenburg region. In order to simulate urban background air quality we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) at a horizontal resolution of 1km. We use emission input data at a horizontal resolution of 1km obtained by downscaling TNO-MACC III emissions based on local proxy data including population and traffic densities. In addition we use a statistical approach combining the simulated urban background concentrations with information on traffic densities to estimate NO2 at street level. This helps assessing whether the emission scenarios studied here can lead to significant reductions in NO2 concentrations at street level. The emission scenarios in this study represent a range of scenarios in which car traffic is replaced with bicycle traffic. Part of this study was an initial discussion phase with stakeholders, including policy makers and NGOs. The discussions have shown that the different stakeholders are interested in a scientific assessment of the impact of replacing car traffic with bicycle traffic in the Berlin-Brandenburg urban area. Local policy makers responsible for city planning and implementing traffic measures can make best use of scientific modeling results if input data and scenarios are as realistic as possible. For these reasons, the scenarios cover very idealized optimistic ("all passenger cars are replaced by bicycles") and pessimistic ("all cyclists are replaced by cars") scenarios to explore the sensitivity of simulated urban background air quality to these changes, as well as additional scenarios based on city-specific data to analyze more realistic situations. Of particular interest is how these impact

  13. Toxoplasma gondii in foxes and rodents from the German Federal States of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt: seroprevalence and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, D C; Maksimov, P; Maksimov, A; Sutor, A; Schwarz, S; Jaschke, W; Schliephake, A; Denzin, N; Conraths, F J; Schares, G

    2012-04-30

    Data on the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife are scarce. In the present study, foxes and rodents from two Federal States in Central or Eastern Germany were examined for T. gondii infections. Body fluids were collected at necropsy or fluids were obtained from frozen tissues of naturally exposed red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), voles (Microtus arvalis), shrews (Neomys anomalus) and a striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and tested for T. gondii by serology. DNA isolated from tissues of seropositive foxes and all the rodents was examined by PCR. In the German Federal States of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt 152/204 (74.5%) and 149/176 (84.7%) of foxes, respectively, but none of the rodents (0/72) had antibodies to T. gondii. Only 28/152 (18.4%) and 20/149 (13.4%) of seropositive foxes from Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, respectively, but none of the rodents tested PCR-positive for T. gondii. The complete T. gondii genotype could be determined for twelve samples using nine PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) markers (newSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico). In addition to T. gondii clonal type II (Apico II) and type II (Apico I), type III and T. gondii genotypes showing non-canonical allele patterns were observed in foxes. This suggests that, while T. gondii type II prevails in foxes, other genotypes circulate in wildlife. The population structure of T. gondii in Germany may be more diverse than previously thought. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A vast medieval dam-lake cascade in northern central Europe: review and new data on late Holocene water-level dynamics of the Havel River, Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Knut; Keller, Nora; Brande, Arthur; Dalitz, Stefan; Hensel, Nicola; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Kappler, Christoph; Michas, Uwe; Müller, Joachim; Schwalbe, Grit; Weiße, Roland; Bens, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study was carried out in order to trace the human transformation of the medium-scale Havel River in northeastern central Europe during the last c. 2000 years. This research was driven by the hypothesis that the present-day riverscape is widely a legacy of medieval and modern human transformation of the drainage system initiated essentially by damming for the operation of water mills. Recent opportunities to investigate the extent of this human impact arose during the course of archaeological rescue excavations and palaeoecologic studies, which significantly enhanced the amount of respective high-quality data. Along the middle course of the Havel, sedimentary sequences were analysed in order to explore the potential for reconstructing regional water-level dynamics. The river, draining the Berlin metropolitan area, forms a chain of dammed lakes and meandering river sections which were strongly modified by hydraulic engineering in the past. We have not only recorded new sections but also re-evaluated older ones, forming a total of sixteen sedimentary sequences along the river. Chronological control is provided by a multitude of palynological, dendrochronological, archaeological, and radiocarbon data. The sections upriver from the Brandenburg/H. and Spandau weirs, representing sites with historic water mills, reveal substantial water-level changes during the late Holocene. Generally, lower water levels before and higher levels parallel to the medieval German colonisation of that area (c. 1180/1250 AD) can be inferred. This water-level increase, which is attributed to be caused by medieval mill stowage, took place rapidly and amounted to a relative height of c. 1.5 m. It has caused the widening of river sections and the enlargement of existing lakes or its secondary formation when already aggraded, and thus a flooding of large portions of land. The rising water level has even influenced the settlement topography to a large degree. Several medieval

  15. The CoLaPipe--the new Cottbus large pipe test facility at Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg.

    PubMed

    König, Franziska; Zanoun, El-Sayed; Öngüner, Emir; Egbers, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    The CoLaPipe is a novel test facility at the Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg), set up to investigate fully developed pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers (Re(m) ⩽ 1.5 × 10(6)). The design of the CoLaPipe is closed-return with two available test sections providing a length-to-diameter ratio of L/D = 148 and L/D = 79. Within this work, we introduce the CoLaPipe and describe the various components in detail, i.e., the settling chamber, the inlet contraction, the blower, bends, and diffusers as well as the cooling system. A special feature is the numerically optimized contraction design. The applications of different measuring techniques such as hot-wire anemometry and static pressure measurements to quantitatively evaluate the mean flow characteristics and turbulence statistics are discussed as well. In addition, capabilities and limitations of available and new pipe flow facilities are presented and reconsidered based on their length-to-diameter ratio, the achieved Reynolds numbers, and the resulting spatial resolution. Here, the focus is on the facility design, the presentation of some basic characteristics, and its contribution to a reviewed list of specific questions still arising, e.g., scaling and structural behavior of turbulent pipe flow as well as the influence of the development length on turbulence investigations.

  16. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  18. [Prevalence of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats in Berlin/Brandenburg (Northeast Germany)].

    PubMed

    Morgenthal, Dinah; Hamel, Dietmar; Arndt, Gisela; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Kohn, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis, C M. haemominutum, Bartonella spp. (B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum in cats in Northeast Germany in relation to their living conditions (indoor/outdoor/ stray cat), and tick/flea exposure. 265 cats were included in the study (150 indoor, 99 outdoor access, 16 stray cats). A questionnaire provided the following data: derivation, housing environment, and previous flea/tick exposure. Serum antibody titers against A. phagocytophilum, B. henselae, and B. quintana were determined by an immunofluorescence test (IFT). PCR tests (EDTA blood) were used to test for A. phagocytophilum, M. haemofelis, C. M. turicensis, C. M. haemominutum, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. In 19 of 265 cats (7.2%) DNA of one or more Mycoplasma spp. was detected: C M. haemominutum (5.3%), M. haemofelis (1.5%) and C M. turicensis (1.1%); three of the cats were tested positive for the feline immunodeficiency virus. All cats were B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae PCR-negative in peripheral blood. However, 91 of 245 cats (37.1%) had antibody titers > 1:200 for B. henselae (Houston I, Marseille type) and 46 (18.8%) for B. quintana. Antibody titers > 1:64 against A. phagocytophilum were detected in 24 cats (9.1%); one cat (0.4%) was PCR-positive. Since infections with haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and also with arthropodborne organisms (Bartonella spp., A. phagocytophilum) occur in cats from the area Berlin/Brandenburg (Germany) an appropriate arthropod-control is recommended. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of these infectious agents for the individual cat.

  19. [Tick infestation and tick prophylaxis in dogs in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg--results of a questionnaire study].

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephanie; Schein, Eberhard; Baldermann, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Kohn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Ticks can transmit different pathogens to humans and animals. Dogs are frequently exposed to tick infestation, which underscores the importance of tick control measures. The objective of this study was to examine the awareness of dog owners regarding tick infestation and tick prophylaxis by a questionnaire survey. During the period from March to December 2010 a total of 616 owners of 670 dogs completed the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire results, 92% of the dogs were previously infested by ticks; 31% of these showed a moderate tick infestation (1-2 ticks a month), almost one in ten dogs was infested by eight or more ticks a month. 17% of the dogs were examined for ticks by the respective owner not at all or only at irregular intervals, 61% of the dogs were examined at least once a day. A tick prophylaxis was performed in 469 dogs (71%). In 353 dogs (53%), registered pharmaceutical products with appropriate label claims were employed. Spot-on products were used most frequently (93%), followed by collars (5%) and sprays (1%).These products were not used as recommended in 56% of the dogs. For further 33% of the dogs, it was not possible to decide if the products were used correctly or not. According to the dog owner statements, tick borne diseases were diagnosed in approximately 2% of the dogs. Dog specific characters, such as coat length, size, age, and walking habits were significant factors influencing the frequency of tick infestation. In summary it can be concluded that nearly every dog in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg is infested by ticks. In the majority of cases the prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures to prevent infestation are not performed correctly.

  20. The Calendar Edict of 10 May 1700 by Friedrich III., Elector of Brandenburg (German Title: Das Kalender-Edikt des Brandenburgischen Kurfürsten Friedrich III. vom 10. Mai 1700)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland

    The Calendar Edict of 10 May 1700 was issued by Friedrich III., Elector of Brandenburg. With this edict, he founded at Berlin an astronomical observatory and an academy of sciences. The Elector assigned to the academy the exclusive right to issue calendars in all his territories. Leibniz had proposed this in order to finance the academy and the observatory from the income of the calendar privilege. The astronomers were responsible for calculating and supervising the new calendar in Brandenburg and later in Prussia, which was introduced in 1700 in all the Protestant territories of Germany as the 'Improved Calendar'. We present here scans of the printed Calendar Edict and of the last page of the handwritten original with the signature of the Elector. Furthermore, we show images of a few pages of the calendar for 1701, the first one issued by the academy. Finally, we reproduce the full text of the Calendar Edict.

  1. [Pilot study to evaluate the efficiency of insecticide-treated mosquito net fences for the protection of horses against nuisance insects in northern Brandenburg].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Burkhard; Blank, Julia; Heile, Cornelia; Schein, Eberhard; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2006-01-01

    A fence of black mosquito netting of 100 cm height, pre-treated with 80 mg/m2 of deltamethrin and UV-protected, was used to shelter horses from nuisance and biting insects on pasture in northern Brandenburg. The netting material was attached to the surrounding poles of the existing fences at a height of 15 cm above ground. Three trial groups were selected grazing in spatially separated areas with comparable densities of insect populations. One paddock was completely fenced apart from a wall of 170 cm height and 70 m length. The second pasture had only partial protection with 126 m (13.4%) of fence out of a total perimeter of 942 m. The third pasture served as control. Trap catches outside the fully or partially protected pasture were by at least 60% lower than those recorded for the control pasture. Digital pictures from five different anatomical regions indicated fewer flies on horses kept at the completely or partially protected areas as compared to the control area. The average attack rate in the protected areas amounted to 4.4 and 7.6 flies per horse at the completely or partially protected areas, respectively, as opposed to horses on the control pasture with 172.1 flies. In comparison to the control pasture the horses grazing on the protected areas showed fewer defensive movements, grazing in an undisturbed manner.

  2. An appraisal of current and new techniques intended to protect bulls against Culicoides and other haematophagous nematocera: the case of Schmergow, Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Burkhard; Jandowsky, Anabell; Schein, Eberhard; Mehlitz, Dieter; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2009-08-01

    The outbreak of bluetongue (BTV-8) in many parts of north-western Europe led to efforts to curb the spread of the disease, particularly in farms with valuable livestock, as on a stud bull farm in Schmergow, Brandenburg, Germany. In the abundance of the putative BT vectors, Palaearctic Culicoides species, several vector control methods were applied in the hope for a reduction of the target insect populations. Insecticide-impregnated ear tags and regular treatments at 6-week intervals of all bulls with deltamethrin pour on were expected to achieve the desired control of the biting midges. Additionally, insecticide-treated mosquito fences circumventing much of the pens were tried for the first time against Culicoides. Two suction black-light traps (BioGents(R) sentinel traps) helped to monitor the densities of Culicoides and other haematophagous nematocera during the trial period from July to December 2007. Despite all efforts, the densities of Culicoides were not distinctly reduced. Several thousand midges were repeatedly recorded during one-night catches. Examinations of midges and other haematophagous nematocera (Aedes and Anopheles species) revealed high percentages of successful feedings between 10% and 35% for Culicoides and more than 50% for Aedes and Anopheles species. Since all insects were caught inside the pens, the concept of endophily vs exophily or endophagy vs exophagy for some Culicoides species needs to be revised accordingly. Also, stabling of valuable livestock does not reduce the host-vector interface and, hence, the risk of transmission of BT.

  3. The impact of fault zones on the 3D coupled fluid and heat transport for the area of Brandenburg (NE German Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvonne, Cherubini; Mauro, Cacace; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    Faults can provide permeable pathways for fluids at a variety of scales, from great depth in the crust to flow through fractured aquifers, geothermal fields, and hydrocarbon reservoirs (Barton et al. 1995). In terms of geothermal energy exploration, it is essential to understand the role of faults and their impact on the thermal field and fluid system. 3D numerical simulations provide a useful tool for investigating the active physical processes in the subsurface. To assess the influence of major fault zones on the thermal field and fluid system, 3D coupled fluid and heat transport simulations are carried out. The study is based on a recently published structural model of the Brandenburg area, which is located in the south-eastern part of the Northeast German Basin (NEGB) (Noack et al. 2010). Two major fault zones of the Elbe Fault System (Gardelegen and Lausitz Escarpments) vertically offset the pre-Permian basement against the Permian to Cenozoic basin fill at the southern margin by several km (Scheck et al. 2002). Within the numerical models, these two major fault zones are represented as equivalent porous media and vertical discrete elements. The coupled system of equations describing fluid flow and heat transport in saturated porous media are numerically solved by the Finite Element software FEFLOW® (Diersch, 2002). Different possible geological scenarios are modelled and compared to a simulation in which no faults are considered. In one scenario the fault zones are set as impermeable. In this case, the thermal field is similar to the no fault model. Fluid flow is redirected because the fault zones act as hydraulic barriers that prevent a lateral fluid advection into the fault zones. By contrast, modelled permeable fault zones induce a pronounced thermal signature with distinctly cooler temperatures than in the no fault model. Fluid motion within the fault is initially triggered by advection due to hydraulic head gradients, but may be even enhanced by

  4. Forestry and charcoal burning in the vicinity of the ironwork Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) - What do we know from historical and archaeological data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takla, Melanie; Frank, Müller; Horst, Rösler; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The former royal forest districts around Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) were used to produce charcoal for the ironwork Peitz (1554 to 1856). More than 800 archaeologically excavated ground plans of charcoal kilns give evidence of the burning activity in the study area "Jänschwalde Heide" which is only a small part of the whole forest district. The study area in the apron of the active lignite mine Jänschwalde comprises the royal forest "Jänschwalder Heide" and the surrounding community forests. Our study approach combines archaeological research, a GIS-based approach (historical maps, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, etc.) and archival studies. The charcoal kilns have been registered since 1990 and since 2005 they are systematically excavated and documented. First dendrochronological data reach from the 17th to the 19th century confirming charcoal burning during the operation period of the iron work. Moreover 5000 additional kilns were identified and digitized from Shaded Relief Maps (SRM) created from ALS data (resolution 1p m-2; height accuracy +- 15 cm). A kiln field of such a dimension has not been documented and investigated for the North German Lowlands so far. It raises the question about the effects of charcoal burning on the forests and the landscape during the last three hundred years. Here we present the evaluation of the kiln data with regard to their size, frequency and spatial distribution. Besides the large number, the kilns have also large diameters (modal value 17 m, mean 12,5 m). Outside the boundaries of the royal forest the kilns are smaller and they were probably used to produce charcoal for local handcraft. These findings are compared to historical records from the first forest inventories (18th/19th century) like forest age and area, with historical forest laws and wood consumption data of the iron work. There is growing evidence that despite of the large extent of the kiln field the wood reserves in the forest districts about 1800

  5. Potentials of marginal lands - sponateous ecosystem development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwin, Werner; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Marginal lands are often considered as unfertile and not productive. They are widely excluded from modern land use by conventional agriculture. Assessment of soil fertility usually shows very low productivity potentials at least for growing traditional crops. However, it can be frequently observed that natural succession at different types of marginal lands leads to very diverse and nonetheless productive ecosystems. Examples can be found at abandoned former industrial or transportation sites which were set aside and not further maintained - and also in post-mining landscapes. In one of the lignite open cast mines of the State of Brandenburg in Eastern Germany a landscape observatory was established in 2005 for observing this natural ecosystem development under marginal site conditions. The site of 6 ha is part of the post-mining landscapes of Lusatia which are often characterized by poor soil conditions and clearly reduced soil fertility. It is named "Hühnerwasser-Quellgebiet" (Chicken Creek Catchment) after a small stream that is restored again after destruction by the mining operations. It is planned to serve as the headwater of this stream and was left to an unrestricted primary succession. A comprehensive scientific monitoring program is carried out since the start of ecosystem development in 2005. The results offer exemplary insights into the establishment of interaction networks between the developing ecosystem compartments. After 10 years a large biodiversity, expressed by a high number of species, can be found at this site as the result of natural recovery processes. A large number of both tree species and individuals have settled here. Even if no economic use of the site and of the woody biomass produced by these trees is planned, an overall assessment of the biomass production was carried out. The results showed that the biomass production from natural succession without any application of fertilizers etc. is directly comparable with yields from

  6. Land Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater land application, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as the history, development, philosophy, design, models, and case studies of land application. A list of 41 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Land Use.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use in the Narragansett Bay Watershed (NBW) is subject to conversion, and these changes influence the Watershed’s hydrologic functions. Changes of natural habitat such as wetlands and forests to urban lands have impacted how water is delivered to rivers and lakes, to g...

  8. Land Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  9. Fostering sustainable feedstock production for advanced biofuels on underutilised land in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergner, Rita; Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik; Knoche, Dirk; Köhler, Raul; Colangeli, Marco; Gyuris, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Background In context of growing competition between land uses, bioenergy development is often seen as one of possible contributors to such competition. However, the potential of underutilized land (contaminated, abandoned, marginal, fallow land etc.) which is not used or cannot be used for productive activities is not exhausted and offers an attractive alternative for sustainable production of different biomass feedstocks in Europe. Depending on biomass feedstocks, different remediation activities can be carried out in addition. Bioenergy crops have the potential to be grown profitably on underutilized land and can therefore offer an attractive source of income on the local level contributing to achieving the targets of the Renewable Energy Directive (EC/2009). The FORBIO project The FORBIO project demonstrates the viability of using underutilised land in EU Member States for sustainable bioenergy feedstock production that does not affect the supply of food, feed and land currently used for recreational or conservation purposes. Project activities will serve to build up and strengthen local bioenergy value chains that are competitive and that meet the highest sustainability standards, thus contributing to the market uptake of sustainable bioenergy in the EU. Presented results The FORBIO project will develop a methodology to assess the sustainable bioenergy production potential on available underutilized lands in Europe at local, site-specific level. Based on this methodology, the project will produce multiple feasibility studies in three selected case study locations: Germany (lignite mining and sewage irrigation fields in the metropolis region of Berlin and Brandenburg), Italy (contaminated land from industrial activities in Sulcis, Portoscuso) and Ukraine (underutilised marginal agricultural land in the North of Kiev). The focus of the presentation will be on the agronomic and techno-economic feasibility studies in Germany, Italy and Ukraine. Agronomic

  10. Soil organic phosphorus in soils under different land use systems in northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slazak, Anna; Freese, Dirk; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old

  11. Land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Joria, Peter C.; Douglas, David C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documenting the distribution of land-cover types on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain is the foundation for impact assessment and mitigation of potential oil exploration and development. Vegetation maps facilitate wildlife studies by allowing biologists to quantify the availability of important wildlife habitats, investigate the relationships between animal locations and the distribution or juxtaposition of habitat types, and assess or extrapolate habitat characteristics across regional areas.To meet the needs of refuge managers and biologists, satellite imagery was chosen as the most cost-effective method for mapping the large, remote landscape of the 1002 Area.Objectives of our study were the following: 1) evaluate a vegetation classification scheme for use in mapping. 2) determine optimal methods for producing a satellite-based vegetation map that adequately met the needs of the wildlife research and management objectives; 3) produce a digital vegetation map for the Arctic Refuge coastal plain using Lands at-Thematic Mapper(TM) satellite imagery, existing geobotanical classifications, ground data, and aerial photographs, and 4) perform an accuracy assessment of the map.

  12. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  13. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  14. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    Expedition 14 Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria sits in a chair near the Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft at the landing site as landing and recovery officials conduct post-landing medical checks, Friday, April 21, 2007 in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft landed southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  16. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  17. Lands and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals decided a surprisingly small number of controversies involving lands and natural resources during the time period covered by the Tenth Annual Tenth Circuit Survey. The subject matter of the few land and resource decisions was also limited. Whereas in recent years the court has considered a wide variety of resource and land issues, the past year is distinguished by its lack of variety. Of the eight land and resource decisions published by the court, six concerned public lands, one involved Indian lands, and one resolved an environmental law question. This survey highlights the issues resolved in each of these cases.

  18. Public land grazing for private land conservation?

    Treesearch

    Adriana Sulak; Lynn Huntsinger; Sheila Barry; Larry Forero

    2008-01-01

    California ranchers with substantial private oak woodlands sometimes use public lands as an important component of their production cycle. Yet allowed public grazing has declined and is likely to continue to decline. This, combined with intensifying development pressure and land use change, dramatically affects the resource base for ranch operations, which in turn...

  19. Aligning land use with land potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current agricultural land use is dominated by an emphasis on provisioning services by applying energy-intensive inputs through relatively uniform production systems across variable landscapes. This approach to agricultural land use is not sustainable. Integrated agricultural systems (IAS) are uphe...

  20. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  1. Land Revitalization Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA created the Land Revitalization Initiative to promote cross-program coordination on land reuse and revitalization projects to ensure that contaminated property is appropriately put back into productive use.

  2. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  3. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    American spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi, left, Expedition 14 Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin and Expedition 14 Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria, right, sit in chairs in near their Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft at their landing site as landing and recovery officials conduct post-landing medical checks, Friday, April 21, 2007 in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft landed southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  5. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  6. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  7. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  8. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  9. The Land Laboratory Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Cath A.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that Montessori envisioned that the ideal environment for adolescents was "Erdkinder," or "children of the land." She believed that nature could provide a calming force for adolescents, and working the land with peers could prepare adolescents for real life. Describes the development of the Blackwood Land Laboratory,…

  10. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  11. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  12. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    An inflatable medical tent stands in the foreground of the Expedition 9 landing site, while an incoming Russian Search and Rescue helicopter lands. The Soyuz capsule, which carried Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin landed approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  14. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  15. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  16. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  17. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  18. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  19. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  20. Pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.

  1. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    The runway of the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) is marked to show where the main landing gear wheels stopped for the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) shortly after it landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka is carried in a chair from the landing site to the medical tent in order to remove his sokol suit. Padalka landed in the Soyuz capsule along with Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin. The crew landed in their Soyuz capsule approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  4. Landing-gear impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugge, W

    1952-01-01

    Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

  5. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  6. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  7. Competition for land.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-09-27

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future.

  8. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  9. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  10. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company, including...

  11. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  12. 78 FR 32214 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... of regulations governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land...'s decision to take the land into trust. The Supreme Court has since held that the Quiet Title Act...

  13. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company, including...

  14. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke shows his happiness with the successful landing in the Syouz spacecraft with fellow crew members, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin. The crew landed in their Soyuz capsule approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  16. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  17. Land Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    LAND COMBAT SYSTEMS It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. — Charles ... Darwin ABSTRACT: The Land Combat Systems (LCS) industry has significantly changed over the last decade. The days when production lines and factories

  18. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  19. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    An inflatable medical tent stands in the foreground of the Expedition 9 landing site, while in the background the Soyuz capsule lays on its side after landing approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan with Expedition 9 crew members Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin, Sunday, October 24, 2004.

  20. STS_135_Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    JSC2011-E-068015 (21 July 2011) --- A technician works to secure the space shuttle Atlantis following its landing at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on July 21, 2011. The landing brought to completion STS-135, the final mission of the NASA Space Shuttle Program. Photo credit: NASA Photo/Houston Chronicle, Smiley N. Pool

  1. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  2. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  3. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  4. [Complexity of land ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Chen, Meiqiu

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, complexity studies has become a new research region and been widely applied in engineering, biology, economy, management, military, police and sociology. In this paper, from the view of complex science, the main complexity characteristics of land ecosystem were described, furthermore, the application of fractal, chaos, and artificial neural network on the complexity of land ecosystem were also discussed.

  5. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  6. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  7. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  8. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  9. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegeas, Robin G.; Claire, Robert W.; Guptill, Stephen C.; Anderson, K. Eric; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changesthat center on the emerging influence ofdigital manipulation and analysis ofdata for the preparation of cartographic materials and for use in geographic information systems. Operational requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been edited and assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced. This chapter 895-E, describes the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System that is used in conjunction with the USGS land use and land cover classification system to encode, edit, manipuate, and analyze land use and land cover digital data.

  10. Yankee Lands: A Land Use Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, NH.

    In response to issues surrounding the acquisition and planning of Pisgah State Park, New Hampshire, the Antioch/New England Graduate School has produced this set of activities related to land use decisions. Contained are learning experiences designed to help students appreciate New England's natural and cultural history in order to encourage a…

  11. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  12. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... applications to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. This document makes corrections to the ADDRESSES...

  13. Land Use and land cover and associated maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    The Geological Survey is compiling land use and land cover and associated maps for the entire United States. Land use refers to man's activities which are directly related to the land. Land cover describes the vegetation, water, natural surface, and artificial constructions at the land surface. These maps will help satisfy a longstanding need for a consistent level of detail, standardization of categories, and appropriate use of scales of compilation for a type of data frequently used by land use planners, land managers, resource management planners, and others.

  14. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  15. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  16. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  17. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  18. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA and contractor personnel mount American flags to support vehicles near the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The runway is marked to show where the nose landing gear wheels stopped. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA and contractor personnel work to secure the tow bar onto the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The runway is marked to show where the nose landing gear wheels stopped. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  1. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  2. Land Application of Biosolids

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recycling biosolids through land application serves several purposes. It improves soil properties, such as texture and water holding capacity, which make conditions more favorable for root growth and increases the drought tolerance of vegetation.

  3. Land Reuse Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rebekah Buckles

    1997-09-22

    The intent of this cooperative agreement was to establish a conduit and infrastructure that would allow for the transfer of DOE developed environmental technologies within land restoration activities first in the State of California and ultimately nationwide.

  4. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  5. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  6. Franz Josef Land, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-12

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft is of Franz Josef Land, an archipelago in the far north of Russia. It consists of 191 islands covering an area of about 200 by 325 km, and has no native inhabitants.

  7. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  8. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke exits the Russian search and rescue helicopter in Kustanay, Kazakhstan after the 2 hour flight from the landing site, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  10. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  11. The White Promised Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    1978-01-01

    Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)

  12. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    The Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft carrying cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 7 Mission Commander; astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer; and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is photographed on the ground after landing in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). The exposed dirt from the landing rockets of the Soyuz is visible in the foreground. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA Launch Director Michael Leinbach, right, hands an American flag to a worker on the runway of the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA Kennedy Space center Director Robert Cabana stops to have his photograph made by a colleague at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver walk under the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver talk at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA and contractor personnel work on the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    The vertical tail of the space shuttle Atlantis is seen at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA and contractor personnel are photographed under the wing of the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA and contractor personnel work under the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    Close up view of the side the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke is assisted by NASA Flight Doctor Steve Heart as he walks to the helicopter near the Soyuz landing site for the flight back to Kustanay, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz capsule landed with Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Mike Fincke, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  4. OPAL Land Condition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources...vector file requires several attributes including: • soil depth (`) • soil permeability (cm/hr) • soil water holding capacity (cm/cm) • soil texture...surface water or other obstructions, the OPAL NetLogo Land Condition Model does not run for that patch. The OPAL NetLogo Land Condition Model uses

  5. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke is interviewed by former Expedition 5 Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson for the video phone after the successful landing in the Soyuz spacecraft with fellow crew members Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin. The crew landed in their Soyuz capsule approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    Expedition 14 Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin is taken in his chair to the medical tent near the Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft where the recovery officials conduct post-landing medical checks, Friday, April 21, 2007 in Kazakhstan. Expedition 14 Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria, Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin and American spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi landed in their Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    American spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi is taken in his chair to the medical tent near the Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft where the recovery officials conduct post-landing medical checks, Friday, April 21, 2007 in Kazakhstan. Expedition 14 Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria, Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin and American spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi landed in their Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Landing techniques in volleyball.

    PubMed

    Lobietti, Roberto; Coleman, Simon; Pizzichillo, Eduardo; Merni, Franco

    2010-11-01

    Knee injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament lesions and patellar tendonitis are very frequent in volleyball, and are often attributed to micro traumas that occur during the landing phase of airborne actions. The aim of the present study was to compare different jumping activities during official men's and women's volleyball games. Twelve top-level matches from the Italian men's and women's professional leagues were analysed. The jumps performed during the games were classified according to the landing technique used by the player (left or right foot or both feet together), court position, and ball trajectory. Chi-square analyses were performed to detect differences in landing techniques between the sexes, court positions, and trajectories when serving, attacking, blocking, and setting. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the sexes for block, set, and spike but not for the jump serve. The frequency of landings on one foot was related to court position and the trajectory of the sets: when spiking faster sets, the players were more likely to use a one-footed landing. The present results should help coaches and physiotherapists to devise appropriate training and prevention programmes, and reveal the need for further detailed biomechanical investigations of the relationships between landings and knee injuries.

  9. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land in trust. The public... articulating the process for issuing decisions to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. The comment...

  10. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  11. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  12. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  13. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  14. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  15. Land Use and Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, D. T.; Simpson, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    From the standpoint of technology, the most encouraging thing about ERTS has been the level of land-use identification. Land-use detail has exceeded the expectations of the Interagency Steering Committee and the requirements of land-use classification proposed by the Department of Interior. Whereas in the latter instance it was anticipated that only nine classes of land use would probably be identifiable, in fact some 14 to 18 classes have been identified. The success in the level of land-use identification results primarily from the various attributes of the ERTS system. These include the ability to provide repetitive coverage, and in particular seasonal coverage; the ability to image in four bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (green, red, and two near-infrared), which allows for manipulation of various combinations of bands; and the provision by the ERTS system of computer-compatible tapes for machine processing of data. Furthermore, the resolution of ERTS imagery has been better than expected. Although there is some question as to its exact resolving power, it is safe to say objects as small as 100 meters (300 feet) in diameter have been identified. Linear features as narrow as 16 meters (50 feet) can be detected (Figure 1).

  16. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  17. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  18. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  19. Anticipating land surface change.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J

    2013-04-09

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify "near misses," close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management.

  20. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  1. STS-124 landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-14

    STS124-S-071 (14 June 2008) --- After landing on runway 15 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, space shuttle Discovery is purged -- providing cool and humidified air conditioning to the payload bay and other cavities to remove any residual explosive or toxic fumes -- while still on the runway. Cooling transfer to ground services occurs at about the same time, allowing onboard cooling to be shut down. When it is determined that the area in and around the orbiter is safe, the crew prepares for departure from the orbiter. The main landing gear touched down at 11:15:19 a.m. (EDT) on June 14, 2008. The nose landing gear touched down at 11:15:30 a.m. and wheel stop was at 11:16:19 a.m. During the mission, Discovery's crew installed the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's large Kibo laboratory and its remote manipulator system leaving a larger space station and one with increased science capabilities.

  2. STS-79 landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    STS079-S-022 (26 Sept. 1996) --- The main landing gear of the space shuttle Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), bringing an end to the successful ten-day mission. Landing occurred at 8:13:15 a.m. (EDT), Sept. 26, 1996. The touchdown marked the end of 188 days in space for astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, following her in-space exchange with astronaut John E. Blaha, who is now aboard Russia's Mir Space Station. Returning along with Lucid were her STS-79 crew mates - astronauts William F. Readdy, commander; Terrence W. Wilcutt, pilot; and Thomas D. Akers, Jerome (Jay) Apt and Carl E. Walz, mission specialists.

  3. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  4. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    Space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) is rolled over to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) shortly after landing at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), completing its 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS) and the final flight of the Space Shuttle Program, early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    STS-135 Mission Specialist Rex Walheim walks under the space shuttle Atlantis shortly after he and the rest of the STS-135 crew landed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), completing a 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS) and the final flight of the Space Shuttle Program, early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA Astronaut and STS-135 Commander Chris Ferguson walks underneath the space shuttle Atlantis shortly after he and the rest of the STS-135 crew landed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), completing a 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS) and the final flight of the Space Shuttle Program, early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    STS-135 Commander Chris Ferguson talks to NASA Television and the news media in front of the space shuttle Atlantis shortly after he and the rest of the STS-135 crew landed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), completing a 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS) and the final flight of the Space Shuttle Program, early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 11 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-11

    Expedition 11 astronaut John Phillips is helped out of a Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle, Tuesday, Oct. 11, 2005, after landing near Arlalyk, Kazakhstan. Members of the 11th expedition to the international space station, astronaut John Phillips and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev landed after a six-month mission in orbit. Along with American businessman Greg Olsen, who visited the station for more than a week, Phillips and Krikalev returned to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  10. Namibian women and land.

    PubMed

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  11. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  12. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur rest onboard a Russian helicopter that will take him from the landing site to Kustanay, Kazakhstan. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan onboard a Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft that touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT on Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur signs the interior of the Russian helicopter that will take him from the landing site to Kustanay, Kazakhstan. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan onboard a Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft that touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT, Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter approaches the landing site of the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft shortly after it landed with Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, and Flight Engineers Ron Garan, and Alexander Samokutyaev in a remote area outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA is helped out of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after it carried him from the Soyuz TMA-03M capsule landing site in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan to Karaganda on Sunday, July 1, 2012 in Kazakhstan. Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia and Flight Engineers Pettit and Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency landed in their Soyuz TMA-03M capsule in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan after serving more than six months onboard the International Space Station as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt is helped out of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after a two hour helicopter flight from the Soyuz TMA-14 landing site to Kustanay, kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Barratt, Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. Padalka and Barratt are returned from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Russian Search and Rescue Helicopters are seen as they await departure from the landing zone in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan following the the landing of the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft on Tuesday, May 14, 2013. The Soyuz spacecraft delivered Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko after having spent five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 11 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-10

    Astronaut John Phillips is attended to by a Russian nurse onboard the helicopter taking him from the Soyuz landing site near Arlalyk to Kustanay, Kazkahstan, Tuesday, Oct. 11, 2005. Members of the 11th expedition to the international space station, Phillips and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, landed near Arlalyk after a six-month mission in orbit. Along with American businessman Greg Olsen, who visited the station for more than a week, Phillips and Krikalev returned to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 8 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-30

    Soyuz Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri is carried in a chair from the Soyuz landing site to an inflatable medical tent after he and Expedition 8 Commander Mike Foale and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, of the Netherlands, landed in north central Kazakhstan, Friday, April 30, 2004, in a Soyuz TMA-3 capsule. Foale and Kaleri completed 195 days in space aboard the International Space Station, while Kuipers returned after an 11-day research mission as part of a commercial agreement between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 8 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-30

    European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, of the Netherlands, is carried in a chair from the Soyuz landing site to an inflatable medical tent after he and Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale and Soyuz Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri landed in north central Kazakhstan, Friday, April 30, 2004, in a Soyuz TMA-3 capsule. Foale and Kaleri completed 195 days in space aboard the International Space Station, while Kuipers returned after an 11-day research mission as part of a commercial agreement between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 8 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-30

    A Russian made all terrain vehicle waits to transport crew members from the inflatable medical tent to their helicopters, Friday, April 30, 2004, following the landing of Expedition 8 in north central Kazakhstan. Commander Michael Foale, Soyuz Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, of the Netherlands landed in a Soyuz TMA-3 capsule. Foale and Kaleri completed 195 days in space aboard the International Space Station, while Kuipers returned after an 11-day research mission as part of a commercial agreement between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 8 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-30

    Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale is carried in a chair from the Soyuz landing site to an inflatable medical tent after he, Soyuz Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands landed in north central Kazakhstan, Friday, April 30, 2004, in a Soyuz TMA-3 capsule. Foale and Kaleri completed 195 days in space aboard the International Space Station, while Kuipers returned after an 11-day research mission as part of a commercial agreement between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Endeavour STS-134 Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-01

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden looks at the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-134) from the air traffic control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Endeavour made its final landing at the Kennedy Space Center, Wednesday, June 1, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Endeavour, after completing a 16-day mission to outfit the International Space Station, spent 299 days in space and traveled more than 122.8 million miles during its 25 flights. It launched on its first mission on May 7, 1992. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Global Land Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

  5. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA Chief of the Astronaut Office Peggy Whitson, left, STS-135 mission Pilot Doug Hurley, second from left, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, and Deputy Chief of Flight Crew Operations Directorate Brian Kelly, right, talk under the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Hurley and the rest of the STS-135 crew landed in Atlantis early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. STS-135 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    NASA International Space Station Program Office Manager Michael Suffredini, left, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, second from left, Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, Manager, Space Shuttle Program Office John Shannon, third from left, and an unidentified colleague, talk under the space shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) shortly after Atlantis (STS-135) landed early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Landing, Edwards AFB, CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-09

    STS006-46-667 (9 April 1983) --- One of the final pictures taken aboard the space shuttle Challenger is this 35mm frame of Landing Strip 22 at Edwards Air Force Base as the reusable spacecraft was lined up for its landing only seconds later. The frame was exposed by astronaut Donald H. Peterson, STS-6 mission specialist, who was stretching behind the commander’s seat occupied by astronaut Paul J. Weitz on the flight deck. Also onboard the spacecraft for the five-day flight were astronauts Karol J. Bobko, pilot, and Dr. F. Story Musgrave, mission specialist. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  9. STS-39: Landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery landed on May 6, 1991, 2:55:35 p.m. EDT at the Shuttle Landing Facility after traveling more than 3,500,000 miles on a successful eight-day mission. Rollout distance and time were 9,235 feet and 56 secs respectively. The landing weight was 211,512 lbs. Landing was diverted to KSC because of unacceptably high winds at the planned landing site, Edwards Air Force Base, California. Aboard were: Commander Michael L. Coats; Pilot L. Blaine Hammond, Jr.; and Mission Specialists Guion S. Bluford Jr., Gregory J. Harbaugh, Richard J. Hieb, Donald R. McMonagle, and Charles L. Veach. This was the 40th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 12th for the orbiter Discovery. The landing was the 7th Shuttle landing in Florida. After landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility, the STS-39 crew posed for a photo in front of Discovery.

  10. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  11. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  13. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  14. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  15. Expedition 6 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-03

    One of three local Kazakh girls who were on hand at the International Airport Astana to welcome the Expedition 6 crew with roses after the crew landed on the Kazakh steppe in their Soyuz capsule, Tuesday, May 4, 2003 in Astana, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition Six landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-04

    May 4, 2003, Astana, Kazakhstan. One of three local Kazakh girls who were on hand at the Astana airport to welcome the Expedition Six crew with Roses after the crew landed on the Kazakh Steppe in their Soyuz capsule. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  17. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    Senate - 03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  19. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  20. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    The crew return bus pulls away from the Gargarin Cosmonaut Training Center's airplane in Star City, Russia. The Soyuz capsule carrying Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin landed approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, bottom left, Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, top left, arrive in Star City, Russia, Monday, April 25, 2005, after thet brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing northeast of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  3. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 7 Mission Commander, rests in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov sits in a chair after being pulled out of the Soyuz TMA-5 capsule, which landed northeast of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Monday, April 25, 2005. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, rests in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). On the left is NASA Flight Surgeon Dr. Thomas H. Marshburn. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  7. Land Combat Systems Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    communication equipment, and maintains power train components, starters , alternators , and generators. MCLB Barstow, Barstow, CA is the Marine Corps...protectionism became dominant themes. Other heavy industries, such as locomotive and food machinery companies, also were converted to production of land...implications for national defense. Domestic LCS companies’ market share may decrease as foreign companies with cheaper alternatives become more competitive and

  8. Living off the Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  9. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  10. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, smiles while resting in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, smiles while resting in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao rests in a Russian search and rescue helicopter after a pre-dawn landing in the Soyuz TMA-5 capsule with crew mates Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori northeast of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, Monday, April 25, 2005. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    A Russian nurse sits next to Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, while he sleeps inside a Russian search and rescue helicopter on his way to Kustanay, Kazakhstan after landing in a Soyuz capsule 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. The Mayflower Landed Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

    This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

  15. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    The Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft carrying cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 7 Mission Commander; astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer; and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain floats to a landing in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, left and cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Mission Commander, are seated in their chairs after being extracted from the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft upon their landing in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. STS-124 landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-14

    STS124-S-077 (14 June 2008) --- The STS-124 crewmembers finish their traditional walk-around Space Shuttle Discovery after landing on runway 15 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, to end a 14-day mission to the International Space Station. At left are Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Akihiko Hoshide, NASA astronauts Ron Garan, both mission specialists; and Ken Ham, pilot. At center is NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, mission specialist. At right are NASA astronauts Mike Fossum, mission specialist, and Mark Kelly, commander. The STS-124 mission ended with Discovery's landing on runway 15 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, ending a 14-day mission to the International Space Station. Discovery's main landing gear touched down at 11:15:19 a.m. (EDT) on June 14, 2008. The nose landing gear touched down at 11:15:30 a.m. and wheel stop was at 11:16:19 a.m. During the mission, Discovery's crew installed the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's large Kibo laboratory and its remote manipulator system leaving a larger space station and one with increased science capabilities.

  19. Living off the Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  20. Forecasts of land uses

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBetween 30 million and 43 million acres of land in the South are forecasted to be developed for urban uses by 2060 from a base of 30 million acres in 1997. These forecasts are based on a continuation of historical development intensities.From 1997 to 2060, the South is forecasted to lose between 11 million acres (7...

  1. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  2. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  3. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  4. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  5. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  6. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  7. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  8. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to...

  9. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power rights...

  10. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power rights...

  11. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power rights...

  12. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power rights...

  13. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power rights...

  14. Land Ethics for Bureau of Land Management Employees

    Treesearch

    Duane DePaepe

    1992-01-01

    With increased public concern for public lands resource steward-ship, the Bureau of Land Management is more and more expected to make what is perceived as "right decisions." The ethical dimensions of often highly complex decision making processes have become more and more apparent. The baseline research presented here is designed to promote a land ethic...

  15. Possible Landing Ellipses for Phoenix

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-02

    Launch date makes a difference in the orientation of ellipses marking where NASA Phoenix Mars Lander would have a high probability of landing, given the planned targeting for the spring 2008 landing site.

  16. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  17. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  18. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  19. The Land-Grant Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862, 1890 and 1994. The original…

  20. Agriculture in Gloria Land.

    PubMed

    Pal, M

    1993-01-01

    A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable.

  1. STS-79 landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    STS079-S-021 (26 Sept. 1996) --- The drag chute on the space shuttle Atlantis is fully deployed as the orbiter rolls down Runway 15 at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), bringing an end to the successful ten-day mission. Landing occurred at 8:13:15 a.m. (EDT), Sept. 26, 1996. The touchdown marked the end of 188 days in space for astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, following her in-space exchange with astronaut John E. Blaha, who is now aboard Russia's Mir Space Station. Returning along with Lucid were her STS-79 crew mates - astronauts William F. Readdy, commander; Terrence W. Wilcutt, pilot; and Thomas D. Akers, Jerome (Jay) Apt and Carl E. Walz, mission specialists.

  2. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, left with flowers, Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, center with flowers, and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy are greeted at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin are returning from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. STS-135 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-21

    Space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) touches down at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), completing its 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS) and the final flight of the Space Shuttle Program, early Thursday morning, July 21, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Overall, Atlantis spent 307 days in space and traveled nearly 126 million miles during its 33 flights. Atlantis, the fourth orbiter built, launched on its first mission on Oct. 3, 1985. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov laughs after being given fresh fruit and vegetables shortly after landing in the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft with fellow crew members Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 6 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-03

    Director of Flight Crew Operations Bob Cabana, upper left, talks with NASA colleagues on the satellite phone from a Russian helicopter while International Space Station Program Manager, William Gerstenmaier and J.D. Polk, Expedition 6 Flight Surgeon, right, wait to get word if they will be continuing on to the landing site after a refueling stop, Tuesday, May 4, 2003 in Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition Six landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-04

    May 4, 2003, Kazakhstan. Bob Cabana (L in door), Director of Flight Crew Operations talks with NASA colleagues on the satellite phone from a Russian helicopter while Bill Gerstenmaier (center), I.S.S. Program Manager and J.D. Polk (R), Expedition Six Flight Surgeon wait to get word if they will be continuing on to the landing site after a refueling stop. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  7. Expedition 37 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-11

    Expedition 37 NASA Flight Engineer Karen Nyberg is seen speaking to her family by satellite phone minutes after her landing in the Soyuz TMA-09M spacecraft in a remote area southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 11, 2013. Nyberg, Expedition 37 Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Italian Flight Engineer Luca Parmitano returned to earth after five and a half months on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson talks to her husband on a satellite phone shortly after landing in the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft with fellow crew members Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, with a crew of six NASA Astronauts aboard, touches down on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, completing a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  10. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    Expedition 28 Flight Engineer Ron Garan looks out the window of his helicopter as it prepares to depart for Karaganda from the Soyuz TMA-21 Capsule landing site outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, and Flight Engineers Ron Garan, and Alexander Samokutyaev returned from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank looks out the window of his helicopter as it prepares to depart for Kustanai from the Soyuz TMA-22 capsule landing site outside of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, April 27, 2012. Astronaut Burbank, Russian Cosmonauts Shkaplerov and Ivanishin are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 11 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-10

    Members of the 11th expedition to the International Space Station, astronaut John Phillips, top left, and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, front, arrive at Star City, Russia, Tuesday, Oct. 11, 2005. The crew landed near Arlalyk, Kazakhstan after a six-month mission in orbit. Along with American businessman Greg Olsen, who visited the station for more than a week, Phillips and Krikalev returned to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-28

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is welcomed home by colleagues and family in Star City, Russia on Saturday, April 28, 2012. Russian Cosmonaut Ivanishin, Expedition 30 Commander Daniel Burbank, and Russian Cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov landed outside of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan earlier in the day from over five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedtion 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-28

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineers Anatoly Ivanishin, far left, and Anton Shkaplerov are welcomed home by colleagues and family in Star City, Russia on Saturday, April 28, 2012. Russian Cosmonauts Ivanishin, Shkaplerov and Expedition 30 Commander Daniel Burbank landed outside of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan earlier in the day from over five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedtion 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Expedition 32 NASA Flight Engineer Joe Acaba is carried in a chair to the medical tent after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin landed in their Soyuz TMA-04M capsule in a remote area near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) waves hello in a chair outside the Soyuz Capsule after he and Commander Sunita Williams of NASA, and Flight Engineer Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency), landed their Soyuz spacecraft in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/GCTC/Andrey Shelepin)

  17. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, left, Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev, center, and Ron Garan, sit in chairs outside the Soyuz Capsule just minutes after they landed in a remote area outside the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency) rest in a chair outside the Soyuz Capsule after he and Commander Sunita Williams of NASA, and Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), landed their Soyuz spacecraft in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Expedition 33 Commander Sunita Williams of NASA, right, and Flight Engineers Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency), and Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), left, sit in chairs outside the Soyuz Capsule just minutes after they landed in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/GCTC/Andrey Shelepin)

  20. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Engineer Shannon Walker out of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with her, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker is carried to a nearby medical tent following the landing of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Doug Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock is carried to a nearby medical tent following the landing of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Shannon Walker, returned from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin is carried to a nearby medical tent near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010, following the landing of the TMA-19 spacecraft. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Doucg Wheelock and Shannon Walker, returned from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, left, Flight Engineer Alexander Samokutyaev and Flight Engineer Ron Garan, right, are seen at a press conference at the Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following their landing to earth on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. Borisenko, Samokutyaev and Garan are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Women in ceremonial Kazakh dress prepare to welcome home Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Tarelkin, Ford, and Novitskiy, returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, left, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, center, and Commander Kevin Ford of NASA sit together at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin are returning from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, with a crew of six NASA Astronauts aboard, touches down on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, completing a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  8. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    JSC2007-E-20476 (21 April 2007) --- The Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft floats to a landing southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time on April 21, 2007. Onboard were astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer; cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Soyuz commander and flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency; and U.S. spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-21

    JSC2007-E-20479 (21 April 2007) --- The Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft floats to a landing southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time on April 21, 2007. Onboard were astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer; cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Soyuz commander and flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency; and U.S. spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-21

    JSC2007-E-20477 (21 April 2007) --- The Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft floats to a landing southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time on April 21, 2007. Onboard were astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer; cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Soyuz commander and flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency; and U.S. spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur is being helped down from the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft after it landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan at 7:48 p.m. EDT on Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with him was Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev and Brazil's first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the space station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    The two Expedition 12 crew members and a Brazilian astronaut are met by a couple of dozen greeters on hand at the landing site of the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft in the steppes of Kazakhstan on Sunday, April 9, 2006. Still wearing their spacesuits (in the foreground, left to right) are Marcos C. Pontes of Brazil, Valery I. Tokarev of Russia's Federal Space Agency and William S. McArthur Jr. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter arrives as the Soyuz TMA-01M spacecraft lands with Expedition 26 Commander Scott Kelly and Flight Engineers Oleg Skripochka and Alexander Kaleri near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, March 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Russian search and rescue teams arrive at the landing site seconds after the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft touched down with Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA is helped out a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after flying from his Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landing site outside the town of Arkalyk to Kustanay, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, along with Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of Russia returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter is prepared to take off in support of the Soyuz landing of Expedition 33 Commander Sunita Williams of NASA and Flight Engineers Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), and Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency) near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock signs the inside of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter shortly after Wheelock, Expedition 25 Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 37 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-11

    Russian Search and Rescue personnel prepare to assist Expedition 37 Flight Engineer Karen Nyberg from the helicopter shortly after her arrival at the Karaganda airport in Kazakhstan, Monday, Nov. 11, 2013. Nyberg, Expedition 37 Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Italian Flight Engineer Luca Parmitano landed in a remote area outside of the town of Zhezkazgan after after five and a half months spent on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Russian search and rescue helicopters refuel in Arkalyk, Kazakhstan prior to the landing of the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft with Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Two Russian Search and Rescue helicopters land near the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after touch down with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of Russia is helped out a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after flying from his Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landing site outside the town of Arkalyk to Kustanay, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Tarelkin, along with Commander Kevin Ford of NASA and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter lands near the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after touch down with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, center, Renita Fincke, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, second from right with baby, and other officials and family members celebrate the return of the Expedition 9 crew to Star City, Russia after their Soyuz capsule landed safely approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    The Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft carrying cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 7 Mission Commander; astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer; and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is photographed on the ground after landing in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank is seen as he is extracted from the Soyuz TMA-22 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with Russian flight engineers Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin in a remote area outside of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, April 27, 2012. Burbank, Ivanishin, and Shkaplerov are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. STS-86 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter drag chute deploys after the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis lands on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at the conclusion of the nearly 11-day STS-86 mission. The Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) can be seen in the background. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT, Oct. 6, 1997, with an unofficial mission-elapsed time of 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two KSC landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at KSC. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS- 86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than three-and-a-half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  7. Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

  8. LANDING QUALITY IN ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS IS RELATED TO LANDING SYMMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Marinšek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  9. STS-89 landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-30

    STS089-S-013 (31 Jan. 1998) --- Interesting vortices at the wingtips of the space shuttle Endeavour tell-tale the spacecraft's landing on Runway 15 of the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Main gear touchdown for the almost nine-day flight was at 5:35:09 p.m. (EST) Jan. 31, 1998. Complete wheel stop occurred at 5:36:19 p.m., making a total mission elapsed time of eight days, 19 hours, 48 minutes and four seconds. The 89th space shuttle mission marked the 42nd (and 13th consecutive) landing of a space shuttle at KSC. Onboard were astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt, Joe F. Edwards Jr., Bonnie J. Dunbar, David A. Wolf, James F. Reilly and Michael P. Anderson; and the Russian Space Agency's (RSA) cosmonaut Salizhan S. Sharipov. Andrew S. W. Thomas had earlier gone into space aboard the Endeavour to replace Wolf aboard Russia's Mir Space Station. The ninth and final shuttle/Mir docking mission in the spring of this year will retrieve Thomas from the Mir complex. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Land Use Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

  11. STS-95 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Orbiter Discovery is riding on its main landing gear as it lowers its nose wheel after touching down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown was at 12:04 p.m. EST, landing on orbit 135. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The crew includes mission commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; pilot Steven W. Lindsey, mission specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, with the European Space Agency (ESA); payload specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); and payload specialist John H. Glenn, Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  12. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  13. Modeling land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

  14. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  15. The USGS Land Cover Institute

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Institute (LCI) is located at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides a focal point for advancing USGS land cover studies and applications. Satellite images and other remotely sensed data play an important role in this research. Land Cover scientists investigate new ways to use satellite images and other data to map land cover. They assess national and global land cover characteristics and monitor how - and how rapidly - land cover changes. They also study the economic impacts of land cover as well as its effects on water quality, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, climate variability, and other environmental factors.

  16. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  17. Challenges in Global Land Use/Land Cover Change Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    For the purposes of projecting and anticipating human-induced land use change at the global scale, much work remains in the systematic mapping and modeling of world-wide land uses and their related dynamics. In particular, research has focused on tropical deforestation, loss of prime agricultural land, loss of wild land and open space, and the spread of urbanization. Fifteen years of experience in modeling land use and land cover change at the regional and city level with the cellular automata model SLEUTH, including cross city and regional comparisons, has led to an ability to comment on the challenges and constraints that apply to global level land use change modeling. Some issues are common to other modeling domains, such as scaling, earth geometry, and model coupling. Others relate to geographical scaling of human activity, while some are issues of data fusion and international interoperability. Grid computing now offers the prospect of global land use change simulation. This presentation summarizes what barriers face global scale land use modeling, but also highlights the benefits of such modeling activity on global change research. An approach to converting land use maps and forecasts into environmental impact measurements is proposed. Using such an approach means that multitemporal mapping, often using remotely sensed sources, and forecasting can also yield results showing the overall and disaggregated status of the environment.

  18. Specifications for updating USGS land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1983-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for up-to-date land use and land cover information, a primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national land use and land cover mapping program is to provide for periodic updating of maps and data in a timely and uniform manner. The technical specifications for updating existing USGS land use and land cover maps that are presented here cover both the interpretive aspects of detecting and identifying land use and land cover changes and the cartographic aspects of mapping and presenting the change data in conventional map format. They provide the map compiler with the procedures and techniques necessary to then use these change data to update existing land use and land cover maps in a manner that is both standardized and repeatable. Included are specifications for the acquisition of remotely sensed source materials, selection of compilation map bases, handling of data base corrections, editing and quality control operations, generation of map update products for USGS open file, and the reproduction and distribution of open file materials. These specifications are planned to become part of the National Mapping Division's Technical Instructions.

  19. Prehistoric Alaska: The land

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Weber, Florence R.; Rennick, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Many Alaskans know the dynamic nature of Alaska’s landscape firsthand. The 1964 earthquake, the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt volcano, the frequent earthquakes in the Aleutians and the ever-shifting meanders of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers remind them of constant changes to the land. These changes are part of the continuing story of the geologic growth and development of Alaska during hundreds of millions of years. By geologic time, Alaska has only recently come into existence and the dynamic processes that formed it continue to affect it. The landscape we see today has been shaped by glacier and stream erosion or their indirect effects, and to a lesser extent by volcanoes. Most prominently, if less obviously, Alaska has been built by slow movements of the Earth’s crust we call tectonic or mountain-building.During 5 billion years of geologic time, the Earth’s crust has repeatedly broken apart into plates. These plates have recombined, and have shifted positions relative to each other, to the Earth’s rotational axis and to the equator. Large parts of the Earth’s crust, including Alaska, have been built and destroyed by tectonic forces. Alaska is a collage of transported and locally formed fragments of crusts As erosion and deposition reshape the land surface, climatic changes, brought on partly by changing ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns, alter the location and extent of tropical, temperate and arctic environments. We need to understand the results of these processes as they acted upon Alaska to understand the formation of Alaska. Rocks can provide hints of previous environments because they contain traces of ocean floor and lost lands, bits and pieces of ancient history.

  20. STS-86 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to complete the nearly 11- day STS-86 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT on Oct. 6, 1997. The unofficial mission-elapsed time at main gear touchdown was 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at KSC. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS-86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than three-and-a- half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  1. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage...

  2. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required. ...

  3. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required. ...

  4. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and...

  5. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required. ...

  6. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required. ...

  7. To Land on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

    2005-01-01

    The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

  8. Landing impact of seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, Wilhelm

    1931-01-01

    The theory of landing impact is briefly stated and the applicability of a previously suggested formula is extended. Theoretical considerations regarding impact measurements on models and actual seaplanes are followed by a brief description of the instruments used in actual flight tests. The report contains a description of the strength conditions and deals exhaustively with force measurements on the float gear of an "HE 9a" with flat-bottom and with V-bottom floats. The experimental data are given and compared with the theoretical results.

  9. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, left, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, right, are carried in chairs to the medical tent shortly after they and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté is carried in a chair to the medical tent shortly after he and Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt rests in a chair and is checked by medical personnel shortly after he and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian medical personnel monitor Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt onboard a helicopter heading to Kustanay, Kazakhstan shortly after Barratt, Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt is carried in a chair to the medical tent shortly after he and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka is carried in a chair to the medical tent shortly after he and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté, and Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn speaks to family members on a satellite phone following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn, Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-23

    Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman waves hello and talks on a satellite phone to her family shortly after she and Commander Dmitry Kondratyev and Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, left, is greeted by his wife after arriving in Star City, Russia from Kazakhstan, Monday, April 25, 2005. The Expedition 10 crew brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing April 25 northeast of the town of Arkalyk to wrap up a six-month mission aboard the International Space Station for Chiao and Sharipov, and a ten-day mission for Vittori, who flew under a commercial contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, on bus, looks out at well wishers after arriving back at Star City, Russia from Kazakhstan, Monday, April 25, 2005. Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing April 25 northeast of the town of Arkalyk to wrap up a six-month mission aboard the International Space Station for Chiao and Sharipov, and a ten-day mission for Vittori, who flew under a commercial contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  20. Soyuz TMA-17 Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi is carried in a chair to the medical tent just minutes after he and fellow crew members T.J. Creamer and Commander Oleg Kotov landed in their Soyuz TMA-17 capsule near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 2, 2010. NASA Astronaut Creamer, Russian Cosmonaut Kotov and Japanese Astronaut Noguchi are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 22 and 23 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Soyuz TMA-17 Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-01

    Expedition 23 Commander Oleg Kotov is seen sitting in a chair outside the Soyuz Capsule just minutes after he and fellow crew members T.J. Creamer and Soichi Noguchi landed in their Soyuz TMA-17 capsule near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 2, 2010. NASA Astronaut Creamer, Russian Cosmonaut Kotov and Japanese Astronaut Noguchi are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 22 and 23 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Soyuz TMA-17 Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer T.J. Creamer is carried in a chair to the medical tent just minutes after he and fellow crew members Soichi Noguchi and Commander Oleg Kotov landed in their Soyuz TMA-17 capsule near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 2, 2010. NASA Astronaut Creamer, Russian Cosmonaut Kotov and Japanese Astronaut Noguchi are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 22 and 23 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    The Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft is seen with the Moon in the background as it lands with Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, and Flight Engineers Ron Garan, and Alexander Samokutyaev in a remote area outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A view of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A helicopter crew member waits for weather to clear outside his Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, left, is seen after arriving at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia several hours after he and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A heavily frosted rotor of a Search and Rescue helicopter is seen as it is grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Commander Scott Kelly listens to reporters questions while wearing a traditional Kazakh hat at the Kustanay, Kazakhstan airport on Wednesday, March 16, 2011 after he and fellow crew members Alexander Kaleri and Oleg Skripochka landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, embraces his family after he and Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov arrived at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, left, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin pose for a photograph with women in ceremonial Kazakh dress at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after they, along with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Novitskiy, Tarelkin, and Ford returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    NASA Astronauts Eric Boe, left, and Bob Behnken are seen making contact with other team members outside a Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov, embraces his family after he and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko arrived at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Chief, Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Sergei Krikalev shakes hands and welcomes home Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia several hours after Kondratyev and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Pilots look out from the cockpit and watch as Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency) is welcomed home at the Chkalovsky Airport in Star City, Russia by officials and his family after he, Commander Sunita Williams of NASA, and Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), landed their Soyuz spacecraft in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, left, and Commander Alexander Skvortsov, shake hands with Russian dignitaries after their arrival at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri listens to reporters questions while wearing a traditional Kazakh hat at the Kustanay, Kazakhstan airport on Wednesday, March 16, 2011 after he and fellow crew members Scott Kelly and Oleg Skripochka landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA poses for a photograph after receiving welcome home gifts at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after he, along with Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Search and Rescue helicopters are seen grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-23

    Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman answers reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress during a press conference at the Karaganda airport shortly after she and Commander Dmitry Kondratyev and Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, left, shakes hands with Deputy Chair of the State Commission Mr. Skorobogotov after Kondratyev arrived at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia and several hours after he and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Cars carrying Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin pull up to the terminal at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after the crew landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko answers reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress during a press conference at the Karaganda airport shortly after he and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan landed in their Soyuz TMA-21 outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov, front left, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, back left, are helped down the stairs of an airplane after their arrival at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, foreground, and Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov embrace their family and friends after their arrival at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri, bottom, and Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka are seen as they arrive at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia several hours after they and Expedition 26 Commander Scott Kelly landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, March 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA poses for a photograph with women in ceremonial Kazakh dress at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after he, along with Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Crowds of officials, family and media gather as Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency) is welcomed home at the Chkalovsky Airport in Star City, Russia several hours after he, Commander Sunita Williams of NASA, and Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), landed their Soyuz spacecraft in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    Expedition 28 Flight Engineer Ron Garan answers reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress during a press conference at the Karaganda airport shortly after he and Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineer Ron Garan landed in their Soyuz TMA-21 outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. Garan, Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka listens to reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress at the Kustanay, Kazakhstan airport on Wednesday, March 16, 2011 after he and fellow crew members Scott Kelly and Alexander Kaleri landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A Search and Rescue helicopter is seen grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Kazakh performers at the Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan play music prior to a welcome home ceremony for Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, and, Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli, and Cady Coleman, after the three landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft in a remote area southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A Russian helicopter commander waits inside his Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The drag chute for the Space Shuttle Discovery is deployed as NASA's most-heavily flown spacecraft completes a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Discovery, with a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, fired its de-orbit engine at 1:14 p.m. (PDT), September 21, 1994. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  14. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Russian flight suits lie on the ground outside the inflatable medical tent, Monday, April 25, 2005, Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing April 25 northeast of the town of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan to wrap up a six-month mission aboard the International Space Station for Chiao and Sharipov, and a ten-day mission for Vittori, who flew under a commercial contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    An external view of the Expedition 10 crew inflatable medical tent, Monday, April 25, 2005, Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing April 25 northeast of the town of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan to wrap up a six-month mission aboard the International Space Station for Chiao and Sharipov, and a ten-day mission for Vittori, who flew under a commercial contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    NASA and GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center) crew support personnel enter the inflatable medical tent in which Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank, and flight engineers Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin are being checked out shortly after their Soyuz TMA-22 capsule landed out side the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 27, 2012. Burbank, and Russian Cosmonauts Shkaplerov and Ivanishin are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicles wait to transport Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock, Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin from the medical tent to awaiting helicopters shortly after the three crew members landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    Support and medical personnel carry Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia, foreground, and Flight Engineers Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency, center, and Don Pettit of NASA, background, to the medical tent shortly after they landed in their Soyuz TMA-03M capsule in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Sunday, July 1, 2012. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers returned from more than six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander and International Space Station Science Officer, Bill McArthur waits onboard a helicopter before transferring to an airplane and a flight back to Moscow from Kustanay, Kazakhstan. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT, Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur were Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev and Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    The Russian Sokol Suits are carried from the medical tent after the landing of the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft in the steppes of Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT on Saturday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on Sunday, April 1, 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 crew members have the traditional bread and salt upon their return to Star City, Russia. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan onboard a Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft that touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT, Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur (right) and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev (left) was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-23

    Russian Search and rescue helicopters are seen as they prepare for the landing of the Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft with Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman in a remote area southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    A member of the Russian Search and Rescue team folds up the parachute that was used to during the landing of the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue team All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) are seen parked at the landing site of the Soyuz TMA-14 capsule that carried Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue force vehicles and helicopter arrive within seconds of the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft landing with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn is helped off a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter at Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn, Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter flies to the the Soyuz TMA-03M capsule shortly after it landed with Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia and Flight Engineers Don Pettit of NASA and Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Sunday, July 1, 2012. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers returned from more than six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    A view inside inside the Russian Search and Rescue helicopter that will carry Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba from the Soyuz TMA-04M landing site in a remote area outside Arkalyk, Kazakhstan to Kostanay, Kazakhstan shortly after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin returned from the International Space Station on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle carrying Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker from the medical tent pulls up to a helicopter shortly after Walker, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock waves to the camera as Russian Search and Rescue teams and medical personnel carry him from the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with him, Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is helped off a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter at Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Hadfield, Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    A Russian Search and Rescue team All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) brings Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt to his helicopter shortly after he and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin is helped from a Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle to a helicopter shortly after Yurchikhin, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue helicopters are seen out the window of another helicopter carrying Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt shortly after shortly after he and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter and crew awaits the arrival of an all terrain vehicle carrying Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin from the medical tent shortly after he and Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Expedition 32 NASA Flight Engineer Joe Acaba rests on the Russian Search and Rescue helicopter that is carrying him from the Soyuz TMA-04M landing site in a remote area outside Arkalyk, Kazakhstan to Kostanay, Kazakhstan shortly after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin returned from the International Space Station on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue force vehicles follow the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft as it lands with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Russian search and rescue personnel and engineers prepare to extract the crew from the Soyuz TMA-18 moments after it landed with Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    A Russian Search and Rescue force helicopter flies around the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft as it lands with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Russian Search and Rescue teams and medical personnel help Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock out of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with him, Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    Additional Russian Search and Rescue crews arrive near the Soyuz TMA-03M capsule after it landed with Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia and Flight Engineers Don Pettit of NASA and Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Sunday, July 1, 2012. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers returned from more than six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn, center, is seen on a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter just before arriving at Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn, Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn, center, is attended to by his nurse and crew support personnel following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn and crew mates Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn is attended to by his nurse following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn and crew mates Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Expedition 33 Commander Sunita Williams of NASA rests during a helicopter flight back to Kustanany, Kazakhstan while nurse Raxana Batsmanova and Chief of the NASA Astronaut Office Bob Behnken look on just a a few hours after Williams and Flight Engineers Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency), and Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), landed their Soyuz spacecraft in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is attended to by his nurse following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Hadfield and crew mates NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Terrain at Landing Site

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-05

    Portions of Mars Pathfinder's deflated airbags (seen in the foreground), a large rock in mid-field, and a hill in the background were taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) aboard Mars Pathfinder during the spacecraft's first day on the Red Planet. Pathfinder successfully landed on Mars at 10:07 a.m. PDT earlier today. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per "eye." It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00615

  8. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Girls in traditional Kazakhstan dress await the arrival of the Soyuz TMA-18 crew at the Karaganda airport in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft, carrying Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko, landed, near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Girls in traditional Kazakh dress smile after welcoming home Expedition 33 crew members; Commander Sunita Williams of NASA, and Flight Engineers Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency), and Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after the Expedition 33 crew landed their Soyuz spacecraft in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Seated from left, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Shannon Walker talk during during a press conference after being greeting back to Earth by girls in traditional Kazakhstan at the Kostanay, Kazakhstan airport on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, landed in their Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan after nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Soyuz TMA-17 Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-01

    Girls in ceremonial Kazakhstan dress wait at the Karaganda airport in Kazakhstan to present flowers to Expedition 23 crew members; Commander Oleg Kotov, Flight Engineers T.J. Creamer and Soichi Noguchi a few hours after the crew landed their Soyuz TMA-17 spacecraft near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 2, 2010. NASA Astronaut Creamer, Russian Cosmonaut Kotov and Japanese Astronaut Noguchi are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 22 and 23 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    Expedition 30 flight engineer and Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin is seen as he is extracted from the Soyuz TMA-22 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and flight engineer Anton Shkaplerov in a remote area outside of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, April 27, 2012. Ivanishin, Burbank and Shkaplerov are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 8 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-30

    Soyuz Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri is helped from the medical tent to the all terrain vehicle for transportation to a waiting helicopter for the flight to Kustanai, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 30, 2004, after he, Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale, and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, landed in north central Kazakhstan in a Soyuz TMA-3 capsule. Foale and Kaleri completed 195 days in space aboard the International Space Station, while Kuipers returned after an 11-day research mission as part of a commercial agreement between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 8 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-30

    Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale is helped from the medical tent to an all terrain vehicle for transportation to a helicopter for the flight to Kustanai, Kazakhstan after he, Soyuz Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, of the Netherlands, landed in north central Kazakhstan, Friday, April 30, 2004, in a Soyuz TMA-3 capsule. Foale and Kaleri completed 195 days in space aboard the International Space Station, while Kuipers returned after an 11-day research mission as part of a commercial agreement between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    NASA Flight Surgeon Ed Powers, left, laughs as Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt talks about how strange, weight and gravity feel when holding a bottle of water shortly after Barratt, Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Arid Lands Biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  17. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) lands at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) lands at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is seen in the background. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  19. STS-89 landing view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-30

    STS089-S-012 (31 Jan. 1998) --- The drag chute on the space shuttle Endeavour is deployed as the spacecraft rolls down Runway 15 of the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to successfully complete an almost-nine-day mission in Earth orbit. Main gear touchdown was at 5:35:09 p.m. (EST) Jan. 31, 1998. Complete wheel stop occurred at 5:36:19 p.m., making a total mission elapsed time of eight days, 19 hours, 48 minutes and four seconds. The 89th space shuttle mission marked the 42nd (and 13th consecutive) landing of a shuttle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Onboard were astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt, Joe F. Edwards Jr., Bonnie J. Dunbar, David A. Wolf, James F. Reilly and Michael P. Anderson; and the Russian Space Agency's (RSA) cosmonaut Salizhan S. Sharipov. Andrew S. W. Thomas had earlier gone into space aboard the Endeavour to replace Wolf aboard Russia's Mir Space Station. The ninth and final shuttle/Mir docking mission in the spring of this year will retrieve Thomas from the Mir complex. Photo credit: NASA

  20. STS-89 landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-22

    STS089-S-016 (31 Jan. 1998) --- The space shuttle Endeavour is just about to touch down on Runway 15 of the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to successfully complete an almost-nine-day mission in Earth orbit. Main gear touchdown was at 5:35:09 p.m. (EST) Jan. 31, 1998. Complete wheel stop occurred at 5:36:19 p.m., making a total mission elapsed time of eight days, 19 hours, 48 minutes and four seconds. The 89th space shuttle mission marked the 42nd (and 13th consecutive) landing of a space shuttle at KSC. Onboard were astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt, Joe F. Edwards Jr., Bonnie J. Dunbar, David A. Wolf, James F. Reilly and Michael P. Anderson and the Russian Space Agency's (RSA) cosmonaut Salizhan S. Sharipov. Andrew S. W. Thomas had earlier gone into space aboard the Endeavour to replace Wolf aboard Russia's Mir Space Station. The ninth and final shuttle/Mir docking mission in the spring of this year will retrieve Thomas from the Mir complex. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Deserts and Arid Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Glen F.

    The exponential growth of global population and often concomitant degradation of the environment has forced human expansion into the more hostile and less well-known terrains of arid lands and deserts. Drought in the African Sahel, with recent wholesale movement of tribes seeking survival, has focused interest in such regions. However, geologic and geomorphic knowledge of deserts has expanded slowly until the last few decades. For instance, the arid cycle of erosion, as conceived by William Morse Davis (now deceased; formerly, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.), with modifications by W. Penck (now deceased; formerly, Leipzig University, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic), and L. C. King (University of Natal and Durban, South Africa), has dominated desert geomorphological deductions until recently. Since World War II and the verification of plate tectonics, the knowledge of arid lands has increased dramatically, especially in synoptic mapping from remote sensing data and space photography, which transcends political boundaries, thanks to the open skies policy of the U.S. space pioneers.

  2. Arizona land use experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Schumann, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Utilization of new sources of statewide remote sensing data, taken from high-altitude aircraft and from spacecraft is discussed along with incorporation of information extracted from these sources into on-going land and resources management programs in Arizona. Statewide cartographic applications of remote sensor data taken by NASA high-altitude aircraft include the development of a statewide semi-analytic control network, the production of nearly 1900 orthophotoquads (image maps) that are coincident in scale and area with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7. 5 minute topographic quadrangle map series, and satellite image maps of Arizona produced from LANDSAt multispectral scanner imagery. These cartographic products are utilized for a wide variety of experimental and operational earth resources applications. Applications of the imagery, image maps, and derived information discussed include: soils and geologic mapping projects, water resources investigations, land use inventories, environmental impact studies, highway route locations and mapping, vegetation cover mapping, wildlife habitat studies, power plant siting studies, statewide delineation of irrigation cropland, position determination of drilling sites, pictorial geographic bases for thematic mapping, and court exhibits.

  3. Land subsidence session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers were presented on topics that ranged from evaluations of the suitability of the new satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to theoretical analyses of land subsidence.T. N. Narasimhan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.) introduced the general subject of subsidence with a review of relevant physical processes. Compaction, although conceptually simple, involves several complexities, including plastic deformation and translation of deep-seated deformation through the overburden. Sashi Mathur (Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex.), in a paper coauthored with M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York, New York), analyzed deformation in the unsaturated zone above a falling water table. Their theoretical formulation was able to reproduce results from laboratory studies of sand columns.

  4. Rosetta Lander - Philae: Landing preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Sierks, Holger; Witte, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Rosetta and Philae have been in hibernation until January 20, 2014. After the successful wakeup they underwent a post-hibernation commissioning. The orbiter instruments (like e.g. the OSIRIS cameras, VIRTIS, MIRO, Alice and ROSINA) characterized the target comet and its environment to allow landing site selection and the definition of a separation, descent and landing (SDL) strategy for the Lander. By September 2014 our previously poor knowledge of the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet has increased drastically and the nominal and backup landing could be selected. The nominal site, as well as the corresponding descent strategy have been confirmed in mid-October, one month before the landing. The paper summarizes the selection process for a landing site and the planning for Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL).

  5. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  6. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  7. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  8. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  9. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.

  10. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  11. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  12. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  13. 43 CFR 3838.2 - How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal lands? 3838.2 Section 3838.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.2 How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands? SRHA lands are...

  14. 76 FR 18244 - Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6839, which modified Public Land Order No. 2344, as amended, for...

  15. 78 FR 22281 - Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY. AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6960, as corrected by Public Land Order No. 6980...

  16. 76 FR 61737 - Public Land Order No. 7782; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6880; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7782; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6880; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6880, as corrected by Public Land Order...

  17. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  18. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  19. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  20. Protecting women's rights to land.

    PubMed

    Adoko, J

    2000-07-01

    This article examines the efficacy of the 1998 Land Act in protecting women's right to land in Uganda. The Land Act introduced individual ownership to encourage a more productive use of land, based on the principles of economic liberalization. It converted customary ownership through the creation of written deeds. Traditionally, women's land use was protected under customary law, in which elders assumed the role of protectors, however, the passage of the Land Act changed this. It did not recognize the role of elders as protectors. To this effect, men automatically assumed that role because of the presumption that women did not own the land making them individual owners of the land. Therefore, because of the law's limitations, women have lost ownership, and are more disadvantaged by the higher incidences of divorce and the fact that wives rarely inherit. It is for this reason that the Oxfam worked with the Uganda Land Alliance to lobby the government to ensure that the Act protected women's right as much as possible.

  1. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  2. The land-cover cascade: relationships coupling land and water

    Treesearch

    C.L. Burcher; H.M. Valett; E.F. Benfield

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the land-cover cascade (LCC) as a conceptual framework to quantify the transfer of land-cover-disturbance effects to stream biota. We hypothesize that disturbance is propagated through multivariate systems through key variables that transform a disturbance and pass a reorganized disturbance effect to the next hierarchical level where the process repeats...

  3. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  4. Geology and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The geologic limitations for building sites of some areas can be overcome, in part, by skilled engineering and expensive construction practices. But the costs can be prohibitively high, and the solutions are not always completely effective. In "earthquake country," history has shown that costs are highest and risk factors most uncertain in a few easily recognized settings: unstable hill sloped, land at the edge of rapidly eroding sea cliffs, lowlands underlain by saturated estuarine mud of ill, and areas near faults capable of producing magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes. Safety immediately after an earthquake is also a concern in these places, for extreme damage and ground distortion may impede or prevent timely access by emergency equipment. 

  5. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  6. Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  7. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  8. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  9. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  10. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  11. Land Access, Protection and Permits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsell, Steve

    This paper summarizes a panel discussion that included 25 students and outdoor education and recreation professionals on issues related to land use and outdoor education and recreation programs. Many participants expressed frustration over inconsistent management policies related to educational and recreational use of public lands. Participants…

  12. Global land and water grabbing.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land).

  13. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  14. Sustainable land application: an overview.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, G A; Elliott, H A; Basta, N T; Bastian, R K; Pierzynski, G M; Sims, R C; Smith, J E

    2005-01-01

    Man has land-applied societal nonhazardous wastes for centuries as a means of disposal and to improve the soil via the recycling of nutrients and the addition of organic matter. Nonhazardous wastes include a vast array of materials, including manures, biosolids, composts, wastewater effluents, food-processing wastes, industrial by-products; these are collectively referred to herein as residuals. Because of economic restraints and environmental concerns about land-filling and incineration, interest in land application continues to grow. A major lesson that has been learned, however, is that the traditional definition of land application that emphasizes applying residuals to land in a manner that protects human and animal health, safeguards soil and water resources, and maintains long-term ecosystem quality is incomplete unless the earning of public trust in the practices is included. This overview provides an introduction to a subset of papers and posters presented at the conference, "Sustainable Land Application," held in Orlando, FL, in January 2004. The USEPA, USDA, and multiple national and state organizations with interest in, and/or responsibilities for, ensuring the sustainability of the practice sponsored the conference. The overriding conference objectives were to highlight significant developments in land treatment theory and practice, and to identify future research needs to address critical gaps in the knowledge base that must be addressed to ensure sustainable land application of residuals.

  15. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  16. Humanitarian Consequences of Land Mines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Ken

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the human and economic consequences of the continuing use and abandonment of land mines. Discusses the reasons for the worldwide proliferation (over 85 million uncleared mines in at least 62 countries) and the legal complexities in curtailing their use. Includes a brief account by a land-mine victim. (MJP)

  17. Global land and water grabbing

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  18. Ecosystems and Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Houghton, Richard A.

    Land use is at the center of one of the most vexing challenges for the coming decades: to provide enough food, fiber and shelter for the world's population; raise the standard of living for the billion people currently below the poverty line; and simultaneously sustain the world's ecosystems for use by humans and other species. The intended consequence of cropland expansion, urban growth, and other land use changes is to satisfy demands from the increasing appetite of the world's population. Unintended consequences, however, can alter ecological processes and have far-reaching and long-term effects that potentially compromise the basic functioning of ecosystems. Recently, the scientific community has begun to confront such issues. Several national and international programs have been at the forefront of scientific enquiry on the causes and consequences of land use change, including: the Land Use and Land Cover Change Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Land Use program element in the interagency U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere's Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) core project. The result has been significant advances in understanding the complex socioeconomic, technological, and biophysical factors that drive land use change worldwide.

  19. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  20. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  1. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  2. Federal lands and local communities

    SciTech Connect

    Freyfogle, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The author focuses on mineral extraction, grazing, and timber harvesting on federal lands by private parties in his examination of the federal government's role as local landowner and community member. He considers whether the federal government is legally obligated to function as a community member and to abide within state and local land use rules. The discussion centers on the question of preemption and the philosophy that the federal government retains land so that it can restrain and regulate, not promote, natural resource exploitation. The author notes that the federal government does not own land to allow economic developers to escape state and local restraint on development. By transforming the federal government to a local landowner, a limited preemption approach encourages, and perhaps compels federal agencies to recognize the close ties between land and community.

  3. Landing characteristics of an autogiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, William C

    1934-01-01

    An investigation to determine the rate of descent, the horizontal velocity, and the attitude at contact of an autogiro in landings was made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Bureau of Air Commerce, Department of Commerce. The investigation covered various types of landings. The results of the investigation disclosed that the maximum rate of descent at contact with the ground (10.6 feet per second) was less than the minimum rate of descent attainable in a steady glide (15.8 feet per second); that the rates of descent at contact were of the same order of magnitude as those experienced by conventional airplanes in landings; that flared landings resulted in very low horizontal velocities at contact. Also that unexpectedly high lift and drag force coefficients were developed in the latter stages of the flared landings.

  4. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  5. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  6. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  7. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  8. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  9. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect the...

  10. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  11. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect the...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  13. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  14. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  15. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  16. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  17. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  18. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect the...

  19. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  20. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  2. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect the...

  3. 43 CFR 3191.5 - Delegation for Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation for Indian lands. 3191.5 Section 3191.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... lands. ...

  4. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  5. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  6. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  7. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  8. Land reclamation research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy has assigned its Office of Environment the task of developing methods that will prevent or reduce damages caused by surface mining. Before that task can be accomplished, more must be learned about the functioning of organisms and their surroundings-the ecosystems threatened by disruptions from surface mining. While new federal and state laws require the full reclamation of mine sites, there is no assurance now that reclaimed areas can be self-sustaining, especially in the arid and semiarid West. To these ends, the Ecological Research Division within the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department's Office of Environment has begun a number of related programs aimed at understanding more clearly soils, plants, animals, and other components of the ecosystem so that ways may be found to improve environmental quality or to prevent damage from mining. Another aim is to produce efficient and cost-effective techniques for returning to productive use land that has been scarred by mining. Two national laboratories and six universities carry out these research programs. The work extends from broadly based studies, such as the effects of mining on the hydrologic balance, to very specific studies, such as evaluation of the reproductive cycle of a native grass.

  9. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Currently within the EU's Earth Observation (EO) monitoring framework, there is a need for low-cost methods for acquiring high quality in-situ data to create accurate and well-validated environmental monitoring products. To help address this need, a new four year Horizon 2020 project entitled LandSense will link remote sensing data with modern participatory data collection methods that involve citizen scientists. This paper will describe the citizen science activities within the LandSense Observatory that aim to deliver concrete, measurable and quality-assured ground-based data that will complement existing satellite monitoring systems. LandSense will deploy advanced tools, services and resources to mobilize and engage citizens to collect in-situ observations (i.e. ground-based data and visual interpretations of EO imagery). Integrating these citizen-driven in-situ data collections with established authoritative and open access data sources will help reduce costs, extend GEOSS and Copernicus capacities, and support comprehensive environmental monitoring systems. Policy-relevant campaigns will be implemented in close collaboration with multiple stakeholders to ensure that citizen observations address user requirements and contribute to EU-wide environmental governance and decision-making. Campaigns for addressing local and regional Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) issues are planned for select areas in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Slovenia and Serbia. Novel LandSense services (LandSense Campaigner, FarmLand Support, Change Detector and Quality Assurance & Control) will be deployed and tested in these areas to address critical LULC issues (i.e. urbanization, agricultural land use and forest/habitat monitoring). For example, local residents in the cities of Vienna, Tulln, and Heidelberg will help cooperatively detect and map changes in land cover and green space to address key issues of urban sprawl, land take and flooding. Such campaigns are facilitated through

  10. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  11. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on...

  12. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on...

  13. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on...

  14. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on...

  15. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on...

  16. Landing Accuracy on Mars: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-10

    This image illustrates how spacecraft landings on Mars have become more and more precise over the years. Since NASA first Mars landing of Viking in 1976, the targeted landing regions, or ellipses, have shrunk.

  17. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  18. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  19. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  20. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  1. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  2. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  3. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order (PLO) No. 6965 for an additional 20-year period. This extension is...

  4. 76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6865 for an additional 20-year period. The...

  5. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6856 for an additional 20-year period. The...

  6. 76 FR 62831 - Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6886 for an additional 20-year period. This...

  7. 75 FR 63856 - Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order further extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 7464 for an additional 5-year...

  8. 77 FR 47665 - Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6941 for an additional 20-year period. The...

  9. 76 FR 76179 - Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6912 for an additional 20-year period. This extension is...

  10. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6857 for an additional 20-year period. The...

  11. 77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This Order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6928 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  12. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6947 for an additional 20-year period....

  13. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6861 for an additional 20-year period. This extension is...

  14. 76 FR 61738 - Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6881 for an additional 20-year period. The...

  15. 76 FR 12131 - Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6833 for an additional 20-year period. The...

  16. 75 FR 57061 - Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6797 for an additional 20-year period. This extension is...

  17. 75 FR 19999 - Public Land Order No. 7739; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6776; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7739; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6776; Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. ] SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6776 for an additional 20-year period. This extension is...

  18. 76 FR 59736 - Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6876 for an additional 20-year period....

  19. 76 FR 36574 - Public Land Order No. 7769; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6888, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7769; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6888, Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6888, for an additional 20-year period. The extension...

  20. 75 FR 77658 - Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6818 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...