Science.gov

Sample records for land burial technology

  1. Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid Project is being conducted for the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program with the objective of identifying and demonstrating improved technology for disposing of low-level solid waste in humid environments. Two improved disposal techniques are currently being evaluated using nine demonstration trenches at the Engineered Test Facility (ETF). The first is use of a cement-bentonite grout applied as a waste backfill material prior to trench closure and covering. The second is complete hydrologic isolation of waste by emplacement in a trench that is lined on all four sides, top and bottom using synthetic impermeable lining material. An economic analysis of the trench grouting and lining demonstration favored the trench lining operation ($1055/demonstration trench) over trench grouting ($1585/demonstration trench), with the cost differential becoming even greater (as much as a factor of 6 in favor of lining for typical ORNL trenches) as trench dimensions increase and trench volumes exceed those of the demonstration trenches. In addition to the evaluation of trench grouting and lining, major effort has centered on characterization of the ETF site. Though only a part of the overall study, characterization is an extremely important component of the site selection process; it is during these activities that potential problems, which may obviate the site from further consideration, are found. Characterization of the ETF has included studies of regional and site-specific geology, the physical and chemical properties of the soils in which the demonstration trenches are located, and hydrology of the small watershed of which the ETF is a part. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Shallow land burial technology: Humid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. C.; Yeh, G. T.

    Trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste. Two finite-element hydrologic models were developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining, results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. Trench-cover subsidence measured over two of the three lined trenches did not occur over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. Results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at shallow land burial (SLB) sites with water-related problems.

  3. Shallow land burial technology: humid

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m/sup 3/ experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m/sup 3/ of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Status of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeele, W. V.; Nyhan, J. W.; Drennon, B. J.; Lopez, E. A.; Herrera, W. J.; Langhorst, G. J.

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Report of field testing of biointrusion barriers continues at a closed-out waste disposal site at Los Alamos. Final results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system are reported, as well as the results of hydrologic modeling activities involving biobarrier systems.

  5. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyhan, J. W.; Abeele, W. V.; Drennon, B. J.; Herrera, W. J.; Lopez, E. A.; Langhorst, G. J.; Stallings, E. A.; Walker, R. D.; Martinez, J. L.

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented.

  6. Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management.

  7. Shallow land burial technology - ARID

    SciTech Connect

    Abeele, W.V.; DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Scope of the tasks being performed by Los Alamos will be identified. Emphasis will be placed upon the geotechnical work. Important geotechnical properties of a low-level waste disposal site include hydraulic conductivity consolidation, and shear strength of the applicable medium. The hydraulic conductivity of crushed Bandelier tuff has been assessed using the instantaneous profile method. The best fit of hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content was found to be a power function. The coefficient of consolidation was difficult to measure because of the relatively high hydraulic conductivity. The repose angle for crushed tuff is higher than the normally expected range. This is probably because of a higher than average angularity and surface roughness. The high coefficient of consolidation and high internal friction angle make finely crushed tuff a material with ideal mechanical characteristics. The drawback is that a high coefficient of consolidation is linked to a high hydraulic conductivity.

  8. State of the art review of alternatives to shallow land burial of low level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A review of alternatives to shallow land burial for disposal of low level radioactive waste was conducted to assist ORNL in developing a program for the evaluation, selection, and demonstration of the most acceptable alternatives. The alternatives were categorized as follows: (1) near term isolation concepts, (2) far term isolation concepts, (3) dispersion concepts, and (4) conversion concepts. Detailed descriptions of near term isolation concepts are provided. The descriptions include: (1) method of isolation, (2) waste forms that can be accommodated, (3) advantages and disadvantages, (4) facility and equipment requirements, (5) unusual operational or maintenance requirements, (6) information/technology development requirements, and (7) related investigations of the concept.

  9. Land-use change, not climate, controls organic carbon burial in lakes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N J; Dietz, R D; Engstrom, D R

    2013-10-22

    Lakes are a central component of the carbon cycle, both mineralizing terrestrially derived organic matter and storing substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. However, the rates and controls on OC burial by lakes remain uncertain, as do the possible effects of future global change processes. To address these issues, we derived OC burial rates in (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from 116 small Minnesota lakes that cover major climate and land-use gradients. Rates for individual lakes presently range from 7 to 127 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and have increased by up to a factor of 8 since Euro-American settlement (mean increase: 2.8×). Mean pre-disturbance OC burial rates were similar (14-22 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) across all land-cover categories (prairie, mixed deciduous and boreal forest), indicating minimal effect of the regional temperature gradient (approx. 4 °C) on background carbon burial. The relationship between modern OC burial rates and temperature was also not significant after removal of the effect of total phosphorus. Contemporary burial rates were strongly correlated with lake-water nutrients and the extent of agricultural land cover in the catchment. Increased OC burial, documented even in relatively undisturbed boreal lake ecosystems, indicates a possible role for atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results suggest that globally, future land-cover change, intensification of agriculture and associated nutrient loading together with atmospheric N-deposition will enhance OC sequestration by lakes.

  10. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L.J.; Toste, A.P.; Thomas, C.W.; Rickard, W.H.; Nielson, H.L.; Campbell, R.M.; McShane, M.C.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Robertson, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    During the past several years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted research at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This work has identified the spectrum of radionuclides present in the waste trenches, determined the processes that were occurring relative to degradation of radioactive material within the burial trenches, determined the chemical and physical characteristics of the trench leachates and the chemical forms of the leached radionuclides, determined the mobility of these radionuclides, investigated the subsurface and surface transport processes, determined the biological uptake by the native vegetation, developed strategies for environmental monitoring, and investigated other factors that influence the long-term fate of the radionuclide inventory at the disposal site. This report is a final summary of the research conducted by PNL and presents the results and discussions relative to the above investigative areas. 45 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  12. Interim Report: CHEMICAL SPECIES OF MIGRATING RADIONUCLIDES AT COMMERCIAL SHALLOW LAND BURIAL SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L. J.; Rickard, W. H.; Toste, A. P.

    1982-08-01

    This is the first quarterly report for .the project "Chemical Species of Migrating Radionuclides at Commercial Shallow Land Burial Site" under the new reporting schedule requested by the sponsor. Future reports will be issued following each fiscal quarter, with the next report scheduled in October, 1982. The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the processes responsible for radionuclide migration at low-level waste burial sites. Chemical measurements of waste trench leachate and identification of chemical changes in leachate during migration will provide a basis for geochemical waste transport models. This project will produce for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the development of criteria for low level waste disposal site selection, management, permanent closure and monitoring. Topics covered include: Experimental Trench and Well Study; Chemical Species Characterization; Specific Radionuclide Mapping; Organic Complexing Compounds,

  13. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  14. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts.

  15. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  16. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  17. Chemical species of migrating radionuclides at commercial shallow land burial sites. Quarterly progress report, May-July, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L.J.; Rickard, W.H.

    1984-08-01

    The primary purposes of this project are to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial sites and to evaluate ecological field sampling procedures for monitoring the performance of these sites. This project will produce information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the development of criteria for LLW disposal site selection, management, permanent closure, and monitoring. It will also produce information needed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize, close, and monitor the Maxey Flats site. Significant current research results are reported for the following tasks: inorganic and organic radionuclide species chemical forms; subsurface migration and infiltration studies; specific radionuclide mapping at Maxey Flats and commercial shallow land burial sites; ecological monitoring at commercial shallow land burial sites; and technical program coordination for LLW research. 13 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  19. Role of trench caps in the shallow land burial of low level wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezga, L. J.

    1984-05-01

    Experience dating back to the early 1940s clearly documents the importance of isolating waste disposed of by shallow land burial from the biosphere. While no significant threat to the health and safety of the public has occurred to data, poor facility siting and/or design has resulted in a number of sites failing to perform as predicted or in an acceptable manner. The trench cap may be the single most important component of the LLW disposal system. It must effectively isolate the waste from the biosphere by controlling infiltration, gaseous emissions, and biointrusions. At the same time, a number of other forces (i.e., erosion and subsidence) are acting to destroy its integrity. Results of experiments and operational experience to date indicate that while one design feature may be effective at controlling one problem (e.g., cobble gravel effectively controls biointrusion), that same design feature may be ineffective or actually exacerbate another problem (e.g., cobble gravel may allow increased infiltration rates). Therefore, trench cap design must evaluate the systems effects of the various options either using intuitive methods as is currently the case or by using mathematical models which are currently being developed and validated.

  20. [Effects of sand burial on growth and physiological process of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings in Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia, North China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ha-Lin; Qu, Hao; Zhou, Rui-Lian; Wang, Jin; Li, Jin; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2013-12-01

    In 2010-2011, a sand burial experiment was conducted on the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia to study the growth characteristics and physiological properties of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings under different depths of sand burial. The A. squarrosum seedlings had stronger tolerance against sand burial. The seedling growth could be severely inhibited when the burial depth exceeded seedling height, but some seedlings could still be survived when the burial depth exceeded 1.66 times of seedling height. When the burial depth did not exceed the seedling height, the seedling MDA content and membrane permeability had no significant change, but the lipid peroxidation was aggravated and the cell membrane was damaged with increasing burial depth. Under sand burial stress, the seedling SOD and POD activities and proline content increased significantly, while the seedling CAT activity and soluble sugar content deceased. Sand burial decreased the leaf photosynthetic area and damaged cell membrane, inducing the increase of seedling mortality and the inhibition of seedling growth. The increase of SOD and POD activities and proline content played a definite role in reducing the sand burial damage to A. squarrosum seedlings.

  1. Design and construction of a low-level waste shallow land burial experimental facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Davis, E.C.

    1983-11-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been investigating improved shallow land burial (SLB) practices for disposing of low-level radioactive wastes in humid environments. Two improvements currently being studied are the use of a cement-bentonite grout applied to waste trenches before they are covered and the use of an impermeable Hypalon fabric liner, which completely surrounds the waste in a trench. A field-scale demonstration site, known as the Engineered Test Facility (ETF), has been established for these studies in the complex geologic setting typical of the Oak Ridge area. Design of the ETF was initiated in 1980 for purposes of (1) evaluating the ability of the grouted and lined trench treatments to minimize water contact and concurrent waste leaching, (2) evaluating selected waste disposal site characterization criteria, (3) integrating site characterization data into model development, and (4) validating the ETF site model and using it to predict long-term site performance. A total of nine trenches (six treated and three control) were excavated at the site in June of 1981. Bales of ORNL compacted waste were used to fill the 3m x 3m x 3m trenches, and, after treatment, all trenches were closed (backfilled and covered) according to current practice. Evaluation of the trench treatments is in progress using a series of inorganic and organic tracer tests designed to monitor water movement in three regions of interest: the trenches, the unsaturated zone around the trenches, and the saturated zone below the site. A successful demonstration of reduced waste leaching resulting from either of these two trench modifications described in this design and construction report will have immediate application to larger disposal sites having similar water-related problems. 9 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Chemical species of migrating radionuclides at commercial shallow land burial sites. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L.J.; Rickard, W.H.; Toste, A.P.

    1983-11-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste burial sites. Chemical measurements of waste trench leachate and identification of chemical changes in leachate during migration will provide a basis for geochemical waste transport models. This project will produce for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the development of criteria for low level waste disposal site selection, management, permanent closure and monitoring. This project will also produce information needed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize, close and monitor the Maxey Flats site. Current research results are presented for the following tasks: (1) chemical forms inorganic and organic radionuclide species; (2) subsurface migration and infiltration studies; (3) specific radionuclide mapping at Maxey Flats and other commercial shallow land burial sites; (4) ecological monitoring at commercial shallow land burial sites; and (5) technical program coordination for low-level waste research. 17 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Field survey of the shallow land low-level radioactive waste burial site near Beatty, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, H.L.; Wogman, N.A.; Kirby, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine radioactivity levels in surface soil at the site as part of an effort to confirm the boundaries of existing waste burial trenches, locate any additional radioactive wastes beyond the established burial area, characterize the distribution of radionuclides around the waste burial site, and determine whether movement of radioactivity from unearthed waste drums had occurred. Cesium-137, /sup 60/Co, and some other radionuclides were measured around the perimeter fence and in the area where waste drums were excavated along the northern fence. The data are compared with information generated by subsurface pulsed radar techniques. In addition, the in-situ counting measurements were compared with analyses of soil samples taken below ground surface at each counting location.

  4. Experimental sand burial affects seedling survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiao; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Jiang, Deming; Musa, Ala; Wu, Dafu; Wang, Yongcui; Miao, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    As a native tree species, Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm) is widely distributed in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. However, seedlings of this species have to withstand various depths of sand burial after emergence because of increasing soil degradation, which is mainly caused by overgrazing, climate change, and wind erosion. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes in its survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation when seedlings were buried at different burial depths: unburied controls and seedlings buried vertically up to 33, 67, 100, or 133 % of their initial mean seedling height. The results showed that partial sand burial treatments (i.e., less than 67 % burial) did not reduce seedling survivorship, which still reached 100 %. However, seedling mortality increased when sand burial was equal to or greater than 100 %. In comparison with the control treatment, seedling height and stem diameter increased at least by 6 and 14 % with partial burial, respectively. In the meantime, seedling taproot length, total biomass, and relative mass growth rates were at least enhanced by 10, 15.6, and 27.6 %, respectively, with the partial sand burial treatment. Furthermore, sand burial decreased total leaf area and changed biomass allocation in seedlings, partitioning more biomass to aboveground organs (e.g., leaves) and less to belowground parts (roots). Complete sand burial after seedling emergence inhibited its re-emergence and growth, even leading to death. Our findings indicated that seedlings of sandy elm showed some resistance to partial sand burial and were adapted to sandy environments from an evolutionary perspective. The negative effect of excessive sand burial after seedling emergence might help in understanding failures in recruitments of sparse elm in the study region.

  5. Potential water quality impacts originating from land burial of cattle carcasses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qi; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2013-07-01

    Among the conventional disposal methods for livestock mortalities, on-farm burial is a preferred method, but the potential water quality impacts of animal carcass burial are not well understood. Typically, on-farm burial pits are constructed without liners and any leachate produced may infiltrate into soil and groundwater. To date, no information is available on temporal trends for contaminants in leachate produced from livestock mortality pits. In our study, we examined the concentrations of conventional contaminants including electrical conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, TP, and solids, as well as veterinary antimicrobials and steroid hormones in leachate over a period of 20 months. Most of the contaminants were detected in leachate after 50 days of decomposition, reaching a peak concentration at approximately 200 days and declined to baseline levels by 400 days. The estrogen 17β-estradiol and a veterinary antimicrobial, monensin, were observed at maximum concentrations of 20,069 ng/L and 11,980 ng/L, respectively. Estimated mass loading of total steroid hormone and veterinary pharmaceuticals were determined to be 1.84 and 1.01 μg/kg of buried cattle carcass materials, respectively. These data indicate that leachate from carcass burial sites represents a potential source of nutrients, organics, and residues of biologically active micro-contaminants to soil and groundwater.

  6. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  7. Field demonstration of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes: preliminary site characterization and progress report. [Trench liners and grout for improving shallow land burial

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    A 5-year field demonstration (ETF) of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes in a humid environment evaluates the use of a trench liner and grout as alternate trench treatments for improving shallow land burial site performance in the humid East. The ETF is located within the Copper Creek thrust block of the Valley and Ridge Province of east Tennessee and is underlain by strata of the Middle to Late Cambrian Conasauga Group. The Maryville Limestone formation, which is composed of ribbon-bedded and interclastic limestones and dark grey shales and mudstones, comprises the bedrock immediately beneath the site. The bedrock and residuum structure are characterized by anticlinal folds with numerous joints and fractures, some of which are filled with calcite. Seismic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods were useful in characterizing the thickness of residuum and presence of structural features. Soils are illitic and range from podzolic to lithosols to alluvial in the vicinity of the ETF, but the original soil solum was removed in 1975 when the mixed hardwood forest was cleared and the site was planted in grasses. The remaining residuum consists of acidic soil aggregate and extensively weathered siltstone and sandstone which exhibit the original rock structure. Mean annual precipitation at the site is 1500 mm, although during the initial study period (10-1-80 to 9-30-81) the annual total was 939 mm. Runoff was estimated to be about 50% of the precipitation total, based on observations at two Parshall flumes installed at the site. Storm runoff is quite responsive to rainfall, and the lag time between peak rainfall and runoff is less than 15 min during winter storms. Tracer studies of the ground-water system, suggest that ground-water flow has two distinct components, one associated with fracture flow and the other with intergranular flow.

  8. Computerized methodology for evaluating the long-range radiological impact of shallow-land burial

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized methodology has been implemented to calculate the risk to local and intermediate-range (up to 80 km distant) populations resulting from water- and air-borne transport of radionuclides present in low-level wastes buried in shallow trenches such as those used at Oak Ridge. Our computer code, PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations), was developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects resulting from shallow burial operations. Sources of contamination include radionuclide releases from the trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to at-risk populations for a 1000-year period following cessation of burial ground operations. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled event, unit system response, and risk evaluation processes. Examples of scheduled events are trench cap failure, stabilization of insoluble surface contaminant, the onset of farming or reclamation practices, and human intrusion. Unit system response submodels simulate processes such as infiltration of rainwater into the trench and erosion of soil overburden from the trench cover. System response submodels generate parameters used repeatedly in the 1000-year simulation loop.

  9. Research Program at Maxey Flats and Consideration of Other Shallow Land Burial Sites

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-03-01

    The Maxey Flats research program is a multidisciplinary, multilaboratory program with the objectives to define the radiochemical and chemical composition of leachates in the burial trenches, define the areal distribution of radionuclides on the site and the factors responsible for this distribution, define the concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation both on and offsite and the uptake of radionuclides by representative agricultural crops, define the atmospheric pathways for radionuclide transport and the mechanisms involved, determine the subsurface migration rates of radionuclides and the chemical, physical, biological, and hydrogeological factors which affect this migration. and evaluate the engineering practices which influence the seepage of surface waters into the burial trenches. The program was initiated in 1979 and a research meeting was held at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Headquarters on July 16, 1980, to report the research findings of each of the participating laboratories and universities. Important observations from the research are included in the Summary and the results reported for each of the research efforts are summarized in the individual reports that are combined to form this document.

  10. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  12. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Shott; Vefa Yucel

    2009-07-16

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  13. Subsurface moisture regimes and tracer movement under two types of trench-cap designs for shallow land burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.A.; Cokal, E.J.

    1986-03-01

    The Los Alamos work has focused on proper design of shallow land burial (SLB) sites in arid and semiarid regions and on applying corrective measures to existing sites. One of the most important design features affecting the probability of movement of radionuclides in SLB sites is the type of trench cap placed over the waste. The cap influences such interdependent parameters as erosion, water infiltration and percolation, and biointrusion. To obtain experimental data for arid and semiarid sites, two different designs of trench caps, one with topsoil underlain with a cobble/gravel biobarrier and one with topsoil underlain with crushed tuff, were compared with respect to (1) seasonal changes in volumetric soil water content, and (2) downward migration of tracers emplaced directly below each type of trench cap. The causes for the large differences in concentrations found in this experiment need to be investigated further. Problems in environmental modeling and monitoring of arid and semiarid SLB sites because of heterogeneities in the soil profiles and their implications for SLB waste management need to be better understood. More work in trench-cap design and its influence on the many pathways available for mobilization is needed.

  14. CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS MODELING FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS OF SHALLOW LAND BURIAL OF LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE - 9243

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G

    2009-01-09

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was created to develop predictive capabilities for the aging of cementitious barriers over long timeframes. The CBP is a multi-agency, multi-national consortium working under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-21) funded Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as the lead laboratory. Members of the CBP are SRNL, Vanderbilt University, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), SIMCO Technologies, Inc. (Canada), and the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). A first step in developing advanced tools is to determine the current state-of-the-art. A review has been undertaken to assess the treatment of cementitious barriers in Performance Assessments (PA). Representatives of US DOE sites which have PAs for their low level waste disposal facilities were contacted. These sites are the Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nevada Test Site, and Hanford. Several of the more arid sites did not employ cementitious barriers. Of those sites which do employ cementitious barriers, a wide range of treatment of the barriers in a PA was present. Some sites used conservative, simplistic models that even though conservative still showed compliance with disposal limits. Other sites used much more detailed models to demonstrate compliance. These more detailed models tend to be correlation-based rather than mechanistically-based. With the US DOE's Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Review Group (LFRG) moving towards embracing a risk-based, best estimate with an uncertainties type of analysis, the conservative treatment of the cementitious barriers seems to be obviated. The CBP is creating a tool that adheres to the LFRG chairman's paradigm of continuous improvement.

  15. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  16. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  17. Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Land logistics, the reader is invited to consider the broad applicability of similar frameworks to other military domains. 2. Conceptual ...UNCLASSIFIED 2 Figure 1: Conceptual breakdown that underpins the Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land logistics The first question...several judgement- based elements. In particular, refinement, verification and validation of many of the framework elements were conducted in a

  18. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    forthcoming issues for livestock burial are the treatment of leachate, protection of groundwater contamination by leachate, prevention of land slide, and prevention of rainfall percolation into burial site. It is also needed to develop the remediation, prospecting, and management technologies of groundwater contamination by carcass burial.

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground Environmental Surveillance Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D. H.; Eddy, P. A.; Hawley, K. A.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.

    1981-07-01

    This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 11 Technology, Safety and Costs of DecolliTlissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground, 11 NUREG/ CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are reference facilities considered in this Addendum, and as described in the parent document (NUREG/CR-0570). The two sites are assumed to have the same capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology, and hydrology of the two reference sites are typical of existing western and eastern sites, altnough a single population distribution was chosen for both. Each reference burial ground occupies about 70 hectares and includes 180 trenches filled with a total of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In acldition, there are 10 slit trenches containing about 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of high beta-gamma activity waste. In this Addendum environmental surveillance programs are described for the several periods in the life of a LLWBG: preoperational (prior to nuclear waste receipt); operational (including interim trench closures); post-operational (after all nuclear waste is received), for both short-term {up to three years) and long-term (up to 100 years) storage and custodial care; and decommissioning (only for the special case of waste removal). The specific

  20. Experience and related research and development in applying corrective measures at the major low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. [Shallow Land Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.R.; Mahathy, J.M.; Epler, J.S.; Boing, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    A review was conducted of experience in responding to problems encountered in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste and in research and development related to these problems. The operating histories of eleven major disposal facilities were examined. Based on the review, it was apparent that the most effective corrective measures administered were those developed from an understanding of the site conditions which caused the problems. Accordingly, the information in this document has been organized around the major conditions which have caused problems at existing sites. These include: (1) unstable trench cover, (2) permeable trench cover, (3) subsidence, (4) ground water entering trenches, (5) intrusion by deep-rooted plants, (6) intrusion by burrowing animals, and (7) chemical and physical conditions in trench. Because the burial sites are located in regions that differ in climatologic, geologic, hydrologic, and biologic characteristics, there is variation in the severity of problems among the sites and in the nature of information concerning corrective efforts. Conditions associated with water-related problems have received a great deal of attention. For these, corrective measures have ranged from the creation of diversion systems for reducing the contact of surface water with the trench cover to the installation of seals designed to prevent infiltration from reaching the buried waste. On the other hand, corrective measures for conditions of subsidence or of intrusion by burrowing animals have had limited application and are currently under evaluation or are subjects of research and development activities. 50 references, 20 figures, 10 tables.

  1. Experiments to determine the migration potential for water and contaminants in shallow land-burial facilities: design, emplacement, and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Although there have been many laboratory studies on water movement and contaminant transport, there is a need for more large scale field experiments. Large scale field experiments are necessary to (1) measure hydraulic conductivities on a scale typical of actual shallow land burial facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities, (2) allow comparisons to be made between full scale and laboratory measurements, (3) verify the applicability of calculational methods for determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivities from water retention curves, and (4) for model validation. Experiments that will provide the information to do this are described in this paper. The results of these experiments will have applications for both the shallow land burial of low level radioactive wastes and the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. These experiments will provide results that can be used in model verification for system performance. This type of data on experiments done at this scale has not been available, and are necessary for validating unsaturated transport models and other models used to predict long term system performance. Even though these experiments are done on crushed Bandelier Tuff, most models use physical properties of the backfill material such as density, porosity, and water retention curves. For this reason, once the models are validated in these experiments, they can be applied with confidence to other materials as long as the material properties are well characterized. In addition, from known water movement rates, calculable from the results of these experiments, requirements for other parts of the system such as liners, water diversion systems, and system cap requirements can be determined. Lastly, the results of these experiments and their use in model verification will provide a sound scientific basis on which to base decisions on system requirements and system design.

  2. Chemical Species of Migrating Radionuclides at Commercial Shallow Land Burial Sites: Quarterly Progress Report - October-December, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L. J.; RIckard, W. H.; Toste, A. P.

    1984-02-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste (LLW} burial sites. Chemical measurements of waste trench leachate and identification of chanical changes in leachate during migration will provide a basis for geochemical waste transport models. This project will produce for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory C011mission (NRC) information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the developnent of criteria for low level waste disposal site selection, management, permanent closure and monitoring. This project will also produce information needed by the Canmonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize. close and monitor the Maxey Flats site.

  3. Land reclamation: Advances in research technology

    SciTech Connect

    Younos, T.; Diplas, P.; Mostaghimi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Land reclamation encompasses remediation of industrial wasteland, improvement of infertile land for agricultural production, preservation of wetlands, and restoration of disturbed areas. Land reclamation is an integral part of sustainable development which aims to reconcile economic productivity with environmental preservation. During the 1980s, significant progress was achieved in the application of advanced technologies to sustainable development projects. The goal of this international symposium was to serve as a forum to review current research and state-of-the-art technology dealing with various aspects of land reclamation, and provide an opportunity for professional interaction and exchange of information in a multi-disciplinary setting. The scope of the symposium was as broad as the topic itself. The keynote address by Professor John Cairns focused on a systems approach in land restoration projects and challenges facing scientists in global biotic impoverishment. Other topics discussed in ten mechanical sessions included development and applications of computer models, geographic information systems, remote sensing technology, salinity problems, surface and ground water monitoring, reclamation of mine areas, soil amendment methods and impacts, wetland restoration techniques, and land use planning for resource protection.

  4. Canadian Autonomous Landing and Lunar Exploration Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R.; Tripp, J.; Mukherji, R.; Ghafoor, N.; Sallaberger, C.

    In coming decades planetary exploration will change its focus from remote observation to robotic in situ exploration sample-return missions and eventually human missions Two Canadian companies have combined 30 years of heritage in terrestrial and space technologies to provide new capabilities in space including autonomous landing and exploration technologies for lunar exploration MDA is the world leader in space robotics a key element of the Canadian Space Program for the last two decades with over 2-billion CDN of total investment Robotic arms designed and built by MDA are used on virtually all flights of the Space Shuttle and the three robotic systems comprising the Mobile Servicing System - SSRMS MBS and SPDM - have been designed and built for the International Space Station Optech is the world leader in terrestrial lidar systems with 30 years of technology heritage A strategic partnership of MDA and Optech was formed in 2002 to provide unique space lidar solutions for space operations and planetary exploration Now as robotic exploration moves in earnest beyond Earth orbit strategic technologies are being developed by Optech and MDA that will allow Canada to expand its world leading position in space sensors and robotics to become a dominant provider of robotic exploration systems and missions targeted at the Moon Mars asteroids and beyond The key requirements for successful planetary exploration in topographically diverse areas include a spacecraft capable of precision landing and hazard avoidance Since 2001 Optech and MDA

  5. Land border monitoring with remote sensing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw

    2010-09-01

    The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.

  6. 1994 Technology report: Land, sea & air

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The IGTI 1994 Technology Report, Land, Sea & Air, is compiled, edited, published and distributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute in Atlanta, Georgia. The report represents the best industrial accomplishments and brightest technological advances in the gas turbine and aeroengine industry this year. The report consists of a compilation of submittals from companies, governmental agencies and organizations, universities, IGTI Committee chairs, and other individuals involved in gas turbine technology worldwide. This year`s edition features over 200 reports from twenty-six countries around the globe. In accordance with IGTI policy, these reports are new contributions to the gas turbine industry. No reports have been repeated from previous IGTI publications. There are 25 new contributors to the report including submissions from Hungary, Korea, Sweden and Turkey to this year`s edition. It demonstrates IGTI`s commitment to fostering cooperation and building partnerships on a truly international basis.

  7. Effects of Policy and Technological Change on Land Use

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Mary Clare. Ahearn

    2004-01-01

    Land use in the United States is dynamic, as discussed in Chapter 2, with millions of acres of Land shifting uses each year. Many of these land-use changes are the result of market forces in an economy affected by modem technology and policy choices. Changes in land use are the result of choices inade by individuals, corporations, nongovernmental organizations, and...

  8. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  9. Critical soft landing technology issues for future US space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, J. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Mcbride, D. D.

    1992-01-01

    A programmatic need for research and development to support parachute-based landing systems has not existed since the end of the Apollo missions in the mid-1970s. Now, a number of planned space programs require advanced landing capabilities for which the experience and technology base does not currently exist. New requirements for landing on land with controllable, gliding decelerators and for more effective impact attenuation devices justify a renewal of the landing technology development effort that existed during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. A study was performed to evaluate the current and projected national capability in landing systems and to identify critical deficiencies in the technology base required to support the Assured Crew Return Vehicle and the Two-Way Manned Transportation System. A technology development program covering eight landing system performance issues is recommended.

  10. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  11. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  12. ALHAT: Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2015-01-01

    The ALHAT project was chartered by NASA HQ in 2006 to develop and mature to TRL 6 an autonomous lunar landing GN&C and sensing system for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The multi-center ALHAT team was tasked with providing a system capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real time to enable safe precision landing to within tens of meters of a designated planetary landing site under any lighting conditions.

  13. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  14. Research on Land Ecological Condition Investigation and Monitoring Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Guo, Xudong; Chen, Yuqi

    2017-04-01

    The ecological status of land reflects the relationship between land use and environmental factors. At present, land ecological situation in China is worrying. According to the second national land survey data, there are about 149 million acres of arable land located in forests and grasslands area in Northeast and Northwest of China, Within the limits of the highest flood level, at steep slope above 25 degrees; about 50 million acres of arable land has been in heavy pollution; grassland degradation is still serious. Protected natural forests accounted for only 6% of the land area, and forest quality is low. Overall, the ecological problem has been eased, but the local ecological destruction intensified, natural ecosystem in degradation. It is urgent to find out the situation of land ecology in the whole country and key regions as soon as possible. The government attaches great importance to ecological environment investigation and monitoring. Various industries and departments from different angles carry out related work, most of it about a single ecological problem, the lack of a comprehensive surveying and assessment of land ecological status of the region. This paper established the monitoring index system of land ecological condition, including Land use type area and distribution, quality of cultivated land, vegetation status and ecological service, arable land potential and risk, a total of 21 indicators. Based on the second national land use survey data, annual land use change data and high resolution remote sensing data, using the methods of sample monitoring, field investigation and statistical analysis to obtain the information of each index, this paper established the land ecological condition investigation and monitoring technology and method system. It has been improved, through the application to Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, the northern agro-pastoral ecological fragile zone, and 6 counties (cities).

  15. The Innovations, Technology and Waste Management Approaches to Safely Package and Transport the World's First Radioactive Fusion Research Reactor for Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Jim Chrzanowski; Mike Viola; Ron Strykowsky

    2003-09-15

    Original estimates stated that the amount of radioactive waste that will be generated during the dismantling of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor will approach two million kilograms with an associated volume of 2,500 cubic meters. The materials were activated by 14 MeV neutrons and were highly contaminated with tritium, which present unique challenges to maintain integrity during packaging and transportation. In addition, the majority of this material is stainless steel and copper structural metal that were specifically designed and manufactured for this one-of-a-kind fusion research reactor. This provided further complexity in planning and managing the waste. We will discuss the engineering concepts, innovative practices, and technologies that were utilized to size reduce, stabilize, and package the many unique and complex components of this reactor. This waste was packaged and shipped in many different configurations and methods according to the transportation regulations and disposal facility requirements. For this particular project, we were able to utilize two separate disposal facilities for burial. This paper will conclude with a complete summary of the actual results of the waste management costs, volumes, and best practices that were developed from this groundbreaking and successful project.

  16. Final Land Configuration for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, R. L.; Kapinos, J. M.; Wehner, J. P.; Snyder, B.; Davis, R. W.

    2006-07-01

    Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has been completed. The future land use of the site is designated as a National Wildlife Refuge. A joint effort between Kaiser-Hill, Department of Energy, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Protection Agency, State of Colorado, and other stakeholders was initiated to provide direction for developing the final land configuration. Through early identification of issues and developing mutually agreeable solutions, the final land configuration of the site was successfully completed. (authors)

  17. Field evaluation of two shallow land burial trench cap designs for long-term stabilization and closure of waste repositories at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.; Drennon, B.; Hakonson, T.

    1989-02-01

    The results from several field experiments on methods to control soil erosion, biointrusion, and water infiltration were used to design and test a burial site cover which improves the ability of the disposal site to isolate the wastes. The performance of the improved cover design in managing water and biota at the disposal site was compared with a more conventional design widely used in the industry. The conventional trench cover design consists of 15 cm of sandy loam topsoil over 75 cm of sandy silt backfill, whereas the improved trench cover design consists of 75 cm of topsoil over a minimum of 25 cm of gravel and 90 cm of river cobble. Each plot was lined with an impermeable liner to allow for mass balance calculation of water dynamics and contains hydrologic tracer ions (iodide and bromide) to demonstrate movement of water through the various zones of the trench cap. Cesium was emplaced beneath the trench cap to indicate root penetration through the trench cap, observed by sampling plant samples collected on the plots and assaying them for cesium. The field data are summarized and discussed in terms of its usefulness for waste management decisions. 67 refs., 44 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  19. Advancing Lidar Sensors Technologies for Next Generation Landing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Brewster, Paul F.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Missions to solar systems bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable "precision landing", and "hazard avoidance" capabilities. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Missions aimed at paving the path for colonization of the Moon and human landing on Mars need to execute onboard hazard detection and precision maneuvering to ensure safe landing near previously deployed assets. Asteroid missions require precision rendezvous, identification of the landing or sampling site location, and navigation to the highly dynamic object that may be tumbling at a fast rate. To meet these needs, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a set of advanced lidar sensors under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. These lidar sensors can provide precision measurement of vehicle relative proximity, velocity, and orientation, and high resolution elevation maps of the surface during the descent to the targeted body. Recent flights onboard Morpheus free-flyer vehicle have demonstrated the viability of ALHAT lidar sensors for future landing missions to solar system bodies.

  20. Three-dimensional landing zone joint capability technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Goodrich, Shawn; Ott, Carl; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Perez, Alfonso; Soukup, Joel; Burns, H. N.

    2014-06-01

    The Three-Dimensional Landing Zone (3D-LZ) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) is a 27-month program to develop an integrated LADAR and FLIR capability upgrade for USAF Combat Search and Rescue HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters through a retrofit of current Raytheon AN/AAQ-29 turret systems. The 3D-LZ JCTD builds upon a history of technology programs using high-resolution, imaging LADAR to address rotorcraft cruise, approach to landing, landing, and take-off in degraded visual environments with emphasis on brownout, cable warning and obstacle avoidance, and avoidance of controlled flight into terrain. This paper summarizes ladar development, flight test milestones, and plans for a final flight test demonstration and Military Utility Assessment in 2014.

  1. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to determine a deceased veteran's eligibility for burial benefits. DATES: Written comments... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Burial Benefits...

  2. COBALT CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M. III; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Robertson, Edward A.; Seubert, Carl R.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    COBALT is a terrestrial test platform for development and maturation of GN&C (Guidance, Navigation and Control) technologies for PL&HA (Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance). The project is developing a third generation, Langley Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) for ultra-precise velocity and range measurements, which will be integrated and tested with the JPL Lander Vision System (LVS) for Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) position estimates. These technologies together provide navigation that enables controlled precision landing. The COBALT hardware will be integrated in 2017 into the GN&C subsystem of the Xodiac rocket-propulsive Vertical Test Bed (VTB) developed by Masten Space Systems (MSS), and two terrestrial flight campaigns will be conducted: one open-loop (i.e., passive) and one closed-loop (i.e., active).

  3. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  4. New Technologies to Reclaim Arid Lands User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Under conventional technologies to mitigate these impacts, it is estimated that up to 35 percent of revegetation projects in arid areas will fail due to unpredictable natural environmental conditions, such as drought, and reclamation techniques that were inadequate to restore vegetative cover in a timely and cost-effective manner. New reclamation and restoration techniques are needed in desert ranges to help mitigate the adverse effects of military training and other activities to arid-land environments. In 1999, a cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the US. Department of Defense (DoD), and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on mitigating military impacts in arid lands. As arid lands are impacted due to DoD and DOE activities, biological and soil resources are gradually lost and the habitat is altered. A conceptual model of that change in habitat quality is described for varying levels of disturbance in the Mojave Desert. As the habitat quality degrades and more biological and physical resources are lost from training areas, greater costs are required to return the land to sustainable levels. The purpose of this manual is to assist land managers in recognizing thresholds associated with habitat degradation and provide reclamation planning and techniques that can reduce the costs of mitigation for these impacted lands to ensure sustainable use of these lands. The importance of reclamation planning is described in this manual with suggestions about

  5. Land mine detection applying holographic neural technology (HNeT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, John G.; Radzelovage, William C.

    2007-04-01

    Provided is a summary of Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT) and its application in detecting land mines using airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. Tests were performed for three surface mine classes (small metallic, large metallic, and medium-sized plastic) located within variable indigenous background clutter (bare dirt, short/tall grass). This work has been performed as part of the Wide Area Airborne Minefield Detection (WAAMD) Program at the U. S. Army Night Vision Labs and Electronic Sensors Directorate in Fort Belvoir, VA. The ATR algorithm applied was Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT); a neuromorphic model based upon non-linear phase coherence/de-coherence principles. The HNeT technology provides rapid learning capabilities and an advanced capability in learning and generalization of non-linear relationships. Described is a summary of the underlying HNeT technology and the methodologies applied in the training of the neuromorphic system for mine detection using target images (land mines) and back ground clutter images. Provided also is a summary description of the software tools applied in the development of the mine detection capability. Performance testing of the mine detection algorithm separated training and testing sensor image sets by airborne sensor depression angle and surface ground condition indigenous to site location (Countermine Alpha, Yellow Sands). Detection performance was compared in the analysis of complex versus magnitude sensor data. Performance results from independent test imagery indicated a reasonable level of clutter rejection, providing > 50% probability of detection at a false detection rate < 10 -3/m2. A description of the test scenarios applied and performance results for these scenarios are summarized in this report.

  6. Stabilization of low-level waste burial trenches by dynamic compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Davis, E.C. )

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial site stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five 14-year-old burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected for testing trench compaction, grouting, and infiltration barrier design and performance. To obviate the chronic problem of trench subsidence and to provide foundation support for the infiltration barrier, the five trenches were dynamically compacted by the repeated dropping of a 3.6-Mg weight, with a 1.1 m{sup 2} base, onto each trench from a height of approximately 7 m. The five trenches were compacted to a maximum depth of 1.2 m, requiring an average of 5.5 drops/m{sup 2} of trench area, and the site was graded to facilitate surface runoff. Measurements of void reduction within the trenches averaged 77% and were calculated by a comparison of ground surface depression and measured water-accessible voids prior to compaction. Penetration tests were performed on trenches before and after compaction and on the surrounding undisturbed soil formation. The penetration resistance of the trenches was extremely low before compaction and was increased to a level equivalent to that of the undisturbed soil after compaction. Thus, dynamic compaction was found to be very effective in stabilizing burial trenches to the extent that no differential land surface settlement should be expected to compromise the foundation support of an infiltration barrier. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Relationship between plant traits and resistance to burial by marly sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burylo, M.; Rey, F.; Dutoit, T.

    2009-04-01

    In marly lands of the French Southern Alps, harsh soil erosion results in sediment movements during intensive rainfall events. Plants can be submitted to sediment burial in their early stages of development and their protective function may be reduced. In a context of land restoration, it is important to know species resistance to environmental disturbances and to be able to predict it, in particular from plant traits (height, biomass, sugar and starch accumulation). However, few studies about woody species tolerance to burial by sediment have been carried out. Seedlings of five woody species were buried in marly sediment at three different depths in pot experiment during eight weeks: no burial (control), partial burial (50% stem height) and complete burial (100% stem height). Height through time, biomass and survival rates were measured to assess species resistance to burial. Results show that among the five species, only one (Acer campestre) survived complete burial. All plants survived partial burial, but there were significant differences in height and biomass between buried plants and control, and significant differences between species responses. Three different responses to disturbance were identified: negative (Hippophae rhamnoides, Ononis fruticosa), neutral (Robinia pseudo acacia, Pinus nigra) and positive (Acer campestre). Results finally suggest that species resistance to burial by marly sediment is related to sugar accumulation in plant stems.

  8. Overpressure by burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Preservation of peak metamorphic assemblages cannot be explain by sluggish kinetics only due to high temperatures. Moreover, frequently reported near isothermal decompression from peak conditions testify continuing capacity of lower pressure metamorphic reactions to overcome kinetic barriers. Often these observations come from the same rock sample, or even or from a single host crystal. Natural conclusion on preservation of peak pressures in a 'pressure vessel' in order to preserve the peak mineral assemblages was firmly made already in the first years after convincing identifying of ultra-high pressure minerals in continental rocks. The 'pressure vessels' model is thus the current view on mechanical state during retrogression assuming up to several GPa excess pressure in inclusion maintained by host mineral all the way through retrogression. Same arguments apply to preservation of outcrop scale eclogite boudins in lower pressure amphibolite gneisses. If strength of rocks and minerals is sufficient to keep the pressure difference during retrogression, the same applies to the prograde stage of the metamorphic history of the rock. We investigate and quantify the overpressure development during burial of continental rocks. We show that eclogite lenses are expected to develop over mafic lithology embedded in average crustal rock at lower crustal condition, thus eliminating the need for 'deep continental subduction' as the only mechanism to form it.

  9. Remote Mine Detection Technologies for Land and Water Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Eddie R.

    1999-05-11

    The detection of mines, both during and after hostilities, is a growing international problem. It limits military operations during wartime and unrecovered mines create tragic consequences for civilians. From a purely humanitarian standpoint an estimated 100 million or more unrecovered mines are located in over 60 countries worldwide. This paper presents an overview of some of the technologies currently being investigated by Sandia National Laboratories for the detection and monitoring of minefields in land and water environments. The three technical areas described in this paper are: 1) the development of new mathematical techniques for combining or fusing the data from multiple sources for enhanced decision-making; 2) an environmental fate and transport (EF&T) analysis approach that is central to improving trace chemical sensing technique; and 3) the investigation of an underwater range imaging device to aid in locating and characterizing mines and other obstacles in coastal waters.

  10. Indien Personhood III: Water Burial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Water burial is a way to return a body to its key primal element. It revives and transforms both the soul and the person. Sometimes water burial leads to a new life floating in a womb. Sometimes it disperses to provide a moist and nutrient-rich medium for a vast variety of other lives, making a contribution to the much larger whole. In this…

  11. Indien Personhood III: Water Burial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Water burial is a way to return a body to its key primal element. It revives and transforms both the soul and the person. Sometimes water burial leads to a new life floating in a womb. Sometimes it disperses to provide a moist and nutrient-rich medium for a vast variety of other lives, making a contribution to the much larger whole. In this…

  12. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  13. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces.

  14. POST2 End-To-End Descent and Landing Simulation for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Jody l.; Striepe, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used as a basis for an end-to-end descent and landing trajectory simulation that is essential in determining the design and performance capability of lunar descent and landing system models and lunar environment models for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. This POST2-based ALHAT simulation provides descent and landing simulation capability by integrating lunar environment and lander system models (including terrain, sensor, guidance, navigation, and control models), along with the data necessary to design and operate a landing system for robotic, human, and cargo lunar-landing success. This paper presents the current and planned development and model validation of the POST2-based end-to-end trajectory simulation used for the testing, performance and evaluation of ALHAT project system and models.

  15. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1610 Burial in national cemeteries; burial of... veteran is in a national cemetery, provided that burial in a national cemetery is desired by the person...

  16. Land Reclamation: Land from the Sea (and Other Places). Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Fred

    1995-01-01

    This teaching resource talks about the importance of land reclamation and describes how many communities have reclaimed land for productive use. Includes a student quiz, possible student outcomes, and references. (JOW)

  17. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2009-3118 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical...VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical Experiment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00

  18. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity... information technology. Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  19. 76 FR 31683 - Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: NCA PreNeed Burial...

  20. Neil Armstrong Burial at Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-13

    US Navy personnel carry the cremains of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong off of a military aircraft at Naval Station Mayport the day before the Armstrong burial at sea service, Thursday, Sept. 13, 2012, Mayport, Fla. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... include burial allowances for service-connected and non-service-connected deaths, a plot or interment... and plot or interment allowances that are equal to the maximum benefit authorized by law, and priority... allowance for service-connected deaths (38 U.S.C. 2307). Congress also authorized VA to pay a plot...

  2. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to...

  3. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to...

  4. Development of advanced entry, descent, and landing technologies for future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Cheng-Chih (Chester)

    2006-01-01

    Future Mars missions may need the capability to land much closer to a desired target and/or advanced methods of detecting, avoiding, or tolerating landing hazards. Therefore, technologies that enable 'pinpoint landing' (within tens of meters to 1 km of a target site) will be crucial to meet future mission requirements. As part of NASA Research Announcement, NRA 03-OSS-01, NASA solicited proposals for technology development needs of missions to be launched to Mars during or after the 2009 launch opportunity. Six technology areas were identified as of high priority including advanced entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technologies. In May 2004, 11 proposals with PIs from universities, industries, and NASA centers, were awarded in the area of advanced EDL by NASA for further study and development. This paper presents an overview of these developing technologies.

  5. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  6. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  7. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  8. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  9. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  10. The Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans to send humans back to the Moon and develop a lunar outpost, technologies must be developed to place humans and cargo safely, precisely, repeatedly, on the lunar surface with the capability to avoid surface hazards. Exploration Space Architecture Study requirements include the need for global lunar surface access with safe, precise landing without lighting constraints on terrain that may have landing hazards for human scale landing vehicles. Landing accuracies of perhaps 1,000 meters for sortie crew missions to 10 s of meters for Outpost class missions are required. The Autonomous precision Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project will develop the new and unique descent and landing Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) hardware and software technologies necessary for these capabilities. The ALHAT project will qualify a lunar descent and landing GNC system to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 capable of supporting lunar crewed, cargo, and robotic missions. The (ALHAT) development project was chartered by NASA Headquarters in October 2006. The initial effort to write a project plan and define an ALHAT Team was followed by a fairly aggressive research and analysis effort to determine what technologies existed that could be developed and applied to the lunar landing problems indicated above. This paper describes the project development, research, analysis and concept evolution that has occurred since the assignment of the project. This includes the areas of systems engineering, GNC, sensors, sensor algorithms, simulations, fielding testing, laboratory testing, Hardware-In-The-Loop testing, system avionics and system certification concepts.

  11. Organic carbon burial in lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Butman, David E.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4–65.8) Tg C yr–1, and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments.

  12. Organic Carbon Burial in Lakes and Reservoirs of the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Clow, David W; Stackpoole, Sarah M; Verdin, Kristine L; Butman, David E; Zhu, Zhiliang; Krabbenhoft, David P; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-07-07

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4-65.8) Tg C yr(-1), and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments.

  13. 38 CFR 3.1700 - Types of VA burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of VA burial... ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1700 Types of VA burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. (a) Burial benefits. VA provides the following types of burial benefits, which are discussed in §§...

  14. DIDO Optimization of a Lunar Landing Trajectory with Respect to Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    11 Figure 4. Proposed Shackleton Crater Outpost ...............................................................17 Figure 5. Lunar Landing Phases...constraints it faced is required. 6 1. Methods Neil Armstrong first set foot on the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, during the Apollo 11 mission. It...performed in order to select an appropriate landing site for the Apollo 11 crew. The site, Mare Tranquillitatis, or the Sea of Tranquility, shown in

  15. Neil Armstrong Burial at Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-13

    Mark Armstrong, left, and his family look on as US Navy personnel carry the cremains of his father, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong, off of a military aircraft at Naval Station Mayport the day before the Armstrong burial at sea service, Thursday, Sept. 13, 2012, Mayport, Fla. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Neil Armstrong Burial at Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-13

    US Navy personnel salute as the cremains of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong are transferred from a military aircraft at Naval Station Mayport the day before the Armstrong burial at sea service, Thursday, Sept. 13, 2012, Mayport, Fla. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. EO-1 Advanced Land Imager Technology Validation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Advanced Land Imager is intersatellite comparison. The EO-1 spacecraft is orbiting the Earth in a constellation of four spacecraft: Landsat 7 (10...events was as follows. The launch vehicle was changed from the Taurus to Delta 2 (28 Jan. 97) increasing mass allocations. The Project Office traded

  18. Technology for Managing Spills on Land and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Douglas B.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Spill control methods have been developed to control, treat and monitor spills of hazardous materials during their manufacture, transport, and storage. Spills on both land and water, and methods of treatment and control in these environments were studied. A discussion of detection and monitoring equipment and protective clothing concludes this…

  19. Land Desertification Monitoring on Tibetan Plateau Using Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Zou, X.; Liu, H.

    2012-12-01

    As one of the serious ecological environmental problems of the Tibetan plateau, desertification has critically hampered the economic and social development in Tibet, so it is imperative to monitoring the desertification in Tibet area. Due to its 200 thousand km2 vast area and steep terrain, this paper uses multi-source remote sensing image to survey the current situation of land desertification in Tibetan plateau, and study dynamic desertification change on the 10 km2 land between Namucuo lake and Selincuo lake. Data of the 250 meters time-series MODIS-NDVI images, 30 m resolution Landsat TM images and 90 m SRTM DEM data were used. Through the analysis of the relationship between MODIS-NDVI, vegetation growth characteristics and vegetation vertical distribution, this paper chooses the MODIS-NDVI time series data and principal component analysis of the first band (PC1), vegetation coverage(VC), DEM and its derived slope data as indicators for desertification monitoring. Visual interpretation based on 30 m TM image is also used to classify each type of desertification. Using the high temporal resolution data, we can quickly obtain desertification hot spot areas then accurately distinguish each degree of desertification with high spatial resolution images. The results are: (1) The desertification area in Tibetan plateau in 2008 is 218,286 km2, which is 18.91% of the total area, and mainly distributed in the Ali region, next by Nagqu and Xigaze. The severe desertification land area is 8,866 km2 ( 4.06% of the desertified land), of which the mobile dune area is 3224 km2, heavy saline area is 5641 km2. Moderate desertified land area is 110,915 km2( 50.81% of the desertified land), of which semi-fixed sand dune area is 10,075 km2 and the bare sand area is 100,839 km2. Mild desertified land area is 98,504 km2 ( 45.12% of the desertified land), of which the fixed dune area is 4,177 km2 and the half bare gravel area is 94,326 km2. (2) By using GIS spatial analysis, westudied

  20. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modeling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation.

    PubMed

    Stringer, L C; Fleskens, L; Reed, M S; de Vente, J; Zengin, M

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  1. Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  2. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

    1996-05-01

    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

  3. Review of Battery Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    currents. A disadvantage of the UltraBattery is that it is more expensive upfront than standard maintenance-free lead-acid batteries (1.5 times ...silent watch (i.e. engine-off operation of electrical equipment) where batteries with low energy capabilities will last short periods of time when...lead-acid batteries combined with their long charging times have significantly restricted silent watch performance of military land vehicles. The

  4. Coming out of the Clouds: Safe Landings for Technology Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Fredric; Camhi, Shari L.

    1997-01-01

    An upstate New York school district approached technology integration by setting up pilot programs using computer clusters in the classrooms of interested teachers. The first wave of teachers evaluated and incorporated third-party software into their regular teaching. A second wave of technology involved multimedia applications. A third wave will…

  5. USE OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY IN FEDERALLY FUNDED LAND PROCESSES RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorley, G.A.; McArdle, R.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the use of space technology in federally funded earth science research in the US was carried out in 1985 by the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy. Five departments and three independent agencies, representing the primary earth science research agencies in the Federal government, participated in the review. The review by the subcommittee indicated that, while there is considerable overlap in the legislated missions of the earth science agencies, most of the space-related land processes research is complementary. Summaries are provided of the current and projected uses of space technology in land processes activities within the eight Federal organizations.

  6. Supersonic Retropropulsion Technology Development in NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Kelb, Bil; Korzun, Ashley; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Zarchi, Kerry A.; Schauerhamer, Daniel G.; Post, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) space technology roadmap calls for new technologies to achieve human exploration of Mars in the coming decades [1]. One of those technologies, termed Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP), involves initiation of propulsive deceleration at supersonic Mach numbers. The potential benefits afforded by SRP to improve payload mass and landing precision make the technology attractive for future EDL missions. NASA's EDL project spent two years advancing the technological maturity of SRP for Mars exploration [2-15]. This paper summarizes the technical accomplishments from the project and highlights challenges and recommendations for future SRP technology development programs. These challenges include: developing sufficiently large SRP engines for use on human-scale entry systems; testing and computationally modelling complex and unsteady SRP fluid dynamics; understanding the effects of SRP on entry vehicle stability and controllability; and demonstrating sub-scale SRP entry systems in Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  8. [Ecological restoration technologies for mined lands: a review].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hanping; Cai, Xi'an

    2002-11-01

    Mining activities usually cause catastrophic and extensive environmental changes, and eventually cause major damages to the whole ecosystem. The natural restoration for mine lands and tailings is a very slow process, and even can hardly reach their original states. Therefore, how to develop rapid and efficient approaches to accelerate restoration of mined lands has been highlighted by restorationists and environmental engineers during the past two decades. Almost all studies in this field indicate that the major problems come from soils: such as high metal concentrations, extremely strong acidity resulting from oxidation of pyrite, and poor fertility. Replacement of topsoil is therefore regarded as the most efficient method to alleviate adverse conditions of substrates; if this method is not available, other alternatives with lime, fertilizers, organic manures, garbage, mining wastes, and others will be applicable. In the aspect of using plants, species with strong resistance and rapid growth, like grasses and herbaceous legume, are always the first choice. If utilizing plants for the purpose of phytoremediation, species that are capable of accumulating exceptionally high concentrations of phytotoxic metals and of course, have a huge biomass, are preferably considered. No matter what type of ecosystem a mined land is restored or reclaimed to, an evaluation on whether it is a successful restoration or reclamation should be given. However, more practical, simple, and universal evaluation methods as well as more cost-effective, and operation-easy restoration techniques are still waiting to be developed. A set of artificial restoration methods that can be widely applied was summarized, and a discussion on the advantage and disadvantage of several evaluation systems was conducted in this review.

  9. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Zoë L.; Hendrick, Vicki J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Wilson, Ben; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are discussed. PMID:26982582

  10. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Zoë L; Hendrick, Vicki J; Burrows, Michael T; Wilson, Ben; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are discussed.

  11. 38 CFR 3.1703 - Claims for burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims for burial... ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1703 Claims for burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt... section, VA must receive a claim for the non-service-connected burial allowance no later than 2...

  12. The application research of GNSS technology in Shanghai land subsidence monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu; Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence is harmful to urban roads and bridges, municipal pipelines and tall buildings, etc. As an international metropolis with rapid development, it is very important to find a real-time and efficient method to monitor the land subsidence. The GNSS technology, based on the Shanghai Continuously Operating Reference System (SHCORS), can be used to accurately and contiguously monitor land subsidence. In this work, we analyze the land subsidence tendency of Shanghai area by the space geodetic post processing software QOCA, based on the vertical deformation time series of the ten CORS stations from 2007 to 2010. We use loading models to remove the vertical deformation caused by the geophysical factors, such as the atmospheric pressure, the mass load of snow covers and soil humidity, the non-tidal oceanic mass load, rock' s thermal expansion and shrink and so on, then study the possible factors, which cause land subsidence, such as the over pumping groundwater activities etc.

  13. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive land use planning process model is being developed in Meade County, South Dakota, using remote sensing technology. The proper role of remote sensing in the land use planning process is being determined by interaction of remote sensing specialists with local land use planners. The data that were collected by remote sensing techniques are as follows: (1) level I land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies; (2) detailed land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:24,000 from enlargement color prints of high altitude RB-57 photography; and (3) general soils map interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies. In addition to use of imagery as an interpretation aid, the utility of using photographs as base maps was demonstrated.

  14. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  15. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  16. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  17. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resources of an individual, the value of burial spaces for the individual, the individual's spouse or any member of the individual's immediate family will be excluded from resources. (2) Burial spaces defined... any accumulated interest, will be excluded from resources. We do not consider a burial space “held for...

  19. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  20. Review of Fuel Cell Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    fuel cell technologies for APUs are Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ( PEMFC ), direct methanol fuel cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). The...6 4.2 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ( PEMFC ...OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PEM Proton Exchange Membrane PEMFC Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell TRL Technical

  1. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. Annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky. [Maxey Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L.J.

    1982-07-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic systems with high alkalinity and high concentrations of dissolved ferrous ion. Americium and cobalt in these trench waters are made more soluble by the presence of EDTA, while strontium and cesium are unaffected under the same conditions. EDTA is the major organic complexing component in waste trench 27 leachate, but other polar, water-soluble organics are also present. Evidence points to the migration of plutonium between waste trench 27 and inert atmosphere wells as an EDTA complex. Polar organic compounds may influence the migration of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. The primary pathway of water entry into the waste burial trenches is through the trench caps, but major increases in water level have occurred in an experimental trench by subsurface flow. The areal distribution of radionuclides at Maxey Flats has been influenced by surface runoff, deposition from the evaporator plume, subsurface flow and the actions of burrowing animals or deep-rooted trees. Vegetal and surface contamination on site and near site are quite low, and only /sup 60/Co exceeds commonly observed fallout levels. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil at Maxey Flats are comparable to concentrations resulting from normal fallout in other areas of high rainfall.

  2. 77 FR 4676 - Parents Eligible for Burial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... reflect a new statutory authority to extend eligibility for burial in a national cemetery to include... training-related injury, is interred in a VA national cemetery in a gravesite with available space, and has... burial, in a national cemetery. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective January 31,...

  3. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-03-01

    We updated our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of their relative burial depths. Olivine chemical zoning gave burial depths of 1-2 m for NWA817, 4 m for MIL03346, 7 m for Y000593, 10 m for Nakhla/Gov. Val. and >30 m for Lafayette/ NWA998.

  4. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  5. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  6. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  7. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  8. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  9. Cross Cutting Relative Navigation Technologies for Improved Landing Accuracy and Vehicle-to-Vehicle Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. L.; Masciarelli, J.; Rohrschneider, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation addresses recent development and test progress, as well as future technology advancement plans for precision landing and Autonomous Rendezvous, Proximity Operations and Docking (ARPOD).

  10. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  11. Soil burial contribution to deep soil organic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaopricha, N. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Previous reviews of deep soil C have focused on root inputs and the vertical transport of particulate and dissolved organic matter through mixing, gravity, and preferential flowpaths as the main modes of delivery of C to the deep subsoil. Depositional processes have received considerable attention in the context of long-range soil erosion and sedimentation on land, but the role of soil burial in the sequestration of C photosynthesized in situ at depositional sites has been largely absent from discussions of deep soil organic C (SOC) dynamics. Burial can disconnect a soil from atmospheric conditions and slow or inhibit microbial decomposition. Buried soil horizons, which are former surface soils that have been buried through various depositional processes, can store more SOC than would exist at such depths from in situ root inputs and leaching from upper horizons. Here, we discuss factors contributing to SOC storage in soils below 1 m with a focus on soil burial. We review the contributions of geomorphic and anthropogenic depositional processes to deep SOC storage and describe how environmental conditions or state factors during and since burial influence SOC persistence in buried soils. We draw from examples in the paleosol and geomorphology literature to identify the effects of soil burial by volcanic, aeolian, alluvial, colluvial, glacial, and anthropogenic processes on soil C storage. Buried soils have been traditionally studied for information about past environments and can also serve as useful case studies for understanding both the sensitivity of landscape processes to future environmental change and the mechanisms contributing to soil organic matter stabilization. Soil burial can store SOC at any depth. Here, we focus particularly on buried soil horizons at ≥ 1 m depth to highlight how much SOC exists at depths below those typically considered in SOC inventories, studies of soil organic matter dynamics, and most biogeochemical models. Understanding the

  12. VALT parameter identification flight test. [VTOL Approach and Landing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaine, R. L.; Bryant, W. H.; Hodge, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a method of establishing the accuracy of previously developed analytical models of research vehicles for a program for developing avionics technology for VTOL aircraft. The research vehicle is a Boeing-Vertol CH-47 tandem rotor transport helicopter equipped with a fly-by-wire control system. The specialized flight test was designed to take into account the presence of winds at flight conditions from hover through transition to cruise. The test provided data to obtain estimates of derivatives by parameter identification.

  13. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  14. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  15. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  16. View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, Benjamin Carr Farm in distance through the trees - Friends' Burial Ground, Eldred & Beacon Avenues, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  17. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  18. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  19. Open-Loop Flight Testing of COBALT Navigation and Sensor Technologies for Precise Soft Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Restrepo, Caroline I.; Seubert, Carl R.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Collins, Steven M.; O'Neal, Travis V.; Stelling, Richard

    2017-01-01

    An open-loop flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) payload was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed. The payload integrates two complementary sensor technologies that together provide a spacecraft with knowledge during planetary descent and landing to precisely navigate and softly touchdown in close proximity to targeted surface locations. The two technologies are the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL), for high-precision velocity and range measurements, and the Lander Vision System (LVS) for map-relative state esti- mates. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuses the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a very precise Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) solution that is suitable for future, autonomous planetary landing systems that require precise and soft landing capabilities. During the open-loop flight campaign, the COBALT payload acquired measurements and generated a precise navigation solution, but the Xodiac vehicle planned and executed its maneuvers based on an independent, GPS-based navigation solution. This minimized the risk to the vehicle during the integration and testing of the new navigation sensing technologies within the COBALT payload.

  20. Description of the VTOL Approach and Landing Technology (VALT) CH-47 research system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.; Niessen, F. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.; Abbott, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Research Center modified a CH-47B helicopter to provide a general-purpose variable-stability capability for the VTOL approach and landing technology (VALT) program. The functional aspects and capabilities of the overall system are described. Automatic decelerating approach data are presented to illustrate the performance of the overall system.

  1. Hydrology of the Melton Valley radioactive-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Bradley, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    Burial grounds 4, 5, and 6 of the Melton Valley Radioactive-waste Burial Grounds, Oak Ridge, TN, were used sequentially from 1951 to the present for the disposal of solid, low level radioactive waste by burial in shallow trenches and auger holes. Abundant rainfall, a generally thin unsaturated zone, geologic media of inherently low permeability, and the operational practices employed have contributed to partial saturation of the buried waste, leaching of radionuclides, and transport of dissolved matter from the burial areas. Two primary methods of movement of wastes from these sites are transport in groundwater, and the overflow of fluid in trenches and subsequent flow across land surface. Whiteoak Creek and its tributaries receive all overland flow from trench spillage, surface runoff from each site, and discharge of groundwater from the regolith of each site. Potentiometric data, locally, indicate that this drainage system also receives groundwater discharges from the bedrock of burial ground 5. By projection of the bedrock flow patterns characteristic of this site to other areas of Melton Valley, it is inferred that discharges from the bedrock underlying burial grounds 4 and 6 also is to the Whiteoak Creek drainage system. The differences in potentiometric heads and a comparatively thin saturated zone in bedrock do not favor the development of deep flow through bedrock from one river system to another. (USGS)

  2. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  3. Cobalt: Development and Maturation of GN&C Technologies for Precision Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M.; Restrepo, Carolina; Seubert, Carl; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    The CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies (COBALT) instrument is a terrestrial test platform for development and maturation of guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) technologies for precision landing. The project is developing a third-generation Langley Research Center (LaRC) navigation doppler lidar (NDL) for ultra-precise velocity and range measurements, which will be integrated and tested with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lander vision system (LVS) for terrain relative navigation (TRN) position estimates. These technologies together provide precise navigation knowledge that is critical for a controlled and precise touchdown. The COBALT hardware will be integrated in 2017 into the GN&C subsystem of the Xodiac rocket-propulsive vertical test bed (VTB) developed by Masten Space Systems, and two terrestrial flight campaigns will be conducted: one open-loop (i.e., passive) and one closed-loop (i.e., active).

  4. FAA evaluation of UV technology for runway incursion prevention and low-visibility landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Victor J., Jr.

    2003-09-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is currently evaluating a solar blind ultraviolet (UV) technology, called FogEye, that is being developed by Norris Electro Optical Systems. The technology allows for transmission and reception of low level UV signals that are free of any natural background noise. It also offers favorable atmospheric transmission characteristics. Conclusions of the FAA evaluation thus far are that the technology has considerable merit, and that applications such as preventing runway incursions and use as an Integrity Monitor during low visibility landings should be operationally assessed.

  5. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  6. Application of remote sensing technology to land evaluation, planning utilization of land resources, and assessment of wildlife areas in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A soils map for land evaluation in Potter County (Eastern South Dakota) was developed to demonstrate the use of remote sensing technology in the area of diverse parent materials and topography. General land use and soils maps have also been developed for land planning LANDSAT, RB-57 imagery, and USGS photographs are being evaluated for making soils and land use maps. LANDSAT fulfilled the requirements for general land use and a general soils map. RB-57 imagery supplemented by large scale black and white stereo coverage was required to provide the detail needed for the final soils map for land evaluation. Color infrared prints excelled black and white coverage for this soil mapping effort. An identification and classification key for wetland types in the Lake Dakota Plain was developed for June 1975 using color infrared imagery. Wetland types in the region are now being mapped via remote sensing techniques to provide a current inventory for development of mitigation measures.

  7. An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  9. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  10. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  11. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  12. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  13. Utilization of 3D imaging flash lidar technology for autonomous safe landing on planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Vanek, Michael; Petway, Larry; Pierrottet, Diego; Busch, George; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    NASA considers Flash Lidar a critical technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future large robotic and crewed vehicles on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Flash Lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes during the final stages of descent and landing. The onboard flight comptuer can use the 3-D map of terain to guide the vehicle to a safe site. The capabilities of Flash Lidar technology were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard a helicopter and a fixed wing airctarft. The aircraft flight tests were perfomed over Moonlike terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. This paper briefly describes the Flash Lidar static and aircraft flight test results. These test results are analyzed against the landing application requirements to identify the areas of technology improvement. The ongoing technology advancement activities are then explained and their goals are described.

  14. Utilization of 3-D Imaging Flash Lidar Technology for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Vanek, Michael; Petway, Larry; Pierrotter, Diego; Busch, George; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    NASA considers Flash Lidar a critical technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future large robotic and crewed vehicles on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Flash Lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes during the final stages of descent and landing. The onboard flight computer can use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe site. The capabilities of Flash Lidar technology were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard a helicopter and a fixed wing aircraft. The aircraft flight tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. This paper briefly describes the Flash Lidar static and aircraft flight test results. These test results are analyzed against the landing application requirements to identify the areas of technology improvement. The ongoing technology advancement activities are then explained and their goals are described.

  15. Flight Testing ALHAT Precision Landing Technologies Integrated Onboard the Morpheus Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M. III; Robertson, Edward A.; Trawny, Nikolas; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    A suite of prototype sensors, software, and avionics developed within the NASA Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project were terrestrially demonstrated onboard the NASA Morpheus rocket-propelled Vertical Testbed (VTB) in 2014. The sensors included a LIDAR-based Hazard Detection System (HDS), a Navigation Doppler LIDAR (NDL) velocimeter, and a long-range Laser Altimeter (LAlt) that enable autonomous and safe precision landing of robotic or human vehicles on solid solar system bodies under varying terrain lighting conditions. The flight test campaign with the Morpheus vehicle involved a detailed integration and functional verification process, followed by tether testing and six successful free flights, including one night flight. The ALHAT sensor measurements were integrated into a common navigation solution through a specialized ALHAT Navigation filter that was employed in closed-loop flight testing within the Morpheus Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem. Flight testing on Morpheus utilized ALHAT for safe landing site identification and ranking, followed by precise surface-relative navigation to the selected landing site. The successful autonomous, closed-loop flight demonstrations of the prototype ALHAT system have laid the foundation for the infusion of safe, precision landing capabilities into future planetary exploration missions.

  16. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  17. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  18. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  1. NASA Precision Landing Technologies Completes Initial Flight Tests on Vertical Testbed Rocket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-19

    This 2-minute, 40-second video shows how over the past 5 weeks, NASA and Masten Space Systems teams have prepared for and conducted sub-orbital rocket flight tests of next-generation lander navigation technology through the CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies (COBALT) project. The COBALT payload was integrated onto Masten’s rocket, Xodiac. The Xodiac vehicle used the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation during this first campaign, which was intentional to verify and refine COBALT system performance. The joint teams conducted numerous ground verification tests, made modifications in the process, practiced and refined operations’ procedures, conducted three tether tests, and have now flown two successful free flights. This successful, collaborative campaign has provided the COBALT and Xodiac teams with the valuable performance data needed to refine the systems and prepare them for the second flight test campaign this summer when the COBALT system will navigate the Xodiac rocket to a precision landing. The technologies within COBALT provide a spacecraft with knowledge during entry, descent, and landing that enables it to precisely navigate and softly land close to surface locations that have been previously too risky to target with current capabilities. The technologies will enable future exploration destinations on Mars, the moon, Europa, and other planets and moons. The two primary navigation components within COBALT include the Langley Research Center’s Navigation Doppler Lidar, which provides ultra-precise velocity and line-of-sight range measurements, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Lander Vision System (LVS), which provides navigation estimates relative to an existing surface map. The integrated system is being flight tested onboard a Masten suborbital rocket vehicle called Xodiac. The COBALT project is led by the Johnson Space Center, with funding provided through the Game Changing Development, Flight Opportunities program

  2. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  3. Open-Loop Flight Testing of COBALT GN&C Technologies for Precise Soft Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Seubert, Carl R.; Restrepo, Carolina I.

    2017-01-01

    A terrestrial, open-loop (OL) flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) platform was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed, with support through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES), Game Changing Development (GCD), and Flight Opportunities (FO) Programs. The COBALT platform integrates NASA Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) sensing technologies for autonomous, precise soft landing, including the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor and the Lander Vision System (LVS) Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) system. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuzes the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a precise navigation solution that is independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and suitable for future, autonomous planetary landing systems. The OL campaign tested COBALT as a passive payload, with COBALT data collection and filter execution, but with the Xodiac vehicle Guidance and Control (G&C) loops closed on a Masten GPS-based navigation solution. The OL test was performed as a risk reduction activity in preparation for an upcoming 2017 closed-loop (CL) flight campaign in which Xodiac G&C will act on the COBALT navigation solution and the GPS-based navigation will serve only as a backup monitor.

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B. M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731

  5. A Survey of Supersonic Retropropulsion Technology for Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Braun, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a literature survey on supersonic retropropulsion technology as it applies to Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL). The relevance of this technology to the feasibility of Mars EDL is shown to increase with ballistic coefficient to the point that it is likely required for human Mars exploration. The use of retropropulsion to decelerate an entry vehicle from hypersonic or supersonic conditions to a subsonic velocity is the primary focus of this review. Discussed are systems-level studies, general flowfield characteristics, static aerodynamics, vehicle and flowfield stability considerations, and aerothermodynamics. The experimental and computational approaches used to develop retropropulsion technology are also reviewed. Finally, the applicability and limitations of the existing literature and current state-of-the-art computational tools to future missions are discussed in the context of human and robotic Mars exploration.

  6. A Survey of Supersonic Retropropulsion Technology for Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Braun, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a literature survey on supersonic retropropulsion technology as it applies to Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL). The relevance of this technology to the feasibility of Mars EDL is shown to increase with ballistic coefficient to the point that it is likely required for human Mars exploration. The use of retropropulsion to decelerate an entry vehicle from hypersonic or supersonic conditions to a subsonic velocity is the primary focus of this review. Discussed are systems-level studies, general flowfield characteristics, static aerodynamics, vehicle and flowfield stability considerations, and aerothermodynamics. The experimental and computational approaches used to develop retropropulsion technology are also reviewed. Finally, the applicability and limitations of the existing literature and current state-of-the-art computational tools to future missions are discussed in the context of human and robotic Mars exploration.

  7. Patterns and drivers of change in organic carbon burial across a diverse landscape: Insights from 116 Minnesota lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Robert D.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Anderson, N. John

    2015-05-01

    Lakes may store globally significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments, but the extent to which burial rates vary across space and time is not well described. Using 210Pb-dated sediment cores, we explored patterns of OC burial in 116 lakes spanning several ecoregions and land use regimes in Minnesota, USA during the past 150-200 years. Rates for individual lakes (across all time periods) range from 3 to 204 g C m-2 yr-1 (median 33 g C m-2 yr-1) and show strong geographic separation in accordance with the degree of catchment disturbance and nutrient enrichment. Climate and basin morphometry exercise subordinate control over OC burial patterns, and diagenetic gradients introduce little bias to estimated temporal trends. Median burial rates in agricultural lakes exceed urban lakes and have increased fourfold since Euro-American settlement. The greatest increase in OC burial occurred prior to the widespread adoption of industrial fertilizers, during an era of land clearance and farmland expansion. Northern boreal lakes, impacted by historical logging and limited cottage development yet comparatively undisturbed by human activity, bury OC at rates 3X lower than agricultural lakes and exhibit much smaller increases in OC burial. Scaling up modern OC burial estimates to the entire state, we find that Minnesota lakes annually store 0.40 Tg C in their sediments, equal to 1.5% of annual statewide CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. During the period of Euro-American settlement (circa 1860-2000), cumulative OC burial amounted to 36 Tg C, 40% of which can be attributed to anthropogenic enhancement.

  8. Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project Status as of May 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striepe, Scott A.; Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper includes the current status of NASA s Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project. The ALHAT team has completed several flight tests and two major design analysis cycles. These tests and analyses examine terrain relative navigation sensors, hazard detection and avoidance sensors and algorithms, and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and the guidance and navigation system using these ALHAT functions. The next flight test is scheduled for July 2010. The paper contains results from completed flight tests and analysis cycles. ALHAT system status, upcoming tests and analyses is also addressed. The current ALHAT plans as of May 2010 are discussed. Application of the ALHAT system to landing on bodies other than the Moon is included

  9. Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

    2014-02-01

    Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue

  10. [The progress in retrieving land surface temperature based on thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing technologies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; Li, Xin; Yao, Feng-Mei; Li, Xian-Hua

    2009-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter in the study on the exchange of substance and energy between land surface and air for the land surface physics process at regional and global scales. Many applications of satellites remotely sensed data must provide exact and quantificational LST, such as drought, high temperature, forest fire, earthquake, hydrology and the vegetation monitor, and the models of global circulation and regional climate also need LST as input parameter. Therefore, the retrieval of LST using remote sensing technology becomes one of the key tasks in quantificational remote sensing study. Normally, in the spectrum bands, the thermal infrared (TIR, 3-15 microm) and microwave bands (1 mm-1 m) are important for retrieval of the LST. In the present paper, firstly, several methods for estimating the LST on the basis of thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing were synthetically reviewed, i. e., the LST measured with an ground-base infrared thermometer, the LST retrieval from mono-window algorithm (MWA), single-channel algorithm (SCA), split-window techniques (SWT) and multi-channels algorithm(MCA), single-channel & multi-angle algorithm and multi-channels algorithm & multi-angle algorithm, and retrieval method of land surface component temperature using thermal infrared remotely sensed satellite observation. Secondly, the study status of land surface emissivity (epsilon) was presented. Thirdly, in order to retrieve LST for all weather conditions, microwave remotely sensed data, instead of thermal infrared data, have been developed recently, and the LST retrieval method from passive microwave remotely sensed data was also introduced. Finally, the main merits and shortcomings of different kinds of LST retrieval methods were discussed, respectively.

  11. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  12. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.620 Persons eligible for burial. The following is a list of those individuals who are eligible for burial in a national cemetery:...

  13. The evaluation of Bedfordshire burial registration, 1538-1851.

    PubMed

    Razzell, Peter; Spence, Christine; Woollard, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article is based mainly on a digital transcript of burials for 126 Bedfordshire parishes 1538-1851, and a county index of wills for the same period. The comparison of probate with burial register data indicated that there was little long-term change over time in burial under-registration, with between 21 and 27 per cent of will entries missing in the registers. There was also little variation between parishes of different population sizes, suggesting that burial under-registration was predominantly a random process linked to clerical negligence. A comparison of 1841 and 1851 census data, linked to the Bedfordshire burial database, revealed that missing burials amongst married couples was 29 per cent, similar to that found in the probate/burial register comparison in the 1840s. These findings on the adequacy of burial registers suggest that similar research on others counties will be necessary in order to establish reliable conclusions about England's population history.

  14. The Role of Variability in Mine Burial Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The Role of Variability in Mine Burial Prediction Roy H. Wilkens Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawaii 1680 East...www.mbp.unh.edu LONG-TERM GOALS The ultimate long-term goal of the ONR Mine Burial Prediction (MBP) program is the development of mine burial...burial predictive capabilities by using existing models and an enhanced understanding of environmental databases and seafloor geotechnical properties

  15. Development of an Expert System for Mine Burial Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    Development of an Expert System for Mine Burial Prediction Alan Brandt Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 11100 Johns Hopkins...about mine burial processes into a Mine Burial Expert System Model (MBESM). Specific technical objectives include: • Identify and incorporate...Develope a prototype Mine Burial Expert System Model (MBESM) to provide a systematic organization of this knowledge base, combining physics-based models

  16. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... separation; i.e., a circumstance beyond an individual's control which makes conversion/separation impossible... parental deeming situations. If an individual is an eligible child, the burial funds (up to $1,500) that...

  17. The Effects of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Technologies for Lunar Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Eight pilots participated as test subjects in a fixed-based simulation experiment to evaluate advanced vision display technologies such as Enhanced Vision (EV) and Synthetic Vision (SV) for providing terrain imagery on flight displays in a Lunar Lander Vehicle. Subjects were asked to fly 20 approaches to the Apollo 15 lunar landing site with four different display concepts - Baseline (symbology only with no terrain imagery), EV only (terrain imagery from Forward Looking Infra Red, or FLIR, and LIght Detection and Ranging, or LIDAR, sensors), SV only (terrain imagery from onboard database), and Fused EV and SV concepts. As expected, manual landing performance was excellent (within a meter of landing site center) and not affected by the inclusion of EV or SV terrain imagery on the Lunar Lander flight displays. Subjective ratings revealed significant situation awareness improvements with the concepts employing EV and/or SV terrain imagery compared to the Baseline condition that had no terrain imagery. In addition, display concepts employing EV imagery (compared to the SV and Baseline concepts which had none) were significantly better for pilot detection of intentional but unannounced navigation failures since this imagery provided an intuitive and obvious visual methodology to monitor the validity of the navigation solution.

  18. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  19. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  20. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  1. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  2. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  3. Entry, Descent, and Landing technological barriers and crewed MARS vehicle performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, Prabhakar; Rasky, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Mars has been explored historically only by robotic crafts, but a crewed mission encompasses several new engineering challenges - high ballistic coefficient entry, hypersonic decelerators, guided entry for reaching intended destinations within acceptable margins for error in the landing ellipse, and payload mass are all critical factors for evaluation. A comprehensive EDL parametric analysis has been conducted in support of a high mass landing architecture by evaluating three types of vehicles -70° Sphere Cone, Ellipsled and SpaceX hybrid architecture called Red Dragon as potential candidate options for crewed entry vehicles. Aerocapture at the Martian orbit of about 400 km and subsequent Entry-from-orbit scenarios were investigated at velocities of 6.75 km/s and 4 km/s respectively. A study on aerocapture corridor over a range of entry velocities (6-9 km/s) suggests that a hypersonic L/D of 0.3 is sufficient for a Martian aerocapture. Parametric studies conducted by varying aeroshell diameters from 10 m to 15 m for several entry masses up to 150 mt are summarized and results reveal that vehicles with entry masses in the range of about 40-80 mt are capable of delivering cargo with a mass on the order of 5-20 mt. For vehicles with an entry mass of 20 mt to 80 mt, probabilistic Monte Carlo analysis of 5000 cases for each vehicle were run to determine the final landing ellipse and to quantify the statistical uncertainties associated with the trajectory and attitude conditions during atmospheric entry. Strategies and current technological challenges for a human rated Entry, Descent, and Landing to the Martian surface are presented in this study.

  4. Transuranic element uptake and cycling in a forest over an old burial ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Tuckfield, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of returning the Savannah River Site (SRS) burial ground area to general public access at the time of completion of the SRS mission is being investigated. This study includes evaluation of the radiological impact to inhabitants of the area under a number of scenarios that include the return of the land to farming or forestry use with or without exhumation of the buried waste.

  5. Transuranic element uptake and cycling in a forest over an old burial ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Tuckfield, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    The consequences of returning the Savannah River Site (SRS) burial ground area to general public access at the time of completion of the SRS mission is being investigated. This study includes evaluation of the radiological impact to inhabitants of the area under a number of scenarios that include the return of the land to farming or forestry use with or without exhumation of the buried waste.

  6. Terrestrial sedimentation and the carbon cycle: coupling weathering and erosion to carbon burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between the carbon cycle and sedimentary processes on land. Available data suggest that sedimentation on land can bury vast quantities of organic carbon, roughly 1015 g C yr-1. To evaluate the relative roles of various classes of processes in the burial of carbon on land, terrestrial sedimentation was modeled as a series of 864 scenarios. Each scenario represents a unique choice of intensities for seven classes of processes and two different global wetland distributions. Comparison was made with presumed preagricultural conditions. The classes of processes were divided into two major component parts: clastic sedimentation of soil-derived carbon and organic sedimentation of autochthonous carbon. For clastic sedimentation, masses of sediment were considered for burial as reservoir sediment, lake sediment, and combined colluvium, alluvium, and aeolian deposits. When the ensemble of models is examined, the human-induced burial of 0.6-1.5.1015 g yr-1 of carbon on land is entirely plausible. This sink reaches its maximum strength between 30 ?? and 50??N. Paddy lands stand out as a type of land use that warrants future study, but the many faces of rice agriculture limit generalization. In an extreme scenario, paddy lands alone could be made to bury about 1.1015 g C yr-1. Arguing that terrestrial sedimentation processes could be much of the sink for the so called 'missing carbon' is reasonable. Such a hypothesis, however, requires major redesign of how the carbon cycle is modeled. Unlike ecosystem processes that are amenable to satellite monitoring and parallel modeling, many aspects of terrestrial sedimentation are hidden from space.

  7. Using Vision System Technologies to Enable Operational Improvements for Low Visibility Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Severance, Kurt; Le Vie, Lisa R.; Comstock, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Flight deck-based vision systems, such as Synthetic and Enhanced Vision System (SEVS) technologies, have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable the implementation of operational improvements for low visibility surface, arrival, and departure operations in the terminal environment with equivalent efficiency to visual operations. To achieve this potential, research is required for effective technology development and implementation based upon human factors design and regulatory guidance. This research supports the introduction and use of Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (SVS/EFVS) as advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. Twelve air transport-rated crews participated in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Three monochromatic, collimated head-up display (HUD) concepts (conventional HUD, SVS HUD, and EFVS HUD) and two color head-down primary flight display (PFD) concepts (conventional PFD, SVS PFD) were evaluated in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare terminal environment. Additionally, the instrument approach type (no offset, 3 degree offset, 15 degree offset) was experimentally varied to test the efficacy of the HUD concepts for offset approach operations. The data showed that touchdown landing performance were excellent regardless of SEVS concept or type of offset instrument approach being flown. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness indicated that making offset approaches in low visibility conditions with an EFVS HUD or SVS HUD may be feasible.

  8. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the potential for using "Limbo Lands" as sites for renewable energy generating stations. Limbo Lands are considered as underused, formerly contaminated sites, and include former Superfund sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, former industrial...

  9. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the potential for using "Limbo Lands" as sites for renewable energy generating stations. Limbo Lands are considered as underused, formerly contaminated sites, and include former Superfund sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, former industrial...

  10. An update on the SRP burial ground area water balance and hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1986-01-09

    A water budget for the burial ground area prepared by Hubbard and Emslie concluded that about 15 inches, almost one-third of the average annual precipitation, normally infiltrates the land surface and recharges the groundwater. Also, evapotranspiration was estimated to average 30 inches annually, and runoff from the land surface was estimated as 1 to 3 inches. More information has become available recently from lysimeter studies, climatic stations, groundwater studies, and stream discharge measurements. These additional data generally support the conclusions above with some modifications. The type of vegetation cover on the land surface affects the site hydrology and water budget components of evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge. The lysimeter studies indicate that about 12 inches more water is lost annually to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration with deep-rooted pine trees present than in areas where bare soil or shallow-rooted grass cover occur. Therefore, recharge in the burial ground area may differ from that with similar soils in forested areas of the Savannah River Plant. Study of the hydrologic properties of soils in the burial ground area indicates that infiltration rates for the soils generally are relatively high, exceeding one inch per hour. Runoff as overland flow tends to occur only with intense rainfall events of 1 inch or more. The soil-water characteristic curves are representative of relatively coarse-textured soils.

  11. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  12. Suspect burial excavation procedure: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair; Donnelly, Colm; Carver, Naomi; Murphy, Eileen; Murray, Emily; McCambridge, James

    2009-01-10

    Geographic location, time of reporting and need for rapid evaluation contributed to a lack of intelligence concerning a suspect burial site in scrub woodland (approximately 15 km from the last known location of a missing person) in Northern Ireland. Police received reports of a subsiding 'grave', which was evaluated positively using GPR and victim recovery dogs (VRD). After 24h work, archaeological excavation showed a vertical-sided, stepped excavation on undisturbed clay with no inhumation. Subsequent research showed the feature to be an engineering trial pit. The GPR response was a water table and rocks, VRD were possibly reacting to disturbed ground. The work serves as a demonstration of good archaeological practice in suspect burial excavation, following a lack of landscape evaluation and poor overall intelligence.

  13. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-21

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

  14. Burial at Srebrenica: linking place and trauma.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina, survivors were faced with the decision: where did they want their loved ones buried? This report explores the reasons for their choice in qualitative interviews with 37 survivors of the massacre and 22 key informants performed over the summer 2000. Survivors wanted the loved ones buried at Potocari, a site just outside of Srebrenica, because it represented the site of ultimate horror, was connected to their sense of home, and underscored the various power relationships. The data points to the importance of place for health. Trauma, as it occurs in particular locations, breaks the sense of attachment to a particular place. Restoring the physical and social environment through burial and memorials mitigates the consequences of the trauma. The burial at Potocari provides a window into the mourning, politics, and recovery after mass violence.

  15. Expert System for Mine Burial Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    of the mine deployment and environmental conditions. Therefore, a probabilistic predictive structure is appropriate. An expert system that synthesizes...Team for Sea Mine Burial Expert System (ST-SMBES). Further research into the scour portion of the expert system is continuing....predictive performance as well as documentation of the operational shell used by NAVOCEANO to provide input and output connectivity with the expert

  16. Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Tanana, Heather; Kline, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Utah is home to oil shale resources containing roughly 1.3 trillion barrels of oil equivalent and our nation’s richest oil sands resources. If economically feasible and environmentally responsible means of tapping these resources can be developed, these resources could provide a safe and stable domestic energy source for decades to come. In Utah, oil shale and oil sands resources underlay a patchwork of federal, state, private, and tribal lands that are subject to different regulatory schemes and conflicting management objectives. Evaluating the development potential of Utah’s oil shale and oil sands resources requires an understanding of jurisdictional issues and the challenges they present to deployment and efficient utilization of emerging technologies. The jurisdictional patchwork and divergent management requirements inhibit efficient, economic, and environmentally sustainable development. This report examines these barriers to resource development, methods of obtaining access to landlocked resources, and options for consolidating resource ownership. This report also examines recent legislative efforts to wrest control of western public lands from the federal government. If successful, these efforts could dramatically reshape resource control and access, though these efforts appear to fall far short of their stated goals. The unintended consequences of adversarial approaches to obtaining resource access may outweigh their benefits, hardening positions and increasing tensions to the detriment of overall coordination between resource managers. Federal land exchanges represent a more efficient and mutually beneficial means of consolidating management control and improving management efficiency. Independent of exchange proposals, resource managers must improve coordination, moving beyond mere consultation with neighboring landowners and sister agencies to coordinating actions with them.

  17. Environmental modeling, technology, and communication for land falling tropical cyclone/hurricane prediction.

    PubMed

    Tuluri, Francis; Reddy, R Suseela; Anjaneyulu, Y; Colonias, John; Tchounwou, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF) simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (W(max)) using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE) obtained at the equilibrium level (EL), from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21-30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2-3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS) for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes.

  18. Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tuluri, Francis; Reddy, R. Suseela; Anjaneyulu, Y.; Colonias, John; Tchounwou, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF) simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (Wmax) using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE) obtained at the equilibrium level (EL), from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21–30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2–3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS) for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes. PMID:20623002

  19. Evaluation of GIS Technology in Assessing and Modeling Land Management Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, F.; Coleman, T. L.; Manu, A.; Tadesse, W.; Liu, G.

    1997-01-01

    There is an increasing concern of land owners to protect and maintain healthy and sustainable agroecosystems through the implementation of best management practices (BMP). The objectives of this study were: (1) To develop and evaluate the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) technology for enhancing field-scale management practices; (2) evaluate the use of 2-dimensional displays of the landscape and (3) define spatial classes of variables from interpretation of geostatistical parameters. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 2 m at 15 cm increments. Existing data from topographic, land use, and soil survey maps of the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Research Station were converted to digital format. Additional soils data which included texture, pH, and organic matter were also generated. The digitized parameters were used to create a multilayered field-scale GIS. Two dimensional (2-D) displays of the parameters were generated using the ARC/INFO software. The spatial distribution of the parameters evaluated in both fields were similar which could be attributed to the similarity in vegetation and surface elevation. The ratio of the nugget to total semivariance, expressed as a percentage, was used to assess the degree of spatial variability. The results indicated that most of the parameters were moderate spatially dependent Biophysical constraint maps were generated from the database layers, and used in multiple combination to visualize results of the BMP. Understanding the spatial relationships of physical and chemical parameters that exists within a field should enable land managers to more effectively implement BMP to ensure a safe and sustainable environment.

  20. Soil temperature calculation for burial site analysis.

    PubMed

    Prangnell, Jonathan; McGowan, Glenys

    2009-10-30

    The effect of air and water temperature upon the decomposition of human remains and upon biological activity has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been devoted to the temperature of the soil surrounding burials, despite its potential influence upon chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of human remains, drugs and toxins, as well as upon microbial and insect activity. A soil temperature calculation equation usually employed in civil engineering was used to calculate soil temperature at various depths in a cemetery located in Brisbane, Australia, in order to explain the extensive degradation of human remains and funerary objects observed at exhumation. The results showed that for the 160 years of the site's history, ground temperature at burial level had been sufficiently high for biological activity and chemical degradation reactions to continue right up until the time of exhumation. The equation used has potential in the analysis of both cemetery and clandestine burials, since it allows ground temperature to be calculated from ambient air temperature figures, for a variety of depths, soil types and vegetation conditions.

  1. Application of active control landing gear technology to the A-10 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, I.; Edson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two concepts which reduce the A-10 aircraft's wing/gear interface forces as a result of applying active control technology to the main landing gear are described. In the first concept, referred to as the alternate concept a servovalve in a closed pressure control loop configuration effectively varies the size of the third stage spool valve orifice which is embedded in the strut. This action allows the internal energy in the strut to shunt hydraulic flow around the metering orifice. The command signal to the loop is reference strut pressure which is compared to the measured strut pressure, the difference being the loop error. Thus, the loop effectively varies the spool valve orifice size to maintain the strut pressure, and therefore minimizes the wing/gear interface force referenced.

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Desert Land and Natural Resources and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Yuki; Rollins, Katherine E.

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring environmental impacts over large, remote desert regions for long periods of time can be very costly. Remote sensing technologies present a promising monitoring tool because they entail the collection of spatially contiguous data, automated processing, and streamlined data analysis. This report provides a summary of remote sensing products and refinement of remote sensing data interpretation methodologies that were generated as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Solar Energy Program. In March 2015, a team of researchers from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected field data of vegetation and surface types from more than 5,000 survey points within the eastern part of the Riverside East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ). Using the field data, remote sensing products that were generated in 2014 using very high spatial resolution (VHSR; 15 cm) multispectral aerial images were validated in order to evaluate potential refinements to the previous methodologies to improve the information extraction accuracy.

  3. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file

  4. Multiobjective Optimization Combining BMP Technology and Land Preservation for Watershed-based Stormwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarity, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent progress has been made developing decision-support models for optimal deployment of best management practices (BMP’s) in an urban watershed to achieve water quality goals. One example is the high-level screening model StormWISE, developed by the author (McGarity, 2006) that uses linear and nonlinear programming to narrow the search for optimal solutions to certain land use categories and drainage zones. Another example is the model SUSTAIN developed by USEPA and Tetra Tech (Lai, et al., 2006), which builds on the work of Yu, et al., 2002), that uses a detailed, computationally intensive simulation model driven by a genetic solver to select optimal BMP sites. However, a model that deals only with best management practice (BMP) site selections may fail to consider solutions that avoid future nonpoint pollutant loadings by preserving undeveloped land. This paper presents results of a recently completed research project in which water resource engineers partnered with experienced professionals at a land conservation trust to develop a multiobjective model for watershed management. The result is a revised version of StormWISE that can be used to identify optimal, cost-effective combinations of easements and similar land preservation tools for undeveloped sites along with low impact development (LID) and BMP technologies for developed sites. The goal is to achieve the watershed-wide limits on runoff volume and pollutant loads that are necessary to meet water quality goals as well as ecological benefits associated with habitat preservation and enhancement. A nonlinear programming formulation is presented for the extended StormWISE model that achieves desired levels of environmental benefits at minimum cost. Tradeoffs between different environmental benefits are generated by multiple runs of the model while varying the levels of each environmental benefit obtained. The model is solved using piecewise linearization of environmental benefit functions where each

  5. Building Low Carbon Cities: Framework to Design and Evaluate Alternative Technologies and Policies for Land Use Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Hamano, H.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Annex I parties of the Kyoto Protocol are facing even greater pressures to fulfill their commitment for GHG reduction as they enter the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol 2008-2012. In Japanese context, one such challenge is to reduce CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors because CO2 emissions from the both sectors has increased by 12% and 20% respectively since 1990 while the industry has achieved 21% of CO2 emissions reduction. Land use planning, which, either directly or indirectly, controls appropriate uses for land within jurisdictions, might play very important roles to deal with CO2 reductions from the household and business sectors. In this research, aiming at effective reductions of air- conditioning energy consumption and resultant CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors, the framework to design and evaluate land use planning was developed. The design and evaluation processes embraced in this framework consist of GIS database, technology and policy inventory for planning, one- dimensional urban canopy model which evaluate urban climate at neighborhood level and air-conditioning load calculation procedure. The GIS database provides spatial information of target areas such as land use, building use and road networks, which, then, helps design alternative land use plans. The technology and policy inventory includes various planning options ranging from those for land over control to those for building energy control, which, combined with the GIS database, serves for planning process. The urban canopy model derives vertical profiles of local climate, such as temperature and humidity, using the information of land use, building height and so on, aided by the GIS database. Vertical profiles of the urban climate are then utilized to derive air-conditioning load and associated CO2 emissions for each building located in target areas. The framework developed was applied to the coastal district of Kawasaki, Japan, with an

  6. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT AND CLEAN-UP OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides an overview of the Phase III Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater. It also contains the key conclusions of the Pilot Study and recommendations for further act...

  7. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT AND CLEAN-UP OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides an overview of the Phase III Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater. It also contains the key conclusions of the Pilot Study and recommendations for further act...

  8. Preparation and Integration of ALHAT Precision Landing Technology for Morpheus Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Robertson, Edward A.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Roback, Vincent E.; Trawny, Nikolas; Devolites, Jennifer L.; Hart, Jeremy J.; Estes, Jay N.; Gaddis, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    The Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project has developed a suite of prototype sensors for enabling autonomous and safe precision land- ing of robotic or crewed vehicles on solid solar bodies under varying terrain lighting condi- tions. The sensors include a Lidar-based Hazard Detection System (HDS), a multipurpose Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL), and a long-range Laser Altimeter (LAlt). Preparation for terrestrial ight testing of ALHAT onboard the Morpheus free- ying, rocket-propelled ight test vehicle has been in progress since 2012, with ight tests over a lunar-like ter- rain eld occurring in Spring 2014. Signi cant work e orts within both the ALHAT and Morpheus projects has been required in the preparation of the sensors, vehicle, and test facilities for interfacing, integrating and verifying overall system performance to ensure readiness for ight testing. The ALHAT sensors have undergone numerous stand-alone sensor tests, simulations, and calibrations, along with integrated-system tests in special- ized gantries, trucks, helicopters and xed-wing aircraft. A lunar-like terrain environment was constructed for ALHAT system testing during Morpheus ights, and vibration and thermal testing of the ALHAT sensors was performed based on Morpheus ights prior to ALHAT integration. High- delity simulations were implemented to gain insight into integrated ALHAT sensors and Morpheus GN&C system performance, and command and telemetry interfacing and functional testing was conducted once the ALHAT sensors and electronics were integrated onto Morpheus. This paper captures some of the details and lessons learned in the planning, preparation and integration of the individual ALHAT sen- sors, the vehicle, and the test environment that led up to the joint ight tests.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the118-F-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron and K. A. Anselm

    2008-02-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities.

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  12. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  13. Miscellaneous Burial Recovery in Eastern Washington, 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    identification of the cloth and beetle specimens, respectively. Office and laboratory support was cheerfully provided by Cathy Lubben and Chris Fuhrman...shell shell button tar paper wood/ bark Total 1 1 1 2 7 2 1 17 12 30 93 5 98 30 1 31 27 27 766 312 10 279 1374 3 13 12 28 120 7 1 1...Palus Reburial Site overlooking the original burial location. The hide, possibly buffalo, was found to have been infested with some sort of beetle

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  15. Jurassic Haynesville limestones of east Texas: burial diagenesis and more burial diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Progressive loss of primary porosity due to a continuum of pressure solution and associated burial cementation dominated Haynesville porosity evolution. Porosity loss, however, was punctuated at depth by major grain dissolution and microporosity development in oolitic grainstones. Absence of freshwater precompaction cements allowed incipient burial diagenesis to affect the entire Haynesville sequence. Micritic facies experienced extensive stylolitization and associated cementation, losing their effective porosities relatively early in their burial history. Oolitic grainstones also initially lost porosity due to pervasive suturing of ooids and concomitant interparticle cementation, a relationship confirmed by cathodoluminescence and cement geochemistry. Yet they retained sufficient primary porosity to later reservoir bitumen. Subsequent to bitumen emplacement, however, ooids underwent extensive burial dissolution which created uniform micromoldic porosity, now the dominant pore type in these gas reservoirs. Dissolution postdated most pressure solution fabrics in these grainstones; adjacent micritic facies were unaffected by this dissolution. Cathodoluminescence and vertical porosity profiles demonstrate that reduction of some reservoir quality in these oolitic grainstones resulted from renewed pressure solution and cementation, controlled largely by grainstone thickness and proximity to micritic facies.

  16. 38 CFR 3.1710 - Escheat (payment of burial benefits to an estate with no heirs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... burial benefits to an estate with no heirs). 3.1710 Section 3.1710 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Other § 3.1710 Escheat (payment of burial benefits to an estate with no heirs). VA will not pay burial benefits if...

  17. 38 CFR 3.1701 - Deceased veterans for whom VA may provide burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... whom VA may provide burial benefits. 3.1701 Section 3.1701 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1701 Deceased veterans for whom VA may provide burial benefits. For purposes of providing burial benefits under subpart...

  18. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  19. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are augite-rich cumulate rocks with variable amounts of olivine and groundmass plus minor Fe, Ti oxides [e.g., 1]. Our previous studies revealed that nakhlites showed correlated petrography and mineralogy that could be explained by different locations (burial depths) in a common cooling cumulate pile [e.g., 2]. We so far analyzed six of the seven currently known nakhlites, Nakhla (Nak), Governador Valadares (GV), Lafayette (Laf), NWA817, Y000593 (Y) and MIL03346 (MIL) [e.g., 2,3] and calculated cooling rates of four nakhlites (Nak, GV, Laf, and NWA817) by using chemical zoning of olivine [e.g., 4]. In this abstract, we complete our examination of petrographic and mineralogical variation of all currently known nakhlites by adding petrology and mineralogy of NWA998. We also report results of cooling calculations for Y, MIL and NWA998. Then, we update our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of relative burial depth of each sample.

  20. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Duchin, Faye

    2014-04-15

    In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This study applies an inter-regional input-output model of the world economy, the World Trade Model, for analysis of alternative scenarios about satisfying future food requirements by midcentury. The scenario analysis indicates that relying only on more extensive use of arable land and fresh water would require clearing forests and exacerbating regional water scarcities. However, a combination of less resource-intensive diets and improved agricultural productivity, the latter especially in Africa, could make it possible to use these resources sustainably while also constraining increases in food prices. Unlike the scenario outcomes from other kinds of economic models, our framework reveals the potential for a decisive shift of production and export of agricultural products away from developed countries toward Africa and Latin America. Although the assumed changes in diets and technologies may not be realizable without incentives, our results suggest that these regions exhibit comparative advantages in agricultural production due to their large remaining resource endowments and their potential for higher yields.

  1. Active Control Technology Experience with the Space Shuttle in the Landing Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    The shuttle program took on the challenge of providing a manual landing capability for an operational vehicle returning from orbit. Some complex challenges were encountered in developing the longitudinal flying qualities required to land the orbiter manually in an operational environmental. Approach and landing test flights indicated a tendency for pilot-induced oscillation near landing. Changes in the operational procedures reduced the difficulty of the landing task, and an adaptive stick filter was incorporated to reduce the severity of any pilot-induced oscillatory motions. Fixed-base, moving-base, and in-flight simulations were used for the evaluations, and in general, flight simulation was the only reliable means of assessing the low-speed longitudinal flying qualities problems. Overall, the orbiter control system and operational procedures have produced a good capability for routinely performing precise landings in a large, unpowered vehicle with a low lift-to-drag ratio.

  2. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A project was undertaken in Meade County, South Dakota to provide (1) a general county-wide resource survey of land use and soils and (2) a detailed survey of land use for the environmentally sensitive area adjacent to the Black Hills. Imagery from LANDSAT-1 was visually interpreted to provide land use information and a general soils map. A detailed land use map for the Black Hills area was interpreted from RB-57 photographs and interpretations of soil characteristics were input into a computer data base and mapped. The detailed land use data were then used in conjunction with soil maps to provide information for the development of zoning ordinance maps and other land use planning in the Black Hills area. The use of photographs as base maps was also demonstrated. In addition, the use of airborne thermography to locate spoilage areas in sugar beet piles and to determine the apparent temperature of rooftops was evaluated.

  3. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  4. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle... VA national cemetery where a privately-purchased outer burial receptacle has been used in lieu of a... permitted in the same grave unless the national cemetery director determines that the already...

  5. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Pennino, Michael J.; Arango, Clay P.; Balz, David A.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Fritz, Ken M.; Hill, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  6. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jake J; Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Mayer, Paul M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Pennino, Michael J; Arango, Clay P; Balz, David A; Elonen, Colleen M; Fritz, Ken M; Hill, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  7. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  8. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  9. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  10. Free-Flight Terrestrial Rocket Lander Demonstration for NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. Since its inception in 2006, the ALHAT Project has executed four field test campaigns to characterize and mature sensors and algorithms that support real-time hazard detection and global/local precision navigation for planetary landings. The driving objective for Government Fiscal Year 2012 (GFY2012) is to successfully demonstrate autonomous, real-time, closed loop operation of the ALHAT system in a realistic free flight scenario on Earth using the Morpheus lander developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This goal represents an aggressive target consistent with a lean engineering culture of rapid prototyping and development. This culture is characterized by prioritizing early implementation to gain practical lessons learned and then building on this knowledge with subsequent prototyping design cycles of increasing complexity culminating in the implementation of the baseline design. This paper provides an overview of the ALHAT/Morpheus flight demonstration activities in GFY2012, including accomplishments, current status, results, and lessons learned. The ALHAT/Morpheus effort is also described in the context of a technology path in support of future crewed and robotic planetary exploration missions based upon the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN).

  11. Hypercapnia increases core temperature cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Colin K; Radwin, Martin I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Harmston, Chris H; Muetterties, Mark C; Bywater, Tim J

    2004-04-01

    Previous retrospective studies report a core body temperature cooling rate of 3 degrees C/h during avalanche burial. Hypercapnia occurs during avalanche burial secondary to rebreathing expired air, and the effect of hypercapnia on hypothermia during avalanche burial is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the core temperature cooling rate during snow burial under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. We measured rectal core body temperature (T(re)) in 12 subjects buried in compacted snow dressed in a lightweight clothing insulation system during two different study burials. In one burial, subjects breathed with a device (AvaLung 2, Black Diamond Equipment) that resulted in hypercapnia over 30-60 min. In a control burial, subjects were buried under identical conditions with a modified breathing device that maintained normocapnia. Mean snow temperature was -2.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. Burial time was 49 +/- 14 min in the hypercapnic study and 60 min in the normocapnic study (P = 0.02). Rate of decrease in T(re) was greater with hypercapnia (1.2 degrees C/h by multiple regression analysis, 95% confidence limits of 1.1-1.3 degrees C/h) than with normocapnia (0.7 degrees C/h, 95% confidence limit of 0.6-0.8 degrees C/h). In the hypercapnic study, the fraction of inspired carbon dioxide increased from 1.4 +/- 1.0 to 7.0 +/- 1.4%, minute ventilation increased from 15 +/- 7 to 40 +/- 12 l/min, and oxygen saturation decreased from 97 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 6% (P < 0.01). During the normocapnic study, these parameters remained unchanged. In this study, T(re) cooling rate during snow burial was less than previously reported and was increased by hypercapnia. This may have important implications for prehospital treatment of avalanche burial victims.

  12. Hydrology of the Melton Valley radioactive-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, D.A.; Bradley, M.W.

    1988-12-31

    Burial grounds 4, 5, and 6 were used sequentially from 1951 to the present for the disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste by burial in shallow trenches and auger holes. Abundant rainfall, a generally thin unsaturated zone, geologic media of inherently low permeability, and the operational practices employed have contributed to partial saturation of the buried waste, leaching of radionuclides, and transport of dissolved matter from the burial areas. Two primary methods of transport from these sites are by dissolution in circulating ground water, and the overflow of fluids in trenches and subsequent flow across land surface. The waste-disposal areas are underlain by the Conasauga Group (Cambrian age), a complex sequence of mudstone, siltstone, and limestone interbeds grading from one lithotype to the other, both laterally and vertically. Compressional forces that caused regional thrust faulting also caused much internal deformation of the beds. Folds, bedding-plane faults, and joints are widespread. Small solution openings have developed in some areas where the structurally-related openings have provided ingress to ground water.

  13. Runoff and erosion response of simulated waste burial covers in a semi-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bent, G.C.; Goff, B.F.; Rightmire, K.G.; Sidle, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Control of runoff (reducing infiltration) and erosion at shallow land burials is necessary in order to assure environmentally safe disposal of low-level radioactive-waste and other waste products. This study evaluated the runoff and erosion response of two perennial grass species on simulated waste burial covers at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Rainfall simulations were applied to three plots covered by crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fischer ex Link) Shultes], three plots covered by streambank wheatgrass [Elymus lanceolatus (Scribner and Smith) Gould spp. lanceolatus], and one bare plot. Average total runoff for rainfall simulations in 1987, 1989, and 1990 was 42 percent greater on streambank wheatgrass plots than on crested wheatgrass plots. Average total soil loss for rainfall simulations in 1987 and 1990 was 105 percent greater on streambank wheatgrass plots than on crested wheatgrass plots. Total runoff and soil loss from natural rainfall and snowmelt events during 1987 were 25 and 105 percent greater, respectively, on streambank wheatgrass plots than on crested wheatgrass plots. Thus, crested wheatgrass appears to be better suited in revegetation of waste burial covers at INEEL than streambank wheatgrass due to its much lower erosion rate and only slightly higher infiltration rate (lower runoff rate).

  14. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  15. Role of Technology in Decision Making: Exploring Land-Use Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaino, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in population, climatic changes, and other environmental issues are current challenges affecting the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) decision to examine land-use trends and emphasize efficient use and reuse of limited resources. Because of global concerns involving limited natural resources, researchers recognize land-use decision…

  16. Role of Technology in Decision Making: Exploring Land-Use Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaino, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in population, climatic changes, and other environmental issues are current challenges affecting the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) decision to examine land-use trends and emphasize efficient use and reuse of limited resources. Because of global concerns involving limited natural resources, researchers recognize land-use decision…

  17. Compilation of Papers Presented to Meeting on Space Vehicle Landing and Recovery Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A meeting on Space Vehicle Landing and Recovery was held on July 10-11, 1962 at NASA Headquarters. The Centers were asked to participate in this meeting in accordance with their interest, activities, and requirements in the subject area. Primary emphasis was directed toward parachutes, parachute-rocket systems, paragliders, and lifting rotor concepts applicable to bothe booster and spacecraft landing and recovery.

  18. The importance of pre-conversion technologies for coupling sustainable bioenergy land use to biomass trade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large scale bioenergy development will shift current land use dynamics in the agricultural sector. The establishment of biofuel and biopower feedstock markets has great potential for encouraging more sustainable land use practices. Work has been done showing that strategically integrating food, feed...

  19. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  20. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  1. The investigation of sloping cultivated land on the Loess Plateau with 3S technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengke; Liu, Anlin; Deng, Fengdong; Zhang, Jinghong; Zhuo, Jing

    2003-07-01

    The hill and ravine area on the Loess Plateau is the typical region of serious soil erosion, excess reclamation, and deteriorated eco-environment in middle reaches of Yellow River. The main project of eco-environment construction is that recover vegetation, and quit high sloping cultivated land to forest or meadow. The local government in the concerned region poses that sloping cultivated land higher than 15 degree should quit. How many are there qualified and how about their distribution? These are the basis problems of the execution of the eco-environment construction project. In this paper, using TM image and digital relief map, the interpretation of land use classification and the calculation of slope are made for Baota , Yan"an, with the software of ARC/INFO and ERDAS IMAGINE. And also the sloping cultivated land is mapped, basing on the composite analysis of land use map and slope map.

  2. Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS): A conceptual system design and identification of the critical technologies. Part 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naderi, F. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A system design for a satellite aided land mobile service is described. The advanced system is based on a geostationary satellite which employs a large UHF reflector to communicate with small user antennas on mobile vehicles. It is shown that the system through multiple beam antennas and frequency reuse provides for radiotelephone and dispatch channels. It is concluded that the system is technologically feasible to provide service to rural and remote regions.

  3. Beyond land application: Emerging technologies for the treatment and reuse of anaerobically digested agricultural and food waste.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Yebo

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment and reuse of the massive quantities of agricultural and food wastes generated daily has the potential to improve the sustainability of food production systems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is used throughout the world as a waste treatment process to convert organic waste into two main products: biogas and nutrient-rich digestate, called AD effluent. Biogas can be used as a source of renewable energy or transportation fuels, while AD effluent is traditionally applied to land as a soil amendment. However, there are economic and environmental concerns that limit widespread land application, which may lead to underutilization of AD for the treatment of agricultural and food wastes. To combat these constraints, existing and novel methods have emerged to treat or reuse AD effluent. The objective of this review is to analyze several emerging methods used for efficient treatment and reuse of AD effluent. Overall, the application of emerging technologies is limited by AD effluent composition, especially the total solid content. Some technologies, such as composting, use the solid fraction of AD effluent, while most other technologies, such as algae culture and struvite crystallization, use the liquid fraction. Therefore, dewatering of AD effluent, reuse of the liquid and solid fractions, and land application could all be combined to sustainably manage the large quantities of AD effluent produced. Issues such as pathogen regrowth and prevalence of emerging organic micro-pollutants are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Critical Review of the State-of-the-Art in Autonomous Land Vehicle Systems and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    DURRNAT-WHYTE, HUGH

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the current state-of-the-art in Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) systems and technology. Five functional technology areas are identified and addressed. For each a brief, subjective, preface is first provided which envisions the necessary technology for the deployment of an operational ALV system. Subsequently, a detailed literature review is provided to support and elaborate these views. It is further established how these five technology areas fit together as a functioning whole. The essential conclusion of this report is that the necessary sensors, algorithms and methods to develop and demonstrate an operationally viable all-terrain ALV already exist and could be readily deployed. A second conclusion is that the successful development of an operational ALV system will rely on an effective approach to systems engineering. In particular, a precise description of mission requirements and a clear definition of component functionality is essential.

  5. Extracting land use information from the earth resources technology satellite data by conventional interpretation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vegas, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure for obtaining land use data from satellite imagery by the use of conventional interpretation methods is presented. The satellite is described briefly, and the advantages of various scales and multispectral scanner bands are discussed. Methods for obtaining satellite imagery and the sources of this imagery are given. Equipment used in the study is described, and samples of land use maps derived from satellite imagery are included together with the land use classification system used. Accuracy percentages are cited and are compared to those of a previous experiment using small scale aerial photography.

  6. The effect of the burial environment on adipocere formation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    Adipocere is a decomposition product comprising predominantly of saturated fatty acids which results from the hydrolysis and hydrogenation of neutral fats in the body. Adipocere formation may occur in various decomposition environments but is chiefly dependent on the surrounding conditions. In a soil burial environment these conditions may include such factors as soil pH, temperature, moisture and the oxygen content within the grave site. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of these particular burial factors on the rate and extent of adipocere formation. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in an attempt to form adipocere from pig adipose tissue in model burial environments. Infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to determine the lipid profile and fatty acid composition of the adipocere product which formed in the burial environments. The results suggest that adipocere can form under a variety of burial conditions. Several burial factors were identified as enhancing adipocere formation whilst others clearly inhibited its formation. This study acts as a preliminary investigation into the effect of the burial environment on the resultant preservation of decomposing tissue via adipocere formation.

  7. The use of rainfall simulations to assess land degradation and soil erosion produced by an SLM technology, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Coelho, C.; Carvalho, T.; Oliveira, E.; Valente, S.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires represent the main threat to sustainable forest management in Portugal. During the last fifty years, a massive depopulation took place at rural areas, developing a landscape more prone to fire. The expansion of forest and shrubland into former agricultural areas, as well as, the rapid regeneration of vegetation after fire in some areas, highlighted the need to implement several measures to protect forest and rural areas against fires. Mação municipality suffered massive fires in 2003 and 2005, where more than 70% of the municipality area has been burnt. The implementation of a forest fire prevention and mitigation technology as well as the vegetation regeneration rate was assessed at this location, under the framework of DESIRE project1. Forest is the dominant land use at Mação municipality, consisting of Pinus pinaster, with some Eucalyptus globulus and residual oak forest and shrubland. An important part was burned recently and gave way to regeneration of stands and shrubs. In 2009, the municipality started to implement an SLM (Sustainable Land Management) technology, Primary Strips Network System for Fuel Management (RPFGC). This technology is integrated in the National System to Prevent and Protect Forest against Fires and it is defined by the National Forest Authority (AFN). The RPFGC are linear strips, strategically located in areas where total or partial removal of the forest biomass is possible. This technology contributes to prevent the occurrence and spread of large forest fires and to reduce their consequences for the environment, people, infrastructures, etc . However, the removal of vegetation tends to expose bare soil to the erosive effects of rainfall. Rainfall simulations were used to assess erosive processes, such as runoff and sediment loss, in three types of land cover: pine, eucalyptus and shrubland. The results from rainfall simulations on areas inside the RPFGC showed higher results for all studied parameters, while whether or

  8. Entry, Descent, and Landing Technology Concept Trade Study for Increasing Payload Mass to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Powell, Richard W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Tolson, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    A trade study was conducted that compared various entry, descent, and landing technologies and concepts for placing an 1,800 kg payload on the surface of Mars. The purpose of this trade study was to provide data, and make recommendations, that could be used in making decisions regarding which new technologies and concepts should be pursued. Five concepts were investigated, each using a different combination of new technologies: 1) a Baseline concept using the least new technologies, 2) Aerocapture and Entry from Orbit, 3) Inflatable Aeroshell, 4) Mid L/D Aeroshell-A (high ballistic coefficient), and 5) Mid L/D Aeroshell-B (low ballistic coefficient). All concepts were optimized to minimize entry mass subject to a common set of key requirements. These key requirements were: A) landing a payload mass of 1,800 kg, B) landing at an altitude 2.5 km above the MOLA areoid, C) landing with a descent rate of 2.5 m/s, and D) using a single launch vehicle available within the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Contract without resorting to in-space assembly. Additional constraints were implemented, some common to all concepts and others specific to the new technologies used. Among the findings of this study are the following observations. Concepts using blunt-body aeroshells (1, 2, and 3 above) had entry masses between 4,028 kg and 4,123 kg. Concepts using mid L/D aeroshells (4 and 5 above) were significantly heavier with entry masses of 5,292 kg (concept 4) and 4,812 kg (concept 5). This increased weight was mainly due to the aeroshell. Based on a comparison of the concepts it was recommended that: 1) re-qualified and/or improved TPS materials be developed, 2) large subsonic parachutes be qualified. Aerocapture was identified as a promising concept, but system issues beyond the scope of this study need to be investigated. Inflatable aeroshells were identified as a promising new technology, but they require additional technology maturation work. For the class of missions

  9. Evaluation method of leachate leaking from carcass burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    More than 150,000 cattle carcasses and 3,140,000 pig carcasses were buried all over the nation in Korea because of 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Various disposal Techniques such as incineration, composting, rendering, and burial have been developed and applied to effectively dispose an animal carcass. Since a large number of carcasses should be disposed for a short-term period to prevent the spread of FMD virus, most of the carcasses were disposed by mass burial technique. However, a long-term management and monitoring of leachate discharges are required because mass burial can cause soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, we used key parameters related to major components of leachate such as NH4-N, NO3-N, Cl-, E.coli and electrical conductivity as potential leachate contamination indicator to determine leachate leakage from the site. We monitored 300 monitoring wells in both burial site and the monitoring well 5m away from burial sites to identify leachate leaking from burial site. Average concentration of NH3-N in 300 monitoring wells, both burial site and the well 5m away from burial sites, were 2,593 mg/L and 733 mg/L, respectively. 24% out of 300 monitoring wells showed higher than 10 mg/L NH4-N, 100 mg/L Cl- and than 800 μS/cm electrical conductivity. From this study, we set up 4 steps guidelines to evaluate leachate leakage like; step 1 : High potential step of leachate leakage, step 2 : Middle potential step of leachate leakage, step 3 : Low potential step of leachate leakage, step 4 : No leachate leakage. On the basis of this result, we moved 34 leachate leaking burial sites to other places safely and it is necessary to monitor continuously the monitoring wells for environmental protection and human health.

  10. What drives accelerated land cover change in central Argentina? Synergistic consequences of climatic, socioeconomic, and technological factors.

    PubMed

    Zak, Marcelo R; Cabido, Marcelo; Cáceres, Daniel; Díaz, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Synergistic combinations of climatic and land use changes have the potential to produce the most dramatic impacts on land cover. Although this is widely accepted, empirical examples, particularly involving deforestation in Latin America, are still very few. The geographic extent and causes of deforestation in subtropical seasonally dry forests of the world have received very little attention. This is especially true for the Chaco forests in South America, which are being lost at an alarming rate, sometimes higher than those reported for tropical forests. On this basis, the aims of this study were to analyze the changes in land cover that have occurred during the last three decades of the 20th century in the Chaco forests of central Argentina, and to explain the factors that have driven those changes. Results show major land cover changes. Approximately 80% of the area that was originally undisturbed forest is now occupied by crops, pastures, and secondary scrub. The main proximate cause of deforestation has been agricultural expansion, soybean cultivation in particular. This appears as the result of the synergistic convergence of climatic, technological, and socioeconomic factors, supporting the hypothesis of a multiple-factor explanation for forest loss, while providing one of the very few existing analyses of changes in subtropical forests of the world.

  11. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    PubMed

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  14. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  15. The effect of the method of burial on adipocere formation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    A controlled laboratory experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of the method of burial (i.e. the presence of coffin and clothing) on the formation of adipocere. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effect of physical conditions on the formation of adipocere present in a controlled burial environment. The study utilises infrared spectroscopy to provide a preliminary lipid profile of the remains following a 12 month decomposition period. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was employed as a technique for determining the salts of fatty acids present in adipocere. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as the confirmatory test for the identification and determination of the chemical composition of adipocere which formed in the controlled burial environments. The results suggest that coffins will retard the rate at which adipocere forms but that clothing enhances its formation. The results concur with previous observations on adipocere formation in burial environments.

  16. 38 CFR 3.1709 - Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for burial in a national cemetery. 3.1709 Section 3.1709 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1709 Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery. (a) General. VA...

  17. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  18. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  19. 38 CFR Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. - Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial of a veteran whose...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed. (a)...

  20. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  1. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  2. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  3. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  4. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  5. 38 CFR - § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false § 3.1705 Burial... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death. (a) General rule. VA will pay...

  6. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  7. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  8. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of burial... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1600 Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans. For the purpose of payment of burial expenses the term veteran includes a person who died during a...

  9. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  10. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  11. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  12. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  13. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20.325... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  14. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  15. [Ideas and projects for Napoleonic Naples burial reform].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to describe the attempts made by Napoleonic administrators in Naples to reforming the urban burials system, paying attention, firstly, on medical theories at the basis of the new cemetery projects, secondarily on people involved in the reform, especially technicians. The article deals also with the origins of the European need for burial reform in 18th century and its following establishment by the Napoleonic laws, through an hard compromise between traditional practices and hygienic principles.

  16. LLCE burial container high density polyethylene chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, E.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    An independent chemical compatibility review of LLCE HDPE polyethylene burial containers was conducted to evaluate the container resistance to the chemicals and constituents thought to reside within the Tank Farms. The study concluded that the LLCE Burial Container fabricated from HDPE Polyethylene was a good choice for this application. The reviewer was unaware that the specification for these containers require 2 - 3 percent finely dispensed carbon black which allows long term storage outside.

  17. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  18. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  19. Legacy of human-induced C erosion and burial on soil–atmosphere C exchange

    PubMed Central

    Van Oost, Kristof; Verstraeten, Gert; Doetterl, Sebastian; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Wiaux, François; Broothaerts, Nils; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon exchange associated with accelerated erosion following land cover change is an important component of the global C cycle. In current assessments, however, this component is not accounted for. Here, we integrate the effects of accelerated C erosion across point, hillslope, and catchment scale for the 780-km2 Dijle River catchment over the period 4000 B.C. to A.D. 2000 to demonstrate that accelerated erosion results in a net C sink. We found this long-term C sink to be equivalent to 43% of the eroded C and to have offset 39% (17–66%) of the C emissions due to anthropogenic land cover change since the advent of agriculture. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced C sink strength is limited by a significant loss of buried C in terrestrial depositional stores, which lagged the burial. The time lag between burial and subsequent loss at this study site implies that the C buried in eroded terrestrial deposits during the agricultural expansion of the last 150 y cannot be assumed to be inert to further destabilization, and indeed might become a significant C source. Our analysis exemplifies that accounting for the non–steady-state C dynamics in geomorphic active systems is pertinent to understanding both past and future anthropogenic global change. PMID:23134723

  20. Legacy of human-induced C erosion and burial on soil-atmosphere C exchange.

    PubMed

    Van Oost, Kristof; Verstraeten, Gert; Doetterl, Sebastian; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Wiaux, François; Broothaerts, Nils; Six, Johan

    2012-11-20

    Carbon exchange associated with accelerated erosion following land cover change is an important component of the global C cycle. In current assessments, however, this component is not accounted for. Here, we integrate the effects of accelerated C erosion across point, hillslope, and catchment scale for the 780-km(2) Dijle River catchment over the period 4000 B.C. to A.D. 2000 to demonstrate that accelerated erosion results in a net C sink. We found this long-term C sink to be equivalent to 43% of the eroded C and to have offset 39% (17-66%) of the C emissions due to anthropogenic land cover change since the advent of agriculture. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced C sink strength is limited by a significant loss of buried C in terrestrial depositional stores, which lagged the burial. The time lag between burial and subsequent loss at this study site implies that the C buried in eroded terrestrial deposits during the agricultural expansion of the last 150 y cannot be assumed to be inert to further destabilization, and indeed might become a significant C source. Our analysis exemplifies that accounting for the non-steady-state C dynamics in geomorphic active systems is pertinent to understanding both past and future anthropogenic global change.

  1. Geophysical Investigation Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to Detect Unmarked Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, T. H.; Mahdi, H. H.; Hussein, R. R.; Al-Shukri, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Comprehensive Ground Penetrating Radar surveys were conducted at the Old Carlisle Cemetery, east of Little Rock, Arkansas, to investigate the locations of historic burial sites and to identify unmarked graves. The Old Carlisle Cemetery, Arkansas, since 1872 has been in use and a potential expansion will be planed if the geophysics data help to identify unused lands. GPR survey was conducted at the cemetery using GSSI SIR-3000 with 400 MHz antenna and 900 MHz antennas. A total of 234.5 m profiles of GPR data were acquired from three locations within the old and new parts of the cemetery. At the 1stlocation, GPR data collected along 6 parallel profiles. Data reveals, after the normal comprehensive processing; two unmarked graves at about a depth of 1m and one misplaced headstone or collapsed grave were detected. Other marked graves around 1m depth with headstones were also verified by their typical reflections hyperbola on the GPR profiles. At the 2ndlocation, the data collection was performed along 4 parallel profiles to locate potential areas that were not used for burial in the past. The GPR data showed that there were no graves in the area below at least two of the profiles. Three marked graves which were verified by their headstones might have metal caskets due to their strong reflection hyperbolas around a depth of about 1.2 m. Three other graves were either collapsed or decomposed due to their very weak reflections within a subsided surface area. Animal burrows and a rusted old key were found and verified by near surface digging. At the 3rd location, the data was collected along 3 parallel profiles. The GPR was able to detect one unmarked grave and two marked graves, each with two coffins, by showing strong reflection hyperbolas at about 0.75 m depth. A grave with a headstone to the north of the two graves did not show strong reflection hyperbola although the burial date (1987) is younger than the other two. This might reflect different type of burial practice

  2. Condition Based Maintenance Technology Impacts Study for the Military Land Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    and email the annotated maps back to us, fax them to +61 8 7389 5055, or send them via snail -mail to: Guy Edward Gallasch Land Division 81 Labs PO...Box 1500 Edinburgh SA 5117 Please advise us if you choose the ‘ snail mail’ option so that we will know to expect mail. Please feel free to

  3. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient…

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient…

  5. Cloud tolerance of remote sensing technologies to measure land surface temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional means to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space relies on the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave (MW) obse...

  6. Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Examine Urban Land Use Change: A Design Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Cirucci, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a design partnership that investigated how to integrate Google Earth, remotely sensed satellite and aerial imagery, with other instructional resources to investigate ground cover and land use in diverse middle school classrooms. Data analysis from the implementation study revealed that students acquired skills for…

  7. Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Examine Urban Land Use Change: A Design Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Cirucci, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a design partnership that investigated how to integrate Google Earth, remotely sensed satellite and aerial imagery, with other instructional resources to investigate ground cover and land use in diverse middle school classrooms. Data analysis from the implementation study revealed that students acquired skills for…

  8. Multiple Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes and excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Lepland, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Romashkin, A. E.; Medvedev, P. V.; Rychanchik, D. V.

    2015-08-01

    Organic-rich rocks (averaging 2-5% total organic carbon) and positive carbonate-carbon isotope excursions (δ13C > + 5 ‰ and locally much higher, i.e. the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event) are hallmark features of Palaeoproterozoic successions and are assumed to archive a global event of unique environmental conditions following the c. 2.3 Ga Great Oxidation Event. Here we combine new and published geochronology that shows that the main Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes (CBEs) preserved in Russia, Gabon and Australia were temporally discrete depositional events between c. 2.10 and 1.85 Ga. In northwest Russia we can also show that timing of the termination of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event may have differed by up to 50 Ma between localities, and that Ni mineralisation occurred at c. 1920 Ma. Further, CBEs have traits in common with Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs); both are exceptionally organic-rich relative to encasing strata, associated with contemporaneous igneous activity and marked by organic carbon isotope profiles that exhibit a stepped decrease followed by a stabilisation period and recovery. Although CBE strata are thicker and of greater duration than OAEs (100 s of metres versus metres, ∼106 years versus ∼105 years), their shared characteristics hint at a commonality of cause(s) and feedbacks. This suggests that CBEs represent processes that can be either basin-specific or global in nature and a combination of circumstances that are not unique to the Palaeoproterozoic. Our findings urge circumspection and re-consideration of models that assume CBEs are a Deep Time singularity.

  9. LIDAR-based coastal landscape reconstruction and harbour location: The Viking-age royal burial site of Borre (Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Doneus, Michael; Gansum, Terje

    2013-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has found wide application in archaeological research for the detection and documentation of archaeological and palaeo-environmental features. In this study we demonstrate the analysis of an LIDAR derived 1x1 m digital elevation model (DTM) combined with geoarchaeological research of the coastal Viking-age burial site in Borre, Olso Fjord (Norway). Borre is an exceptional burial site in Scandinavia, containing burial mounds up to 40 m in diameter and 6 m height, mentioned in Nordic Sagas, especially in the skaldic poem Ynglingatal, as the burial place of one or two kings of the Ynglinga dynasty. Archaeological findings and radiocarbon ages indicate that the Borre burial ground had been in use broadly between 600-1000 AD. Despite the reasonable expectation that a coastal site connected with the Viking kings of Vestfold, with hall buildings and ship graves demands a harbour, up to now no harbour has not been found with traditional archaeological surveys. Since the area of Borre is affected by a continuous land uplift related to glacial rebound of Scandinavia, any former harbour site is expected to be exposed to the land surface today. The present day vertical crustal uplift is calculated around 2.5 mm/yr in the area of Borre. Burial mounds and surrounding borrow pits as well as geomorphological features of the uplifted coast of Borre have been analysed by the 1x1 m LIDAR-DTM, using hillshade, slope and local relief model for visualisation. Altogether, 41 burial mounds and further 6 potential mounds are visible in the high-resolution DTM. A succession of more than 14 beach ridges, cross-cut by the burial mounds, is visible from the present shore line up to 18 m asl. They are more or less parallel and similar in size, except between at ca. 4-6 m asl, where the most prominent ridge is located, which probably has been enforced artificially. Using published shoreline displacement curves from nearby areas, the shore-line at

  10. Large-scale experimental technology with remote sensing in land surface hydrology and meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Sellers, Piers J.; Hall, Forrest G.

    1988-01-01

    Two field experiments to study atmospheric and land surface processes and their interactions are summarized. The Hydrologic-Atmospheric Pilot Experiment, which tested techniques for measuring evaporation, soil moisture storage, and runoff at scales of about 100 km, was conducted over a 100 X 100 km area in France from mid-1985 to early 1987. The first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program field experiment was conducted in 1987 to develop and use relationships between current satellite measurements and hydrologic, climatic, and biophysical variables at the earth's surface and to validate these relationships with ground truth. This experiment also validated surface parameterization methods for simulation models that describe surface processes from the scale of vegetation leaves up to scales appropriate to satellite remote sensing.

  11. Demonstration of Land and Hold Short Technology at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A guidance system for assisting in Land and Hold Short operations was developed and then tested at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. This system displays deceleration advisory information on a head-up display (HUD) in front of the airline pilot during landing. The display includes runway edges, a trend vector, deceleration advisory, locations of the hold line and of the selected exit, and alphanumeric information about the progress of the aircraft. Deceleration guidance is provided to the hold short line or to a pilot selected exit prior to this line. Logic is provided to switch the display automatically to the next available exit. The report includes descriptions of the algorithms utilized in the displays, and a report on the techniques of HUD alignment, and results.

  12. Scour and Burial of Submerged Mines in Wave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, K. A.; Foster, D. L.; Traykovski, P.; Smith, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Resolving the hydrodynamics and sediment response leading to the scour and burial of three-dimensional submarine objects remains an area of interest for engineers, oceanographers, and military personnel. Improving methods for detection of buried and submerged mines is of great importance due to the limitations of the present detection methods. A computational fluid dynamics model, FLOW-3D is used for the three-dimensional simulation of flow around individual cylindrical mines. FLOW-3D is a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic finite difference model that closes the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ɛ closure scheme. In this presentation, numerical simulations are performed for a single storm event observed during the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) Mine Burial Experiment in 2003. Significant wave heights of 3 m with peak periods of 4-8 s resulted in significant amounts of mine scour and burial during the event. The model is forced with 4 different conditions representing the free stream flow prior to, during, and following the storm event. In each case, simulations are performed for two grain sizes with bottom boundary conditions specified with 1) a fixed flat bed with no initial mine burial or scour and 2) the observed bed profile. Patterns of scour and deposition are inferred from calculations of the bed shear velocity and Rouse parameter, respectively. Model results are compared with two-axis sonar images obtained during the MVCO Mine Burial Experiment. Consistent with the observations, model simulations indicate mine scour initiates at the ends of the mine. Model simulations also show that subsequent mine burial and scour is highly sensitive to the initial assumption of the bed profile. These results may allow us to improve our understanding and predictive capability for mine burial and scour.

  13. Land of Plenty: Diversity as America's Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Warnings are coming from business leaders on a critical labor shortage, especially in information technology; however, representation of women, minority groups, and persons with disabilities in the U.S. science, engineering, and technology (SET) workforce could be improved. Preparing the nation for the evolving nature of work is important as well…

  14. Using terrestrial light detection and ranging (lidar) technology for land-surface analysis in the Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Bogle, Rian C.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies provide scientists with methods to measure Earth processes in new ways. One of these technologies--ultra-high-resolution, ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar)--is being used by USGS Western Geographic Science Center scientists to characterize the role of wind and fire processes in shaping desert landscapes of the Southwest United States.

  15. Deep-burial diagenesis: Its implications for vertical movements of the crust, uplift of the lithosphere and isostatic unroofing—A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Gerald M.

    1987-03-01

    Various techniques of study of strata exposed at the surface in undeformed areas of the Appalachian Basin and Ozark Done, imply that these strata have been heated to temperatures that suggest a former great depth of burial. The data reveal that the strata have been much more deeply buried than previously thought. If such former deep burial has taken place, then subsequent uplift and erosion must also have taken place to bring these formerly deeply buried strata to the present land surface. Unexpectedly large amounts of uplift and erosion, ranging from 4.3 to 7 km, have re-exposed these formerly deeply buried rocks. This leads to the surprising conclusion that isostatic unroofing has stripped off thick sections of strata whose presence was previously unsuspected. Therefore, the lithosphere, in its isostatic unroofing of thick sequences of sedimentary strata, has undergone much larger vertical motions than many geologists had previously estimated. Case histories in this review include strata of the Silurian of the Northern Appalachian Basin and of the Ordovician of the Ozark Dome, which reached interpreted maximum burial depths of 5 and 4.3 km, respectively; Devonian strata in the Catskill Mountains of New York imply a former depth of burial of ˜ 6.5 km. Lower Ordovician carbonate sequences of the Northern Appalachian Basin imply a depth of burial in excess of 7 km; Middle Ordovician strata from the same basin signify a depth of burial of approximately 5 km; and Devonian strata, a paleodepth of 4.5-5 km. Such former great depths of burial of undeformed strata, which are now exposed at the surface, reflect large-scale vertical movements of the crust and uplift of the lithosphere. These drastic changes represent isostatic unroofing with widespread implications for paleogeography of a kind unrecognized at present.

  16. Silica burial enhanced by iron limitation in oceanic upwelling margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichevin, L. E.; Ganeshram, R. S.; Geibert, W.; Thunell, R.; Hinton, R.

    2014-07-01

    In large swaths of the ocean, primary production by diatoms may be limited by the availability of silica, which in turn limits the biological uptake of carbon dioxide. The burial of biogenic silica in the form of opal is the main sink of marine silicon. Opal burial occurs in equal parts in iron-limited open-ocean provinces and upwelling margins, especially the eastern Pacific upwelling zone. However, it is unclear why opal burial is so efficient in this margin. Here we measure fluxes of biogenic material, concentrations of diatom-bound iron and silicon isotope ratios using sediment traps and a sediment core from the Gulf of California upwelling margin. In the sediment trap material, we find that periods of intense upwelling are associated with transient iron limitation that results in a high export of silica relative to organic carbon. A similar correlation between enhanced silica burial and iron limitation is evident in the sediment core, which spans the past 26,000 years. A global compilation also indicates that hotspots of silicon burial in the ocean are all characterized by high silica to organic carbon export ratios, a diagnostic trait for diatoms growing under iron stress. We therefore propose that prevailing conditions of silica limitation in the ocean are largely caused by iron deficiency imposing an indirect constraint on oceanic carbon uptake.

  17. INTERACTIVE ABANDONED MINE LANDS WORKSHOP SERIES - ACID MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this interactive workshop is to present and discuss active and passive acid mine wastes cleanup technologies and to discuss the apparent disconnect between their development and their implementation. The workshop addressed five main barriers to implementing innovat...

  18. INTERACTIVE ABANDONED MINE LANDS WORKSHOP SERIES - ACID MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this interactive workshop is to present and discuss active and passive acid mine wastes cleanup technologies and to discuss the apparent disconnect between their development and their implementation. The workshop addressed five main barriers to implementing innovat...

  19. New insights into Eastern Beringian mortuary behavior: A terminal Pleistocene double infant burial at Upward Sun River

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Ben A.; Irish, Joel D.; Reuther, Joshua D.; McKinney, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the discovery of two infant burials dating to ∼11,500 calibrated years (cal) B.P. at the Upward Sun River site in central Alaska. The infants were interred in a pit feature with associated organic and lithic grave goods, including the earliest known North American hafted bifaces with decorated antler foreshafts. Skeletal and dental analyses indicate that Individual 1 died shortly after birth and Individual 2 was a late-term fetus, making these the youngest-aged late Pleistocene individuals known for the Americas and the only known prenate, offering, to our knowledge, the first opportunity to explore mortuary treatment of the youngest members of a terminal Pleistocene North American population. This burial was situated ∼40 cm directly below a cremated 3-y-old child previously discovered in association with a central hearth of a residential feature. The burial and cremation are contemporaneous, and differences in body orientation, treatment, and associated grave goods within a single feature and evidence for residential occupation between burial episodes indicate novel mortuary behaviors. The human remains, grave goods, and associated fauna provide rare direct data on organic technology, economy, seasonality of residential occupations, and infant/child mortality of terminal Pleistocene Beringians. PMID:25385599

  20. New insights into Eastern Beringian mortuary behavior: a terminal Pleistocene double infant burial at Upward Sun River.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ben A; Irish, Joel D; Reuther, Joshua D; McKinney, Holly J

    2014-12-02

    Here we report on the discovery of two infant burials dating to ∼11,500 calibrated years (cal) B.P. at the Upward Sun River site in central Alaska. The infants were interred in a pit feature with associated organic and lithic grave goods, including the earliest known North American hafted bifaces with decorated antler foreshafts. Skeletal and dental analyses indicate that Individual 1 died shortly after birth and Individual 2 was a late-term fetus, making these the youngest-aged late Pleistocene individuals known for the Americas and the only known prenate, offering, to our knowledge, the first opportunity to explore mortuary treatment of the youngest members of a terminal Pleistocene North American population. This burial was situated ∼40 cm directly below a cremated 3-y-old child previously discovered in association with a central hearth of a residential feature. The burial and cremation are contemporaneous, and differences in body orientation, treatment, and associated grave goods within a single feature and evidence for residential occupation between burial episodes indicate novel mortuary behaviors. The human remains, grave goods, and associated fauna provide rare direct data on organic technology, economy, seasonality of residential occupations, and infant/child mortality of terminal Pleistocene Beringians.

  1. Helicopter flight test of 3D imaging flash LIDAR technology for safe, autonomous, and precise planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 μm Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GNC system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of humanmade geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in realtime for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).

  2. Helicopter Flight Test of 3-D Imaging Flash LIDAR Technology for Safe, Autonomous, and Precise Planetary Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GN&C system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of human-made geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in real-time for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).

  3. Application of remote sensing technology to land evaluation, planning utilization of land resources, and assessment of westland habitat in eastern South Dakota, parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Cox, T. L.; Best, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT fulfilled the requirements for general soils and land use information. RB-57 imagery was required to provide the information and detail needed for mapping soils for land evaluation. Soils maps for land evaluation were provided on clear mylar at the scale of the county highway map to aid users in locating mapping units. Resulting mapped data were computer processed to provided a series of interpretive maps (land value, limitations to development, etc.) and area summaries for the users.

  4. [Research on monitoring land subsidence in Beijing plain area using PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhao-Qin; Gong, Hui-Li; Zhang, You-Quan; Lu, Xue-Hui; Wang, Sa; Wang, Rong; Liu, Huan-Huan

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors use permanent scatterers synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique and 29 acquisitions by Envisat during 2003 to 2009 to monitor and analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and mechanism characterize of land subsidence in Beijing plain area. The results show that subsidence bowls have been bounded together in Beijing plain area, which covers Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi and Tongzhou area, and the range of subsidence has an eastward trend. The most serious regional subsidence is mainly distributed by the quaternary depression in Beijing plain area. PS-Insar results also show a new subsidence bowl in Pinggu. What's more, the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation is controlled mainly by faults, such as Liangxiang-Shunyi fault, Huangzhuang-Gaoliying fault, and Nankou-Sunhe fault. The subsidence and level of groundwater in study area shows a good correlation, and the subsidence shows seasonal ups trend during November to March and seasonal downs trend during March to June along with changes in groundwater levels. The contribution of land subsidence is also influenced by stress-strain behavior of aquitards. The compaction of aquitards shows an elastic, plastic, viscoelastic pattern.

  5. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  6. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  7. Sulfate Burial Constraints on the Phanerozoic Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2012-07-01

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  8. Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2012-07-20

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  9. Controls on biogenic silica burial in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Zanna; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the controls on opal export in the Southern Ocean can inform both the prediction of how the leakage of silicic acid from the Southern Ocean responds to climate and the interpretation of paleo-proxies. We have compiled a database of 185 230Thorium-normalized opal burial rates and 493 opal concentration measurements in Southern Ocean sediments and matched these with environmental climatologies. By subdividing the Southern Ocean on the basis of oceanographic regions and interpolating the opal burial rates, we estimate a total biogenic Si burial south of 40°S of 2.3 ± 1.0 Tmol Si yr-1. In both the seasonally ice-covered and permanently ice-free regions we can explain 73% of opal burial variability from surface ocean properties. Where sea ice is present for at least part of the year, the length of the ice-free season determines the upper limit of opal burial in the underlying sediments. In the ice-free regions of the Southern Ocean, the supply of silicic acid through winter mixing is the most important factor. Our results do not support a strong role of iron in controlling opal burial. We do however find that satellite-derived net primary production increases with increasing (modeled) dust delivery. These findings support the decoupling between carbon and opal fluxes in the Southern Ocean. When corrected for opal dissolution, the observed opal fluxes are in reasonable agreement with fluxes simulated using an ocean biogeochemical model. However, the results suggest current preservation algorithms for opal could be improved by incorporating the composition of particle flux, not only its magnitude.

  10. An Overview of Future NASA Missions, Concepts, and Technologies Related to Imaging of the World's Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1999-01-01

    In the near term NASA is entering into the peak activity period of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS AM-1 /"Terra" spacecraft is nearing launch and operation to be followed soon by the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing (EO-1) mission. Other missions related to land imaging and studies include EOS PM-1 mission, the Earth System Sciences Program (ESSP) Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, the EOS/IceSat mission. These missions involve clear advances in technologies and observational capability including improvements in multispectral imaging and other observing strategies, for example, "formation flying". Plans are underway to define the next era of EOS missions, commonly called "EOS Follow-on" or EOS II. The programmatic planning includes concepts that represent advances over the present Landsat-7 mission that concomitantly recognize the advances being made in land imaging within the private sector. The National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Series (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is an effort that will help to transition EOS medium resolution (herein meaning spatial resolutions near 500 meters), multispectral measurement capabilities such as represented by the EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into the NPOESS operational series of satellites. Developments in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and passive microwave land observing capabilities are also proceeding. Beyond these efforts the Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy is embarking efforts to advance technologies in several basic areas: instruments, flight systems and operational capability, and information systems. In the case of instruments architectures will be examined that offer significant reductions in mass, volume, power and observational flexibility. For flight systems and operational capability, formation flying including calibration and data fusion, systems operation autonomy, and mechanical and electronic innovations that can reduce

  11. An Overview of Future NASA Missions, Concepts, and Technologies Related to Imaging of the World's Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1999-01-01

    In the near term NASA is entering into the peak activity period of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS AM-1 /"Terra" spacecraft is nearing launch and operation to be followed soon by the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing (EO-1) mission. Other missions related to land imaging and studies include EOS PM-1 mission, the Earth System Sciences Program (ESSP) Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, the EOS/IceSat mission. These missions involve clear advances in technologies and observational capability including improvements in multispectral imaging and other observing strategies, for example, "formation flying". Plans are underway to define the next era of EOS missions, commonly called "EOS Follow-on" or EOS II. The programmatic planning includes concepts that represent advances over the present Landsat-7 mission that concomitantly recognize the advances being made in land imaging within the private sector. The National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Series (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is an effort that will help to transition EOS medium resolution (herein meaning spatial resolutions near 500 meters), multispectral measurement capabilities such as represented by the EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into the NPOESS operational series of satellites. Developments in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and passive microwave land observing capabilities are also proceeding. Beyond these efforts the Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy is embarking efforts to advance technologies in several basic areas: instruments, flight systems and operational capability, and information systems. In the case of instruments architectures will be examined that offer significant reductions in mass, volume, power and observational flexibility. For flight systems and operational capability, formation flying including calibration and data fusion, systems operation autonomy, and mechanical and electronic innovations that can reduce

  12. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  13. On the use of InSAR technology to assess land subsidence in Jakarta coastal flood plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudogbo, Fifame; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Arnaud, Alain; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2014-05-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. It is situated on the northern coastal alluvial plane of Java which shares boundaries with West Java Province in the south and in the east, and with Banten Province in the west. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. The southern part of the city is hilly. Thirteen major rivers flow through Jakarta to the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River is the most significant river and divides the city West to East. In the last three decades, urban growing of Jakarta has been very fast in sectors as industry, trade, transportation, real estate, among others. This exponential development has caused several environmental issues; land subsidence is one of them. Subsidence in Jakarta has been known since the early part of the 20th century. It is mainly due to groundwater extraction, the fast development (construction load), soil natural consolidation and tectonics. Evidence of land subsidence exists through monitoring with GPS, level surveys and InSAR investigations. InSAR states for "Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar". Its principle is based on comparing the distance between the satellite and the ground in consecutive satellite passes over the same area on the Earth's surface. Radar satellites images record, with very high precision, the distance travelled by the radar signal that is emitted by the satellite is registered. When this distance is compared through time, InSAR technology can provide highly accurate ground deformation measurements. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion

  14. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  15. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) {yields} Burial, - Treatment {yields} Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  16. Do ENSO and Coastal Development Enhance Coastal Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?

    PubMed

    Macreadie, Peter I; Rolph, Timothy C; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J; Skilbeck, Charles G

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and coastal development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into coastal waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within coastal sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity ("super-ENSO") and coastal development. We suggest that ENSO and coastal development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by coastal vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that coastal development and ENSO intensification--both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century--can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by coastal ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets.

  17. Do ENSO and Coastal Development Enhance Coastal Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?

    PubMed Central

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Rolph, Timothy C.; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Skilbeck, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and coastal development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into coastal waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within coastal sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity (“super-ENSO”) and coastal development. We suggest that ENSO and coastal development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by coastal vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that coastal development and ENSO intensification—both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century—can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by coastal ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets. PMID:26691557

  18. A cost effective bioremediation strategy using low technology resources for reclamation of dry land hydrocarbon contamination: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, A.J. III; Hoggatt, P.R.

    1995-12-01

    Hydrocarbon containing soil was bioremediated at a combination wastewater and slop oil skim evaporation pond utilizing cost effective low technology resources. Fluids and sludge from the football field-sized pond were extraction procedure toxicity and purgeable organics tested, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations determined. An impact risk analysis was performed, and a corrective action plan developed and implemented. The three year project was closely coordinated with the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC) and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) who established the closure level. The impacted soils at the pond were completely excavated and closure was immediately granted by KDHE for the excavated area. The 24,000 cubic yards of excavated soil were then surface spread on adjacent Mobil property. A nutrient and microbial base was applied to bioaugment the soil. The preapplication land surface and the subsequently land farmed soil was periodically disced and chiseled. A job safety plan including industrial hygiene measures to eliminate workforce exposure was developed and implemented. The final remediation cost analysis amounts to $1.48 per cubic yard compared to the $30 to $150 per cubic yard industry o estimates for similar projects. Several factors were critical in ailing costs to remain so low: (1) assessment and implementation by local in-house staff, (2) conservative remedial action plan and sampling strategy; (3) local contractors; (4) locally available soil amendment; and (5) effective regulatory coordination. The methods described can be used to cost effectively characterize and bioremediate other sites where hydrocarbon-impacted soils exist in similar dry-land environments.

  19. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on Federal lands: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the value of increased royalties that could be accrued through the year 2010 by the federal government as a result of the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) geothermal research and development (RandD) program. The technology improvements considered in this study coincide with the major goals and objectives of the DOE program as set forth in Section 3.0 and will: allow the geothermal industry to maintain a long-term competitive posture in the more favorable fields; and permit it to become competitive where the resource is of lower quality. The study was confined to power generation from liquid-dominated hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. The technologies for exploiting the liquid-dominated, or hot water, fields for power generation are relatively new and still under development. Thus, each technology enhancement that permits greater economic use of the resource will potentially enhance royalty revenues. Potential royalty revenue from dry steam power production at The Geysers, direct use of geothermal fluids, and use of advanced geothermal technologies (i.e., hot dry rock, magma, and geopressured) has not been considered in this assessment. 12 refs.

  20. The growth responses of coastal dune species are determined by nutrient limitation and sand burial.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew; Pammenter, Norman; Ripley, Brad

    2008-05-01

    Past work suggests that burial and low nutrient availability limit the growth and zonal distribution of coastal dune plants. Given the importance of these two factors, there is a surprising lack of field investigations of the interactions between burial and nutrient availability. This study aims to address this issue by measuring the growth responses of four coastal dune plant species to these two factors and their interaction. Species that naturally experience either high or low rates of burial were selected and a factorial burial by nutrient addition experiment was conducted. Growth characteristics were measured in order to determine which characteristics allow a species to respond to burial. Species that naturally experience high rates of burial (Arctotheca populifolia and Scaevola plumieri) displayed increased growth when buried, and this response was nutrient-limited. Stable-dune species had either small (Myrica cordifolia, N-fixer) or negligible responses to burial (Metalasia muricata), and were not nutrient-limited. This interspecific difference in response to burial and/or fertiliser is consistent with the idea that burial maintains the observed zonation of species on coastal dunes. Species that are unable to respond to burial are prevented from occupying the mobile dunes. Species able to cope with high rates of burial had high nitrogen-use efficiencies and low dry mass costs of production, explaining their ability to respond to burial under nutrient limitation. The interaction between burial and nutrient limitation is understudied but vital to understanding the zonation of coastal dune plant species.

  1. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Reed, Dan C.; Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea is a classical example of a coastal system that is subject to an increased intensity and spatial extent of hypoxia due to human activities. The expansion of hypoxia since the 1960s is the result of increased inputs of nutrients from land (both from fertilizer and wastewater) and is negatively affecting living conditions for benthic organisms. In addition, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients has been significantly altered. Water column studies have shown that the availability of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is positively correlated with hypoxia due to release of phosphorus from sediment Fe-oxides and from organic matter upon the transition from oxic to hypoxic conditions. Thus, a large internal source of phosphorus exists in the sediment that largely controls short-term variability in water column DIP concentrations. In this presentation, we focus on results of recent field and modeling work for various parts of the Baltic Sea that confirm the role of Fe-bound P from seasonally hypoxic sediments at intermediate water depths as a major source of DIP. We also show that extended hypoxia and anoxia leads to depletion of sediment Fe-bound P and, ultimately, lower rates of sediment-water exchange of P. Authigenic Ca-P minerals appear to be only a relatively minor burial sink for P. The lack of major inorganic P burial makes the Baltic Sea sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century which is accompanied by a rise in values of typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P concentrations in anoxic basins are equal to or higher than at oxic sites, burial rates of P at hypoxic and anoxic sites are up to 20 times lower because of lower sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, burial of

  2. Research on the key technology of update of land survey spatial data based on embedded GIS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Yanfang; Yu, Hai; Xia, Yin

    2009-10-01

    According to the actual needs of the second land-use survey and the PDA's characteristics of small volume and small memory, it can be analyzed that the key technology of the data collection system of field survey based on GPS-PDA is the read speed of the data. In order to enhance the speed and efficiency of the analysis of the spatial data on mobile devices, we classify the layers of spatial data; get the Layer-Grid Index by getting the different levels and blocks of the layer of spatial data; then get the R-TREE index of the spatial data objects. Different scale levels of space are used in different levels management. The grid method is used to do the block management.

  3. SafeLand guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe - Design and required technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide monitoring means the comparison of landslide characteristics like areal extent, speed of movement, surface topography and soil humidity from different periods in order to assess landslide activity. An ultimate "universal" methodology for this purpose does not exist; every technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. End-users should carefully consider each one to select the methodologies that represent the best compromise between pros and cons, and are best suited for their needs. Besides monitoring technology, there are many factors governing the choice of an Early Warning System (EWS). A people-centred EWS necessarily comprises five key elements: (1) knowledge of the risks; (2) identification, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; (3) operational centre; (4) communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and (5) local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to-end warning system" is also used to emphasize that EWSs need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response. The aim of the present work is to provide guidelines for establishing the different components for landslide EWSs. One of the main deliverables of the EC-FP7 SafeLand project addresses the technical and practical issues related to monitoring and early warning for landslides, and identifies the best technologies available in the context of both hazard assessment and design of EWSs. This deliverable targets the end-users and aims to facilitate the decision process by providing guidelines. For the purpose of sharing the globally accumulated expertise, a screening study was done on 14 EWSs from 8 different countries. On these bases, the report presents a synoptic view of existing monitoring methodologies and early-warning strategies and their applicability for different landslide types, scales and risk management steps. Several comprehensive checklists and toolboxes are also included to support informed

  4. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Anderson, N. John; Prairie, Yves T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years—20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios. PMID:26607672

  5. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Anderson, N John; Prairie, Yves T; Engstrom, Daniel R; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-11-26

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios.

  6. Remote sensing and GIS technology in the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, Bruce; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Bishop, Michael P.; Hamilton, Gordon; Lee, Ella; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Soltesz, Deborah; Khalsa, Siri Jodha Singh; Beedle, Matthew; Helm, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is an international consortium established to acquire satellite images of the world's glaciers, analyze them for glacier extent and changes, and to assess these change data in terms of forcings. The consortium is organized into a system of Regional Centers, each of which is responsible for glaciers in their region of expertise. Specialized needs for mapping glaciers in a distributed analysis environment require considerable work developing software tools: terrain classification emphasizing snow, ice, water, and admixtures of ice with rock debris; change detection and analysis; visualization of images and derived data; interpretation and archival of derived data; and analysis to ensure consistency of results from different Regional Centers. A global glacier database has been designed and implemented at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (Boulder, CO); parameters have been expanded from those of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI), and the database has been structured to be compatible with (and to incorporate) WGI data. The project as a whole was originated, and has been coordinated by, the US Geological Survey (Flagstaff, AZ), which has also led the development of an interactive tool for automated analysis and manual editing of glacier images and derived data (GLIMSView). This article addresses remote sensing and Geographic Information Science techniques developed within the framework of GLIMS in order to fulfill the goals of this distributed project. Sample applications illustrating the developed techniques are also shown.

  7. An advanced generation land mobile satellite system and its critical technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naderi, F.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design for a Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) for the 1990s is presented. LMSS involves small tranceivers accessing satellites directly, with ground reception through small car-top antennas. The satellite would have a large antenna and blanket coverage areas in the UHF. The call may originate from a home, be carried by wire to a gateway, transmitted to satellite on the S-band, converted to UHF on the satellite, and transmitted to the vehicle. The system design is constrained by the number of users in an area during the busiest hours, Shuttle storage, controllability factors, and the total area served. A 55-m antenna has been selected, with 87 spot beams and two 10 MHz UHF bands in the 806-890 MHz band. A 17 dB interbeam isolation level is required, implying that sufficient sub-bands can be generated to assure 8265 total channels. The mobile satellite (MSAT) would have an 83 m mast lower segment, a 34 m upper segment, and a second, 10 m antenna made of a deployable mesh. Various antenna function modes are considered.

  8. Remote sensing and GIS technology in the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raup, B.; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, J.S.; Bishop, M.P.; Hamilton, G.; Lee, E.; Paul, F.; Rau, F.; Soltesz, D.; Khalsa, S.J.S.; Beedle, M.; Helm, C.

    2007-01-01

    Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is an international consortium established to acquire satellite images of the world's glaciers, analyze them for glacier extent and changes, and to assess these change data in terms of forcings. The consortium is organized into a system of Regional Centers, each of which is responsible for glaciers in their region of expertise. Specialized needs for mapping glaciers in a distributed analysis environment require considerable work developing software tools: terrain classification emphasizing snow, ice, water, and admixtures of ice with rock debris; change detection and analysis; visualization of images and derived data; interpretation and archival of derived data; and analysis to ensure consistency of results from different Regional Centers. A global glacier database has been designed and implemented at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (Boulder, CO); parameters have been expanded from those of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI), and the database has been structured to be compatible with (and to incorporate) WGI data. The project as a whole was originated, and has been coordinated by, the US Geological Survey (Flagstaff, AZ), which has also led the development of an interactive tool for automated analysis and manual editing of glacier images and derived data (GLIMSView). This article addresses remote sensing and Geographic Information Science techniques developed within the framework of GLIMS in order to fulfill the goals of this distributed project. Sample applications illustrating the developed techniques are also shown. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrology of the low-level radioactive solid waste burial site and vicinity near Barnwell, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, James M.

    1982-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic conditions at a burial site for low-level radioactive waste were studied, and migration of leachates from the buried waste into surrounding unconsolidated sediments were evaluated. The burial site and vicinity are underlain by a sequence of unconsolidated sediments of Late Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary age. These sediments are deposited over a graben which has been filled with sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. Hydraulic properties of the sediments beneath the burial site were determined by laboratory and field tests. Laboratory hydraulic conductivity values ranged from about 10^-7 to 10^-1 feet per day for the clayey sediments to nearly 22 feet per day for aquifer sands. Field aquifer tests indicate a transmissivity of about 22,000 feet squared per day for Cretaceous sediments and about 6,000 feet squared per day for Tertiary sediments. Aquifer tests indicate heterogeneity in the upper 200 feet of the Tertiary sediments. Water samples were analyzed from 51 wells, 5 streams, a Carolina bay, and rainfall at the burial site. The total dissolved solids of the ground water ranged from about 7 to 40 milligrams per liter in the upper clayey sediments to about 150 milligrams per liter in the water in the deeper calcareous sediments. The pH of the ground water ranges from 4.8 to 6.5. This slightly acidic water is corrosive to buried metal. Tritium activity greater than background was detected in sediment cores taken from drill holes adjacent to the burial trenches. High tritium activity occurred at depths above the trench floor. This indicates upward movement of water or vapor to the land surface. Tritium and organic constituents greater than background concentrations were observed in a monitoring well about 10 feet from a trench, indicating lateral migration of radionuclides from the buried waste. Traces of cobalt-60 and tritium greater than background activity were observed in sediment cores collected 5.8 feet beneath the trench floor at

  10. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1... materials which are readily de-com-pos-a-ble in the marine environment may be disposed of under the general...

  11. Effect of Burial Depth on Seismic Signals. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    from a buried explosion receives positive or negative reinforcement from the free- surface reflection. The more refined calculations, which include...wave is relatively delayed in time, so that transitions between positive and negative reinforcement occur at shallower depths of burial. A surface

  12. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... was directed at a hostile force or what was thought to be a hostile force; or (C) Died from a training...) of this section. (2) A parent is not eligible for burial if the veteran dies due to the elements, a...

  13. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... was directed at a hostile force or what was thought to be a hostile force; or (C) Died from a training...) of this section. (2) A parent is not eligible for burial if the veteran dies due to the elements, a...

  14. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... was directed at a hostile force or what was thought to be a hostile force; or (C) Died from a training...) of this section. (2) A parent is not eligible for burial if the veteran dies due to the elements, a...

  15. Burial preservation of trace fossils as indicator of storm deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    Positive semirelief epichnia (ridgelike trace fossils on the top surface of a bed) commonly represent burrow structures, perhaps originally supported by a mucoidal matrix, that have been infilled by sediment. The preservation of these structures, in addition to other trace fossils on a bed superface, suggests an instantaneous burial event and a minimum of concomitant erosion. This supposition can be verified by an absence of paucity of biogenic sedimentary structures accompanied by certain physical sedimentary structures (laminated shell hashes, graded bedding, fissile shales) in strata directly overlying bioturbated surfaces. The main process involved in this burial preservation (the rapid burial of biogenic sedimentary structures with minimum erosion) are probably storm-generated in most instances. Sediments would be deposited primarily in the suspension mode, and mean storm wave base would be slightly above the sediment-water interface. This burial preservation model is most applicable to relatively small stratigraphic intervals (several centimeters or decimeters) representing deposition on an open-marine shelf. Positive semirelief epichnia, interpreted as burrow system infilling, from the Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician) of Ohio and Indiana are used to illustrate these concepts.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  17. The effects of burial on drug detection in skeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Watterson, James H

    2010-07-01

    Skeletal tissues have recently been investigated for use in post-mortem toxicology. Variables affecting drug concentration in these tissues, however, are still poorly characterized. In this work, the relative effects of burial on the response of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays were examined. Rats were acutely exposed to ketamine or diazepam, euthanized and buried outdoors. After one month, the remains were exhumed and skeletal tissue drug levels were compared those of non-buried rats. A climate-controlled burial was also undertaken using defleshed bones to approximate an extended decomposition. Long bones (femora, tibiae) were isolated and separated into tissue type (diaphyseal bone, epiphyseal bone, and marrow), and according to treatment (i.e. buried or non-buried). Following methanolic extraction (bone) or simple homogenization (marrow), samples were analyzed with ELISA. Samples were then pooled according to treatment, extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and confirmed with GC-MS. Under the conditions examined, the effects of burial appear to be drug and tissue dependent. Ketamine-exposed tissues demonstrated the greatest differences, especially in bone marrow. In diazepam-exposed tissues, burial did not seem to greatly affect drug response and some gave greater assay response compared to the non-buried set. Overall, the data suggest that fresh tissue samples may not be representative of decomposed samples in terms of skeletal tissue drug levels.

  18. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transport human remains from the United States and all persons owning or operating a vessel or aircraft... instrumentalities of the United States are hereby granted a general permit to transport human remains from any... conditions: (1) Except as herein otherwise provided, human remains shall be prepared for burial at sea and...

  19. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  20. A problem of modernity: Dual burial plots, the right to inter, and the interrelationship between the two.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Lynden

    2015-12-01

    Vosnakis v Arfaras directly raises the issue as to how private law will resolve the tensions that can exist between family members in relation to burial licences and the right to inter. In evoking contract, property and statute; the case reveals the complexity associated with this area, specifically in relation to dual burial plots, and how rather simple family disputes can escalate significantly beyond their economic worth. Recommendations to include a registry system to record details of funeral arrangements is encouraged to ensure that the many thousands of dollars spent by the litigants in this case is not repeated by other families. This, along with courts being required to give effect to the wishes of the deceased, will provide a clarity that is currently missing. In a time when the population is increasing, a changed dynamic to family life in Australia, and less land available for internment, the problem of the relationship of a dual burial licence and the right to inter is one of modernity, but one to which the community should expect the application of policy initiatives to complement a coherence within the legal position. This coherency and such policy initiatives are currently lacking but, with simple measures, this position can be rectified.

  1. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  2. Prediction and observation of munitions burial in energetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Harald; Sheremet, Alexandru; Calantoni, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The fate of munitions or unexploded ordnance (UXO) resting on a submarine sediment bed is a critical safety concern. Munitions may be transported in uncontrolled ways to create potentially dangerous situations at places like beaches or ports. Alternatively, they may remain in place or completely disappear for significant but unknown periods, after becoming buried in the sediment bed. Clearly, burial of munitions drastically complicates the detection and removal of potential threats. Here, we present field data of wave height and (surrogate) munitions burial depths near the 8-m isobath at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Field Research Facility, Duck, North Carolina, observed between January and March 2015. The experiment captured a remarkable sequence of storms that included at least 10 events, of which 6 were characterized by wave fields of significant heights exceeding 2 m and with peak periods of approximately 10 s. During the strongest storm, waves of 14 s period and heights exceeding 2 m were recorded for more than 3 days; significant wave height reached 5 m at the peak of activity. At the end of the experiment, divers measured munition burial depths of up to 60 cm below the seabed level. However, the local bathymetry showed less than 5 cm variation between the before and after-storm states, suggesting the local net sediment accumulation / loss was negligible. The lack of bathymetric variability excludes the possibility of burial by a migrating bed form or by sediment deposition, and strongly indicates that the munitions sank into the bed. The depth of burial also suggest an extreme state of sand agitation during the storm. For predicting munitions burial depths, we explore existing analytical solutions for the dynamic interaction between waves and sediment. Measured time series of wave pressure near the sediment bed were converted into wave-induced changes in pore pressures and the effective stress states of the sediment. Different sediment failure criteria

  3. Engineering Review of ANCAUS/AVATAR: An Enabling Technology for the Autonomous Land Systems Program?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    des ANCÆUS, SCV, STA ainsi que des efforts similaires commerciaux ou en source libre . L’évaluation comparative ultérieure des ANCÆUS et des...technologies commercialisées / de sources libres a révélé qu’actuellement aucun système unique ne constitue une architecture complète de système autonome de...sources libres sont plus performantes dans un contexte de véhicules multiples et qu’elles présentent un risque technique moindre. Le rapport conclut

  4. Application of satellite and GIS technologies for land-cover and land-use mapping at the rural-urban fringe - A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Treitz, P.M.; Howarth, P.J.; Gong, Peng )

    1992-04-01

    SPOT HRV multispectral and panchromatic data were recorded and coregistered for a portion of the rural-urban fringe of Toronto, Canada. A two-stage digital analysis algorithm incorporating a spectral-class frequency-based contextual classification of eight land-cover and land-use classes resulted in an overall Kappa coefficient of 82.2 percent for training-area data and a Kappa coefficient of 70.3 percent for test-area data. A matrix-overlay analysis was then performed within the geographic information system (GIS) to combine the land-cover and land-use classes generated from the SPOT digital classification with zoning information for the area. The map that was produced has an estimated interpretation accuracy of 78 percent. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provided a positional reference for new road networks. These networks, in addition to the new land-cover and land-use map derived from the SPOT HRV data, provide an up-to-date synthesis of change conditions in the area. 51 refs.

  5. Two items: Transcription of a presentation by Dr. E. L. Albenesius, ``SRS burial ground operation from an historical perspective``; video tape entitled ``Burial ground operation``

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1992-02-14

    On February 6, 1992, approximately 35 SRS personnel from DOE, WSRC, and Dames and Moore attended a very informative talk given by Dr. E.L. Albenesius who discussed the operation of the SRS Burial Ground from an historical perspective. Dr. Albenesius, a Du Point retiree, formerly served as research manager of SRL`s Environmental Effects and Solid Waste Management Technology Divisions among other assignments. One notable point Dr. Albenesius made was in answer to a question concerning what was the most important thing that could be done to reduce the hazard to man from buried waste. His response was to remove as much plutonium as practical prior to closure. In order to preserve this valuable information for the record, the program was audiotaped from which a point-by-point chronological transcription, with minor editing, was prepared.

  6. Cloud tolerance of remote-sensing technologies to measure land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Hain, Christopher R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Crow, Wade T.

    2016-08-01

    Conventional methods to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space rely on the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive-microwave (MW) observations. The MW-LST product is informed by six polar-orbiting satellites to create a global record with up to eight observations per day for each 0.25° resolution grid box. For days with sufficient observations, a continuous diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) was fitted. The main characteristics of the DTC were scaled to match those of a geostationary TIR-LST product.This paper tests the cloud tolerance of the MW-LST product. In particular, we demonstrate its stable performance with respect to flux tower observation sites (four in Europe and nine in the United States), over a range of cloudiness conditions up to heavily overcast skies. The results show that TIR-based LST has slightly better performance than MW-LST for clear-sky observations but suffers an increasing negative bias as cloud cover increases. This negative bias is caused by incomplete masking of cloud-covered areas within the TIR scene that affects many applications of TIR-LST. In contrast, for MW-LST we find no direct impact of clouds on its accuracy and bias. MW-LST can therefore be used to improve TIR cloud screening. Moreover, the ability to provide LST estimates for cloud-covered surfaces can help expand current clear-sky-only satellite retrieval products to all-weather applications.

  7. Cloud Tolerance of Remote-Sensing Technologies to Measure Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Hain, Christopher R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Crow, Wade T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space rely on the thermal infrared(TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave(MW) observations. The MW-LST product is informed by six polar-orbiting satellites to create a global record with up to eight observations per day for each 0.25resolution grid box. For days with sufficient observations, a continuous diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) was fitted. The main characteristics of the DTC were scaled to match those of a geostationary TIR-LST product. This paper tests the cloud tolerance of the MW-LST product. In particular, we demonstrate its stable performance with respect to flux tower observation sites (four in Europe and nine in the United States), over a range of cloudiness conditions up to heavily overcast skies. The results show that TIR based LST has slightly better performance than MW-LST for clear-sky observations but suffers an increasing negative bias as cloud cover increases. This negative bias is caused by incomplete masking of cloud-covered areas within the TIR scene that affects many applications of TIR-LST. In contrast, for MW-LST we find no direct impact of clouds on its accuracy and bias. MW-LST can therefore be used to improve TIR cloud screening. Moreover, the ability to provide LST estimates for cloud-covered surfaces can help expand current clear-sky-only satellite retrieval products to all-weather applications.

  8. Cloud Tolerance of Remote-Sensing Technologies to Measure Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Hain, Christopher R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Crow, Wade T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space rely on the thermal infrared(TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave(MW) observations. The MW-LST product is informed by six polar-orbiting satellites to create a global record with up to eight observations per day for each 0.25resolution grid box. For days with sufficient observations, a continuous diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) was fitted. The main characteristics of the DTC were scaled to match those of a geostationary TIR-LST product. This paper tests the cloud tolerance of the MW-LST product. In particular, we demonstrate its stable performance with respect to flux tower observation sites (four in Europe and nine in the United States), over a range of cloudiness conditions up to heavily overcast skies. The results show that TIR based LST has slightly better performance than MW-LST for clear-sky observations but suffers an increasing negative bias as cloud cover increases. This negative bias is caused by incomplete masking of cloud-covered areas within the TIR scene that affects many applications of TIR-LST. In contrast, for MW-LST we find no direct impact of clouds on its accuracy and bias. MW-LST can therefore be used to improve TIR cloud screening. Moreover, the ability to provide LST estimates for cloud-covered surfaces can help expand current clear-sky-only satellite retrieval products to all-weather applications.

  9. Terra-Preta-Technology as an innovative system component to create circulation oriented, sustainable land use systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.; Böttcher, J.; Krieger, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents current research and application projects on innovative system solutions which are based on the implementation of a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) is a recently developed substance composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including biochar, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Based on their properties, positive effects on water and nutrient retention, soil microbiological activity, and cation-exchange capacity are expected and currently investigated by different projects. TPS further sequesters carbon and decreases NO2 emissions from fertilized soils as observed by the use of biochar. The production of TPS is based on a circulation oriented organic waste management system directly adapted to the local available inputs and desired soil amendment properties. The production of TPS is possible with simple box systems for subsistence farming but also on a much larger scale as modular industrial plants for farmers or commercial and municipal waste management companies in sizes from 500 and 50,000 m3. The Terra-Preta-Technology enhances solutions to soil conservation, soil amelioration, humic formation, reduced water consumption, long term carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, containment binding, and to biodiversity on local to a regional scale. The projects also involve research of ancient land management systems to enhance resource efficiency by means of an integrative and transdisciplinary approach.

  10. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material.

  11. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  12. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  13. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  14. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  15. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  16. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  17. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  18. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  19. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  20. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  1. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  2. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  3. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  4. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  5. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  6. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  7. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  8. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  9. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type of... the pre-need burial program should be extended to all Veterans and service members, and not limited...

  10. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  11. The burial of organic carbon over the last 10 kyr by the Waipaoa River, New Zealand sedimentary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, N. E.; Childress, L. B.; Fournillier, K. M.; Leithold, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs), most of which are located along active margins, play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. SMRs drain only ~20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems in which riverine organic carbon (OC) is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, SMR-dominated shelves are highly effective in the burial and preservation of OC. This is the result of the rapid, episodic delivery of OC derived from terrestrial vegetation, aged soil organic matter, and sedimentary rock OC. Most of our understanding concerning the carbon cycling dynamics of SMR systems is derived from modern, heavily anthropogenically impacted environments however. The nature and fluxes of OC prior to land use change is poorly documented. Erosion and depositional patterns associated with SMRs are affected by several large-scale forcing mechanisms, primarily climate and tectonics. To investigate the effect of natural and anthropogenic forcing on the geochemical record of a SMR we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River is a system of interest due to its large current sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Continental shelf cores collected offshore of the Waipaoa by the MATACORE group aboard the R/V Marion Dufresne extend to 10 kyr BP, and records climatic transitions with tectonic overprints in the region. The OC burial flux ranged from ~15-20 kg C m-2 kyr-1 at the location of one shelf core (MD 3007) approximately 3.5-10 kyr before present. This corresponds to a period of relatively rapid shoreline progradation. OC accumulation decreased to ~4-6 kg C m-2 kyr-1 after 3.5 kyr BP. Anthropogenic deforestation has caused OC burial fluxes to rebound to beyond the 3.5-10 kyr levels. Organic geochemical proxies, including δ13C, δ15N, and lignin phenols, indicate a depositional site that is dominated by riverine input. The proxies do not correlate

  12. Determination of tritium and 14C concentration in two hydrostratigraphic units below the University of California, Davis, waste burial holes at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research/South Campus Disposal Site (LEHR/SCDS).

    PubMed

    Pay, Stephen

    2003-08-01

    The Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site at the University of California at Davis was used as a disposal site for tritium and 14C waste generated by campus related research. This low-level radioactive waste was disposed of by shallow land burial from 1956 to 1974 in waste burial holes and resulted in extensive contamination of soils and groundwater at the LEHR/SCDS. In part, due to this contamination, the LEHR/SCDS was placed on the National Priority List in May of 1994. In 1999, soils in the vicinity of the waste burial holes were subject to a CERCLA Removal Action. To this day elevated tritium and 14C concentrations are found in two groundwater monitoring wells that are located down gradient from the waste burial holes. The Bioscreen, Natural Attenuation Decision Support System software program was used, along with site-specific hydrogeologic conditions, to estimate the maximum source zone concentrations in the water bearing intervals below the waste burial holes. The first order decay process, and assumptions of horizontal flow provided reasonably accurate estimates of contaminant concentrations in the unconfined portion of the water bearing interval, but results for the confined portion of the water bearing intervals were mixed. Dose estimates for the time period of maximum contaminant concentration in the aquifer below the waste burial holes, predicted by modeling, suggested that the 4 mrem drinking water standard had not been exceeded at this site.

  13. The Implementation of a Geospatial Information Technology (GIT)-Supported Land Use Change Curriculum with Urban Middle School Learners to Promote Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…

  14. Pilot Study on Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater Volumes 1 and 2 EPA/600/SR-93/012

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report presents information on a 5-yr pilot study (1986- 1991) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) entitled "Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Gr...

  15. Pilot Study on Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater Volumes 1 and 2 EPA/600/SR-93/012

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report presents information on a 5-yr pilot study (1986- 1991) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) entitled "Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Gr...

  16. The Implementation of a Geospatial Information Technology (GIT)-Supported Land Use Change Curriculum with Urban Middle School Learners to Promote Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…

  17. [Primary investigation of formation and genetic mechanism of land subsidence based on PS-InSAR technology in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Lei, Kun-chao; Chen, Bei-bei; Jia, San-man; Wang, Shu-fang; Luo, Yong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper adopts permanent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar(PS-InSAR) technique to obtain land subsidence information in Beijing plain area. Then, combined with the time series of meteorological data, groundwater dynamic monitoring data, interferometric data and geological structure data, the formation and evolution mechanism of land subsidence were revealed. The results show that (1) Beijing regional land subsidence characteristics are obvious, more land subsidence funnel areas are interconnected, the settlement is influenced by rainfall recharge and exhibits seasonal fluctuation characteristics; (2) The land subsidence center and groundwater drawdown funnel centre are not fully consistent, unconfined aquifer and shallow confined aquifer are the major contribution factors and have greater impact on the land subsidence; (3) Land subsidence mainly occurred in the clay layer with a thickness of 50-70 m; (4) Land subsidence caused by tectonic controls is significant and the deformation gradient is great on both sides of the fault.

  18. [Primary investigation of formation and genetic mechanism of land subsidence based on PS-InSAR technology in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Lei, Kun-chao; Chen, Bei-bei; Jia, San-man; Wang, Shu-fang; Luo, Yong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper adopts permanent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar(PS-InSAR) technique to obtain land subsidence information in Beijing plain area. Then, combined with the time series of meteorological data, groundwater dynamic monitoring data, interferometric data and geological structure data, the formation and evolution mechanism of land subsidence were revealed. The results show that (1) Beijing regional land subsidence characteristics are obvious, more land subsidence funnel areas are interconnected, the settlement is influenced by rainfall recharge and exhibits seasonal fluctuation characteristics; (2) The land subsidence center and groundwater drawdown funnel centre are not fully consistent, unconfined aquifer and shallow confined aquifer are the major contribution factors and have greater impact on the land subsidence; (3) Land subsidence mainly occurred in the clay layer with a thickness of 50-70 m; (4) Land subsidence caused by tectonic controls is significant and the deformation gradient is great on both sides of the fault.

  19. Changed clonal growth form induced by sand burial facilitates the acclimation of Carex brevicuspis to competition.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Xie, Yonghong; Zhu, Lianlian; Jiang, Li; Chen, Xinsheng; Pan, Baihan; Deng, Zhengmiao

    2015-01-01

    Both competition and burial are important factors that influence plant growth and structuring plant communities. Competition intensity may decline with increased burial stress. However, experimental evidence is scarce. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of burial stress in influencing plant competition by investigating biomass accumulation, biomass allocation, and clonal growth performance of Carex brevicuspis, one of the dominant species in the Dongting Lake wetland in China. The experiment was conducted with two typical wetland species, C. brevicuspis (target plant) and Polygonum hydropiper (neighbor plant), in a target-neighbor design containing three densities (0, 199, and 398 neighbor plants m-2) and two burial depths (0 and 12 cm). The biomass accumulation of C. brevicuspis decreased with increment of P. hydropiper density in the 0 cm burial treatment. However, in the 12 cm burial treatment, biomass accumulation of C. brevicuspis did not change under medium and high P. hydropiper densities. The relative neighbor effect index (RNE) increased with enhancement of P. hydropiper density but decreased with increasing burial depth. The shoot mass fraction decreased with P. hydropiper density in the 12 cm burial treatments, but the root mass fraction was only affected by burial depth. However, the rhizome mass fraction increased with both P. hydropiper density and burial depth. The number of ramets decreased with increasing P. hydropiper density. With increasing burial depth and density, the proportion of spreading ramets increased from 34.23% to 80.44%, whereas that of clumping ramets decreased from 65.77% to 19.56%. Moreover, increased P. hydropiper density and burial depth led to greater spacer length. These data indicate that the competitive effect of P. hydropiper on C. brevicuspis was reduced by sand burial, which was reflected by different patterns of biomass accumulation and RNE at the two burial depth treatments. A change from a phalanx to a

  20. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  1. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of microbial community shifts in leachate from animal carcass burial lysimeter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Bomi; Cha, Seok Mun; Yu, Seungho

    2017-02-26

    This study examined the use of microbial community structure as a bio-indicator of decomposition levels. High-throughput pyrosequencing technology was used to assess the shift in microbial community of leachate from animal carcass lysimeter. The leachate samples were collected monthly for one year and a total of 164,639 pyrosequencing reads were obtained and used in the taxonomic classification and operational taxonomy units (OTUs) distribution analysis based on sequence similarity. Our results show considerable changes in the phylum-level bacterial composition, suggesting that the microbial community is a sensitive parameter affected by the burial environment. The phylum classification results showed that Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) were the most influential taxa in earlier decomposition stage whereas Firmicutes (Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, and Peptostreptococcus) were dominant in later stage under anaerobic conditions. The result of this study can provide useful information on a time series of leachate profiles of microbial community structures and suggest patterns of microbial diversity in livestock burial sites. In addition, this result can be applicable to predict the decomposition stages under clay loam based soil conditions of animal livestock.

  2. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan

    2017-09-01

    The surface magnetic field strength of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) is found to be about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of garden variety radio pulsars (with a spin of {˜ }0.5-5 s and B{˜ }10^{12} G). The exact mechanism of the apparent reduction of field strength in MSPs is still a subject of debate. One of the proposed mechanisms is burial of the surface magnetic field under matter accreted from a companion. In this article we review the recent work on magnetic confinement of accreted matter on neutron stars poles. We present the solutions of the magneto-static equations with a more accurate equation of state of the magnetically confined plasma and discuss its implications for the field burial mechanism.

  3. Two contemporaneous mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia.

    PubMed

    Tackney, Justin C; Potter, Ben A; Raff, Jennifer; Powers, Michael; Watkins, W Scott; Warner, Derek; Reuther, Joshua D; Irish, Joel D; O'Rourke, Dennis H

    2015-11-10

    Pleistocene residential sites with multiple contemporaneous human burials are extremely rare in the Americas. We report mitochondrial genomic variation in the first multiple mitochondrial genomes from a single prehistoric population: two infant burials (USR1 and USR2) from a common interment at the Upward Sun River Site in central Alaska dating to ∼11,500 cal B.P. Using a targeted capture method and next-generation sequencing, we determined that the USR1 infant possessed variants that define mitochondrial lineage C1b, whereas the USR2 genome falls at the root of lineage B2, allowing us to refine younger coalescence age estimates for these two clades. C1b and B2 are rare to absent in modern populations of northern North America. Documentation of these lineages at this location in the Late Pleistocene provides evidence for the extent of mitochondrial diversity in early Beringian populations, which supports the expectations of the Beringian Standstill Model.

  4. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10/sup 0/C) or 90/sup 0/C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90/sup 0/C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared.

  5. Two contemporaneous mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia

    PubMed Central

    Tackney, Justin C.; Potter, Ben A.; Raff, Jennifer; Powers, Michael; Watkins, W. Scott; Warner, Derek; Reuther, Joshua D.; Irish, Joel D.; O’Rourke, Dennis H.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene residential sites with multiple contemporaneous human burials are extremely rare in the Americas. We report mitochondrial genomic variation in the first multiple mitochondrial genomes from a single prehistoric population: two infant burials (USR1 and USR2) from a common interment at the Upward Sun River Site in central Alaska dating to ∼11,500 cal B.P. Using a targeted capture method and next-generation sequencing, we determined that the USR1 infant possessed variants that define mitochondrial lineage C1b, whereas the USR2 genome falls at the root of lineage B2, allowing us to refine younger coalescence age estimates for these two clades. C1b and B2 are rare to absent in modern populations of northern North America. Documentation of these lineages at this location in the Late Pleistocene provides evidence for the extent of mitochondrial diversity in early Beringian populations, which supports the expectations of the Beringian Standstill Model. PMID:26504230

  6. CH4 and CO2 production relative to carbon burial in wetlands undergoing sediment loss and accretion in coastal Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaisas, N. A.; Maiti, K.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.

    2016-02-01

    The coastal Louisiana region encompasses the largest deltaic system at the mouth of the Mississippi River, in the Gulf of Mexico, and includes the largest wetlands area in the United States. Given the critical functional role of coastal wetlands in carbon (C) storage and sequestration it is essential to assess the potential role of wetlands and adjacent tidal channels as sources (via CH4 and CO2 production) and sinks of carbon (via burial) along hydrological gradients. Such information is necessary to construct and constrain landscape-level C budgets. We investigate C burial and CO2 and CH4 emissions in two distinct sediment deposition environments undergoing land loss (Barataria Bay) and land formation (Wax Delta) in coastal Louisiana. Sediment cores (depth, 20 cm) were sampled at both sites along tidal channels, ridges and low elevation marshes during spring (March 10oC), early summer (May 20oC) and late summer (August 30oC) to evaluate seasonal and spatial scale variability in CH4 and CO2 production. CH4 production ranged from 0.003 to 20.8 moles/m2/day and differences were correlated to location, ambient temperature, dissolved O2 concentration in the overlying water and core sediment redox conditions. Seasonal CH4 fluxes into overlying water were significantly higher in the spring compared to the summer season. The CO2 fluxes ranged from 0.42 to 214 moles/m2/day and also showed higher fluxes at colder temperature ( 10 o C). These net fluxes will provide valuable information to evaluate the ratio of greenhouse gas production to carbon burial at two contrasting estuarine environments undergoing both loss and net gain of wetland area in coastal Louisiana.

  7. Clay Mineralogy and Organic Carbon Burial in Proterozoic Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, N. J.; Johnston, D. T.; Mushegian, A.; Rothman, D. H.; Knoll, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Pedogenic, or soil-derived, clay minerals have long been implicated in the efficiency of organic matter (OM) burial and coincident accumulation of atmospheric oxygen. As diagenesis and metamorphism obscure pedogenic clays in many Precambrian rocks, clay mineralogy and its role in OM burial through much of geologic time remains incompletely understood. In this study we analyzed the mineralogy and total organic carbon (TOC) of a number of organic rich shales deposited in Late Archean to Early Cambrian sedimentary basins. Across all samples, diagenetic transformation of pre-existing smectite minerals has led to the predominance of glauconite and the diagenetic 1M and 1Md illite polytypes, which, collectively, can be thought of as "proto-smectite". The correlations between TOC and illite crystallinity suggest that OM burial and preservation in the Proterozoic proceeded by the physical aggregation of OM and pedogenic clays upon deposition. This association, in turn, led to the interference of OM with the illitization process, resulting in the ubiquitous relationship between high surface area (or, finely crystalline) material and high TOC. This interpretation is consistent with suggestions that the preservation of OM after burial proceeds by physical exclusion, with mineral surfaces effectively isolating OM from enzymatic breakdown. Together, it appears that the deposition of pedogenic clays has remained broadly constant over Proterozoic time and into the Early Cambrian, which is incompatible with the hypothesis that late Neoproterozoic oxygenation was influenced by increases in pedogenic clay production. As no clear temporal relationship exists between clays and OM, Precambrian oxygenation was likely controlled by other mechanisms.

  8. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  9. Scour and Burial Mechanics of Objects in the Nearshore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    equilibrium bottom profiles in response to seasonal changes in wave climate and accretion /erosion waves spawned by fluxes of sediment into the littoral...waves cause erosion of the bar-berm portion of the profile, exposing mines close to shore, and accretion of the shorerise profile, causing burial of... North Quincy Street Arlington VA 22217-5000 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ONR 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

  10. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  11. Undulation frequency affects burial performance in living and model flatfishes.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; MacDonald, Ian; Farina, Stacy C; Summers, Adam P

    2016-04-01

    Flatfishes bury themselves under a thin layer of sand to hide from predators or to ambush prey. We investigated the role of undulation frequency of the body in burial in five species of flatfishes (Isopsetta isolepis, Lepidopsetta bilineata, Hippoglossoides elassodon, Parophrys vetulus, and Psettichthys melanostictus). High-speed videos show that undulations begin cranially and pass caudally while burying, as in forward swimming in many other fishes. The flatfishes also flick the posterior edge of their dorsal and anal fins during burial, which may increase the total surface area covered by substrate. We built a simple physical model - a flexible, oval silicone plate with a motorized, variable-speed actuator - to isolate the effect of undulation frequency on burial. In both the model and actuated dead flatfish, increased undulation frequency resulted in an increase in the area of sand coverage. Complete coverage required an undulation frequency of no more than 10Hz for our models, and that was also sufficient for live flatfishes. The model shows that undulation is sufficient to bury the animal, but live flatfishes showed a superior ability to bury, which we attribute to the action of the median fins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Episodic burial metamorphism in the Andes—A viable model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevins, R. E.; Robinson, D.; Aguirre, L.; Vergara, M.

    2003-08-01

    Burial metamorphism of regional extent throughout Mesozoic to Cenozoic sequences in the Andean Mountain belt has been attributed previously to a unique model of metamorphic development, involving episodic ˜40 m.y. cycles of extensional basin formation, burial, metamorphism, and then exhumation. A main premise of this model is that breaks in metamorphic grade occur at major stratigraphic unconformities, so marking successive metamorphic cycles. This model is tested in a Mesozoic Cenozoic sequence east of Santiago, where three metamorphic episodes have been reported on the basis of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at two main unconformities. In metabasites from this area, reaction progress in mafic phyllosilicates shows a continuum across the sequence without breaks at the unconformities. There are differences in mineral assemblages between the various stratigraphic units, from which contrasting subgreenschist facies can be recognized. However, consideration of the controls on mineral paragenesis at subgreenschist facies conditions demonstrates that these different facies cannot be used as evidence of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at unconformities, as has been reported in many previous publications. Thus, metamorphic breaks within this Andean section cannot be confirmed. Accordingly, models of Andean burial metamorphism linked to episodic tectonic cycles throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic appear unfounded.

  13. Organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winogradow, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate the important role of the marine environment in the circulation of CO2. This is due to the occurrence of the so called "biological pump" mechanism. A special role in this process is played by the shelf seas. The paper presents estimates of organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments. Quantification of the burial rate required the determination of organic carbon accumulation rate to the Baltic sediments and the carbon return flux from sediments to the water column. Results of both sediment and mass accumulation rates as well as profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used. Sediment accumulation rates were based on 210Pb method validated by 137Cs measurements and ranged from 66 g m-2 yr-1 to 744 g m-2 yr-1 as regards mass accumulation rates and from 0.07 cm yr-1 to 0.25 cm yr-1 as regards linear accumulation rates. Carbon deposition to the Baltic sediments amounts to 1.955 ± 0.585 Tg m-2 yr-1, while 0.759 ± 0.020 g m-2 yr-1 of carbon returns from sediments to the water column. Thus the organic carbon burial rate in the Baltic Sea sediments is equal to 1.197 ± 0.584 Tg C m-2 yr-1.

  14. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  15. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  16. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn.

  17. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Mayer, P. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Arango, C. P.; Balz, D. A.; Fritz, K. M.; Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to facilitate above ground development or stormwater runoff. We predicted that burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain and transform nitrate, the dominate form of bioavailable N in urban streams, by eliminating primary production, reducing respiration rates, and decreasing water residence time. We tested these predictions by measuring whole-stream nitrate (NO3-) removal rates using 15NO3- isotope tracer releases in reaches that were buried and open to the sunlight in three streams in Cincinnati, Ohio and three streams in Baltimore, Maryland during four seasons. Nitrate uptake lengths in buried reaches (range: 560 - 43,650 m) were 2-98 times greater than open reaches exposed to daylight (range: 85 - 7195 m), indicating that buried reaches were substantially less effective at retaining NO3- than open reaches. Nitrate retention in buried reaches was suppressed by a combination of hydrological and biological processes. High water velocities in buried reaches (buried= 5.8 m/s, open=1.48 m/s) rapidly exported NO3- from the channel, reducing the potential for in-stream NO3- retention. Uptake lengths in the buried reaches were lengthened further by low in-stream biological NO3- demand, as indicated by NO3- uptake velocities 16-fold lower than that of the open reaches. Similarly, buried reaches had lower ecosystem respiration rates than open reaches (buried=1.5g O2/m2/hr, open=4.5g O2/m2/hr), likely due to lower organic matter standing stocks (buried=12 gAFMD/m2, open=48 gAFDM/m2). Biological activity in the buried reaches was further suppressed by the absence of light which precluded photosynthetic activity and the associated assimilative N demand. Overall, our results demonstrate that the

  18. Multibeam observations of mine burial near Clearwater, FL, including comparisons to predictions of wave-induced burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfson, M.L.; Naar, D.F.; Howd, P.A.; Locker, S.D.; Donahue, B.T.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Trembanis, A.C.; Richardson, M.D.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam sonar (Kongsberg Simrad, Kongsberg, Norway) was used to conduct a set of six repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys west of Indian Rocks Beach (IRB), just to the south of Clearwater, FL, between January and March 2003, to observe in situ scour and burial of instrumented inert mines and mine-like cylinders. Three closely located study sites were chosen: two fine-sand sites, a shallow one located in ??? 13 m of water depth and a deep site located in ???14 m of water depth; and a coarse-sand site in ???13 m. Results from these surveys indicate that mines deployed in fine sand are nearly buried within two months of deployment (i.e., they sunk 74.5% or more below the ambient seafloor depth). Mines deployed in coarse sand showed a lesser amount of scour, burying until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the surrounding rippled bedforms. These data were also used to test the validity of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA) 2-D burial model. The model worked well in areas of fine sand, sufficiently predicting burial over the course of the experiment. In the area of coarse sand, the model greatly overpredicted the amount of burial. This is believed to be due to the presence of rippled bedforms around the mines, which affect local bottom morphodynamics and are not accounted for in the model, an issue currently being addressed by the modelers. This paper focuses specifically on two instrumented mines: an acoustic mine located in fine sand and an optical instrumented mine located in coarse sand. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  19. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    the mine burial project has been documented in previous annual reports. Preparation of new side-looking multibeam bedform imaging sonars and mine...Instrumentation for Plume, Sediment and Bed Dynamics in Energetic Coastal Environments: A Multibeam Sidescan Sonar and Portable Turbulance Profiler”) is a...support of optical measurements of particle dynamics (Environmental Optics ), and integrating the pcADPs on Geyer’s MAST (Physical Oceanography). The

  20. Organic carbon source and burial during the past one hundred years in Jiaozhou Bay, North china.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Song, Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and 210Pb in core sediment were measured to quantify the burial of organic carbon and the relative importance of allochthonous and autochthonous contributions during the past one hundred years in Jiaozhou Bay, North China. The core sediment was dated using 210Pb chronology, which is the most promising method for estimation of sedimentation rate on a time scale of 100-150 years. The variation of the burial flux of organic carbon in the past one hundred years can be divided into the following three stages: (1) relatively steady before 1980s; (2) increasing rapidly from the 1980s to a peak in the 1990s, and (3) decreasing from the 1990s to the present. The change is consistent with the amount of solid waste and sewage emptied into the bay. The OC:TN ratio was used to evaluate the source of organic carbon in the Jiaozhou Bay sediment. In the inner bay and bay mouth, the organic carbon was the main contributor from terrestrial sources, whereas only about half of organic carbon was contributed from terrestrial source in the outer bay. In the inner bay, the terrestrial source of organic carbon showed a steady change with an increase in the range of 69%-77% before 1990 to 93% in 2000, and then decreased from 2000 because of the decrease in the terrestrial input. In the bay mouth, the percentage of organic carbon from land reached the highest value with 94% in 1994. In the outer bay, the sediment source maintained steady for the past one hundred years.

  1. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Rita H; Goldsmith, Peter D; Rausch, Kent D; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles

  2. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains

  3. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world’s coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants. PMID:27526020

  4. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world's coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants.

  5. FINAL REPORT: An Integrated Inter-temporal Analysis of Land Use Change in Forestry and Agriculture: An Assessment of the Influence of Technological Change on Carbon Sequestration and Land Use.

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Sohngen

    2008-10-30

    This project built a global land use model to examine the implications of land based carbon sequestration on land uses. The model also can be used to assess the costs of different land-based actions to reduce carbon emissions.

  6. Experimental assessment of critical anthropogenic sediment burial in eelgrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Munkes, Britta; Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2015-11-15

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world's most important and productive coastal habitats, are threatened by a range of anthropogenic actions. Burial of seagrass plants due to coastal activities is one important anthropogenic pressure leading to the decline of local populations. In our study, we assessed the response of eelgrass Zostera marina to sediment burial from physiological, morphological, and population parameters. In a full factorial field experiment, burial level (5-20cm) and burial duration (4-16weeks) were manipulated. Negative effects were visible even at the lowest burial level (5cm) and shortest duration (4weeks), with increasing effects over time and burial level. Buried seagrasses showed higher shoot mortality, delayed growth and flowering and lower carbohydrate storage. The observed effects will likely have an impact on next year's survival of buried plants. Our results have implications for the management of this important coastal plant.

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-01-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris.

  8. Sediment burial stimulates the growth and propagule production of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zifa; An, Shuqing; Zhao, Congjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Changfang; Zhi, Yingbiao; Li, Hongli

    2008-03-01

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel., an extensively invasive species on the Chinese coast, is a focus of increasing management concern due to its high expansion rate in estuaries and tidal zone, and the significant damage it causes to native ecosystems. In order to understand the processes and mechanisms of invasion of S. alterniflora in China, the impact of three sediment types (sand, sand-loam mixture and loam) and five buried patterns (unburied, 50% burial of initial plant height, 75% burial of initial plant height, complete burial and repeated burial) on the growth of seedlings or ramets was investigated. Results showed that each of the three factors (sediment types, burial pattern and plant materials) and interactions between/among them, significantly affected height and clonal growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation. Plant height, total biomass and number of new vegetative propagules significantly increased with progressive burial treatments. However, the complete burial treatment resulted in the death of all plant materials, and the maximum values of three parameters were found in the 50% burial or repeated burial treatments. Plant responses were determined by the instantaneous thickness of sediment of each time burial rather than by the total quantity of repeated burial. The growth of S. alterniflora was not shown to be dependent on specific types of sediment in sedimentation environment. In contrast to the unburied control, the proportion of primary tillers produced directly from initial individuals and the ratio between the aboveground and belowground biomass were greater under burial treatments. Seedlings produced more new vegetative propagules than vegetative offspring in all experimental treatments, and the former were apt to produce ramets from rhizomes rather than primary tillers. It is concluded that under various sedimentation environments, the clonal spread efficiency of seedlings was higher than that of vegetative offspring, and there is a

  9. Precipitation data for burial grounds 5 and 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1976-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a hydrogeologic investigation, precipitation data were collected at two stations, one each in Burial Grounds 5 and 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. Daily, monthly, and annual values are reported herein for the period from January 1976 through December 1980. During this period, annual values ranged from about 25 percent above to about 25 percent below the calculated mean of 51.96 inches at Burial Ground 5 and 49.60 inches at Burial Ground 6. (USGS)

  10. GPR and bulk ground resistivity surveys in graveyards: locating unmarked burials in contrasting soil types.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James D; Pringle, Jamie K; Goodwin, Jon

    2014-04-01

    With graveyards and cemeteries globally being increasingly designated as full, there is a growing need to identify unmarked burial positions to find burial space or exhume and re-inter if necessary. In some countries, for example the U.S. and U.K., burial sites are not usually re-used; however, most graveyard and cemetery records do not have maps of positions. One non-invasive detection method is near-surface geophysics, but there has been a lack of research to-date on optimal methods and/or equipment configuration. This paper presents three case studies in contrasting burial environments, soil types, burial styles and ages in the U.K. Geophysical survey results reveal unmarked burials could be effectively identified from these case studies that were not uniform or predicted using 225 MHz frequency antennae GPR 2D 0.5 m spaced profiles. Bulk ground electrical surveys, rarely used for unmarked burials, revealed 1 m probe spacings were optimal compared to 0.5 m, with datasets needing 3D detrending to reveal burial positions. Results were variable depending upon soil type; in very coarse soils GPR was optimal; whereas resistivity was optimal in clay-rich soils and both were optimal in sandy and black earth soils. Archaeological excavations revealed unmarked burials, extra/missing individuals from parish records and a variety of burial styles from isolated, brick-lined, to vertically stacked individuals. Study results, evidence unmarked burial targets were significantly different from clandestine burials of murder victims which are used as analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Paleomagnetic dating of burial diagenesis in Mississippian carbonates, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumstein, Angela M.; Elmore, R. Douglas; Engel, Michael H.; Elliot, Crawford; Basu, Ankan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test models for the origin of widespread secondary magnetizations in the Mississippian Deseret Limestone. The Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone is a source rock for hydrocarbons, and modeling studies indicate that it entered the oil window in the Early Cretaceous during the Sevier orogeny. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Deseret Limestone and the stratigraphically equivalent Chainman Shale in central and western Utah indicate that the units contain two ancient magnetizations residing in magnetite. Burial temperatures are too low for the magnetizations to be thermoviscous in origin, and they are interpreted to be chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs). Fold tests from western Utah indicate the presence of a prefolding Triassic to Jurassic CRM. Geochemical (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ18O) and petrographic analyses suggest that externally derived fluids did not alter these rocks. This CRM was acquired at the beginning of the oil window and is interpreted to be the result of burial diagenesis of organic matter. A second younger CRM in western central Utah is apparently postfolding and is probably Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary in age. On the basis of the thermal modeling, the timing overlaps with the oil window. These results are consistent with a connection between organic matter maturation and remagnetization. Modeling of the smectite-to-illite transformation in the Deseret Limestone suggests a mean age prior to acquisition of both CRMs, although the range for illitization overlaps with the Triassic to Jurassic CRM. The results of this study support the hypothesis that pervasive CRMs can be related to burial diagenetic processes. In addition, paleomagnetism can be used to determine the timing of such processes, which can benefit hydrocarbon exploration efforts.

  12. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  13. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  14. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  15. Identification of metallic objects with various sizes and burial depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet; Kaplan, Gülay; Deniz, Sencer M.; Bahadırlar, Yıldırım; İçoğlu, Oğuz

    2009-05-01

    In this study, identification of the different metallic objects with various burial depths was considered. Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) were used to obtain metallic content and dielectric characteristic of the buried objects. Discriminative features were determined and calculated for data set. Six features were selected for metal detector and one for Ground Penetrating Radar. Twenty classification algorithms were examined to obtain the best classification method, for this data set. A Meta learner algorithm completed the classification process with 100% performance.

  16. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K.; Slate, J.L.; Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B.

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  17. Progressive chemical modification of clastic sediments with burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C. D.

    1987-03-01

    The porosity of clastic sediments at deposition varies very approximately between about 45% (sands) and 85% (muds). With burial, consolidation takes place as pore water is progressively eliminated. It would be misleading, however, to attribute alterations in sediment bulk properties to physical processes alone. Very significant mineralogical changes occur and these start soon after burial, especially in mudrocks. Striking heterogeneities such as thin, laterally continuous cemented horizons or discrete concretions are commonly introduced. These shallow burial processes are predominently the result of microbial activity. Thermodynamically unstable mixtures of organic matter and various oxidants [dissolved oxygen, sulphate, nitrate, particulate Fe(III) and Mn(IV)] provide both substrate and energy source for a variety of different microbial ecosystems. Mineralogical consequences include both leaching and the precipitation of carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and silica cements. The type and extent of mineral modification depends strongly on depositional environment variables such as rate of sedimentation and water composition. At greater depths, large scale modification of detrital clay minerals (particularly the smectite-I/S-illite transformation) takes place. Recent work of various kinds, however, has demonstrated that these changes may not be solid state transformations: clay mineral dissolution, transport and precipitation occur much more widely than was formerly supposed. In sandstones, authigenic precipitation of clay minerals from pore solution is much more obviouis. Systematic patterns of precipitation, alteration and replacement have been documented in many sedimentary basins. Porosity and permeability are reduced by cementation and, sometimes, enhanced by mineral dissolution. Whereas the general nature of these chemical reactions is fairly well understood, it is not yet possible to predict with certainty the scale or distribution of mineralogical consequences

  18. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  19. Burial Level Change Defines a High Energetic Relevance for Protein Binding Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhua; He, Ying; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interfaces defined through atomic contact or solvent accessibility change are widely adopted in structural biology studies. But, these definitions cannot precisely capture energetically important regions at protein interfaces. The burial depth of an atom in a protein is related to the atom's energy. This work investigates how closely the change in burial level of an atom/residue upon complexation is related to the binding. Burial level change is different from burial level itself. An atom deeply buried in a monomer with a high burial level may not change its burial level after an interaction and it may have little burial level change. We hypothesize that an interface is a region of residues all undergoing burial level changes after interaction. By this definition, an interface can be decomposed into an onion-like structure according to the burial level change extent. We found that our defined interfaces cover energetically important residues more precisely, and that the binding free energy of an interface is distributed progressively from the outermost layer to the core. These observations are used to predict binding hot spots. Our approach's F-measure performance on a benchmark dataset of alanine mutagenesis residues is much superior or similar to those by complicated energy modeling or machine learning approaches.

  20. Preliminary soilwater conductivity analysis to date clandestine burials of homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Cassella, John P; Jervis, John R

    2010-05-20

    This study reports on a new geoscientific method to estimate the post-burial interval (PBI) and potential post-mortem interval (PMI) date of homicide victims in clandestine graves by measuring decomposition fluid conductivities. Establishing PBI/PMI dates may be critical for forensic investigators to establish time-lines to link or indeed rule out suspects to a crime. Regular in situ soilwater analysis from a simulated clandestine grave (which contained a domestic buried pig carcass) in a semi-rural environment had significantly elevated conductivity measurements when compared to background values. A temporal rapid increase of the conductivity of burial fluids was observed until one-year post-burial, after this values slowly increased until two years (end of the current study period). Conversion of x-axis from post-burial days to 'accumulated degree days' (ADDs) corrected for both local temperature variations and associated depth of burial and resulted in an improved fit for multiple linear regression analyses. ADD correction also allowed comparison with a previous conductivity grave study on a different site with a different soil type and environment; this showed comparable results with a similar trend observed. A separate simulated discovered burial had a conductivity estimated PBI date that showed 12% error from its actual burial date. Research is also applicable in examining illegal animal burials; time of burial and waste deposition. Further research is required to extend the monitoring period, to use human cadavers and to repeat this with other soil types and depositional environments.

  1. Characterization modeling to support the hanford 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds remediation design solution: two differing approaches with similar results

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, S.C.; Nolan, L.M.

    2007-07-01

    Two different approaches were applied to characterization modeling of the waste in the 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. The results were compared and it was found that the independent approaches validate each other. The 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds, located on the Hanford site in Washington state, received primarily radioactive laboratory waste in the 1950's and 60's; however, disposal records from burial activities have since been destroyed. North Wind Inc. (NWI) is completing a technology demonstration project, funded by DOE Headquarters to develop methodology for remediation of the vertical pipe units and develop supporting documentation. Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) is developing a design solution for remediation of the 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds, including the development of a characterization model and estimates of radioactivity and waste volumes present. Each company independently developed their characterization models and radionuclide inventories, using a different methodology; however, the results of each model revealed only a two to five percent difference, which is significant given the complexity of the waste matrices, the high dose rates of the waste when disposed, and relatively high levels of transuranic radionuclides projected. (authors)

  2. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  3. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  4. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  5. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  6. Temporal evolution of human-induced carbon burial in terrestrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, S.; van Oost, K.; Quine, T. A.; Six, J.; van Wesemael, B.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is recognized to be an important parameter for the maintenance of soil fertility. Associated with contemporary discussions on Global Climate Change, carbon cycling and the influence of fluxes between atmospheric and terrestrial carbon pools, the importance of research on factors controlling SOC contents has even grown. In recent studies, geomorphologic processes (soil erosion and sedimentation) and site attributes (slope steepness and land use) have been postulated to be the driving factors in human-impacted landscapes for decomposition and stabilization of SOC. Hence, depositional environments are assumed to be strong sinks for terrestrial carbon due to burial of former topsoil horizon SOC in deeper soil layers, leading to reduced decomposition rates. This must be taken into account in estimation of terrestrial carbon stocks and asks for modification of carbon models, considering erosion and sedimentation processes via including lateral and vertical SOC fluxes in time. In order to accurately quantify the human-induced carbon sink there is a need to both (I) increase our understanding of carbon cycling processes in complex terrains under the impact of soil redistribution and (II) improve our estimates of the amount of carbon being laterally transferred and buried in terrestrial environments. Current estimates of continental or global carbon fluxes largely depend on unverified assumptions and model applications that ignore lateral fluxes. The main objective of this study is to quantify the temporal and spatial evolution of carbon fluxes at the continental (and global) scale. We present an overview on the development of colluvial soil formation on large spatial scales, taking into account historical and present human induced erosion processes as well as global land use change. Based on this information, we present an analysis of the temporal evolution of SOC burial. Furthermore, we give an outlook on our future work which aims to link the

  7. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  8. A review of hydrologic and geologic conditions related to the radioactive solid-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Solid waste contaminated by radioactive matter has been buried in the vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1944. By 1973, an estimated six million cubic feet of such material had been placed in six burial grounds in two valleys. The practice initially was thought of as a safe method for permanently removing these potentially hazardous substances from man's surroundings, but is now que.3tionable at this site because of known leaching of contaminants from the waste, transport in ground water, and release to the terrestrial and fluvial environments. This review attempts to bring together in a single document information from numerous published and unpublished sources regarding the past criteria used for selecting the Oak Ridge burial-ground sites, the historical development and conditions of these facilities as of 1974, the geologic framework of the Laboratory area and the movement of water and water-borne contaminants in that area, the effects of sorption and ion exchange upon radionuclide transport, and a description and evaluation of the existing monitoring system. It is intended to assist Atomic Energy Commission (now Energy Research and Development Administration) officials in the formulation of managerial decisions concerning the burial grounds and present monitoring methods. Sites for the first three burial grounds appear to have been chosen during and shortly after World War II on the basis of such factors as safety, security, and distance from sources of waste origin. By 1950, geologic criteria had been introduced, and in the latter part of that decade, geohydrologic criteria were considered. While no current criteria have been defined, it becomes evident from the historical record that the successful containment of radionuclides below land surface for long periods of time is dependent upon a complex interrelationship between many geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls, and any definition of criteria must include consideration of these

  9. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  10. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  11. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  12. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    PubMed

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and < 11%, respectively. The density of naturally dispersed seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  13. A clandestine burial in Costa Rica: prospection and excavation.

    PubMed

    Congram, Derek R

    2008-07-01

    This case report describes the search for a clandestine grave in Costa Rica for which the police sought the assistance of an archaeologist. An anonymous informant suggested that the victim had been kidnapped and murdered, placed in a shallow grave in the woods, then covered with lime and cement. A search of the area to detect conventional signs of burial (e.g., slumping, different plant growth) resulted in excavation of unrelated features of past disturbance. Different aspects of the grave including the deposition of cement powder over the body prevented its initial discovery. Improvisation of conventional archaeological excavation methods and use of police familiar with archaeological excavation resulted in the location of the grave and exhumation of the victim without loss of important contextual evidence that supported testimony on the cause of death. The taphonomic effects of high-lying ground water and lime in the tropical burial environment are briefly discussed. Recommendations such as the construction of a temporary sump to lower the ground water level in the grave during excavation are made to assist in similar investigations in the future.

  14. Equation for compaction of paleosols due to burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Nathan D.; Retallack, Gregory J.

    2001-03-01

    Existing empirically derived compaction curves for marine sediments fail to estimate the compaction of paleosols, flood-plain sediments, and peats as indicated by deformation of clastic dikes, dinosaur footprints, and sandstone paleochannels. Yet compaction estimates are vital to reconstructing paleoclimate and geochemical profiles of paleosols, to modeling sediment accumulation rates of nonmarine rocks, and to tectonic flexural modeling of molasse facies. This paper presents a compaction equation and physically derived constants that make geologically realistic estimates of compaction of paleosols and other nonmarine sediments. A protocol for the application of the equation is suggested that would allow the following equation to solve for burial compaction (C as a fraction of original thickness) given depth of burial (D in km) as: C = -Si/[(F0/ eDk) - 1]. This equation can be applied to nonmarine sedimentary rocks or paleosols given appropriate empirical data on the physical constants in the equation, such as initial solidity (Si), initial porosity (F0), and the corresponding curve-fitting constant (k). Data on physical constants useful for this equation are compiled here for a range of paleosol and nonmarine sediment types.

  15. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial.

  16. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  17. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  18. Using a geographic information system and scanning technology to create high-resolution land-use data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Craig A.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Battaglin, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) procedure was developed to compile low-altitude aerial photography, digitized data, and land-use data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Consolidated Farm Service Agency (CFSA) offices into a high-resolution (approximately 5 meters) land-use GIS data set. The aerial photography consisted of 35-mm slides which were scanned into tagged information file format (TIFF) images. These TIFF images were then imported into the GIS where they were registered into a geographically referenced coordinate system. Boundaries between land use were delineated from these GIS data sets using on-screen digitizing techniques. Crop types were determined using information obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture CFSA offices. Crop information not supplied by the CFSA was attributed by manual classification procedures. Automated methods to provide delineation of the field boundaries and land-use classification were investigated. It was determined that using these data sources, automated methods were less efficient and accurate than manual methods of delineating field boundaries and classifying land use.

  19. [Spatial-temporal evolution characterization of land subsidence by multi-temporal InSAR method and GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Bei; Gong, Hui-Li; Li, Xiao-Juan; Lei, Kun-Chao; Duan, Guang-Yao; Xie, Jin-Rong

    2014-04-01

    Long-term over-exploitation of underground resources, and static and dynamic load increase year by year influence the occurrence and development of regional land subsidence to a certain extent. Choosing 29 scenes Envisat ASAR images covering plain area of Beijing, China, the present paper used the multi-temporal InSAR method incorporating both persistent scatterer and small baseline approaches, and obtained monitoring information of regional land subsidence. Under different situation of space development and utilization, the authors chose five typical settlement areas; With classified information of land-use, multi-spectral remote sensing image, and geological data, and adopting GIS spatial analysis methods, the authors analyzed the time series evolution characteristics of uneven settlement. The comprehensive analysis results suggests that the complex situations of space development and utilization affect the trend of uneven settlement; the easier the situation of space development and utilization, the smaller the settlement gradient, and the less the uneven settlement trend.

  20. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  1. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  2. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  3. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  4. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  5. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  6. Messrs. Dinkins, Rangel, and Savage in Colloquy on the African Burial Ground: A Companion Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Expands the symbolic resources of the African Burial Ground through a dialogical reading of an essay in the same issue of this journal which offers a rhetorical examination of the controversy surrounding the African Burial Ground. Argues that, post-critique, controversies may be recuperated to recover an expanded sense of coalitional engagement,…

  7. Effects of Urban Stream Burial on Organic Matter Dynamics and Reach Scale Nitrate Retention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3-) by eliminating primar...

  8. Effects of urban stream burial on organic matter dynamics and reach scale nitrate retention - final

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3 −) by eliminating primar...

  9. Effects of Urban Stream Burial on Organic Matter Dynamics and Reach Scale Nitrate Retention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3-) by eliminating primar...

  10. Technical data summary: Plan for closure of the 643-G burial ground

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J R

    1987-08-17

    This report involves the actions of closing the 643-G burial ground which involves waste removal, stabilization, and capping. Remedial action involves the removing of the transuranic waste and closing of the grid wells. The closure cap for the burial site will consist of native soil, clay, and gravel. This will assure long-term physical and chemical stability. (MB)

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  12. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists and little research has addressed the extent to whi...

  13. Messrs. Dinkins, Rangel, and Savage in Colloquy on the African Burial Ground: A Companion Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Expands the symbolic resources of the African Burial Ground through a dialogical reading of an essay in the same issue of this journal which offers a rhetorical examination of the controversy surrounding the African Burial Ground. Argues that, post-critique, controversies may be recuperated to recover an expanded sense of coalitional engagement,…

  14. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists as a regional environmental impact and little resea...

  15. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists and little research has addressed the extent to whi...

  16. Effects of urban stream burial on organic matter dynamics and reach scale nitrate retention - final

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3 −) by eliminating primar...

  17. Research and application of a new kind of measurement technology of take-off and landing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunbao, Yang

    A video-based take-off and landing performance measurement system has been developed to aid in certification of the Y-12 aircraft. The system has high accuracy and is adaptable to computer analysis. Employing dual channel audio inputs, and the video system is capable of coordinating such synchronous signals as IRIG B time code and voice with flight data obtained using an airborne data acquisition system. Applications of the system include searching for the best take-off and landing flight path, the establishment of helicopter hovering capacity, and fly-over noise evaluation.

  18. The Impact of Off-site Land use Energy Intensity (LUEI) on the Overall Life Cycle LUEI for Utility-scale Solar Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, David J; Horner, Robert M.; Clark, Corrie E.

    2015-05-01

    Estimates of the amount of land used for a defined amount of utility-scale electricity generation in the solar power industry, referred to as solar land use energy intensity (LUEI), are important to decision makers for evaluating the environmental impact of energy technology choices. In general, solar energy tends to have a larger on-site LUEI than that of fossil fuels because the energy generated per square meter of power plant area is much lower. Unfortunately, there are few studies that quantify the off-site LUEI for utility-scale solar energy, and of those that do, they share common methodologies and data sets. In this study, we develop a new method for calculating the off-site LUEI for utility-scale solar energy for three different technologies: silicon photovoltaic (Si-PV), cadmium-telluride (CdTe) PV, and parabolic trough concentrated solar thermal. Our results indicate that the off-site LUEI is most likely 1% or less of the on-site LUEI for each technology. Although our results have some inherent uncertainties, they fall within an order of magnitude of other estimates in the literature.

  19. Biosecurity procedures for the environmental management of carcasses burial sites in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon-Ha; Pramanik, Sudipta

    2016-12-01

    Avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease are two main contagious pathogenic viral disease which are responsible for the massive burials of livestock in Korea since burial is the primary measure to control these outbreaks. Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to prevent the risk of spreading of these infectious diseases. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about the requirements of biosecurity and develop protocol outlines for environmental management of burial sites in Korea. Current practice prescribes to minimize the potential for on-farm pollution and the spread of the infectious diseases. Specific biosecurity procedures such as proper assessment of leachate quality, safe handling and disposal of leachate, adequate leachate pollution monitoring, necessary seasonal management of burial site, and appropriate sterilization process must be carried out to prevent the indirect transmission of pathogens from the burial sites. Policy makers should acquire robust knowledge of biosecurity for establishing more effective future legislation for carcasses disposal in Korea.

  20. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  1. Distribution of maximum burial temperatures across northern Appalachian Basin and implications for Carboniferous sedimentation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    Clay-mineral diagenesis and apatite fission-track age data indicate that the maximum burial temperatures to which the Middle Devonian Tioga metabentonite was exposed rise abruptly from low values in western New York State to higher values in the east. The highest temperatures, which approach 175/sup 0/C, were reached just west of Syracuse. Neither the pattern nor the magnitude of burial temperatures can be explained solely by burial of the metabentonite beneath Upper Devonian sediments. Although spatial variations in the geothermal gradient could have produced the observed pattern of burial temperatures, it is more likely that Carboniferous sediments, no longer preserved in the area, were responsible for the indicated burial. The inferred presence of thick Carboniferous sequences in western New York State suggests that the Allegheny orogeny had a stronger influence on sedimentation in the northern Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Burial patterns during times of armed conflict in Cyprus in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Mikellide, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The island of Cyprus experienced two periods of intercommunal conflict during which c. 2000 individuals went missing. The Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus began a program of exhumations in 2005, through which more than 185 burial sites pertaining to the two periods of conflict have been identified and excavated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to present a classification of the main types of clandestine burial and (ii) to test the hypothesis that the nature of conflict influences the mode of interment. Burials can be divided into "public burials" and "concealed burials," based on the possible motives of those involved in the interment and then subdivided into smaller categories based on similarities in archeological context. A comparison of results from the two periods of conflict reveals that there are statistical differences (p < 0.005), which indicate that the mode of interment may reflect the nature, character, and atmosphere of conflict.

  3. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  4. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  5. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  6. Implementation of geografic information technologies in agrochemical monitoring of land resources (by the example of Chernihiv region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatserkovniy, V. I.; Gebrin, L. V.; Komarova, U. Yu.; Kryvoberets, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article discusses the benefits of using GIS in the analysis of soils. Available software used for spatial analysis is illustrated. These features of the transition from traditional soil maps to geobase data, which opens wide prospects for a quick update existing soil maps, as well as combined analysis of soil resource information with information on terrain, climate and other parts of the land.

  7. Investigation and simulation on fate and transport of leachate from a livestock mortality burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate released from livestock mortality burial during decomposition of carcasses can be a threat to groundwater quality. Monitoring study of groundwater quality in the vicinity of livestock burial reported that a caution is needed to prevent contamination of both groundwater and soil, especially in case of mortality burial (Glanville, 2000; Ritter and Chirnside, 1995). The average concentration of ammonium-N and chloride is reported to be 12,600 mg/l and 2,600 mg/l respectively, which is 2-4 times higher than leachate from earthen manure storages and landfills (Pratt, 2009). To assess the potential threat of burial leachate to groundwater quality, simulation of leachate transport is performed based on a hydrogeologic model of an actual mortality burial site. At the burial site of this study located at a hill slope, two mortality pits have been constructed along the slope to bury swine during the outbreak of nationwide foot and mouth disease(FMD) in 2011. Though the pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage is still in concern. Electrical resistivity survey has been performed several times at the burial site and abnormal resistivity zones have been detected which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. Subsurface model including unsaturated zone is built since the leakage is supposed to occur mainly in lateral of the burial pits which is in unsaturated zone. When examining leachate transport, main focus is given to a nitrogenous compound and colloidal character of FMD virus. Nitrifying of denitrifying characters of nitrogenous compound and transport of colloidal particles are affected mainly by soil water content in unsaturated zone. Thus, the fate and transport of burial leachate affected by seasonal variation in recharge pattern is investigated.

  8. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area—Findings of a first experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeye, Matthias; Fettweis, Michael; Legrand, Sebastien; Dupont, Yves; Van Lancker, Vera

    2012-07-01

    The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbor related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for 3 months to investigate mine burial processes as a function of hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The mine experiment was conducted in a shallow (9 m), macrotidal environment characterized by highly turbid waters (yearly and depth-averaged suspended particulate matter concentration of 100 mg l-1). Results showed some variability of the overall mine burial, which corresponded with scouring processes induced by a (sub-) tidal forcing mechanism. The main burial events however were linked to storm-related scouring processes, and subsequent mine roll into the resulting pit. Two storms affecting the mines during the 3-month experiment resulted in enduring increases in burial volume to 60% and 80%, respectively. More cyclic and ephemeral burial and exposure events appear to be linked to the local hydrodynamic regime. During slack tides, suspended sediment settles on the seabed, increasing the burial volume. In between slack tides, sediment is resuspended, decreasing the burial volume. The temporal pattern of this never reported burial mechanism, as measured optically, mimics the cyclicity of the suspended sediment concentration as recorded by ultrasonic signals at a nearby benthic observatory. Given the similarity in response signals at the two sites, we hypothesize that the formation of high-concentrated mud suspensions (HCMS) is a mechanism causing short-term burial and exposure of mines. This short-term burial and exposure increase the chance that mines are 'missed' during tracking surveys. Test mines contribute to our understanding of the settling and erosion of HCMS, and thus shed a light on generic sedimentary processes.

  9. Stress-induced chemical waves in sediment burial diagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Budd, David A

    2012-02-21

    Lateral metre-scale periodic variations in porosity and composition are found in many dolomite strata. Such variations may embed important information about dolomite formation and transformation. Here we show that these variations could be fossilized chemical waves emerging from stress-mediated mineral-water interaction during sediment burial diagenesis. Under the overlying loading, crystals in higher porosity domains are subjected to a higher effective stress, causing pressure solution. The dissolved species diffuse to and precipitate in neighbouring lower porosity domains, further reducing the porosity. This positive feedback leads to lateral porosity and compositional patterning in dolomite. The pattern geometry depends on fluid flow regimes. In a diffusion-dominated case, the low- and high-porosity domains alternate spatially with no directional preference, while, in the presence of an advective flow, this alternation occurs only along the flow direction, propagating like a chemical wave. Our work provides a new perspective for interpreting diagenetic signatures in sedimentary rocks.

  10. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective.

  11. Burial metamorphism in rocks of the Western Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offler, R.; Aguirre, L.; Levi, B.; Child, S.

    1980-01-01

    An unconformity bound, episodic pattern of burial metamorphism is preserved in marine and terrestrial volcanic and sedimentary rocks which were deposited in the West Peruvian Trough during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. A particular metamorphic facies series is developed in each of the stratigraphic-structural units bounded by unconformities. In each unit, grade increases with stratigraphic depth and covers part or all of the range from zeolite to greenschist facies. At every unconformity a mineralogic break occurs where higher grade assemblages on top of the unconformity plane overlie lower grade assemblages. The presence of wairakite and the development of a wide range of metamorphic facies in thin sequences suggest high geothermal gradients, possibly related to generation of magma at depth.

  12. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-15

    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material; - Direct Burial; - Treatment (Processing); - Burial; - Treatment; - Unconditional Release; - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry; - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. This paper examines the options of controlled recycle of material within the nuclear industry and cites several successful examples. Controlled recycling of LLRW materials within the nuclear industry has been demonstrated to be practical and economical. The reuse of materials within the nuclear industry properly addressed stakeholder concerns for material being used for what they believe to be improper purposes. There are a number of environmental benefits including: - Preservation of resources; - Energy Conservation (in cases where less energy is required to recycle/reuse as compared to mainstream new fuel storages. - Preservation of burial space at disposal sites. In many cases recycling is cost beneficial as compared to other options to disposition the LLRW. In some cases burial costs are comparatively higher. To further the advancement of controlled recycle countries must continue to embrace the concept and create large enough feedstocks of like type material to achieve economies of scale. Additionally, a mechanism to uniformly track material to show where material has been moved and ultimately dispositioned would also contribute to enhancing the endorsement of controlled recycling. There is a large amount of LLRW material that could potentially be recycled. To date, 100 mines, 90 commercial power reactors, over 250 research reactors and a number of fuel cycle facilities, have been retired from operation. Some of these

  13. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-06-19

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each.

  14. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  15. Does burial diagenesis reset pristine isotopic compositions in paleosol carbonates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, M. K.; Sarkar, A.; Tandon, S. K.; Samanta, A.; Sanyal, P.

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentological study of early Oligocene continental carbonates from the fluvial Dagshai Formation of the Himalayan foreland basin, India resulted in the recognition of four different types namely, soil, palustrine, pedogenically modified palustrine and groundwater carbonates. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopic ( δ18O and δ13C) analyses of fabric selective carbonate microsamples show that although the pristine isotopic compositions are largely altered during deep-burial diagenesis, complete isotopic homogenization does not occur. δ18O and δ13C analyses of ~ 200 calcrete and palustrine carbonates from different stratigraphic horizons and comparison with δ18O of more robust bioapatite (fossil vertebrate tooth) phase show that dense micrites (~ > 70% carbonate) invariably preserve the pristine δ18O value (mean) of ~ - 9.8‰, while altered carbonates show much lower δ18O value ~ - 13.8‰. Such inhomogeneity causes large intra-sample and intra-soil profile variability as high as > 5‰, suggesting that soils behave like a closed system where diagenetic overprinting occurs in local domains. A simple fluid-rock interaction model suggests active participation of clay minerals to enhance the effect of fluid-rock ratio in local domains during diagenesis. This places an upper limit of 70% micrite concentration above which the effect of diagenetic alteration is minimal. Careful sampling of dense micritic part of the soil carbonate nodules, therefore, does provide pristine isotopic composition and it is inappropriate, as proposed recently, to reject the paleoclimatic potential of all paleosol carbonates affected by burial diagenesis. Based on pristine δ13C value of - 8.8 ± 0.2‰ in soil carbonates an atmospheric CO 2 concentration between ~ 764 and ~ 306 ppmv is estimated for the early Oligocene (~ 31 Ma) Dagshai time. These data show excellent agreement between two independent proxy records (viz. soil carbonate and marine alkenone) and support early Oligocene

  16. Organomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) enrichment in sediments deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) is commonly attributed to elevated productivity and marine anoxia. We find that OC enrichment in the late Cenomanian aged OAE2 at Demerara Rise was controlled by co-occurrence of anoxic bottom-water, sufficient productivity to saturate available mineral surfaces and variable deposition of high surface area detrital smectite clay. Redox indicators show consistently oxygen-depleted conditions, while a strong correlation between OC concentration and sediment mineral surface area (R2=0.92) occurs across a range of TOC values from 9-33%. X-ray diffraction data indicates intercalation of OC in smectite interlayers while electron, synchrotron infrared and X-ray microscopy show an intimate association between clay minerals and OC, consistent with preservation of OC as organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates rather than discrete, μm-scale pelagic detritus. Since the consistent ratio between TOC and mineral surface area suggests that excess OC relative to surface area is lost, we propose that it is the varying supply of smectite that best explains variable organic enrichment against a backdrop of continuous anoxia, which is conducive to generally high TOC during OAE2 at Demerara Rise. Smectitic clays are unique in their ability to form stable organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates that preserve organic matter, and are common weathering products of continental volcanic deposits. An increased flux of smectite coinciding with high carbon burial is consistent with evidence for widespread volcanism during OAE2, so that organomineral carbon burial may represent a potential feedback to volcanic degassing of CO2.

  17. Organomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Organic carbon (OC) enrichment in sediments deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) is commonly attributed to elevated productivity and marine anoxia. We find that OC enrichment in the late Cenomanian aged OAE 2 at the Demerara Rise was controlled by the co-occurrence of anoxic bottom water, sufficient productivity to saturate available mineral surfaces, and variable deposition of high surface area detrital smectite clay. Redox indicators show consistently oxygen-depleted conditions, while a strong correlation between OC concentration and sediment mineral surface area (R2 = 0.92) occurs across a range of total organic carbon (TOC) values from 9 to 33%. X-ray diffraction data indicate the intercalation of OC in smectite interlayers, while electron, synchrotron infrared and X-ray microscopy show an intimate association between clay minerals and OC, consistent with preservation of OC as organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates rather than discrete, μm-scale pelagic detritus. Since the consistent ratio between TOC and mineral surface area suggests that excess OC relative to surface area is lost, we propose that it is the varying supply of smectite that best explains variable organic enrichment against a backdrop of continuous anoxia, which is conducive to generally high TOC during OAE 2 at the Demerara Rise. Smectitic clays are unique in their ability to form stable organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates that preserve organic matter, and are common weathering products of continental volcanic deposits. An increased flux of smectite coinciding with high carbon burial is consistent with evidence for widespread volcanism during OAE 2, so that organomineral carbon burial may represent a potential feedback to volcanic degassing of CO2.

  18. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  19. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  20. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance... SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child..., the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for Burial...

  1. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  2. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  3. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  4. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  5. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  6. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  7. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  8. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities.'' DATES: Please submit comments by October 22...

  9. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft NUREG-1307, Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities,'' in the Federal...

  10. Water-level data for wells in Burial Ground 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1975-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., solid waste materials contaminated by low levels of radioactivity are disposed of in shallow trench burial areas termed ' burial grounds'. Data pertaining to wells in Burial Ground 6 are presented for the period 1975 to 1979. Included are an inventory of wells, measurements of water levels, well hydrographs, and a map showing the location of the wells. (USGS)

  11. The utility of a geographic information system in facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1994-12-31

    Facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis, which is indispensable for the evaluation of potential future uses for a site, is essentially spatial in nature. Spatial analysis is best accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), as a GIS allows the identification and reporting or mapping of complex relationships among multiple data layers such as geology, soils, vegetation, contamination, and facilities. GIS-based maps and reports are valuable tools for communicating facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints to decision makers. This paper defines the term {open_quotes}GIS,{close_quotes}, provides an example of how a GIS could be used to conduct opportunities and constraints analysis at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and summarizes the benefits of using a GIS for this analysis. Because a GIS is often seen as a {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} shrouded in technical jargon, this paper attempts to describe the concepts and benefits of a GIS in language understandable to decision makers who are not GIS experts but who migth profit from the use of GIS products. The purpose of this paper is to alert DOE decision makers to a valuable source of facility/land use-related information that already exists at many sites and that should not be overlook during the analysis of future use options.

  12. UAV technologies applied for monitoring the land use in the municipality of São Brás de Alportel, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedras, Celestina Maria G.; Neto Paixão, Helena Maria; Lança, Rui; Soares, Cristina; Silva, Elisa; Granja Martins, Fernando Miguel

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to develop a methodology to streamline the process of data acquisition on land cover in the municipality of S. Brás de Alportel, Portugal. The collected information allows the updating of the Forestry Fire Defense Municipal Plan (PMDFCI). This plan identifies the most vulnerable areas and priorities of action, concerning the prevention. Regarding the update of the PMDFCI, the study area was characterized in 2013. As this information is dynamic, it should be updated periodically, which is challenging, given the lack of human resources and the available technology. On the other hand, the obtained data detail and accuracy are directly related to the qualification of the operator and the complexity of the study area. However, data updating is crucial for the operationally of the PMDFCI. Currently, the data update of the land's occupation and use in this municipality is primarily made through field work, followed by their update in the cartography at the office, supported by the Algarve Forest Planning Regional Plan (PROF Algarve). The use of aerial images obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Northwest area of S. Brás de Alportel and its classification with a supervised methodology, will allow the discrimination of the land cover classes in a more expeditious manner. This result when compared with the information collected through field work, will allow to verify the precision of the obtained information, aiming the use of the proposed methodology in the rest of the country.

  13. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Hakonson, T.E.; Burton, B.W.; Perkins, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    Three field experiments that will provide data on water movement in SLB facilities are described. The experiments are designed to measure water movement, to quantify techniques to control water movement and to determine the effects of surface moisture content fluctuations on liquid and vapor movement back to the surface.

  14. Drought effect on biocrust resilience: High-speed winds result in crust burial and crust rupture and flaking.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Giora J; Ying, Wang; Starinsky, Abraham; Herzberg, Moshe

    2017-02-01

    Once established, biocrusts (known also as biological soil crusts or microbiotic crusts) are thought to be relatively resilient to wind erosion, with crust burial being considered as the main mechanism responsible for crust death. Thus far, to the best of our knowledge, crust flaking and rupture under natural conditions were not reported. We report herein a two-year study during two severe drought years (2010-2012) in a dunefield in the Negev Desert during which in addition to crust burial, crust rupture and flaking also took place. As for crust burial, it took place under sand sheets or coppice dunes (mounds). Subsequent removal of the coppice dunes by wind resulted in crust disintegration and erosion of the formerly buried crust and the formation of patches devoid of crusts termed herein 'erosion cirques'. As for crust flaking and rupture, it is explained by a large change in the properties of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composing the crust. The EPS adherence and viscoelastic properties were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCD-M) technology. EPS adherence and viscoelastic properties deduced from the QCM-D experiments suggest that crust coherence and elasticity, mediated by the EPS, were affected by droughts. Although crust flaking affected up to 25% of the interdunal surface, it is suggested that with continuous rain shortage, further crust flaking is likely to take place under continuous drought-driven dry surface conditions. This positive feedback mechanism, during which initially eroded crusts trigger additional crust erosion, may have severe consequences on the structure and function of drought-prone ecosystems, and may endanger the stability of dunefields, causing dust storms, triggering dune encroachment and declining air quality.

  15. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze “Dark Ages”

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350–2000 BCE) is known as the “Dark Ages,” following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB “Dark Ages.” PMID:28253312

  16. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    PubMed

    Sharon, Gonen; Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE) is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-H-1, 116-H Reactor Stack Burial Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-053

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-26

    The 132-H-1 waste site includes the 116-H exhaust stack burial trench and the buried stack foundation (which contains an embedded vertical 15-cm (6-in) condensate drain line). The 116-H reactor exhaust stack and foundation were decommissioned and demolished using explosives in 1983, with the rubble buried in situ beneath clean fill at least 1 m (3.3 ft) thick. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  18. Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS): A conceptual system design and identification of the critical technologies: Part 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naderi, F. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual system design for a satellite-aided land mobile service is described. A geostationary satellite which employs a large (55-m) UHF reflector to communicate with small inexpensive user antennas on mobile vehicles is discussed. It is shown that such a satellite system through multiple beam antennas and frequency reuse can provide thousands of radiotelephone and dispatch channels serving hundreds of thousands of users throughout the U.S.

  19. Development of a national geodatabase (Greece) for soil surveys and land evaluation using space technology and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilas, George; Dionysiou, Nina; Karapetsas, Nikolaos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Kosmas, Konstantinos; Misopollinos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    This project was funded by OPEKEPE, Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food, Greece and involves development of a national geodatabase and a WebGIS that encompass soil data of all the agricultural areas of Greece in order to supply the country with a multi-purpose master plan for agricultural land management. The area mapped covered more than 385,000 ha divided in more than 9.000 Soil Mapping Units (SMUs) based on physiographic analysis, field work and photo interpretation of satellite images. The field work included description and sampling in three depths (0-30, 30-60 and >60 cm) of 2,000 soil profiles and 8,000 augers (sampling 0-30 and >30 cm). In total more than 22,000 soil samples were collected and analyzed for determining main soil properties associated with soil classification and soil evaluation. Additionally the project included (1) integration of all data in the Soil Geodatabase, (2) finalization of SMUs, (3) development of a Master Plan for Agricultural Land Management and (4) development and operational testing of the Web Portal for e-information and e-services. The integrated system is expected, after being fully operational, to provide important electronic services and benefits to farmers, private sector and governmental organizations. An e-book with the soil maps of Greece was also provided including 570 sheets with data description and legends. The Master Plan for Agricultural Land Management includes soil quality maps for 30 agricultural crops, together with maps showing soil degradation risks, such as erosion, desertification, salinity and nitrates, thus providing the tools for soil conservation and sustainable land management.

  20. Assessment of land cover change and desertification using remote sensing technology in a local region of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamchin, Munkhnasan; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Moonil; Lim, Chul-Hee; Choi, Hyun-Ah; Kim, So-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Desertification is a serious ecological, environmental, and socio-economic threat to the world, and there is a pressing need to develop a reasonable and reproducible method to assess it at different scales. In this paper, the Hogno Khaan protected area in Mongolia was selected as the study area, and a quantitative method for assessing land cover change and desertification assessment was developed using Landsat TM/ETM+ data on a local scale. In this method, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), TGSI (Topsoil Grain Size Index), and land surface albedo were selected as indicators for representing land surface conditions from vegetation biomass, landscape pattern, and micrometeorology. A Decision Tree (DT) approach was used to assess the land cover change and desertification of the Hogno Khaan protected area in 1990, 2002, and 2011. Our analysis showed no correlation between NDVI and albedo or TGSI but high correlation between TGSI and albedo. Strong correlations (0.77-0.92) between TGSI and albedo were found in the non-desertification areas. The TGSI was less strongly correlated with albedo in the low and non desertification areas, at 0.70 and 0.92; respectively. The desertification of the study area is increasing each year; in the desertification map for 1990-2002, there is a decrease in areas of zero and low desertification, and an increase in areas of high and severe desertification. From 2002 to 2011, areas of non desertification increased significantly, with areas of severe desertification also exhibiting increase, while areas of medium and high desertification demonstrated little change.