Science.gov

Sample records for land pollution

  1. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  2. Determining Land Surface Temperature Relations with Land Use-Land Cover and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahya, Ceyhan; Bektas Balcik, Filiz; Burak Oztaner, Yasar; Guney, Burcu

    2016-04-01

    Rapid population growth in conjunction with unplanned urbanization, expansion, and encroachment into the limited agricultural fields and green areas have negative impacts on vegetated areas. Land Surface Temperature (LST), Urban Heat Islands (UHI) and air pollution are the most important environmental problems that the extensive part of the world suffers from. The main objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between LST, air pollution and Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) in Istanbul, using Landsat 8 OLI satellite image. Mono-window algorithm is used to compute LST from Landsat 8 TIR data. In order to determine the air pollution, in-situ measurements of particulate matter (PM10) of the same day as the Landsat 8 OLI satellite image are obtained. The results of this data are interpolated using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method and LULC categories of Istanbul were determined by using remote sensing indices. Error matrix was created for accuracy assessment. The relationship between LST, air pollution and LULC categories are determined by using regression analysis method. Keywords: Land Surface Temperature (LST), air pollution, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC), Istanbul

  3. Pollution, contamination and future land use at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Gochfeld, M; Shukla, S; Jeitner, C; Ramos, R; Tsipoura, Nellie; Donio, M

    2008-10-01

    Scientists interested in contamination normally deal only with pollution itself, not with people's perceptions of pollution or the relationship between pollution and land use. The overall objective of this article was to examine the relationship between people's perceptions of pollution and their views on future land use. People were interviewed at an Earth Day Festival near the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on Long Island, New York. On an open-ended question, people thought that BNL should be left as it is, or maintained as a preserve, park or conservation area, or used for environmental research. Almost no one thought that it should be used for housing or industrial purposes. When asked to rate a list of possible future land uses, maintaining BNL as a National Environmental Research Park for research and for recreation were rated the highest (nuclear storage was rated the lowest). This was consistent with the subjects' views that pollution was the greatest concern about BNL. The congruence between perceptions about concerns or problems and future land use preferences suggests a unified view of management of contaminated sites, such as BNL, at least among a group of people whose environmental interests were evident by their presence at the event. PMID:18446260

  4. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  5. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. PMID:25456147

  6. Inferring non-point pollution from land cover analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Richard F.

    Best Management Practices (BMP's) in farming were found to significantly reduce agricultural non-point water pollution in Central Indiana. Through the implementation of systems of conservation tillage practices and structural measures at the farm level, reductions in runoff were achieved, thereby minimizing erosion and subsequent sedimentation and pollution of the surface water system. These conclusions resulted from a three and one-half year study entitled, ``The Indiana Heartland Model Implementation Project'' administered by the Indiana Heartland Coordinating Commission, involving cooperation and coordination of farmers, citizens, and a multi-agency, multi-disciplinary team comprised of four universities and numerous governmental agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded research, while the U.S. Department of Agriculture provided cost share monies for BMP implementation. A comprehensive geographically encoded computer-aided data base was constructed which included information on land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, soils, etc. Land cover map files were compiled through remote sensing including Landsat MSS digital data and low altitude color infrared aerial photography sources. This digital data base was suited for spatial and statistical analyses and transferred easily as input to Purdue University's ANSWERS Model for further watershed assessment. The ANSWERS Model is a distributed deterministic model which simulates the monitored reaction of subwatersheds to actual storm events. Through this model inferences were made as to the expected water quality improvements, given BMP's were implemented at critical areas for erosion throughout both watersheds.

  7. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  8. Agricultural lands are hot-spots for annual runoff polluting the southern Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

    PubMed

    Packett, Robert; Dougall, Cameron; Rohde, Ken; Noble, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The world's largest coral reef ecosystem, the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), continues to be degraded from land-based pollution. Information about the source of pollutants is critical for catchment management to improve GBR water quality. We report here on an 11-year source to sea study of pollutant delivery in runoff from the Fitzroy River Basin (FRB), the largest GBR catchment. An innovative technique that relates land use to pollutant generation is presented. Study results indicate that maximum pollutant concentrations at basin and sub-catchment scales are closely related to the percentage area of croplands receiving heavy rain. However, grazing lands contribute the majority of the long-term average annual load of most common pollutants. Findings suggest improved land management targets, rather than water quality targets should be implemented to reduce GBR pollution. This study provides a substantial contribution to the knowledge base for the targeted management of pollution 'hot-spots' to improve GBR water quality.

  9. Urban air pollution patterns, land use, and thermal landscape: an examination of the linkage using GIS.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qihao; Yang, Shihong

    2006-06-01

    This article investigates the relationship of local air pollution pattern with urban land use and with urban thermal landscape using a GIS approach. Ambient air quality measurements for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, total suspended particles, and dust level were obtained for Guangzhou City in South China between 1981 and 2000. Landsat TM images and aerial photo derived maps were used to examine city's land use and land cover at different times and changes. Landsat thermal infrared data were employed to compute land surface temperatures and to assess urban thermal patterns. Relationships among the spatial patterns of air pollution, land use, and thermal landscape were sought through GIS and correlation analyses. Results show that the spatial patterns of air pollutants probed were positively correlated with urban built-up density, and with satellite derived land surface temperature values, particularly with measurements taken during the summer. It is suggested that further studies investigate the mechanisms of this linkage, and that remote sensing of air pollution delves into how the energy interacts with the atmosphere and the environment and how sensors see pollutants. Thermal infrared imagery could play a unique role in monitoring and modeling atmospheric pollution.

  10. Upper Little Tennessee River aerial inventory of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerman, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    Local residents have expressed concern about water quality in the Little Tennessee River, and the possibility of nonpoint source pollution was identified. In response, TVA conducted an analysis of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources in the upper Little Tennessee River watershed. Aerial photography, taken in March 1988 and March 1989, was analyzed for the 197,000 acre watershed upstream of Porters Bend Dam (Lake Emory). In the analysis, the land surface was divided into four urban land use classes, nine agricultural land use classes, four forest land use classes, and a class for disturbed areas; livestock operations and critical sites, such as eroding roads and stream banks were located. Soil erosion rate estimates were calculated for all land uses except closed-canopy forest.

  11. Towards protecting the Great Barrier Reef from land-based pollution.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Thorburn, Peter; Schaffelke, Britta; Whitten, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an iconic coral reef system extending over 2000 km along the north-east coast of Australia. Global recognition of its Outstanding Universal Value resulted in the listing of the 348 000 km(2) GBR World Heritage Area (WHA) by UNESCO in 1981. Despite various levels of national and international protection, the condition of GBR ecosystems has deteriorated over the past decades, with land-based pollution from the adjacent catchments being a major and ongoing cause for this decline. To reduce land-based pollution, the Australian and Queensland Governments have implemented a range of policy initiatives since 2003. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of existing initiatives to reduce discharge of land-based pollutants into the waters of the GBR. We conclude that recent efforts in the GBR catchments to reduce land-based pollution are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the GBR ecosystems from declining water quality within the aspired time frames. To support management decisions for desired ecological outcomes for the GBR WHA, we identify potential improvements to current policies and incentives, as well as potential changes to current agricultural land use, based on overseas experiences and Australia's unique potential. The experience in the GBR may provide useful guidance for the management of other marine ecosystems, as reducing land-based pollution by better managing agricultural sources is a challenge for coastal communities around the world. PMID:26922913

  12. Towards protecting the Great Barrier Reef from land-based pollution.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Thorburn, Peter; Schaffelke, Britta; Whitten, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an iconic coral reef system extending over 2000 km along the north-east coast of Australia. Global recognition of its Outstanding Universal Value resulted in the listing of the 348 000 km(2) GBR World Heritage Area (WHA) by UNESCO in 1981. Despite various levels of national and international protection, the condition of GBR ecosystems has deteriorated over the past decades, with land-based pollution from the adjacent catchments being a major and ongoing cause for this decline. To reduce land-based pollution, the Australian and Queensland Governments have implemented a range of policy initiatives since 2003. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of existing initiatives to reduce discharge of land-based pollutants into the waters of the GBR. We conclude that recent efforts in the GBR catchments to reduce land-based pollution are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the GBR ecosystems from declining water quality within the aspired time frames. To support management decisions for desired ecological outcomes for the GBR WHA, we identify potential improvements to current policies and incentives, as well as potential changes to current agricultural land use, based on overseas experiences and Australia's unique potential. The experience in the GBR may provide useful guidance for the management of other marine ecosystems, as reducing land-based pollution by better managing agricultural sources is a challenge for coastal communities around the world.

  13. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

    PubMed

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-13

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.

  14. Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution: contribution from the land application of sewage sludge in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Land, Lynton S

    2012-11-01

    Human health concerns and the dissemination of anthropogenic substances with unknown consequences are the reasons most often given why disposal of municipal sewage sludge in landfills or using the organic waste as biofuel is preferable to land application. But no "fertilizer" causes more nitrogen pollution than sludge when applied according to Virginia law. Poultry litter is the only other "fertilizer" that causes more phosphorus pollution than sludge. Cost savings by the few farmers in Virginia who use sludge are far less than the costs of the nitrogen pollution they cause. A ban on the land application of all forms of animal waste is very cost-effective and would reduce Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution by 25%.

  15. Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution: contribution from the land application of sewage sludge in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Land, Lynton S

    2012-11-01

    Human health concerns and the dissemination of anthropogenic substances with unknown consequences are the reasons most often given why disposal of municipal sewage sludge in landfills or using the organic waste as biofuel is preferable to land application. But no "fertilizer" causes more nitrogen pollution than sludge when applied according to Virginia law. Poultry litter is the only other "fertilizer" that causes more phosphorus pollution than sludge. Cost savings by the few farmers in Virginia who use sludge are far less than the costs of the nitrogen pollution they cause. A ban on the land application of all forms of animal waste is very cost-effective and would reduce Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution by 25%. PMID:22831861

  16. Land Resources and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's land resources. The visual aids,…

  17. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  18. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2012-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (∼78%) and nutrients (∼30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  19. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2012-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (∼78%) and nutrients (∼30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices. PMID:22790209

  20. Effect of dramatic land use change on gaseous pollutant emissions from biomass burning in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongmei; Tong, Daniel Q.; Gao, Chuanyu; Wang, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Biomass burning contributes a substantial amount of gas and particle emissions to the atmosphere. As China's breadbasket, northeast China has experienced dramatic land use change in the past century, converting approximately 55 × 104 ha of wetland into farmland to feed a rapidly growing population. This study combines measured emission factors of dominant crops (rice and soybean) and wetland plants (Calamagrostis angu-stifolia, Carex lasiocarpa, Carex pseudo-curaica) and remote sensing land use data to estimate the effect of the unprecedented land use change on gaseous pollutants emissions from biomass burning. Our biomass burning emission estimates resulting from land use changes have increased because of increased post-harvest crop residue burning and decreased burning of wetland plants. From 1986 to 2005, the total emissions of CO2, CO, CXHY, SO2 and NO have increased by 18.6%, 35.7%, 26.8%, 66.2% and 33.2%, respectively. We have found two trends in agricultural burning: increased dryland crop residue burning and decreased wetland (rice paddy) burning. Our results revealed that the large scale land use change in northeastern China has induced more active biomass-burning emissions. The regional emission inventory of gaseous pollutants derived from this work may be used to support further examination of the subsequent effects on regional climate and air quality simulations with numerical atmospheric models.

  1. Sand Mountain/Guntersville Reservoir: Aerial inventory of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources: Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerman, J.R.

    1990-04-01

    The Sand Mountain portion of the Guntersville Reservoir drainage has been identified as an area of concern for nonpoint source water pollution. In response, a study of nonpoint potential was initiated on this 593 square mile area, which represents 23% of the drainage area of Guntersville Reservoir downstream of Nickajack Dam. Aerial photography was taken in March of 1986. From this photography, a map was produced showing land use and land cover and locations of animal production facilities. Soil erosion rates were estimated for the land uses that have the greatest erosion potential. This report documents the study and presents the data produced by the study. The data are presented as a table of land use and erosion rate estimates for each of 6609 fields, and a table listing animal type of 2333 animal production sites. Average estimated erosion on the land uses considered erosive is 5.7 to 8.4 tons per acre per year. There are 3.9 animal production sites per square mile on the study area. Tables summarize these results as totals and averages by hydrologic unit. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Upper Little Tennessee River aerial inventory of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources. Volume 1, Summary and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerman, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    Local residents have expressed concern about water quality in the Little Tennessee River, and the possibility of nonpoint source pollution was identified. In response, TVA conducted an analysis of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources in the upper Little Tennessee River watershed. Aerial photography, taken in March 1988 and March 1989, was analyzed for the 197,000 acre watershed upstream of Porters Bend Dam (Lake Emory). In the analysis, the land surface was divided into four urban land use classes, nine agricultural land use classes, four forest land use classes, and a class for disturbed areas; livestock operations and critical sites, such as eroding roads and stream banks were located. Soil erosion rate estimates were calculated for all land uses except closed-canopy forest.

  3. Rapid urban growth, land-use changes and air pollution in Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, H.; Ihl, M.; Rivera, A.; Zalazar, P.; Azocar, P.

    This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the topoclimatic and environmental geography of the basin where Santiago — one of the most polluted Latin American city - is located. In the first part, land-use change is analysed looking at the climatic transformation caused by the rapid transit from natural semiarid surface to urban areas. In the second part, seasonal weather and daily cycles of slope winds and the available ventilation are described trying to relate those patterns with the spatial distribution of air pollution. A combination of meteorological, geographical and cultural factors explain extreme air pollution events: meteorologically, Santiago is under permanent subsidence inversion layers. Geographically, the city is located in a closed basin surrounded by mountains. Culturally, the urban area has the highest population concentration (40% of the national total), industries (near 70% of the total) and vehicles, which are the main sources of smog. The urban and suburban transport system is based on a large number of buses (diesel) and private cars, both experiencing a rapid growth from the past few years. The city and specially the transport system generates high emissions of pollutant, but the natural semiarid deforested soils and slopes are also important sources. The local wind system can explain the differential spatial distribution on the concentration of air pollutants in the city and its periphery. In winter (rain season) concentrations of particulate matter are higher at the centre and the SW part of the city. The andean piedmont area (E part of the city) shows minimum values, suggesting major ventilation effects of slope and valley winds. Ozone exceeds air quality standards in summer (dry season) at all sites in the centre and periphery. However, the O 3-concentrations are higher on preferred residential areas located at the piedmont area (E part of the city), suggesting air pollution transport effects. Currently, there is no

  4. Response of autochthonous microbiota of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments.

    PubMed

    Silva-Castro, Gloria Andrea; Uad, Imane; Rodríguez-Calvo, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Calvo, Concepción

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the response of autochthonous microorganisms of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments. Inorganic NPK (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium) fertilizer and Ivey surfactant were applied alone or in combination as biostimulating agents. The study was carried out in experimental separated land-farming plots performed with two soils: a sandy clay soil with low biological activity and a sandy clay soil with higher biological activity, contaminated with two concentrations of diesel: 10,000 and 20,000mgkg(-1). Bacterial growth, dehydrogenase activity and CO2 production were the biological parameters evaluated. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis proved that moisture content showed a tendency related to microbial growth and that heterotrophic and degrading microorganisms had the best relationship. Initial biological activity of soil influenced the response with 11.1% of variability attributed to this parameter. Soils with low activity had higher degree of response to nutrient addition. PMID:25486545

  5. Response of autochthonous microbiota of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments.

    PubMed

    Silva-Castro, Gloria Andrea; Uad, Imane; Rodríguez-Calvo, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Calvo, Concepción

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the response of autochthonous microorganisms of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments. Inorganic NPK (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium) fertilizer and Ivey surfactant were applied alone or in combination as biostimulating agents. The study was carried out in experimental separated land-farming plots performed with two soils: a sandy clay soil with low biological activity and a sandy clay soil with higher biological activity, contaminated with two concentrations of diesel: 10,000 and 20,000mgkg(-1). Bacterial growth, dehydrogenase activity and CO2 production were the biological parameters evaluated. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis proved that moisture content showed a tendency related to microbial growth and that heterotrophic and degrading microorganisms had the best relationship. Initial biological activity of soil influenced the response with 11.1% of variability attributed to this parameter. Soils with low activity had higher degree of response to nutrient addition.

  6. Haze and ozone pollution effects on the land carbon sink in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Harper, K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pollutants have both beneficial and detrimental effects on carbon assimilation by land ecosystems. Aerosols promote carbon uptake by increasing diffuse radiation, while ozone damages leaf photosynthesis by oxidizing plant cells. As the world's largest emitter of air pollutants, China experiences frequent haze episodes. In this study, we apply coupled chemistry-carbon-climate simulations using the Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere Model that is embedded in the NASA ModelE2 global chemistry-climate model to quantify the combined effects of ozone and aerosol pollution on land carbon assimilation for the present and future world. The simulated land carbon cycle has been extensively evaluated at 145 FLUXNET sites globally. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface ozone are validated with satellite data and air quality monitoring data from a network of 188 Chinese sites. In the present day, we find that air pollution in China reduces net primary productivity (NPP) by 0.47 Pg C a-1 (10.8%), resulting from an increase of 0.13 Pg C a-1 (3.1%) by aerosol diffuse radiation fertilization and a decrease of 0.60 Pg C a-1 (13.9%) by ozone vegetation damage. Sensitivity simulations indicate that the effects are dominated by anthropogenic emissions. Simulations using natural precursor emissions only show minor changes in NPP. The IPCC RCP8.5 future world predicts an 18% reduction in SO2 emissions but increases of 17% in NOx and 15% in volatile organic compound emissions in 2030 relative to 2010. The emissions changes lead to reduced AOD but enhanced surface ozone over eastern China in 2030. For this future projection, we estimate a stronger NPP reduction of 0.62 Pg C a-1 (12.5%) due to air pollution in 2030. The increased future damage is a consequence of the opposing sign effects of aerosol diffuse radiation fertilization (0.13 Pg C a-1; 2.6%) and larger ozone inhibition (0.75 Pg C a-1; 15.1%).

  7. Predicting microbial pollution concentrations in UK rivers in response to land use change.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Danyel; Crowther, John; Bateman, Ian; Kay, David; Posen, Paulette; Stapleton, Carl; Wyer, Mark; Fezzi, Carlo; Jones, Philip; Tzanopoulos, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive has caused a paradigm shift towards the integrated management of recreational water quality through the development of drainage basin-wide programmes of measures. This has increased the need for a cost-effective diagnostic tool capable of accurately predicting riverine faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations. This paper outlines the application of models developed to fulfil this need, which represent the first transferrable generic FIO models to be developed for the UK to incorporate direct measures of key FIO sources (namely human and livestock population data) as predictor variables. We apply a recently developed transfer methodology, which enables the quantification of geometric mean presumptive faecal coliforms and presumptive intestinal enterococci concentrations for base- and high-flow during the summer bathing season in unmonitored UK watercourses, to predict FIO concentrations in the Humber river basin district. Because the FIO models incorporate explanatory variables which allow the effects of policy measures which influence livestock stocking rates to be assessed, we carry out empirical analysis of the differential effects of seven land use management and policy instruments (fiscal constraint, production constraint, cost intervention, area intervention, demand-side constraint, input constraint, and micro-level land use management) all of which can be used to reduce riverine FIO concentrations. This research provides insights into FIO source apportionment, explores a selection of pollution remediation strategies and the spatial differentiation of land use policies which could be implemented to deliver river quality improvements. All of the policy tools we model reduce FIO concentrations in rivers but our research suggests that the installation of streamside fencing in intensive milk producing areas may be the single most effective land management strategy to reduce riverine microbial pollution.

  8. Predicting microbial pollution concentrations in UK rivers in response to land use change.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Danyel; Crowther, John; Bateman, Ian; Kay, David; Posen, Paulette; Stapleton, Carl; Wyer, Mark; Fezzi, Carlo; Jones, Philip; Tzanopoulos, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive has caused a paradigm shift towards the integrated management of recreational water quality through the development of drainage basin-wide programmes of measures. This has increased the need for a cost-effective diagnostic tool capable of accurately predicting riverine faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations. This paper outlines the application of models developed to fulfil this need, which represent the first transferrable generic FIO models to be developed for the UK to incorporate direct measures of key FIO sources (namely human and livestock population data) as predictor variables. We apply a recently developed transfer methodology, which enables the quantification of geometric mean presumptive faecal coliforms and presumptive intestinal enterococci concentrations for base- and high-flow during the summer bathing season in unmonitored UK watercourses, to predict FIO concentrations in the Humber river basin district. Because the FIO models incorporate explanatory variables which allow the effects of policy measures which influence livestock stocking rates to be assessed, we carry out empirical analysis of the differential effects of seven land use management and policy instruments (fiscal constraint, production constraint, cost intervention, area intervention, demand-side constraint, input constraint, and micro-level land use management) all of which can be used to reduce riverine FIO concentrations. This research provides insights into FIO source apportionment, explores a selection of pollution remediation strategies and the spatial differentiation of land use policies which could be implemented to deliver river quality improvements. All of the policy tools we model reduce FIO concentrations in rivers but our research suggests that the installation of streamside fencing in intensive milk producing areas may be the single most effective land management strategy to reduce riverine microbial pollution. PMID:20708770

  9. Ozone pollution effects on the land carbon sink in the future greenhouse world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone pollution has huge impacts on the carbon balance in the United States, Europe and China. While terrestrial ecosystems provide an important sink for surface ozone through stomatal uptake, this process damages photosynthesis, reduces plant growth and biomass accumulation, and affects stomatal control over plant transpiration of water vapor. Effective mitigation of climate change by stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations requires improved understanding of ozone effects on the land carbon sink. Future effects of ozone pollution on the land carbon sink are largely unknown. We apply multiple observational datasets in combination with the Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to quantify ozone vegetation damage in the present climatic state and for a broad range of possible futures. YIBs includes a mechanistic ozone damage model that affects both photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance for low or high ozone plant sensitivity. YIBs is embedded in the NASA GISS ModelE2 global chemistry-climate model to allow a uniquely informed integration of plant physiology, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The YIBs model has been extensively evaluated using land carbon flux measurements from 145 flux tower sites and multiple satellite products. Chronic ozone exposure in the present day reduces GPP by 11-23%, NPP by 8-16%, stomatal conductance by 8-17% and leaf area index by 2-5% in the summer time eastern United States. Similar response magnitudes are found in Europe but almost doubled damage effects occur in hotspots in eastern China. We investigate future ozone vegetation damage within the context of multiple global change drivers (physical climate change, carbon dioxide fertilization, human energy and agricultural emissions, human land use) at 2050 following the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the RCP8.5 world at 2050, growing season average GPP and NPP are reduced by 20-40% in China and 5-20% in the United States due to the global rise

  10. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  11. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution.

  12. Assessment of the Impacts of Land Use Changes on Nonpoint Source Pollution Inputs Upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huicai; Yang, Yan; Xue, Baolin; Wu, Binbin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, land use upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed significantly because of the TGR project. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was examined for its ability to assess relationships between land use changes and nonpoint pollutant indexes upstream of the TGR. Results indicated that the SWAT model, calibrated with the adjusted parameters, could successfully reproduce the nonpoint indexes at the water quality monitoring sites in the two rivers. The different land use change types were shown to be sensitive to nonpoint pollutants in the study area. The land use change type from upland to water was the strongest influence on changes in total nitrogen and total phosphorus. An empirical regression equation between nonpoint indexes and different land use change types was developed for the study area by partial least squares regression (PLSR) as follows: Y = b0 + ∑i=1mbiXi. This regression equation was useful for evaluating the influence of land use change types on changes in nonpoint pollutants over a long time period. The results from this study may be useful for the TGR management and may help to reduce nonpoint pollutant loads into downstream water bodies. PMID:24977205

  13. Assessment of the impacts of land use changes on nonpoint source pollution inputs upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huicai; Wang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yan; Xue, Baolin; Wu, Binbin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, land use upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed significantly because of the TGR project. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was examined for its ability to assess relationships between land use changes and nonpoint pollutant indexes upstream of the TGR. Results indicated that the SWAT model, calibrated with the adjusted parameters, could successfully reproduce the nonpoint indexes at the water quality monitoring sites in the two rivers. The different land use change types were shown to be sensitive to nonpoint pollutants in the study area. The land use change type from upland to water was the strongest influence on changes in total nitrogen and total phosphorus. An empirical regression equation between nonpoint indexes and different land use change types was developed for the study area by partial least squares regression (PLSR) as follows: Y = b 0 + ∑ i=1 (m) b i X i. This regression equation was useful for evaluating the influence of land use change types on changes in nonpoint pollutants over a long time period. The results from this study may be useful for the TGR management and may help to reduce nonpoint pollutant loads into downstream water bodies.

  14. SIMPLE: assessment of non-point phosphorus pollution from agricultural land to surface waters by means of a new methodology.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, O F; Mol-Dijkstra, J; Akkermans, L M W; Roest, C W J

    2002-01-01

    In the past, environmental Phosphorus (P) parameters like soil P indices have been used to catogorize the potential risk of P losses from agricultural land. In order to assess the actual risk of P pollution of groundwater and surface waters, dynamic process oriented soil and water quality models have been frequently used. Recently, an approximating model for phosphorus, called SIMPLE, has been developed. This model approximates the output from a complex dynamic water quality model. The approximating model is called a metamodel. This simple P-model proves to be a powerful tool for quick assessment of the risk of P pollution from agricultural land to surface waters. PMID:12079100

  15. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    PubMed

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  16. Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models.

  17. Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models. PMID:26530819

  18. Report on land-based sources of marine pollution in the Caribbean. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The document presents information gathered during a series of interviews with professionals from governmental agencies in each of the Caribbean nations, with the exception of the U.S. possessions. The report provides, on a nation-by-nation basis, background information regarding the sources of pollution and the agencies within each nation which retain some authority to remedy or otherwise manage these problems. Names of contact persons within these agencies, their phone numbers and addresses are also provided. The audience for the report is persons within organizations in the Caribbean Basin nations working to coordinate activities aimed at identifying and reducing land based sources of marine pollution. The report is a resource for achieving unified environmental efforts in the region. The final section briefly notes factors which may work in favor of regional solutions and those that may not.

  19. Aquifer vulnerability to pesticide pollution - Combining soil, land-use and aquifer properties with molecular descriptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worrall, F.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study uses an extensive survey of herbicides in groundwater across the midwest United States to predict occurrences of a range of compounds across the region from a combination of their molecular properties and the properties of the catchment of a borehole. The study covers 100 boreholes and eight pesticides. For each of the boreholes its catchment the soil, land-use and aquifer properties were characterized. Discriminating boreholes where pollution occurred from those where no pollution occurred gave a model that was 74% correct with organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table being significant properties of the borehole catchment. Molecular topological descriptors as well as Koc, solubility and half-life were used to characterize each compound included in the study. Inclusion of molecular properties makes it possible to discriminate between occurrence and non-occurrence of each compound in each well. The best-fit model combines: organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table with molecular descriptors representing molecular size, molecular branching and functional group composition of the herbicides.

  20. [Relationship between urban green-land landscape patterns and air pollution in the central district of Yichang city].

    PubMed

    Shao, Tianyi; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Tang, Wanpeng; Liu, Xuequan; Hu, Xingyi

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, four types of landscape structures and their green-land landscape patterns, including the landscapes of dominant green-land patch pattern, even green-land patch pattern, dominant wooded corridor pattern and building or concrete covering pattern (control) in the central district of Yichang city in Hubei Province, were analyzed respectively on the basis of landscape ecological theory. The atmospheric noise and the contents of SO2, NOx and total suspension particle (TSP) of the landscapes were monitored respectively by comparative method. The results showed that the landscape of building or concrete covering pattern (control) was mostly composed of woodless corridors and building or concrete covering patches with the tiptop green-land fragmentation index (18.125 3 ind x hm(-2)) and only had 1.00% green-land coverage, which had a relatively higher atmospheric noise and the highest TSP content in the landscape. The landscape of dominant green-land patch pattern had the highest green-land coverage (up to 43.59%) dominated by great green-land patches and the least fragmentation index (0.453 9 ind x hm(-2)), in which, the atmospheric noise weakened by 28.12% and the TSP content reduced significantly by 86.42%, comparing to the control. The landscape of even green-land patch pattern had the relatively lower green-land coverage (11.34%) and fragmentation index (2.751 1 ind x hm(-2)), which was mainly composed of the middle or small green-land patches and wooded corridors with a regular distribution. In the landscape, the TSP content reduced obviously by 46.62% of the control, while the effect of dust retention was only 53.95% of that in the landscape of dominant green-land patch pattern. In the landscape of dominant wooded corridor pattern, which was a traffic center and turned into a main pollution resource in the city, there were a relatively higher green-land fragmentation index (6.870 0 ind x hm(-2)) and the highest wooded corridor density (0.844 3 hm x hm

  1. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  2. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-10-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  3. 40 CFR 122.50 - Disposal of pollutants into wells, into publicly owned treatment works or by land application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following methods: (1) If none of the waste from a particular process is discharged into waters of the..., into publicly owned treatment works or by land application (applicable to State NPDES programs, see Â... Permit Conditions § 122.50 Disposal of pollutants into wells, into publicly owned treatment works or...

  4. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  5. Agricultural land use and best management practices to control nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Lo Porto, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control.

  6. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control.

  7. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  8. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  9. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types.

  10. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Martins-Loução, M A; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Máguas, C; Branquinho, C

    2008-08-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic.

  11. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed. PMID:26615482

  12. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed.

  13. Persistence and distribution of pollution indicator bacteria on land used for disposal of piggery effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, D S; Farran, I; Craven, J A

    1981-01-01

    Numbers of pollution indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci) were assessed on land to which effluent from intensively housed pigs had been applied. Topsoil (to a 30-mm depth) was found to provide a more favorable environment for fecal coliform persistence than was pasture or subsoil. Times required for a 90% reduction in number (T90) in topsoil (calculated by linear regression of log counts obtained in a 6-week period after effluent application) ranged from 7 to 20 days (mean T90, 11 days). T90 values for fecal coliforms fell within this range irrespective of the season of application and for a number of soil types and climatic conditions. The range in die-off times was encountered irrespective of the fecal coliform count in the applied effluent or the application regimen (125 to 1,000 kg of elemental nitrogen in the form of effluent per ha; return periods, 3 to 12 months). Autumn and winter conditions were conducive to the persistence of a survivor tail of these bacteria at 10(1) to 10(3) cells per g of topsoil. Fecal streptococci survived similarly on soil and pasture (T90, ca. 14 days) and appeared slightly more suited to survival in the environment than did fecal coliforms. Contamination of subsoils after effluent applications occurred at a rate well in excess of the infiltration capacity of the soil, presumably by percolation of the effluent through soil cracks. Contamination levels of subsoils in the experimental area generally remained low. PMID:7294782

  14. Resiliency of the Chesapeake Bay to Pollution Levels Following Storms and Based on Land-Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Pavelsky, T.

    2015-12-01

    As pollution levels, transformations in land use, and ecological loss continue to increase in the Chesapeake Bay, questions arise as to whether this estuary, the largest in North America, will experience a change in the duration and levels of storm-related sediment and nutrient spikes. We use a combination of satellite data and previously-collected field measurements to study this question. We compare same-day and same-pixel NASA MODIS satellite data to in situ observations of sediment and nutrient concentrations over 20 years, and found that for at least 6 tributaries, the r2 value for a linear regression between the satellite reflectance and fieldwork measures of nitrogen, phosphorus, or suspended sediment concentrations exceeded 0.7, while for at least 12 tributaries, the r2 value exceeded 0.5. We took advantage of this relationship to estimate sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Chesapeake following major storm events, even in the absence of continuous in situ data. We studied sediment/nutrient levels daily following the storm, for every date on which a cloud-free MODIS image was available, for a month. The storms included 2003's Hurricane Isabel, 2011's Hurricane Irene, and 2012's Superstorm Sandy. The tributaries we focused on were the York and Piankatank Rivers of southern Virginia (heavily forested), the Potomac River (heavily urban), and the Nanticoke River of the Eastern Shore (heavily farmed). Results show that in the Potomac River, which over the last 15 years has experience a signifiant increase in urbanization, sediments and nutrients persist for longer periods and at higher levels compared to less urbanized rivers.

  15. Determination of dual parameter auto-sampling trigger thresholds for pollutant load monitoring in various land uses.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, Fidelia; Gurr, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Environmental pollutants are health hazards and are typically transported during runoff events. Monitoring the loadings of these pollutants with auto-samplers require precise trigger thresholds to effectively account for total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) entering natural water bodies. Traditionally, auto-samplers are triggered by delaying the start of sampling until pollutant wave is present during rainfall event. The rainfall-related triggers are typically limited to small watersheds, where lag and travel times are consistent and predictable. However, in large and more complex watersheds, flow or stage is typically used either by a set threshold on change in instantaneous flow rate or water level. Generally, trigger thresholds are difficult to establish due to seasonal fluctuations in stream flow and variations in rainfall. This study investigated dual parameter trigger based on instantaneous change and variance from a moving average for flow and stage. Nineteen auto-samplers, installed within six watersheds of varying land uses in City of Kissimmee, FL, were evaluated over 3-year period. The results suggested that using 20- to 30-min moving average of 5-min sampling interval for both parameters was sufficient to detect pollutant waves with minimal false triggers. Also, change from average flow rate (∆Qave) and a percent change from average stage (∆Have%) were found to the preferred parameters. The ∆Have% values ranging from -0.012 to 0.20% and ∆Qave ranging from 0.014 to 0.850 m(3)/s were found to give effective results for all stations in the study area. It was also observed that these trigger thresholds varied with land use, stream flow condition, and auto-sampler locations within the watershed. PMID:25838061

  16. Biosolids pollutant levels in land application for beneficial re-use in the Houston Metropolitan Area of Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Pehl, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plant biosolids have been land applied for beneficial re-use to agriculture sites around the Houston Metropolitan area for nearly ten years. After 1992, both federal and state regulations dramatically changed. The new Texas regulations required that all application sites five years or older be reregistered. Initially, the reregistration procedures required a soil analysis of ten pollutants: Arsenic, CAdmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Molybdenum, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc, at three soil depths. This information could then compared with current average pollutant concentrations from required biosolids analyses of wastewater treatment plants in both the City of Houston and the surrounding metropolitan area, to evaluate future site longevity using new 40 CFR 503 application and concentration levels. Biosolids land applied in the Houston area during this period were generally {open_quotes}exceptional quality{close_quotes} in compliance with the 40 CFR 503 criterion, Table 3. The previously applied sites were well within the cumulative loading levels, Table 2, and should remain active sites for the foreseeable future. The Arsenic level for Kaechele Ranch, for example, had an average background level of 12.3 kg/ha, after nearly eight years of application and would still require 88 years to reach maximum pollutant loading, at an application rate of 26.9 dry metric tons/hectare/year (12 dry tons). The Bell site, which received no biosolids, had 3.3 kg/ha background for Arsenic, requiring 388 years at 269 dry metric tons/hectare/year. The 40 CFR 503 regulatory limits, developed from risk assessment models and evaluated by peer review, are conservative estimates. However, comparison with actual operational data illustrates that within the Houston Metropolitan area current biosolids recycling efforts, based on the agronomic loading rate, can continue and remain in compliance with new pollutant restrictions.

  17. The use of wind fields in a land use regression model to predict air pollution concentrations for health exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M. A.; Blair, R.; Finkelstein, N.; Brook, J. R.; Sahsuvaroglu, T.; Beckerman, B.; Zhang, L.; Jerrett, M.

    A methodology is developed to include wind flow effects in land use regression (LUR) models for predicting nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for health exposure studies. NO 2 is widely used in health studies as an indicator of traffic-generated air pollution in urban areas. Incorporation of high-resolution interpolated observed wind direction from a network of 38 weather stations in a LUR model improved NO 2 concentration estimates in densely populated, high traffic and industrial/business areas in Toronto-Hamilton urban airshed (THUA) of Ontario, Canada. These small-area variations in air pollution concentrations that are probably more important for health exposure studies may not be detected by sparse continuous air pollution monitoring network or conventional interpolation methods. Observed wind fields were also compared with wind fields generated by Global Environmental Multiscale-High resolution Model Application Project (GEM-HiMAP) to explore the feasibility of using regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields in LUR models when observed data are either sparse or not available. While GEM-HiMAP predicted wind fields well at large scales, it was unable to resolve wind flow patterns at smaller scales. These results suggest caution and careful evaluation of regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields before incorporating into human exposure models for health studies. This study has demonstrated that wind fields may be integrated into the land use regression framework. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and perhaps more importantly for health effects assessment on the relative spatial distribution of traffic pollution throughout the THUA. Methodology developed in this study may be applied in other large urban areas across the world.

  18. Ag, Ta, Ru, and Ir enrichment in surface soil: Evidence for land pollution of heavy metal from atmospheric deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Guangxi; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiong, Zhengqin; Yamasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2004-03-01

    No observation has so far been reported that heavy metal elements from atmospheric deposition were accumulated widely in the surface soil layers. In this research, 28 soil profiles from different climate zones and agro-ecosystems in China were studied, and obvious enrichment of Ag, Ta, Ru, and Ir in the surface soils was discovered. It indicates that pollution of heavy metals emitted into the atmosphere from industrial activities is no longer limited to soils in the vicinity of power, metallurgic, metalworking, and machine-making industries, and they may settle down extensively on land besides cities and industrial regions.

  19. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Maccauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  20. Effects of heavy metal pollution from mining and smelting on enchytraeid communities under different land management and soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Paweł; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    We studied enchytraeid communities in several habitats polluted by heavy metals from Zn-Pb mining and smelting activities. We sampled 41 sites that differed in the type of substratum (carbonate rock, metal-rich carbonate mining waste, siliceous sand) and land management (planting Scots pine, topsoiling, leaving to natural succession), and the distance from the smelter. Our main aims were to determine which pollution variables and natural factors most influenced enchytraeid species composition, richness and density, and examine what was the effect of planting Scots pine (reclamation) on enchytraeid communities. The soils harboured on average 1 to 5 enchytraeid species and 700 to 18,300 individuals per square metre, depending on the habitat. These figures were generally lower than those reported from unpolluted regions. Redundancy and multiple regression analyses confirmed the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on both enchytraeid community structure and abundance. Among pollution variables, the distance from the smelter best explained the variation in enchytraeid communities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil had less (e.g. total Pb and exchangeable Zn) or negligible (water-soluble forms) explanatory power. Natural soil properties were nearly irrelevant for enchytraeids, except for soil pH, which determined the species composition. Plant species richness was an important explanatory variable, as it positively affected most parameters of enchytraeid community. The results of two-by-two factorial comparisons (planting Scots pine vs. natural succession; carbonate mining waste vs. siliceous sand) suggest that reclamation can improve soil quality for biota, since it increased the diversity and abundance of enchytraeids; this effect was not dependent on the type of substratum. In conclusion, enchytraeids responded negatively to heavy metal pollution and their response was consistent and clear. These animals can be used as indicators of metal toxicity

  1. Effects of heavy metal pollution from mining and smelting on enchytraeid communities under different land management and soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Paweł; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    We studied enchytraeid communities in several habitats polluted by heavy metals from Zn-Pb mining and smelting activities. We sampled 41 sites that differed in the type of substratum (carbonate rock, metal-rich carbonate mining waste, siliceous sand) and land management (planting Scots pine, topsoiling, leaving to natural succession), and the distance from the smelter. Our main aims were to determine which pollution variables and natural factors most influenced enchytraeid species composition, richness and density, and examine what was the effect of planting Scots pine (reclamation) on enchytraeid communities. The soils harboured on average 1 to 5 enchytraeid species and 700 to 18,300 individuals per square metre, depending on the habitat. These figures were generally lower than those reported from unpolluted regions. Redundancy and multiple regression analyses confirmed the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on both enchytraeid community structure and abundance. Among pollution variables, the distance from the smelter best explained the variation in enchytraeid communities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil had less (e.g. total Pb and exchangeable Zn) or negligible (water-soluble forms) explanatory power. Natural soil properties were nearly irrelevant for enchytraeids, except for soil pH, which determined the species composition. Plant species richness was an important explanatory variable, as it positively affected most parameters of enchytraeid community. The results of two-by-two factorial comparisons (planting Scots pine vs. natural succession; carbonate mining waste vs. siliceous sand) suggest that reclamation can improve soil quality for biota, since it increased the diversity and abundance of enchytraeids; this effect was not dependent on the type of substratum. In conclusion, enchytraeids responded negatively to heavy metal pollution and their response was consistent and clear. These animals can be used as indicators of metal toxicity

  2. Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E; Wright, Rosalind J; Baxter, Lisa K; Levy, Jonathan I

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land use regression techniques. Methods We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon (EC) outside 44 homes representing a range of traffic densities and neighborhoods across Boston, Massachusetts and nearby communities. Multiple three to four-day average samples were collected at each home during winters and summers from 2003 to 2005. Traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and direct traffic counts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed separately for each pollutant, using traffic indicators, land use, meteorology, site characteristics, and central site concentrations. Results PM2.5 was strongly associated with the central site monitor (R2 = 0.68). Additional variability was explained by total roadway length within 100 m of the home, smoking or grilling near the monitor, and block-group population density (R2 = 0.76). EC showed greater spatial variability, especially during winter months, and was predicted by roadway length within 200 m of the home. The influence of traffic was greater under low wind speed conditions, and concentrations were lower during summer (R2 = 0.52). NO2 showed significant spatial variability, predicted by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home, modified by site characteristics (obstruction), and with higher concentrations during summer (R2 = 0.56). Conclusion Each pollutant examined displayed somewhat different spatial patterns within urban neighborhoods

  3. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  4. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land. PMID:20811881

  5. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land.

  6. Land use and pollution patterns on the Great Lakes. [eastern wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugen, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Marlar, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The final mapping of the large watersheds of the Manitowoc and the Oconto was done using the 25% sampling approach. Comparisons were made with earlier strip mapping efforts of the Oconto and Manitowoc watersheds. Regional differences were noted. Strip mapping of the Oconto resulted in overestimation of the amount of agricultural land compared to the random sampling method. For the Manitowoc, the strip mapping approach produced a slight underestimate of agricultural land, and an overestimate of the forest category.

  7. A Critical Review of the Effect of Air Pollution Control Regulations on Land Use Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Although a number of recent federal initiatives explicitly require greater coordination of land use and air quality management, viable working relationships among the planning and regulatory agencies have not been developed. The concept of emission density zoning is endorsed. (Author/BT)

  8. [Application of Land-use Regression Models in Spatial-temporal Differentiation of Air Pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-sheng; Xie, Wu-dan; Li, Jia-cheng

    2016-02-15

    With the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization and motorization, air pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our country, which has negative impacts on public health and ecological environment. LUR model is one of the common methods simulating spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution at city scale. It has broad application in Europe and North America, but not really in China. Based on many studies at home and abroad, this study started with the main steps to develop LUR model, including obtaining the monitoring data, generating variables, developing models, model validation and regression mapping. Then a conclusion was drawn on the progress of LUR models in spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution. Furthermore, the research focus and orientation in the future were prospected, including highlighting spatial-temporal differentiation, increasing classes of model variables and improving the methods of model development. This paper was aimed to popularize the application of LUR model in China, and provide a methodological basis for human exposure, epidemiologic study and health risk assessment.

  9. [Application of Land-use Regression Models in Spatial-temporal Differentiation of Air Pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-sheng; Xie, Wu-dan; Li, Jia-cheng

    2016-02-15

    With the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization and motorization, air pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our country, which has negative impacts on public health and ecological environment. LUR model is one of the common methods simulating spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution at city scale. It has broad application in Europe and North America, but not really in China. Based on many studies at home and abroad, this study started with the main steps to develop LUR model, including obtaining the monitoring data, generating variables, developing models, model validation and regression mapping. Then a conclusion was drawn on the progress of LUR models in spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution. Furthermore, the research focus and orientation in the future were prospected, including highlighting spatial-temporal differentiation, increasing classes of model variables and improving the methods of model development. This paper was aimed to popularize the application of LUR model in China, and provide a methodological basis for human exposure, epidemiologic study and health risk assessment. PMID:27363125

  10. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource.

  11. Simulating land management options to reduce nitrate pollution in an agricultural watershed dominated by an alluvial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Cerro, Itsasne; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Srinavasan, Raghavan; Sauvage, Sabine; Volk, Martin; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The study area (Alegria watershed, Basque Country, Northern Spain) considered here is influenced by an important alluvial aquifer that plays a significant role in nitrate pollution from agricultural land use and management practices. Nitrates are transported primarily from the soil to the river through the alluvial aquifer. The agricultural activity covers 75% of the watershed and is located in a nitrate-vulnerable zone. The main objective of the study was to find land management options for water pollution abatement by using model systems. In a first step, the SWAT model was applied to simulate discharge and nitrate load in stream flow at the outlet of the catchment for the period between October 2009 and June 2011. The LOADEST program was used to estimate the daily nitrate load from measured nitrate concentration. We achieved satisfactory simulation results for discharge and nitrate loads at monthly and daily time steps. The results revealed clear variations in the seasons: higher nitrate loads were achieved for winter (20,000 kg mo NO-N), and lower nitrate loads were simulated for the summer (<1000 kg mo NO-N) period. In a second step, the calibrated model was used to evaluate the long-term effects of best management practices (BMPs) for a 50-yr period by maintaining actual agricultural practices, reducing fertilizer application by 20%, splitting applications (same total N but applied over the growing period), and reducing 20% of the applied fertilizer amount and splitting the fertilizer doses. The BMPs were evaluated on the basis of local experience and farmer interaction. Results showed that reducing fertilizer amounts by 20% could lead to a reduction of 50% of the number of days exceeding the nitrate concentration limit value (50 mg L) set by the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:25602541

  12. Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions.

  13. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  14. Oxidative stress on land snail Helix aspersa as a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological effects of urban pollution with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, K Y; Abo El-Saad, A M; Talha, M M; Hussein, A A; Bakry, N M

    2013-10-01

    The oxidative stress in the digestive gland of the land snail Helix aspersa was considered as a bioindicator for atmospheric pollution with heavy metals from several industries and vehicular traffic in Kafr El-Zayat city. Regional means of heavy metals concentration of all sites were 0.71, 7.09, 0.71, 2.68, 41.44 and 18.01 mg kg(-1) wet mass for Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. In addition, the highest values of Cd concentrations were found 1.22 and 1.73 mg kg(-1) wet mass in S1 (Potato International Center) and S4 (The Nile bank), respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH(and recorded lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly high in S1 and S2 (Traffic station). On the other hand, the highest activity of catalase (CAT) was found in S2 (194.04% of control), while the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) reached the highest significant value in S1. As a matter of fact, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were significantly higher in polluted sites than in reference zone. In contrast, the glutathione (GSH) concentration of exposed animals showed significant decrease in all sites, with the lowest value in S1 (57.61% of control). However, metallothioneins concentration (MT) showed no significant difference in all sites except in S1 which accounted for 127.81% of control. Therefore, the overall results of this study showed the importance of H. aspersa as a sentinel organism for biomonitoring the biologic impact of atmospheric pollution in urban areas.

  15. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Bowerman, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  16. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River (USA) subwatershed and the influence of land use and watershed characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nino de Guzman, Gabriela T.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Prabhakara, Kusuma; Codling, Eton E.; Shelton, Daniel R.; Rice, Clifford P.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Lang, Megan W.; Torrents, Alba

    2012-01-01

    Row-crop and poultry production have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined the effects of land use, subwatershed characteristics, and climatic conditions on the water quality parameters of a subwatershed in the Choptank River watershed. The catchments within the subwatershed were defined using advanced remotely-sensed data and current geographic information system processing techniques. Water and sediment samples were collected in May–October 2009 and April–June 2010 under mostly baseflow conditions and analyzed for select bacteria, nitrate-N, ammonium-N, total arsenic, total phosphorus (TP), orthophosphate (ortho-P), and particle-phase phosphorus (PP); n = 96 for all analytes except for arsenic, n = 136, and for bacteria, n = 89 (aqueous) and 62 (sediment). Detections of Enterococci and Escherichia coli concentrations were ubiquitous in this subwatershed and showed no correlation to location or land use, however larger bacterial counts were observed shortly after precipitation. Nitrate-N concentrations were not correlated with agricultural lands, which may reflect the small change in percent agriculture and/or the similarity of agronomic practices and crops produced between catchments. Concentration data suggested that ammonia emission and possible deposition to surface waters occurred and that these processes may be influenced by local agronomic practices and climatic conditions. The negative correlation of PP and arsenic concentrations with percent forest was explained by the stronger signal of the head waters and overland flow of particulate phase analytes versus dissolved phase inputs from groundwater. Service roadways at some poultry production facilities were found to redirect runoff from the facilities to neighboring catchment areas, which affected water quality parameters. Results suggest that in this subwatershed, catchments with poultry production

  17. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations. PMID:26267482

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations.

  19. Feasibility study concerning remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands on the Absheron Peninsula, Republic of Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivin, Majorie; Helsen, Stefan; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    ECOREM is carrying out a feasibility study focused on the remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands, located on the Absheron Peninsula (Republic of Azerbaijan), on behalf of the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR). The objective of this study is to support SOCAR with specific technologies and capacity building for environmental remediation works on various sectors of the Peninsula. As an independent consultancy company, ECOREM provides sustainable and quality advice, seeking the balance to the interests of the client and the environment in the broadest sense of the word. Within this study, it is important to underline that extraction activities in the country have been going on for more than a century. Given that the age of the environmental problems is equal to the history of the oil production, it is nearly impossible to point out the responsibilities of the various companies or to define the exact activities that occurred on a particular location. From the data gathered so far, more than 3600 ha of oil contaminated area are known in Baku and the Absheron Peninsula. Within this feasibility study, ECOREM will advice SOCAR on suitable and best available remediation technologies to apply on prior contaminated areas. According to the Environmental Policy of the Company, SOCAR would like to act in priority on the numerous contaminated lands of the Absheron Peninsula. Through the exploitation of the extensive GIS database provided by SOCAR, the oil contaminated sites will be examined in details in order to determine the most sensitive areas, on which remediation works or monitoring should be implemented in priority. To locate these sites, ECOREM will provide SOCAR with technical support in order to conduct risk analysis, remediation and monitoring of soil and/or groundwater oil pollutions. According to these results, practical solutions will be proposed concerning the possible reuse and management of contaminated soils and hazardous

  20. Ocean pollution from land-based sources: East China Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoji; Daler, Dag

    2004-02-01

    The environment of East China Sea (ECS) has been faced by huge stresses from anthropogenic activities and population growth in the Yangtze River drainage basin and the areas along the coasts. Improper use of natural resources and short-term economic objectives have resulted in severe environmental degradation in a fairly short time frame and the degradation has now reached a level where the health and well being of the coastal populations are threatened. The main pollutants are inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, oil hydrocarbons, organic matters and heavy metals. Nutrients cause eutrophication of the coastal waters and the estuarine area and very often stimulate the occurrence of red tides. The environmental pollution of Yangtze River basin directly impact on the state of the marine environment in the ECS. The ecosystem stability is maintained by a steady water discharge from the river, that mixes with the marine salty water in the estuary, and the sediment loads from the river that balance ocean erosion in the delta and its adjacent coastal area. The large-scale water transfer and dam constructions in the Yangtze River basin will change this basis. For the ECS the challenge is to reverse the negative processes taking place and to restore ecosystem balance. The main challenge is to integrate socioeconomic and environmental decision making in order to promote sustainable development. A better understanding of the driving forces in society that cause these environmental pressures is required in order to overcome these obstacles. International cooperation may be an important contributor to the progress and in particular provide access to financial, technological, scientific and human resource assistance. PMID:15083656

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic organisms off Adélie Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goutte, A; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Chastel, O; Cherel, Y; Eléaume, M; Massé, G

    2013-12-15

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) were described in benthic and pelagic species collected off Adélie Land, Antarctica. Strong differences were observed among species, with reduced PeCB and HCB levels in benthic species, and elevated PCB levels in the Antarctic yellowbelly rockcod, the Antarctic sea urchin and the snow petrel. Lower-chlorinated congeners were predominant in krill; penta-PCBs in benthic organisms; hexa- and hepta-PCBs in seabirds and cryopelagic fish. This segregation may result from sedimentation process, specific accumulation and excretion, and/or biotransformation processes. The presence of PBDEs in Antarctic coastal organisms may originate from atmospheric transport and partly from a contamination by local sources. Although POP levels in Antarctic marine organisms were substantially lower than in Arctic and temperate organisms, very little is known about their toxic effects on these cold-adapted species, with high degree of endemism. PMID:24237994

  2. A simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic model for agricultural non-point source pollution control through land retirement.

    PubMed

    Luo, B; Li, J B; Huang, G H; Li, H L

    2006-05-15

    This study presents a simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic programming (SITSP) model for agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution control through land retirement under uncertain conditions. The modeling framework was established by the development of an interval two-stage stochastic program, with its random parameters being provided by the statistical analysis of the simulation outcomes of a distributed water quality approach. The developed model can deal with the tradeoff between agricultural revenue and "off-site" water quality concern under random effluent discharge for a land retirement scheme through minimizing the expected value of long-term total economic and environmental cost. In addition, the uncertainties presented as interval numbers in the agriculture-water system can be effectively quantified with the interval programming. By subdividing the whole agricultural watershed into different zones, the most pollution-related sensitive cropland can be identified and an optimal land retirement scheme can be obtained through the modeling approach. The developed method was applied to the Swift Current Creek watershed in Canada for soil erosion control through land retirement. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate the sediment information for this case study. Obtained results indicate that the total economic and environmental cost of the entire agriculture-water system can be limited within an interval value for the optimal land retirement schemes. Meanwhile, a best and worst land retirement scheme was obtained for the study watershed under various uncertainties.

  3. Development of Land Use Regression models for particulate matter and associated components in a low air pollutant concentration airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirgawati, Mila; Heyworth, Jane S.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; McCaul, Kieran A.; Blake, David; Boeyen, Jonathon; Cope, Martin; Yeap, Bu Beng; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Brunekreef, Bert; Hinwood, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for the Perth Metropolitan area in order to estimate air pollutant concentrations across Perth. The most important predictor for PM10 was green spaces. Heavy vehicle traffic load was found to be the strongest predictor for PM2.5Abs. Traffic variables were observed to be the important contributors for PM10 and PM2.5 elements in Perth, except for PM2.5 V which had distance to coast as the predominant predictor. Open green spaces explained more of the variability in the PM10 elements than for PM2.5 elements, and population density was more important for PM2.5 elements than for PM10 elements. The PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs LUR models explained 67% and 82% of the variance, respectively, but the PM10 model only explained 35% of the variance. The PM2.5 models for Mn, V, and Zn explained between 70% and 90% of the variability in concentrations. PM10 V, Si, K, S and Fe models explained between 53% and 71% of the variability in respective concentrations. Testing the models using leave one-out cross validation, hold out validation and cross-hold out validation supported the validity of LUR models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs and their corresponding elements in Metropolitan Perth despite the relatively low concentrations.

  4. Lithological and land-use based assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils surrounding a cement plant in SW Europe.

    PubMed

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-15

    We study the influence of phasing out a cement plant on the heavy metal (Hg, Pb and Cr) content in the surrounding soils, taking into account factors often neglected, such as contributions due to local lithology or land use. The range of total Hg was 10-144µg kg(-1), reaching up to 41 and 145mgkg(-1) for total contents of Pb and Cr, respectively. Forest soils showed higher concentration of Hg than prairie soils, indicating the importance of land use on the accumulation of volatile heavy metals in soils. In forest soils, total Hg showed a trend to decrease with soil depth, whereas in prairie soils the vertical pattern of heavy metal concentrations was quite homogeneous. In most cases, the distance to the cement plant was not a factor of influence in the soils content of the analyzed heavy metals. Total Pb and Cr contents in soils nearby the cement plant were quite similar to those found in the local lithology, resulting in enrichment factor values (EF's) below 2. This suggests that soil parent material is the main source of these heavy metals in the studied soils, while the contribution of the cement plant to Pb and Cr soil pollution was almost negligible. On the contrary, the soils surrounding the cement plant accumulate a significant amount of Hg, compared to the underlying lithology. This was especially noticeable in forest soils, where Hg EF achieved values up to 36. These results are of relevance, bearing in mind that Hg accumulation in soils may be an issue of environmental concern, particularly in prairie soils, where temporal flooding can favor Hg transformation to highly toxic methyl-Hg. In addition, the concurrence of acid soils and total-Cr concentrations in the range of those considered phytotoxic should be also stressed.

  5. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  6. Achieving attainable outcomes from good science in an untidy world: case studies in land and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Gary; Stewart, Alex G; Kennedy, Nattalie; Whitely, Becky; Turner, Linda; Wilkinson, Ewan

    2015-08-01

    While scientific understanding of environmental issues develops through careful observation, experiment and modelling, the application of such advances in the day to day world is much less clean and tidy. Merseyside in northwest England has an industrial heritage from the earliest days of the industrial revolution. Indeed, the chemical industry was borne here. Land contamination issues are rife, as are problems with air quality. Through the examination of one case study for each topic, the practicalities of applied science are explored. An integrated, multidisciplinary response to pollution needs more than a scientific risk assessment. The needs of the various groups (from public to government) involved in the situations must be considered, as well as wider, relevant contexts (from history to European legislation), before a truly integrated response can be generated. However, no such situation exists in isolation and the introduction of environmental investigations and the exploration of suitable, integrated responses will alter the situation in unexpected ways, which must be considered carefully and incorporated in a rolling fashion to enable solutions to continue to be applicable and relevant to the problem being faced. This integrated approach has been tested over many years in Merseyside and found to be a robust approach to ever-changing problems that are well described by the management term, "wicked problems".

  7. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic exposures and a variety of adverse health effects, but many of these studies relied on proximity measures rather than measured or modeled concentrations of specific air pollutants, complicating interpretability of the findings. An increasing number of studies have used land-use regression (LUR) or other techniques to model small-scale variability in concentrations of specific air pollutants. However, these studies have generally considered a limited number of pollutants, focused on outdoor concentrations (or indoor concentrations of ambient origin) when indoor concentrations are better proxies for personal exposures, and have not taken full advantage of statistical methods for source apportionment that may have provided insight about the structure of the LUR models and the interpretability of model results. Given these issues, the primary objective of our study was to determine predictors of indoor and outdoor residential concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within an urban area, based on a combination of central site monitoring data; geographic information system (GIS) covariates reflecting traffic and other outdoor sources; questionnaire data reflecting indoor sources and activities that affect ventilation rates; and factor-analytic methods to better infer source contributions. As part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and/or outdoor 3-to-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5) at 44 residences during multiple seasons of the year from 2003 through 2005. We performed reflectance analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on particle filters to estimate the concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), trace elements, and water-soluble metals, respectively. We derived

  8. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic exposures and a variety of adverse health effects, but many of these studies relied on proximity measures rather than measured or modeled concentrations of specific air pollutants, complicating interpretability of the findings. An increasing number of studies have used land-use regression (LUR) or other techniques to model small-scale variability in concentrations of specific air pollutants. However, these studies have generally considered a limited number of pollutants, focused on outdoor concentrations (or indoor concentrations of ambient origin) when indoor concentrations are better proxies for personal exposures, and have not taken full advantage of statistical methods for source apportionment that may have provided insight about the structure of the LUR models and the interpretability of model results. Given these issues, the primary objective of our study was to determine predictors of indoor and outdoor residential concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within an urban area, based on a combination of central site monitoring data; geographic information system (GIS) covariates reflecting traffic and other outdoor sources; questionnaire data reflecting indoor sources and activities that affect ventilation rates; and factor-analytic methods to better infer source contributions. As part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and/or outdoor 3-to-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5) at 44 residences during multiple seasons of the year from 2003 through 2005. We performed reflectance analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on particle filters to estimate the concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), trace elements, and water-soluble metals, respectively. We derived

  9. Synergistic impacts of land-use change and soil property variation on non-point source nitrogen pollution in a freeze-thaw area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Guo, Bobo

    2013-07-01

    Quantifying the non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution response to the varied land-use and soil properties in highly agricultural regions is critical for the proper management of NPS pollution. This study simulated the NPS nitrogen loading responses to variations of land-use and soil from 1979 to 2009. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the NPS organic nitrogen and nitrate loading in a freeze-thaw area in northeast China. The temporal-spatial simulations of land-use in four periods indicated that the NPS nitrogen loading responded to the disappearance of wetlands and the conversion of uplands to paddy rice. After updating the soil data, the watershed NPS nitrogen loading decreased, and the spatial distribution of the loading indicated that the NPS organic nitrogen was more sensitive than was the nitrate to soil variation. F-tests were employed to assess the significance of each of the predictor variables in five types of scenarios. Overall, the results indicate that the watershed NPS nitrogen loading is sensitive to changes of soil and land-use, but soil changes have a more significant impact. The results of this study also suggest that temperature has significant effects on NPS nitrogen yield and that it caused the twin peaks in the temporal scale. Increasing the temperature above zero in April caused a temporal shift in soil water movement and transported nitrogen pollution earlier in the year, causing an increased loading in water before the summer irrigation, which is advantageous for NPS nitrogen pollution control.

  10. Puerto Rico workshop on land-based sources of marine pollution in the wider Caribbean region. Held in San Huan, Puerto Rico on August 7-9, 1989. US man and the biosphere program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The participants in the conference met August 7-9, 1989, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The participants divided the report into four major sections, each succeeding section relying for inputs from the preceding sections. They are: inventory of land-based sources of marine pollution. The inventory, divided into point sources and non-point sources of pollutants, establishes the baseline data for dealing with marine pollution, impact of land-based sources of marine pollution. The extent of the impact of pollutants on the ecological and economic life dependent on the marine environment calls for scientific analyses involving the nature of the polluting substances as well as that of the receiving marine areas, development of tropical water quality and effluent standards. Tropical water quality criteria and standards provide essential analytical links between the use of marine waters and the control of marine pollution, and marine pollution control strategy. The means for managing land-based sources of marine pollution can be divided into utilizing marine water quality standards, effluent standards, environmental planning, and best management practices. The writers of the report dealt with only man-made pollution, which is distinct from natural pollution such as oil seepage through ancient fissures in the seabed.

  11. Intra-urban variation of ultrafine particles as evaluated by process related land use and pollutant driven regression modelling.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, Yahya; Ruths, Matthias; Löwner, Marc-Oliver; Weber, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    The microscale intra-urban variation of ultrafine particle concentrations (UFP, diameter Dp<100 nm) and particle number size distributions was studied by two statistical regression approaches. The models were applied to a 1 km2 study area in Braunschweig, Germany. A land use regression model (LUR) using different urban morphology parameters as input is compared to a multiple regression type model driven by pollutant and meteorological parameters (PDR). While the LUR model was trained with UFP concentration the PDR model was trained with measured particle number size distribution data. The UFP concentration was then calculated from the modelled size distributions. Both statistical approaches include explanatory variables that try to address the 'process chain' of particle emission, dilution and deposition. LUR explained 74% and 85% of the variance of UFP for the full data set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 668 cm(-3) and 1639 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. PDR explained 56% and 74% of the variance with RMSE of 4066 cm(-3) and 6030 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. Both models are capable to depict the spatial variation of UFP across the study area and in different outdoor microenvironments. The deviation from measured UFP concentrations is smaller in the LUR model than in PDR. The PDR model is well suited to predict urban particle number size distributions from the explanatory variables (total particle number concentration, black carbon and wind speed). The urban morphology parameters in the LUR model are able to resolve size dependent concentration variations but not as adequately as PDR. PMID:26204051

  12. Air Pollution and Lung Function in Dutch Children: A Comparison of Exposure Estimates and Associations Based on Land Use Regression and Dispersion Exposure Modeling Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Ulrike; Hoek, Gerard; Keuken, Menno; Jonkers, Sander; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about the extent to which estimates of air pollution effects on health are affected by the choice for a specific exposure model. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the correlation between long-term air pollution exposure estimates using two commonly used exposure modeling techniques [dispersion and land use regression (LUR) models] and, in addition, to compare the estimates of the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function in children using these exposure modeling techniques. Methods We used data of 1,058 participants of a Dutch birth cohort study with measured forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements at 8 years of age. For each child, annual average outdoor air pollution exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mass concentration of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10 μm (PM2.5, PM10), and PM2.5 soot] was estimated for the current addresses of the participants by a dispersion and a LUR model. Associations between exposures to air pollution and lung function parameters were estimated using linear regression analysis with confounder adjustment. Results Correlations between LUR- and dispersion-modeled pollution concentrations were high for NO2, PM2.5, and PM2.5 soot (R = 0.86–0.90) but low for PM10 (R = 0.57). Associations with lung function were similar for air pollutant exposures estimated using LUR and dispersion modeling, except for associations of PM2.5 with FEV1 and FVC, which were stronger but less precise for exposures based on LUR compared with dispersion model. Conclusions Predictions from LUR and dispersion models correlated very well for PM2.5, NO2, and PM2.5 soot but not for PM10. Health effect estimates did not depend on the type of model used to estimate exposure in a population of Dutch children. Citation Wang M, Gehring U, Hoek G, Keuken M, Jonkers S, Beelen R, Eeftens M, Postma DS, Brunekreef B

  13. Influence of climate and land use change on spatially resolved volatilization of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from background soils.

    PubMed

    Komprda, Jiří; Komprdová, Klára; Sáňka, Milan; Možný, Martin; Nizzetto, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The subject of this study is the assessment of the influence of climate and land use change on the potential re-emission of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from background and agricultural soils. A deterministic spatially and temporally explicit model of the air-surface exchange was created, fed with distributed data of soil and atmospheric concentrations from real measurements, and run under various scenarios of temperature and land use change for a case study area representative of central European conditions. To describe land use influence, some important features were implemented including effect of plowing, influence of land cover, temperature of soil, and seasonal changes of air layer stability. Results show that volatilization of pesticides from soil largely exceeded dry gas deposition in most of the area. Agricultural soils accounted for more than 90% of the total re-emissions both because of the generally higher soil fugacities (higher loads of chemicals and relatively low organic carbon content), but also due to physical characteristics and land management practices enhancing the dynamics of the exchange. An increase of 1 °C in air temperature produced an increase of 8% in the averaged total volatilization flux, however this effect can be neutralized by a change of land use of 10% of the arable lands to grassland or forest, which is consistent with projected land use change in Europe. This suggests that future assessment of climate impact on POP fate and distribution should take into consideration land use aspects.

  14. ASSESSING THE RELATIVE AND COMBINED IMPACTS OF FUTURE LAND-USE AND CLIMATE CHANGES ON NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we discuss the potential water quality impacts of future land-use and climate changes. The Little Miami River Basin was used as a case study. It is a predominantly agricultural watershed in southwestern Ohio (U.S.A.) that has experienced land-use modifications. ...

  15. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-USE REGRESSION ( LUR ) MODEL IN AN URBAN AIRSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Children's Health Study is an epidemiologic study examining associations between chronic ambient environmental exposures to gaseous air pollutants and respiratory health outcomes among elementary school-age children in an urban airshed. The exposure component of this...

  16. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei; Song, Xianfang

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control. PMID:26925734

  17. Development of temporally refined land-use regression models predicting daily household-level air pollution in a panel study of lung function among asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Markey; Macneill, Morgan; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Nethery, Elizabeth; Xu, Xiaohong; Dales, Robert; Rasmussen, Pat; Wheeler, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory monitoring data and land-use regression (LUR) models have been widely used for estimating individual exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. However, LUR models lack fine-scale temporal resolution for predicting acute exposure and regulatory monitoring provides daily concentrations, but fails to capture spatial variability within urban areas. This study coupled LUR models with continuous regulatory monitoring to predict daily ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at 50 homes in Windsor, Ontario. We compared predicted versus measured daily outdoor concentrations for 5 days in winter and 5 days in summer at each home. We also examined the implications of using modeled versus measured daily pollutant concentrations to predict daily lung function among asthmatic children living in those homes. Mixed effect analysis suggested that temporally refined LUR models explained a greater proportion of the spatial and temporal variance in daily household-level outdoor NO(2) measurements compared with daily concentrations based on regulatory monitoring. Temporally refined LUR models captured 40% (summer) and 10% (winter) more of the spatial variance compared with regulatory monitoring data. Ambient PM(2.5) showed little spatial variation; therefore, daily PM(2.5) models were similar to regulatory monitoring data in the proportion of variance explained. Furthermore, effect estimates for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) based on modeled pollutant concentrations were consistent with effects based on household-level measurements for NO(2) and PM(2.5). These results suggest that LUR modeling can be combined with continuous regulatory monitoring data to predict daily household-level exposure to ambient air pollution. Temporally refined LUR models provided a modest improvement in estimating daily household-level NO(2) compared with regulatory monitoring data alone, suggesting that this

  18. Application of the deletion/substitution/addition algorithm to selecting land use regression models for interpolating air pollution measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerman, Bernardo S.; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Ross, Zev; Burnett, Richard T.

    2013-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) models are widely employed in health studies to characterize chronic exposure to air pollution. The LUR is essentially an interpolation technique that employs the pollutant of interest as the dependent variable with proximate land use, traffic, and physical environmental variables used as independent predictors. Two major limitations with this method have not been addressed: (1) variable selection in the model building process, and (2) dealing with unbalanced repeated measures. In this paper, we address these issues with a modeling framework that implements the deletion/substitution/addition (DSA) machine learning algorithm that uses a generalized linear model to average over unbalanced temporal observations. Models were derived for fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using monthly observations. We used 4119 observations at 108 sites and 15,301 observations at 138 sites for PM2.5 and NO2, respectively. We derived models with good predictive capacity (cross-validated-R2 values were 0.65 and 0.71 for PM2.5 and NO2, respectively). By addressing these two shortcomings in current approaches to LUR modeling, we have developed a framework that minimizes arbitrary decisions during the model selection process. We have also demonstrated how to integrate temporally unbalanced data in a theoretically sound manner. These developments could have widespread applicability for future LUR modeling efforts.

  19. 40 CFR 122.50 - Disposal of pollutants into wells, into publicly owned treatment works or by land application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... process wastewater is not being discharged into waters of the United States or contiguous zone because it... pollutants being discharged into waters of the United States, applicable effluent standards and limitations... into waters of the United States, and dividing the result by the total......

  20. Interdisciplinary applications and interpretations of ERTS data within the Susquehanna River Basin (resource inventory, land use, and pollution)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An interdisciplinary group at Penn State University is analyzing ERTS-1 data. The geographical area of interest is that of the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania. The objectives of the work have been to ascertain the usefulness of ERTS-1 data in the areas of natural resources and land use inventory, geology and hydrology, and environmental quality. Specific results include a study of land use in the Harrisburg area, discrimination between types of forest resources and vegetation, detection of previously unknown geologic faults and correlation of these with known mineral deposits and ground water, mapping of mine spoils in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania, and mapping of strip mines and acid mine drainage in central Pennsylvania. Both photointerpretive techniques and automatic computer processing methods have been developed and used, separately and in a combined approach.

  1. The SOLUTIONS project: challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.

    PubMed

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-15

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case

  2. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  3. Traits of surface water pollution under climate and land use changes: A remote sensing and hydrological modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Yuyan C.; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Hartling, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, spatial and temporal trajectories of land cover/land use change (LCLUC) derived from Landsat data record are combined with hydrological modeling to explore the implication of vegetation dynamics on soil erosion and total suspended sediment (TSS) loading to surface rivers. The inter-annual coefficient of variation (CoV) of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to screen the LCLUC and climate change. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is employed to identify the monthly TSS for two times interval (1991 to 2001 and 2001 to 2011) at subbasin levels. SWAT model is calibrated from 1991 to 2001 and validated from 2002 to 2011 at three USGS gauging sites located in the study area. The Spearman's rank correlation of annual mean TSS is used to assess the temporal trends of TSS dynamics in the subbasins in the two study periods. The spatial correlation among NDVI, LCLUC, climate change and TSS loading rate changes is quantified by using linear regression model and negative/positive trend analysis. Our results showed that higher rainfall yields contribute to higher TSS loading into surface waters. A higher inter-annual accumulated vegetation index and lower inter-annual CoV distributed over the uplands resulted in a lower TSS loading rate, while a relatively low vegetation index with larger CoV observed over lowlands resulted in a higher TSS loading rate. The TSS loading rate at the basin outlet increased with the decrease of annual NDVI due to expanding urban areas in the watershed. The results also suggested nonlinearity between the trends of TSS loading with any of a specific land cover change because of the fact that the contribution of a factor can be influenced by the effects of other factors. However, dominant factors that shape the relationship between the trend of TSS loading and specific land cover changes were detected. The change of forest showed a negative relationship while agriculture and pasture demonstrated positive

  4. Interdisciplinary applications and interpretations of ERTS data within the Susquehanna River Basin; resources inventory, land use and pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Identification and mapping of three major kinds of coal refuse targets based on spectral signatures in channels four through seven of the ERTS-1 MSS were conducted. Correlation of the placement of the coal refuse targets with an existing map of their location was accomplished. Digital processing of ERTS-1 data permitted identification of stripped areas including ones that are not discernible by visual analysis of ERTS imagery. Combined visual and digital techniques of analyzing ERTS-1 data for geologic formations have been tried on selected areas of Pennsylvania. Mapping of two major agriculture counties to show land forms, drainage patterns, water, and urban areas were made using positive transparencies of MSS data. Two frames of the same central Pennsylvania area were brought into registration by translation and then merged even though the frames were obtained 71 days apart.

  5. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (< 2 mm) was higher within the 1-km coastal water strip, suggesting a rapid fragmentation down along the shoreline, likely related with the washing ashore on the beaches. This study constitutes a first attempt to determine the impact of plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts. PMID:27556233

  6. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    PubMed

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (< 2 mm) was higher within the 1-km coastal water strip, suggesting a rapid fragmentation down along the shoreline, likely related with the washing ashore on the beaches. This study constitutes a first attempt to determine the impact of plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  7. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    PubMed

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (< 2 mm) was higher within the 1-km coastal water strip, suggesting a rapid fragmentation down along the shoreline, likely related with the washing ashore on the beaches. This study constitutes a first attempt to determine the impact of plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts. PMID:27556233

  8. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ(13)C and δ(15)N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ(15)N (16.31±3.01‰ and 17.86±2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ(15)N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ(13)C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ(15)N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. PMID:27179319

  9. Climatic, biological, and land cover controls on the exchange of gas-phase semivolatile chemical pollutants between forest canopies and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Nizzetto, Luca; Perlinger, Judith A

    2012-03-01

    An ecophysiological model of a structured broadleaved forest canopy was coupled to a chemical fate model of the air-canopy exchange of gaseous semivolatile chemicals to dynamically assess the short-term (hours) and medium term (days to season) air-canopy exchange and the influence of biological, climatic, and land cover drivers on the dynamics of the air-canopy exchange and on the canopy storage for airborne semivolatile pollutants. The chemical fate model accounts for effects of short-term variations in air temperature, wind speed, stomatal opening, and leaf energy balance, all as a function of layer in the canopy. Simulations showed the potential occurrence of intense short/medium term re-emission of pollutants having log K(OA) up to 10.7 from the canopy as a result of environmental forcing. In addition, relatively small interannual variations in seasonally averaged air temperature, canopy biomass, and precipitation can produce relevant changes in the canopy storage capacity for the chemicals. It was estimated that possible climate change related variability in environmental parameters (e.g., an increase of 2 °C in seasonally averaged air temperature in combination with a 10% reduction in canopy biomass due to, e.g., disturbance or acclimatization) may cause a reduction in canopy storage capacity of up to 15-25%, favoring re-emission and potential for long-range atmospheric transport. On the other hand, an increase of 300% in yearly precipitation can increase canopy sequestration by 2-7% for the less hydrophobic compounds. PMID:22304464

  10. Land Use Regression Models of On-Road Particulate Air Pollution (Particle Number, Black Carbon, PM2.5, Particle Size) Using Mobile Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-08-01

    Land Use Regression (LUR) models typically use fixed-site monitoring; here, we employ mobile monitoring as a cost-effective alternative for LUR development. We use bicycle-based, mobile measurements (∼85 h) during rush-hour in Minneapolis, MN to build LUR models for particulate concentrations (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], particle size). We developed and examined 1224 separate LUR models by varying pollutant, time-of-day, and method of spatial and temporal smoothing of the time-series data. Our base-case LUR models had modest goodness-of-fit (adjusted R(2): ∼0.5 [PN], ∼0.4 [PM2.5], 0.35 [BC], ∼0.25 [particle size]), low bias (<4%) and absolute bias (2-18%), and included predictor variables that captured proximity to and density of emission sources. The spatial density of our measurements resulted in a large model-building data set (n = 1101 concentration estimates); ∼25% of buffer variables were selected at spatial scales of <100m, suggesting that on-road particle concentrations change on small spatial scales. LUR model-R(2) improved as sampling runs were completed, with diminishing benefits after ∼40 h of data collection. Spatial autocorrelation of model residuals indicated that models performed poorly where spatiotemporal resolution of emission sources (i.e., traffic congestion) was poor. Our findings suggest that LUR modeling from mobile measurements is possible, but that more work could usefully inform best practices.

  11. Development of nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds land use regression models to estimate air pollution exposure near an Italian airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeta, Alessandra; Cattani, Giorgio; Di Menno di Bucchianico, Alessandro; De Santis, Antonella; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco; Sozzi, Roberto; Bolignano, Andrea; Sacco, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the small scale spatial variability of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and selected VOCs (benzene, toluene, acrolein and formaldehyde) concentrations using Land Use Regression models (LURs) in a complex multi sources domain (64 km2), containing a mid-size airport: the Ciampino Airport, located in Ciampino, Rome, Italy. 46 diffusion tube samplers were deployed within a domain centred in the airport over two 2-weekly periods (June 2011-January 2012). GIS-derived predictor variables, with varying buffer size, were evaluated to model spatial variation of NO2, benzene, toluene, formaldehyde and acrolein annual average concentrations. The airport apportionment to air quality was investigated using a Lagrangian dispersion model (SPRAY). A stepwise selection procedure was used to develop the linear regression models. The models were validated using leave one out cross validation (LOOCV) method. In this study, the use of LURs was found to be effective to explain spatial variability of NO2 (adjusted-R2 = 0.72), benzene (adjusted-R2 = 0.53), toluene (adjusted-R2 = 0.50) and acrolein (adjusted-R2 = 0.51), while limited power was achieved with the formaldehyde modeling (adjusted-R2 = 0.24). For all pollutants LURs output showed that the small scale spatial variability was mainly explained by local traffic. The airport contribution to the observed spatial variability was adequately quantified only for acrolein (0.43 (±0.69) μg/m3 in an area of about 6 km2, SW located to the airport runway), while for NO2 and formaldehyde, only a little portion of the spatial variability in a limited portion of the study domain was attributable to airport related emissions.

  12. Land Use Regression Models of On-Road Particulate Air Pollution (Particle Number, Black Carbon, PM2.5, Particle Size) Using Mobile Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-08-01

    Land Use Regression (LUR) models typically use fixed-site monitoring; here, we employ mobile monitoring as a cost-effective alternative for LUR development. We use bicycle-based, mobile measurements (∼85 h) during rush-hour in Minneapolis, MN to build LUR models for particulate concentrations (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], particle size). We developed and examined 1224 separate LUR models by varying pollutant, time-of-day, and method of spatial and temporal smoothing of the time-series data. Our base-case LUR models had modest goodness-of-fit (adjusted R(2): ∼0.5 [PN], ∼0.4 [PM2.5], 0.35 [BC], ∼0.25 [particle size]), low bias (<4%) and absolute bias (2-18%), and included predictor variables that captured proximity to and density of emission sources. The spatial density of our measurements resulted in a large model-building data set (n = 1101 concentration estimates); ∼25% of buffer variables were selected at spatial scales of <100m, suggesting that on-road particle concentrations change on small spatial scales. LUR model-R(2) improved as sampling runs were completed, with diminishing benefits after ∼40 h of data collection. Spatial autocorrelation of model residuals indicated that models performed poorly where spatiotemporal resolution of emission sources (i.e., traffic congestion) was poor. Our findings suggest that LUR modeling from mobile measurements is possible, but that more work could usefully inform best practices. PMID:26134458

  13. Correlations between soil magnetic susceptibility and the content of particular elements as a reflection of pollution level, land use and parent rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Bens, Oliver; Kardel, Kati

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is a worldwide used measure of (ferri)magnetic minerals occurring in soils, sediments and dusts. In soils, these minerals are of various origin: air-derived particulate pollutions, parent rocks or pedogenesis. Human activity causes different changes in the content of magnetic minerals as well as their spatial and vertical distribution in soil profiles. Magnetic minerals are characterized by an affinity for other elements occurring in the soil, so positive correlations between magnetic susceptibility and particular elements like macrocomponents or heavy metals often occurs. The archival soil samples collected from different soil horizons in the territory of the Free State of Saxony (Germany) were subjected to the magnetic susceptibility measurements using Bartington MS2B. Additionally, samples were chemically analyzed by the S Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam. Values of magnetic susceptibility varied from 9.3 to 1382 ×10-8 m3/kg in organic soil horizon and from 0.1 to 2105 ×10-8 m3/kg in dipper layers. Calculated correlation coefficients between magnetic susceptibility and some elements indicate significant relationships characteristic for different factors influenced soil properties (pollution level, land use and parent rocks). The northern part of Saxony is divided by the Elbe into two parts: east part with loose sedimentary rocks and the west one with more solid loess bedrock enriched by spectrum of elements from the Ore Mountains. Correlations between magnetic susceptibility and Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn were stated in the eastern, while soil magnetic susceptibility of the western part revealed a correlation with Fe, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, U, V, and W. Taking into account influences of industry and urbanization, soil magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in the areas with higher population density comparing with rural sites. In the area of Hoyerswerda and Weisswasser with low magnetic natural

  14. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  15. Combining Land Use Information and Small Stream Sampling with PCR-Based Methods for Better Characterization of Diffuse Sources of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between...

  16. Perspectives on nonpoint source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings from the national conference. Papers were presented under the following topic headings: Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution; Legal Aspects of Nonpoint Source Pollution; Institutional/Financial Aspects of Nonpoint Source Controls; Ground Water Quality; Estuarine Quality; Streams and Rivers; Livestock Waste Management; Economics of Nonpoint Source Pollution; Agricultural Issues; Urban Issues; Rural Issues; Land Use Issues; Water Quality Criteria and Standards; and Cross Boundary Nonpoint Source Pollution: The Implications.

  17. Seeking More Effective Management of Freshwater Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmosphere contains airborne pollutants such as mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides released from automobiles, factories, and power plants. Similarly, land surfaces such as croplands, feedlots, logged forests, construction sites, and urban land surfaces may be reserv...

  18. Pollution from nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Humenik, F.J.; Smolen, M.D.; Dressing, S.A.

    1987-08-01

    Efforts to protect water from nonpoint source pollution are underway, but much remains to be done. Recent water quality evaluations and landmark legislation place nonpoint source (NPS) control programs at a pivotal point. The Clean Water Act (CWA) Reauthorization, passed by Congress in Feb. 1987 specifically addresses NPS pollution for the first time. It directs states to submit to EPA a list of waters not meeting CWA goals because of NPS pollution and to submit an NPS management program for those waters. States are required to identify land use sectors that cause major NPS problems. Some professionals declare nonpoint sources to be the major reason for not reaching water quality goals.

  19. Comment on "Simulation of Surface Ozone Pollution in the Central Gulf Coast Region Using WRF/Chem Model: Sensitivity to PBL and Land Surface Physics"

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently published meteorology and air quality modeling study has several serious deficiencies deserving comment. The study uses the weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model to compare and evaluate boundary layer and land surface modeling options. The most se...

  20. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  3. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  4. The use of GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to identify agricultural land management practices which cause surface water pollution in drinking water supply catchments.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse pollution poses a threat to water quality and results in the need for treatment for potable water supplies which can prove costly. Within the Yorkshire region, UK, nitrates, pesticides and water colour present particular treatment problems. Catchment management techniques offer an alternative to 'end of pipe' solutions and allow resources to be targeted to the most polluting areas. This project has attempted to identify such areas using GIS based modelling approaches in catchments where water quality data were available. As no model exists to predict water colour a model was created using an MCE method which is capable of predicting colour concentrations at the catchment scale. CatchIS was used to predict pesticide and nitrate N concentrations and was found to be generally capable of reliably predicting nitrate N loads at the catchment scale. The pesticides results did not match the historic data possibly due to problems with the historic pesticide data and temporal and spatially variability in pesticide usage. The use of these models can be extended to predict water quality problems in catchments where water quality data are unavailable and highlight areas of concern.

  5. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection.

  6. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  7. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  8. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  9. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  10. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  12. Effects of land-use changes and stormflow-detention basins on flooding and nonpoint-source pollution, in Irondequoit Creek basin, Monroe and Ontario counties, New York--application of a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Urbanization of the 150-square-mile Irondequoit Creek basin in Monroe and Ontario Counties, N.Y., continues to spread southward and eastward from the City of Rochester, on the shore of Lake Ontario. Conversion of forested land to other uses over the past 40 years has increased to the extent that more than 50 percent of the basin is now developed. This expansion has increased flooding and impaired stream-water quality in the northern (downstream) half of the basin. A precipitation-runoff model of the Irondequoit Creek basin was developed with the model code HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN) to simulate the effects of land-use changes and stormflow-detention basins on flooding and nonpoint-source pollution on the basin. Model performance was evaluated through a combination of graphical comparisons and statistical tests, and indicated 'very good' agreement (mean error less than 10 percent) between observed and simulated daily and monthly streamflows, between observed and simulated monthly water temperatures, and between observed total suspended solids loads and simulated sediment loads. Agreement between monthly observed and simulated nutrient loads was 'very good' (mean error less than 15 percent) or 'good' (mean error between 15 and 25 percent). Results of model simulations indicated that peak flows and loads of sediment and total phosphorus would increase in a rural subbasin, where 10 percent of the basin was converted from forest and grassland to pervious and impervious developed areas. Subsequent simulation of a stormflow-detention basin at the mouth of this subbasin indicated that peak flows and constituent loads would decrease below those that were generated by the land-use-change scenario, and, in some cases, below those that were simulated by the original land-use scenario. Other results from model simulations of peak flows over a 30-year period (1970-2000), with and without simulation of 50-percent flow reductions at one existing and nine

  13. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  14. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... because of factors ranging from racism to class bias to housing market dynamics and land costs. For ... pollution in a 2012 study. However, the different racial/ethnic and income groups were often breathing very ...

  15. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, R.B. )

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  16. Atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  17. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  18. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  20. Pinpointing Watershed Pollution on a Virtual Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Cheston; Taylor, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Pollution is not a problem we just read about anymore. It affects the air we breathe, the land we live on, and the water we consume. After noticing a lack of awareness in students, a lesson was developed that used Google Earth to pinpoint sources of pollution in the local area and in others across the country, and their effects on the surrounding…

  1. The Economics of Pollution. Economic Topic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolozin, Harold

    One of the major reasons for the present concern for the pollution of the environment lies in the doubts about whether economic growth is possible without proportionate increases in the pollution of our air, land, and water. In response, Professor Wolozin devotes Part One of this trilogy to examining the economic relationships that help to explain…

  2. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  3. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  4. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  5. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  6. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  7. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  8. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  9. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  10. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  11. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  12. Stormwater pollution prevention programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kodukula, P.S.

    1993-09-01

    On November 16, 1990, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations pertaining to the permit application process for stormwater discharges from municipalities and industrial facilities. These include municipalities with populations above 100,000, facilities associated with industrial activity, and construction operations that result in the disturbance of five or more acres of land. Construction operations include clearing, grading, and excavation activities. Each plant should describe potential pollutant sources, identify best management practices or control measures and provide practical guidance for implementation.

  13. 25 CFR 226.22 - Prohibition of pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of pollution. 226.22 Section 226.22 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.22 Prohibition of pollution. (a) All operators... holes) in a manner that will prevent pollution and the migration of oil, gas, salt water or...

  14. 25 CFR 226.22 - Prohibition of pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibition of pollution. 226.22 Section 226.22 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.22 Prohibition of pollution. (a) All operators... holes) in a manner that will prevent pollution and the migration of oil, gas, salt water or...

  15. 25 CFR 226.22 - Prohibition of pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prohibition of pollution. 226.22 Section 226.22 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.22 Prohibition of pollution. (a) All operators... holes) in a manner that will prevent pollution and the migration of oil, gas, salt water or...

  16. 25 CFR 226.22 - Prohibition of pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition of pollution. 226.22 Section 226.22 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.22 Prohibition of pollution. (a) All operators... holes) in a manner that will prevent pollution and the migration of oil, gas, salt water or...

  17. 25 CFR 226.22 - Prohibition of pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition of pollution. 226.22 Section 226.22 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.22 Prohibition of pollution. (a) All operators... holes) in a manner that will prevent pollution and the migration of oil, gas, salt water or...

  18. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  19. Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golueke, Clarence G.

    1971-01-01

    To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

  20. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  1. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc. PMID:22888729

  2. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  3. THE ASSOCIATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER AND NUTRIENT LEVELS IN MARYLAND STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic nonpoint sources of nutrients are known to cause accelerated eutrophication of estuaries. The Chesapeake Bay is one of the world's largest estuaries exhibiting the eutrophication problem caused by pollution from various land use activities. The sources contributing ...

  4. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  5. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  6. [Indoor pollution].

    PubMed

    Tarsitani, G

    1995-01-01

    The Author reports more important phases from the beginning of housing to now: the indoor pollution time. Shelter is a basic need; humans require protection against the elements, somewhere to store and prepare the food, and a secure place to raise offspring; but indoor environment is not always safe. It has been known since Hippocrates' time that housing conditions affect health. Today situation starts from the enormous growth of urbanization. At 1888 in Italy first legislation on health, including healthy building, has been issued. The prevention policies were based on local hygiene regulations. At present housing programmes of who stress the problem in consideration too of the great part of time that, in industrialized Countries, we all pass at home, in the indoor environment. Following the general introduction the Author relates on the features of indoor climate, that may be identical that out of doors, or may be modified by heating, cooling, humidification and ventilation. Larger commentaries are reported on indoor pollution and its increasing by modern technology producing several new hazards. Physical, chemical and biological indoor air pollutants, with their principal sources and health damages associated, are analyzed. In conclusion the author shows some data from a research on indoor pollution in the houses of Rome.

  7. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  8. Land Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater land application, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as the history, development, philosophy, design, models, and case studies of land application. A list of 41 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  10. This Land Is Our Land: Promoting Ecological Awareness in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart; Trostle, Susan L.

    1990-01-01

    The ecological issues of pollution, overpopulation, and conservation can be explained in the classroom through the use of creative play, problem solving, and discovery methods among groups of young children. Activities for teaching the topics of air, water, land, and noise pollution; overpopulation; and conservation are suggested. (DG)

  11. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  12. Land use habits impair US waters

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.A.; Wilcher, L.S.

    1994-08-01

    Preventing nonpoint source pollution begins with personal responsiblity. Land use practices, including construction, agriculture, urban runoff and chemical use in both rural and urban areas, are among the principal causes of nonpoint source pollution. In April 1993, approximately 370,000 Milwaukee, Wis., residents fell ill after ingesting contaminated drinking water. Some people with compromised immune systems died. The culprit was a tiny parasitic microorganism that breeds in the intestines and manure of cattle. Health officials speculate that the parasite hitchhiked across the floor of the watershed to the city`s water supply-a classic example of nonpoint source pollution. This paper describes several efforts to reduce nonpoint source pollution.

  13. Fighting pollution in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Roodman, D M

    1999-01-01

    This article investigates the fighting solution strategies in Vietnam where complaints against factories violating national pollution standards are common. Based on history, the people in Vietnam have been suffering from pollution of all sorts including air, land, water and noise. Precisely, their interaction with one another has been affected by how they interact with the natural environment and community. This worsening situation in the country gave rise to public criticisms, a foot in a door that opens different forms of people participation in the decision-making of the government. Although factories were not so much affected with public criticisms, yet public pressure played a significant role in increasing the compliance of many companies. The strategy adopted in Vietnam may be a powerful force for protecting the Vietnamese against pollution.

  14. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  15. [Spatial distribution and pollution source identification of agricultural non-point source pollution in Fujiang watershed].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Wen; Shen, Zhen-Yao

    2012-11-01

    In order to provide regulatory support for management and control of non-point source (NPS) pollution in Fujiang watershed, agricultural NPS pollution is simulated, spatial distribution characteristics of NPS pollution are analyzed, and the primary pollution sources are also identified, by export coefficient model (ECM) and geographic information system (GIS). Agricultural NPS total nitrogen (TN) loading was of research area was 9.11 x 10(4) t in 2010, and the average loading was intensity was 3.10 t x km(-2). Agricultural NPS TN loading mainly distributed over dry lands, Mianyang city and gentle slope areas; high loading intensity areas were dry lands, Deyang city and gentle slope areas. Agricultural land use, of which contribution rate was 62. 12%, was the most important pollution source; fertilizer loss in dry lands, of which contribution rate was 50.49%, was the prominent. Improving methods of agricultural cultivation, implementing "farm land returning to woodland" policy, and enhancing treatment efficiency of domestic sewage and livestock waster wate are effective measures.

  16. Geochemical position of Pb, Zn and Cd in soils near the Olkusz mine/smelter, South Poland: effects of land use, type of contamination and distance from pollution source.

    PubMed

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Vaněk, Aleš; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Procházka, Jan; Pechar, Libor; Drahota, Petr; Penížek, Vít; Komárek, Michael; Novák, Martin

    2012-04-01

    The soils adjacent to an area of historical mining, ore processing and smelting activities reflects the historical background and a mixing of recent contamination sources. The main anthropogenic sources of metals can be connected with historical and recent mine wastes, direct atmospheric deposition from mining and smelting processes and dust particles originating from open tailings ponds. Contaminated agriculture and forest soil samples with mining and smelting related pollutants were collected at different distances from the source of emission in the Pb-Zn-Ag mining area near Olkusz, Upper Silesia to (a) compare the chemical speciation of metals in agriculture and forest soils situated at the same distance from the point source of pollution (paired sampling design), (b) to evaluate the relationship between the distance from the polluter and the retention of the metals in the soil, (c) to describe mineralogy transformation of anthropogenic soil particles in the soils, and (d) to assess the effect of deposited fly ash vs. dumped mining/smelting waste on the mobility and bioavailability of metals in the soil. Forest soils are much more affected with smelting processes than agriculture soils. However, agriculture soils suffer from the downward metal migration more than the forest soils. The maximum concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were detected in a forest soil profile near the smelter and reached about 25 g kg(- 1), 20 g kg(- 1) and 200 mg kg(- 1) for Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The metal pollutants from smelting processes are less stable under slightly alkaline soil pH then acidic due to the metal carbonates precipitation. Metal mobility ranges in the studied forest soils are as follows: Pb > Zn ≈ Cd for relatively circum-neutral soil pH (near the smelter), Cd > Zn > Pb for acidic soils (further from the smelter). Under relatively comparable pH conditions, the main soil properties influencing metal migration are total organic carbon and cation exchange

  17. Education against Environmental Pollution in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire B.

    1989-01-01

    A community education campaign is beginning to heighten public awareness of the pollution of air, water, and land resources in Nigeria. Research-based information has led to the development of printed educational materials, radio and television messages, and the establishment of a national Environmental Protection Agency. (SK)

  18. Contaminated land liability issues: legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Fogleman, V M

    2000-09-01

    Until recently, companies that contaminated land faced little prospect of being prosecuted or having claims made against them for any personal injuries or property damage arising from the contamination. Most companies would have considered it to be inconceivable that they could be required to clean up contamination resulting from an historic disposal, particularly if the disposal had been neither negligent nor unlawful. Current environmental law differs significantly, however, from the law which existed even 10 years ago. This paper examines liabilities arising from contaminated land. First, it discusses the new contaminated land regime and a parallel regime to remediate sites that are contaminated with radioactive substances. Second, it discusses remediation liabilities for water pollution. Such liabilities may well involve the remediation of contaminated land when groundwater is polluted. Finally, the paper examines liabilities for property damage and personal injuries arising from contamination by radioactive substances.

  19. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  20. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (solid waste pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses pollution by solid wastes including garbage, scrap, junked automobiles, spoil, sludge, containers; Disposal methods such as composts or land application, injection wells, incineration, sanitary landfills; Mining wastes; Processing for separation and materials recovery; Solid waste utilization; Recycling; Biological and ecological effects; Superfund (Records of Decision, etc.); SITE technology; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use. The discussion includes disposal of concentrated or pure liquids such as brines, oils, chemicals, and hazardous materials.

  1. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected. PMID:9722964

  2. Correlation of Quantitative PCR for a Poultry-Specific Brevibacterium Marker Gene with Bacterial and Chemical Indicators of Water Pollution in a Watershed Impacted by Land Application of Poultry Litter▿

    PubMed Central

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L.; Macbeth, Tamzen W.; Olsen, Roger L.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters. PMID:21278274

  3. Correlation of quantitative PCR for a poultry-specific brevibacterium marker gene with bacterial and chemical indicators of water pollution in a watershed impacted by land application of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Olsen, Roger L; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-03-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters.

  4. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  5. 77 FR 58830 - State Program Requirements; Application To Administer Partial National Pollutant Discharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... pollutants and storm water to waters of the state, surface impoundments and land application of wastes and...) permit program under Section 402(n)(3) of the Act for all discharges of pollutants into waters of the... discharge of pollutants to waters of the United States under conditions required by the Act. Section...

  6. [Study on the land use optimization based on PPI].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Ting

    2012-03-01

    Land use type and managing method which is greatly influenced by human activities, is one of the most important factors of non-point pollution. Based on the collection and analysis of non-point pollution control methods and the concept of the three ecological fronts, 9 land use optimized scenarios were designed according to rationality analysis of the current land use situation in the 3 typed small watersheds in Miyun reservoir basin. Take Caojialu watershed for example to analyze and compare the influence to environment of different scenarios based on potential pollution index (PPI) and river section potential pollution index (R-PPI) and the best combination scenario was found. Land use scenario designing and comparison on basis of PPI and R-PPI could help to find the best combination scenario of land use type and managing method, to optimize space distribution and managing methods of land use in basin, to reduce soil erosion and to provide powerful support to formulation of land use planning and pollution control project.

  7. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level. PMID:20049128

  8. Risk prioritisation of stormwater pollutant sources.

    PubMed

    Lundy, L; Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the development of a pollutant risk prioritisation methodology for the comparative assessment of stormwater pollutants discharged from differing land use types and activities. Guidelines are presented which evaluate available data with respect to 'likelihood of occurrence' and 'severity of impact'. The use of the developed approach is demonstrated through its application to total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, lead and cadmium. The proposed benchmarking scheme represents a transparent and auditable mechanism to support the synthesis of data from a variety of sources and is sufficiently flexible to incorporate the use of chemical, physical and/or ecological data sets. Practitioners involved in developing and implementing pollutant mitigation programmes are assisted in two key ways. Firstly through enabling the risks to receiving waters from diffuse pollution on a source-by-source and/or pollutant-by-pollutant basis at a catchment scale to be comparatively assessed and prioritised. Secondly, the methodology informs the selection of appropriate diffuse pollution control strategies.

  9. Transboundary air Pollution in Peruvian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, S.; Luis, C.

    2007-05-01

    Biomass burning in the tropics is an important source of pollution to the atmosphere with different and not well understood consequences to the climate and the atmospheric chemistry. Burning over Amazonia is related mainly to land use cover change. During the dry season (May to November) high amount of fires are produced in Amazonia. The resulting pollutants under some conditions could produce tropospheric ozone, which reaches long distances far from the sources, the same occurs with aerosols, both could be detected by ground and satellite measurements. The work focused on the transboundary air pollution between Brazil and Peru during the last years. In this sense, this research determines the seasonal variations and the spatial coverage of this pollution in Peruvian Amazonia. We used satellite data and ground measurements to make a detailed evaluation of the transport and production of pollutants (tropospheric ozone and aerosols) related to biomass burning in order to quantify the levels of pollution based on tropospheric ozone and aerosol index and optical depth. Also, we evaluate the climatology of fires detected by satellites. It is expected that the results will provide basic information to policy makers about possible effects of this pollution in the natural resources of Peru. Also, we will provide the scientific basis for the National Program for Prevention of Forest Fires.

  10. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  11. Evaluation of agricultural nonpoint source pollution potential risk over China with a Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhu, Yunqiang; He, Chansheng; Wu, Genyi; Qiu, Jin Rong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Qingsong

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has been the most important threat to water environment quality. Understanding the spatial distribution of NPS pollution potential risk is important for taking effective measures to control and reduce NPS pollution. A Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index (T-APPI) model was constructed for evaluating the national NPS pollution potential risk in this study; it was also combined with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques for evaluation on the large scale and at 1 km2 spatial resolution. This model considers many factors contributing to the NPS pollution as the original APPI model, summarized as four indicators of the runoff, sediment production, chemical use and the people and animal load. These four indicators were analysed in detail at 1 km2 spatial resolution throughout China. The T-APPI model distinguished the four indicators into pollution source factors and transport process factors; it also took their relationship into consideration. The studied results showed that T-APPI is a credible and convenient method for NPS pollution potential risk evaluation. The results also indicated that the highest NPS pollution potential risk is distributed in the middle-southern Jiangsu province. Several other regions, including the North China Plain, Chengdu Basin Plain, Jianghan Plain, cultivated lands in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, also showed serious NPS pollution potential. This study can provide a scientific reference for predicting the future NPS pollution risk throughout China and may be helpful for taking reasonable and effective measures for preventing and controlling NPS pollution.

  12. Stormwater runoff quality in correlation to land use and land cover development in Yongin, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Paule, M A; Memon, S A; Lee, B-Y; Umer, S R; Lee, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff quality is sensitive to land use and land cover (LULC) change. It is difficult to understand their relationship in predicting the pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce the pollution risk. In this study, the relationship between LULC change and stormwater runoff quality in two separate monitoring sites comprising a construction area (Site 1) and mixed land use (Site 2) was analyzed using geographic information system (GIS), event mean concentration (EMC), and correlation analysis. It was detected that bare land area increased, while other land use areas such as agriculture, commercial, forest, grassland, parking lot, residential, and road reduced. Based on the analyses performed, high maximum range and average EMCs were found in Site 2 for most of the water pollutants. Also, urban areas and increased conversion of LULC into bare land corresponded to degradation of stormwater quality. Correlation analysis between LULC and stormwater quality showed the influence of different factors such as farming practices, geographical location, and amount of precipitation, vegetation loss, and anthropogenic activities in monitoring sites. This research found that GIS application was an efficient tool for monthly monitoring, validation and statistical analysis of LULC change in the study area.

  13. Stormwater runoff quality in correlation to land use and land cover development in Yongin, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Paule, M A; Memon, S A; Lee, B-Y; Umer, S R; Lee, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff quality is sensitive to land use and land cover (LULC) change. It is difficult to understand their relationship in predicting the pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce the pollution risk. In this study, the relationship between LULC change and stormwater runoff quality in two separate monitoring sites comprising a construction area (Site 1) and mixed land use (Site 2) was analyzed using geographic information system (GIS), event mean concentration (EMC), and correlation analysis. It was detected that bare land area increased, while other land use areas such as agriculture, commercial, forest, grassland, parking lot, residential, and road reduced. Based on the analyses performed, high maximum range and average EMCs were found in Site 2 for most of the water pollutants. Also, urban areas and increased conversion of LULC into bare land corresponded to degradation of stormwater quality. Correlation analysis between LULC and stormwater quality showed the influence of different factors such as farming practices, geographical location, and amount of precipitation, vegetation loss, and anthropogenic activities in monitoring sites. This research found that GIS application was an efficient tool for monthly monitoring, validation and statistical analysis of LULC change in the study area. PMID:25051467

  14. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  15. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  16. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  17. Evaluation of land use/land cover datasets for urban watershed modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, S. J.; Brown, M. J.; McPherson, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  18. Evaluation of land use/land cover datasets for urban watershed modeling.

    PubMed

    Burian, S J; Brown, M J; McPherson, T N

    2002-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size. PMID:12079113

  19. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  20. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  1. The Pollution Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian

    1981-01-01

    Presented are methods to help teachers continue the environmental awareness programs they have already started by providing up-to-date information and activities dealing with air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal. (Author/KC)

  2. Pollution of Florida's rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Cromartie, R.S. 3d. )

    1991-12-01

    Pollution of Florida's waterways is a serious problem. Sources of pollution include sewage, storm water runoff, faulty septic tanks, improperly constructed landfills, and obstruction by causeway bridges. Some of the major causes and solutions are discussed.

  3. [Literature review of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    This review focuses on the following: the measurement and monitoring of pollutants; treatment systems, including physicochemical processes, as well as biological processes; industrial wastes (management); hazardous wastes (waste management as well as remediation); and the fate and effects of pollutants.

  4. Fine particle pollution

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-01-10

    ...   Satellites Track Human Exposure to Fine Particle Pollution   St. Louis, Missouri Alaskan Wildfires ... provides a good test region for satellite observations of pollution. ( Full St. Louis article ) MISR ...

  5. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Mccoy, Nicholas; Chao, Bing; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a comprehensive review of research advancing in 2014 on nonpoint source pollution (NPS). The topics presented relate to nonpoint source pollution (NPS) within agricultural and urban areas. NPS pollution from agricultural areas is the main focus in this review. Management of NPS in agricultural, urban and rural areas is presented. Modeling of NPS pollution in different watersheds with various modeling tools is reviewed.

  6. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  7. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  8. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  9. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  10. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  11. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  12. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  13. Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong; Schultz, Natalie; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-08-01

    The urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban land than the surrounding rural land, is commonly attributed to changes in biophysical properties of the land surface associated with urbanization. Here we provide evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the biogeochemical effect of urban aerosol or haze pollution is also a contributor to the UHI. Our results are based on satellite observations and urban climate model calculations. We find that a significant factor controlling the nighttime surface UHI across China is the urban-rural difference in the haze pollution level. The average haze contribution to the nighttime surface UHI is 0.7+/-0.3 K (mean+/-1 s.e.) for semi-arid cities, which is stronger than that in the humid climate due to a stronger longwave radiative forcing of coarser aerosols. Mitigation of haze pollution therefore provides a co-benefit of reducing heat stress on urban residents.

  14. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  15. On Landing Gear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentric, A.

    1956-01-01

    Information on landing gear stresses is presented on the following: vibratory phenomena, tangential forces applied to landing gear, fore and aft oscillations of landing gears, examples of fatigue failures, vibration calculations, and improvement of existing test equipment.

  16. Air pollution from future giant jetports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Because aircraft arrive and depart in a generally upwind direction, the pollutants are deposited in a narrow corridor extending downwind of the airport. Vertical mixing in the turbulent atmosphere will not dilute such a trail, since the pollutants are distributed vertically during the landing and take-off operations. As a consequence, airport pollution may persist twenty to forty miles downwind without much attenuation. Based on this simple meteorological model, calculations of the ambient levels of nitric oxide and particulates to be expected downwind of a giant jetport show them to be about equal to those in present urban environments. These calculations are based on measured emission rates from jet engines and estimates of aircraft performance and traffic for future jetports.

  17. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  18. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  19. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  20. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  1. [Pollution of room air].

    PubMed

    Schlatter, J

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm.

  2. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  3. Industrial waste pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  4. Future of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D G

    1996-02-01

    In recent years, the concept of pollution prevention has overtaken end-of-pipe controls as the paradigm of choice for effecting environmental protection. Through cooperative mechanisms, significant progress is being made to reduce or eliminate upstream processes and practices that can lead to downstream pollution. These efforts, coupled with productive interactions with the public, are making an impact. The Science Advisory Board released a report in January that described the "next wave" of pollution prevention. Specifically, the report described approaches for anticipating environmental problems of tomorrow so that preventive actions can be taken today. The potential of air pollution problems figures prominently in the Board's vision of the future.

  5. Constructed wetlands to control nonpoint-source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Wengrzynek, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of land for agriculture, urban development, and recreational purposes results in pollution that has potential to contaminate groundwater, streams, lakes and oceans. Aquatic ecosystems can be damaged by even small amounts of pollutants in runoff during storms and by cumulative impacts of chronic, low levels of pollution. Nutrients, pesticides and sediments can have long term effects on the ecosystems. The instant invention using constructed wetlands has been particularly useful for purposes of protecting ecosystems from untoward effects of nonpoint source pollution. The construct, containing in hydraulic order a sediment basin, level-lip spreader, grassy filter, wetland, and deep pond can be used to remove pollutants from nonpoint source runoff. Wetlands are planted with vegetation that encourages growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, which are helpful in removing and detoxifying contaminants.

  6. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    PubMed

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  7. Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

    Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

  8. An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

  9. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl.

  10. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  11. THE LAND - PHARM POLLUTION: HORMONES AND HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Society Of Environmental Journalists (SEJ, web page at http://www.sej.org/) comprises
    members who are working journalists who want news and a background on developing topics. The SEJ (currently with over 1,200 members) was "founded in 1990 by a small group of award-winnin...

  12. The role of sea spray in cleansing air pollution over ocean via cloud processes.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Lahav, Ronen; Khain, Alexander; Pinsky, Mark

    2002-09-01

    Particulate air pollution has been shown to strongly suppress precipitation from convective clouds over land. New observations show that precipitation from similar polluted clouds over oceans is much less affected, because large sea salt nuclei override the precipitation suppression effect of the large number of small pollution nuclei. Raindrops initiated by the sea salt grow by collecting small cloud droplets that form on the pollution particles, thereby cleansing the air. Therefore, sea salt helps cleanse the atmosphere of the air pollution via cloud processes. This implies that over oceans, the climatic aerosol indirect effects are significantly smaller than current estimates.

  13. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eendebak, P. T.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; den Hollander, R. J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the detected obstacles we select a safe landing zone for the UAV. The motion and structure detection uses background estimation of stabilized video. The background variation is measured and used to enhance the moving objects if necessary. In the motion and structure map a distance transform is calculated to find a suitable location for landing.

  14. Satellite-aided evaluation of population exposure to air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; George, A. J., Jr.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of population exposure to air pollution through the computer processing of Landsat digital land use data, along with total suspended particulate estimates and population data by census tracts, is demonstrated. Digital image processing was employed to analyze simultaneously data from Landsat MSS bands 4 through 7 in order to extract land use and land cover information. The three data sets were spatially registered in a digital format, compatible with integrated computer processing, and cross-tabulated. A map illustrating relative air quality by 2-sq km cells for the residential population in the Portland, Oregon area is obtained.

  15. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  16. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  17. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article.

  18. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  19. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  20. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  1. Pollution and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  2. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  3. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollution Dirt Dirt is a big cause of pollution in our rivers and streams. Rain washes dirt into streams and rivers. Dirt can smother fish and other animals that live in the water. If plants can't get enough sunlight because ...

  4. Eutrophication. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Medine, A.J.; Porcella, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

  5. River Pollution: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  6. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  7. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Pollution solution. From the Landsat -- a satellite for all seasons

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The video shows how Landsat`s remote sensing capabilities can aid in resolving environmental quality problems. The satellite can locate and monitor strip mining operations to facilitate land reclamation programs. The satellite helps solve some meteorological mysteries by taking the path of airborne pollution. It can also monitor the course of industrial wastes and garbage dumped into lakes, rivers, and coastal areas.

  9. Overview of rural nonpoint pollution in the Lake Erie Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Cooperative studies by investigators in the United States and Canada have focused on water pollution associated with land-use activities in the Great Lakes Basin. This paper presents an overview of nitrate and pesticide contamination from nonpoint sources, as well as sediment and phosphorus loads, in the surface waters of the Lake Erie Basin.

  10. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

  11. Relationships Between Landscape Characteristics and Nonpoint Source Pollution Inputs to Coastal Estuaries.

    PubMed

    BASNYAT; TEETER; FLYNN; LOCKABY

    1999-05-01

    / Land-use activities affect water quality by altering sediment, chemical loads, and watershed hydrology. Some land uses may contribute to the maintenance of water quality due to a biogeochemical transformation process. These land-use/land-cover types can serve as nutrient detention zones or as nutrient transformation zones as dissolved or suspended nutrients or sediments move downstream. Despite research on the effects of individual land-use/land-cover types, very little has been done to analyze the joint contributions of multiple land-use activities. This paper examines a methodology to assess the relationships between land-use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations [nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants] in streams. In this process, selected basins of the Fish River, Alabama, USA, were delineated, land-use/land-cover types were classified, and contributing zones were identified using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) analysis tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for selected chemical and physical properties. Based on the contributions of the NPS pollutants, a linkage model was developed. This linkage model relates land use/land cover with the pollution levels in the stream. Linkage models were constructed and evaluated at three different scales: (1) the basin scale; (2) the contributing-zone scale; and (3) the stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale. The contributing-zones linkage model suggests that forests act as a transformation zone, and as the proportion of forest inside a contributing zone increases (or agricultural land decreases), nitrate levels downstream will decrease. Residential/urban/built-up areas were identified as the strongest contributors of nitrate in the contributing-zones model and active agriculture was identified as the second largest contributor. The regression results for the streambank land-use/land-cover model (stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale) suggest that water quality is highest

  12. The water footprint of land grabbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    increasing global demand for food, fibers, and biofuels has made investments in agriculture a priority for some governments and corporations eager to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. Here we calculate the water appropriation associated with land deals at different negotiation and implementation stages. Using estimates of actual and potential evapotranspiration for the crops planted in the acquired land, we calculate the green and blue water appropriated by land investors under a variety of irrigation scenarios. We also determine the grey water footprint as the amount of water required to dilute to allowable standards the pollution resulting from fertilizer applications. We found that about 380 × 109 m3 yr-1 of rainwater is appropriated with the 43 million ha of reported contract area acquired by agri-investors (>240 × 109 m3 yr-1 in the 29 million ha of foreign acquisitions only). This water would be sufficient to feed ≈ 300-390 million people.

  13. Evaluation of Land use Regression Models for NO2 in El Paso, Texas, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing suitable exposure estimates for air pollution health studies is problematic due to spatial and temporal variation in concentrations and often limited monitoring data. Though land use regression models (LURs) are often used for this purpose, their applicability to later...

  14. Remote sensing of ocean pollution. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of remote sensing for the control and monitoring of ocean pollution. Citations discuss remote sensing techniques and instrumentations, including airborne and satellite-borne photography, microwave radiometry, laser fluorescence, and radar imagery. Topics include oil spills, marine ecosystems, land-based pollutants, ocean dumping, remote sensing capability and reliability, and pollution transport. (Contains a minimum of 109 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  16. Impact of land use changes on water quality in headwaters of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huicai; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Lijing; Zheng, Binghui

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of spatial and temporal variation of water quality influenced by land use is necessary to manage the environment sustainably in basin scales. Understanding the correlations between land use and different formats of nonpoint source nutrients pollutants is a priority in order to assess pollutants loading and predicting the impact on surface water quality. Forest, upland, paddy field, and pasture are the dominant land use in the study area, and their land use pattern status has direct connection with nonpoint source (NPS) pollutant loading. In this study, two land use scenarios (1995 and 2010) were used to evaluate the impact of land use changes on NPS pollutants loading in basins upstream of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), using a calibrated and validated version of the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. The Pengxi River is one of the largest tributaries of the Yangtze River upstream of the TGR, and the study area included the basins of the Dong and Puli Rivers, two major tributaries of the Pengxi River. The results indicated that the calibrated SWAT model could successfully reproduce the loading of NPS pollutants in the basins of the Dong and Puli Rivers. During the 16-year study period, the land use changed markedly with obvious increase of water body and construction. Average distance was used to measure relative distribution patterns of land use types to basin outlets. Forest was mainly distributed in upstream areas whereas other land use types, in particular, water bodies and construction areas were mainly distributed in downstream areas. The precipitation showed a non-significant influence on NPS pollutants loading; to the contrary, interaction between precipitation and land use were significant sources of variation. The different types of land use change were sensitive to NPS pollutants as well as land use pattern. The influence of background value of soil nutrient on NPS pollutants loading was evaluated in upland and paddy field. It was

  17. Impact of land use changes on water quality in headwaters of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huicai; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Lijing; Zheng, Binghui

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of spatial and temporal variation of water quality influenced by land use is necessary to manage the environment sustainably in basin scales. Understanding the correlations between land use and different formats of nonpoint source nutrients pollutants is a priority in order to assess pollutants loading and predicting the impact on surface water quality. Forest, upland, paddy field, and pasture are the dominant land use in the study area, and their land use pattern status has direct connection with nonpoint source (NPS) pollutant loading. In this study, two land use scenarios (1995 and 2010) were used to evaluate the impact of land use changes on NPS pollutants loading in basins upstream of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), using a calibrated and validated version of the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. The Pengxi River is one of the largest tributaries of the Yangtze River upstream of the TGR, and the study area included the basins of the Dong and Puli Rivers, two major tributaries of the Pengxi River. The results indicated that the calibrated SWAT model could successfully reproduce the loading of NPS pollutants in the basins of the Dong and Puli Rivers. During the 16-year study period, the land use changed markedly with obvious increase of water body and construction. Average distance was used to measure relative distribution patterns of land use types to basin outlets. Forest was mainly distributed in upstream areas whereas other land use types, in particular, water bodies and construction areas were mainly distributed in downstream areas. The precipitation showed a non-significant influence on NPS pollutants loading; to the contrary, interaction between precipitation and land use were significant sources of variation. The different types of land use change were sensitive to NPS pollutants as well as land use pattern. The influence of background value of soil nutrient on NPS pollutants loading was evaluated in upland and paddy field. It was

  18. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  19. The concept of development of the integrated agricultural land assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatserkovniy, V. I.; Gebrin, L. V.; Kryvoberets, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    The article takes up some of the characteristics of Ukrainian soils current conditions. Here cartographically shown the matter of soils, heavy metals pollution of soils, soil loss tolerance and a radiation pollution of soils. The article also analyzes the functional diagram of the agricultural lands spatial data integration and the stages of implementation of the overall agricultural lands monitoring system. It describes the advantages of the integrated agricultural crops conditions assessment model and the advantages of crop yield forecasting based on remote sensing.

  20. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  1. Quantifying light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information.

  2. Mercury pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Gui-Bin Jiang; Jian-Bo Shi; Xin-Bin Feng

    2006-06-15

    With a long history of mercury mining and use and a rapidly growing economy that relies heavily on coal for heat and energy, China faces an enormous challenge to reduce pollution from this toxic metal. The authors delineate what is known about the extent of the problem, regulatory steps are being taken to reduce mercury pollution, and next steps for environmental researchers. It addresses issues of mercury pollution from mercury and gold mining, coal combustion and the chemical industry. Data on dietary intake of mercury is also reported. 50 refs., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  3. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Takeshi; Tamae, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution. PMID:22247659

  4. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  5. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  6. Land conservation and development

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, F.R.; Van Lier, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the planning of the future uses of land with emphasis on land planning for multiple purposes (e.g. agriculture, outdoor recreation, nature preservation, landscaping, mining, housing etc.). Examples of planning are given. Several types of areas are covered such as newly reclaimed land, rural areas, mining areas, urban fringes, and coastal areas.

  7. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  8. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  9. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  10. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  11. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  12. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  13. The Polluter Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Martyn

    1975-01-01

    Presents part of the winning entry in the competition organized by Stirling University (England). The extract presented forms the conclusion to a wide ranging essay which covered the various forms of pollution. (EB)

  14. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  15. Landsat and water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  16. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    This factsheet reviews what is currently known about pollutant sources, abatement and control equipment and techniques for poorly ventilated houses. Radon, formaldehyde, tobacco smokes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, bacteria, fungi and viruses are addressed. (PSB)

  17. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  18. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  19. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  20. Nurses join pollution fight.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Catharine

    2016-08-10

    Most of us are aware of outdoor air pollution: spend time in any traffic-clogged street, and you can taste the chemicals. Even spring days in the countryside can be spoiled by ozone haze. But a report published earlier this year by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) revealed that air pollution is much more than an inconvenience - it is a major health risk. PMID:27507373

  1. Compliance through pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, B.D.; Coyle, S.; Kachel, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Decreased budgetary resources have caused the Air Force Materiel Command to look for a better way to target pollution prevention investments. The new paradigm, Compliance through Pollution Prevention (CTP2), is based upon the Code of Environmental Management Principles (CEMP) for federal facilities. It provides a procedure to assure that all future AFMC P2 investments result in the greatest reduction in environmental compliance burden possible. This paper describes the evolution of this new environmental management system, both past and future.

  2. Remote measurement of pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of the remote measurement of tropospheric air pollution from aircraft platforms. Following a discussion of the energy sources available for passive remote sensing and the location of the absorption bands of the gases, it describes the spectral resolution that would be required and the relative merits of the shorter and longer infrared wavelengths. It then traces the evolution of one instrument concept (the gas filter correlation radiometer) to its present state, and describes flight results that show the technique to be capable of measuring carbon monoxide over water. A new instrument is described that will allow the measurements to be extended to areas over land.

  3. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  4. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  5. Voluntary pollution reduction programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    Despite claims that the government is reducing the amount of environmental regulation, the sheer amount of regulatory language has actually increased yearly. Yet based on media reports and citizen claims, pollution appears to go unchecked. Citizens condemn a perceived lack of government regulation of industrial pollution, while industries find themselves mired in increasingly complex regulatory programs that are sometimes far removed from real world situations. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decision-makers have responded to these concerns by designing regulatory programs that abandon traditional command-and-control regulatory schemes as ill-suited to today`s pollution problems and the interests of these stakeholders. This paper analyzes the use of voluntary pollution control programs in place of command-and-control regulation. It is proposed that voluntary programs may serve as carrots to entice regulated entities to reduce pollution, but that there are a number of hurdles to their effective implementation that preclude them from being embraced as effective environmental regulatory tools. This paper reviews why agencies have moved from command-and-control regulation and examines current voluntary pollution control programs. This paper also contemplates the future of such programs.

  6. 75 FR 27552 - Guidance for Federal Land Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... water pollution'' that are appropriate to restore and protect the Chesapeake Bay. Assuming that all... the Bay and its watershed with the most effective tools and practices available to reduce water pollution from a variety of nonpoint sources, including agricultural lands, urban and suburban...

  7. Vertical variation of nonpoint source pollutants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Hong, Qian; Xie, Hui; Qiu, Jiali; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered the main reason for water deterioration, but there has been no attempt to incorporate vertical variations of NPS pollution into watershed management, especially in mountainous areas. In this study, the vertical variations of pollutant yields were explored in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) and the relationships between topographic attributes and pollutant yields were established. Based on our results, the pollutant yields decreased significantly from low altitude to median altitude and leveled off rapidly from median altitude to high altitude, indicating logarithmic relationships between pollutant yields and altitudes. The pollutant yields peaked at an altitude of 200-500 m, where agricultural land and gentle slopes (0-8°) are concentrated. Unlike the horizontal distributions, these vertical variations were not always related to precipitation patterns but did vary obviously with land uses and slopes. This paper also indicates that altitude data and proportions of land use could be a reliable estimate of NPS yields at different altitudes, with significant implications for land use planning and watershed management.

  8. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    released by the renown non governmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice Programme under the aegis of friends of the Earth indicated that the coastal region of Nigeria along accounts for 16 percent of the world's total flare in view of the above coupled with the increasing oil spillages in the African Gulf of Guinea region resulted in the rapid decline in fish, plankton, shrimps and other sea lives along the Coast of Africa facing the Atlantic Ocean. ii. In the more recent time the revering dwellers living around the Coast of Gulf of Guinea region and Somalia's Coast have been complaining of increasing cases of child respiratory illness, land degradation, well pollution, infertility and premature death. iii. Geological strata of the Atlantic Ocean are adversely destroyed by the seismographic activities going on around the Gulf of Guinea region and Angola in particular. iv. The general means of livelihood of the revering dwellers are often threaten by the pollution. POSITION OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF AFRICA Apart from the governments of the federal republic of Nigeria, South Africa, Ghana, Senegal and Tanzania that have either established institutes of Oceanography or Environmental Protection Agencies, the majority of the African governments have shown no signs of checking the menace. POSITION OF THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION The Netherlands based Climate Justice and the Nigeria Environmental Rights Action are the only non-governmental organizations out of very many that have shown signs of fighting this incessant increase in ocean pollution in Africa. RECOMMENDATION In view of the above situation I came up with the under-listed suggestions/recommendations: i. International organizations who's work that are related to Ocean and Pollution should send their teams of researchers to come and investigate the trend of this menace and proffer a possible lasting solution. ii. The United Nations should use its capacity to educate and

  10. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    PubMed

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation.

  11. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  12. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  13. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called “quick wash” was investigated for its feasibility to extract ...

  14. Applications of WEPS and SWEEP to non-agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious problem on agricultural lands throughout the United States and the world. Dust from wind erosion obscures visibility and pollutes the air. It fills road ditches where it can impact water quality, causes automobile accidents, fouls machinery, and imperils animal an...

  15. EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF LAND-CLEARING DEBRIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies and quantifies a broad range of pollutants that are discharged during small-scale, simulated, open combustion of land-clearing debris and reports these emissions relative to the mass of material combusted. Two types of land-clearing debris (representing the ...

  16. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Legal Aspects - Module 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module summarizes laws that are relevant to the land application of wastes, focusing on the applicable Federal laws and representative state regulations from different areas of the country. The module describes the 10 points of Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that relate to land application. It…

  17. Method for measuring pollutant formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annen, Kurt (Inventor); Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for determining an instantaneous rate of pollutant formation in a combustion system are based on measurement of chemiluminescence intensity generated simultaneously with the formation of the pollutant. The chemiluminescent signal is generated by an analog reaction which occurs in parallel with a key step in the formation of a specific pollutant of interest. The connection between the analog reaction and the pollution reaction is such that the chemiluminescent signal indicates the local, instantaneous formation rate of the pollutant of interest.

  18. Classification of impervious land cover using fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quackenbush, Lindi J.

    Runoff from urban areas is a leading source of nonpoint source pollution in estuaries, lakes, and streams. The extent and type of impervious land cover are considered to be critical factors in evaluating runoff amounts and the potential for environmental damage. Land cover information for watershed modeling is frequently derived using remote sensing techniques, and improvements in image classification are expected to enhance the reliability of runoff models. In order to understand potential pollutant loads there is a need to characterize impervious areas based on land use. However, distinguishing between impervious features such as roofs and roads using only spectral information is often challenging due to the similarity in construction materials. Since spectral information alone is often lacking, spatial complexity measured using fractal dimension was analyzed to determine its utility in performing detailed classification. Fractal dimension describes the complexity of curves and surfaces in non-integer dimensions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that fractal dimension varies between roofs, roads, and driveways. Analysis also observed the impact of scale by determining statistical differences in fractal dimension, based on the size of the window considered and the ground sampled distance of the pixels under consideration. The statistical differences in fractal dimension translated to minor improvements in classification accuracy when separating roofs, roads, and driveways.

  19. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  20. Decision analysis of polluted sites -- A fuzzy set approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.M.O.; Cote, K.

    1999-07-01

    A decision analysis based model (DAPS 1.0, Decision Analysis of Polluted Sites) has been developed to evaluate risks that polluted sites might pose to human health. Pollutants present in soils and sediments can potentially migrate from source to receptor(s), via different pathways. in the developed model, pathways are simulated via transport models (i.e., groundwater transport model, runoff-erosion model, air diffusion model, and sediment diffusion, and resuspension model in water bodies). Humans can be affected by pollutant migration through land and water use. health risks can arise from ingestion of and dermal contact with polluted water and soil, as well as through inhalation of polluted air. Quantitative estimates of risks are calculated for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pollutants. Being very heterogeneous, soil and sediment systems are characterized by uncertain parameters. Concepts of fuzzy set theory have been adopted to account for uncertainty in the input parameters which are represented by fuzzy numbers. An inference model using fuzzy logic has been constructed for reasoning in the decision analysis.

  1. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    released by the renown non governmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice Programme under the aegis of friends of the Earth indicated that the coastal region of Nigeria along accounts for 16 percent of the world's total flare in view of the above coupled with the increasing oil spillages in the African Gulf of Guinea region resulted in the rapid decline in fish, plankton, shrimps and other sea lives along the Coast of Africa facing the Atlantic Ocean. ii. In the more recent time the revering dwellers living around the Coast of Gulf of Guinea region and Somalia's Coast have been complaining of increasing cases of child respiratory illness, land degradation, well pollution, infertility and premature death. iii. Geological strata of the Atlantic Ocean are adversely destroyed by the seismographic activities going on around the Gulf of Guinea region and Angola in particular. iv. The general means of livelihood of the revering dwellers are often threaten by the pollution. POSITION OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF AFRICA Apart from the governments of the federal republic of Nigeria, South Africa, Ghana, Senegal and Tanzania that have either established institutes of Oceanography or Environmental Protection Agencies, the majority of the African governments have shown no signs of checking the menace. POSITION OF THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION The Netherlands based Climate Justice and the Nigeria Environmental Rights Action are the only non- governmental organizations out of very many that have shown signs of fighting this incessant increase in ocean pollution in Africa.

  2. Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

  3. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  4. Pinpointing nonpoint pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Perchalski, F.R.; Higgins, J.M. )

    1988-02-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority has employed aerial photography to map its attack on nonpoint sources of water pollution. These sources cause most of the water quality problems in the region and, unlike point sources, are difficult to locate and monitor by conventional methods. In one test, analysis of large scale aerial photographs provided the information needed to define the pollution sources and target cleanup efforts. Infrared color stereoscopic photos at a scale of 1:24,000, revealed 226 livestock operations and their surface drainage connections in a 70,000 acre watershed. Controlling nonpoint sources of water pollution will require a long term commitment. But at a cost of pennies per acre, aerial photographic methods provide an essential complement to conventional data collection techniques.

  5. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, E.L. . Div. of Biological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise.

  6. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  7. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  8. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town.

    PubMed

    Gebreab, Sirak Zenebe; Vienneau, Danielle; Feigenwinter, Christian; Bâ, Hâmpaté; Cissé, Guéladio; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS). Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines. PMID:26618306

  9. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  10. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  11. Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet, L. M.

    Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants, containing the proceedings of a colloquium held at Oberursel/Taunus, FRG, November 9-11, 1981, is divided into three main parts: dry deposition; wet deposition; and deposition on plants and vegetation.The 20 articles in the volume permit a fair survey of present-day knowledge and will be a useful tool to all working on the topic. Pollution by deposition of either the dry or wet sort is very insidious; its importance only appears in the long range, when its effects are or are almost irreversible. That is why concern was so long in emerging from decision makers.

  12. Defining urban diffuse pollution loadings and receiving water hazard.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M

    2008-01-01

    The use of unit area loading approaches to address the requirements of the US Clean Water Act (CWA) and the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) to identify and manage diffuse urban pollution sources is outlined. Issues relating to traditional volume-concentration probabilistic modelling are highlighted and the robustness of total maximum daily load (TMDL) approaches is discussed. A hazard assessment methodology for catchment scale identification of source area pollutant loadings and receiving water ecological impacts is developed based on urban land use activities. PMID:18547936

  13. Assessment of space sensors for ocean pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Tomiyasu, K.; Gulatsi, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Several passive and active microwave, as well as passive optical remote sensors, applicable to the monitoring of oil spills and waste discharges at sea, are considered. The discussed types of measurements relate to: (1) spatial distribution and properties of the pollutant, and (2) oceanic parameters needed to predict the movement of the pollutants and their impact upon land. The sensors, operating from satellite platforms at 700-900 km altitudes, are found to be useful in mapping the spread of oil in major oil spills and in addition, can be effective in producing wind and ocean parameters as inputs to oil trajectory and dispersion models. These capabilities can be used in countermeasures.

  14. Relationships between landscape characteristics and nonpoint source pollution inputs to coastal estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Basnyat, P.; Teeter, L.D.; Flynn, K.M.; Lockaby, B.G.

    1999-05-01

    Land-use activities affect water quality by altering sediment, chemical loads, and watershed hydrology. Some land uses may contribute to the maintenance of water quality due to a biogeochemical transformation process. These land-use/land-cover types can serve as nutrient detention zones or as nutrient transformation zones as dissolved or suspended nutrients or sediments move down-stream. Despite research on the effects of individual land-use/land-cover types, very little has been done to analyze the joint contributions of multiple land-use activities. This paper examines a methodology to assess the relationships between land-use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations [nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants] in streams. In this process, selected basins of the Fish River, Alabama, USA, were delineated, land-use/land-cover types were classified, and contributing zones were identified using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) analysis tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for selected chemical and physical properties. Based on the contributions of the NPS pollutants, a linkage model was developed.

  15. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to identifying chemical pollution in the marine environment and assessing the effects of such pollution on living marine resources is described. Such a study requires knowing: what pollutants organisms are exposed to, which pollutants are accumulated; the fate of pollutants taken up by organisms, and biological changes caused by the pollutants. Analytical limitations of such studies are noted. Examples of specific interdisciplinary laboratory and field investigations are presented, for instance, the finding of liver tumors in flatfish that accumulated sediment-bound naphthalene.

  16. Land use change and its effects on water quality in typical inland lake of arid area in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Zhou, Xiaode; Guo, Mengjing; Wei, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Land-use change is very important for determining and assessing the influence of human activity on aquatic environment of rivers and lakes. The present work with Bosten River basin as the subject, analyzes features of dynamic land-use change of the basin from 1993 to 2013, in order to study the influence of land-use pattern change on the basin water quality, according to the land-use/land-cover(LUCC) chart from 2000 to 2013 made by ArcGIS and ENVI. It shows cultivated land, wetland and forestland constitute most of Bosten River basin, taking up over 41.7% of the total; from 1993-2000, LUCC of the basin is relatively small, with an increase of cultivated land, residential-industry land, water wetlands by 15.09%-18.33%,most of which are transformed from forestland, grassland and unused land; from 2000-2013, LUCC of the basin is relatively significant, with a continuing and bigger increase of cultivated land and Residential-industry area, most of which are transformed from water wetlands and unused land. Based on analysis of landuse pattern and water quality index, it can be told that water pollution is positively correlated to cultivated land and residential-industry area and negatively correlated to water and grassland. Also, the influence of land-use pattern change on water quality has been discussed, whose finding can serve as the scientific evidence for land-use optimization and water pollution control. PMID:27498508

  17. Land use change and its effects on water quality in typical inland lake of arid area in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Zhou, Xiaode; Guo, Mengjing; Wei, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Land-use change is very important for determining and assessing the influence of human activity on aquatic environment of rivers and lakes. The present work with Bosten River basin as the subject, analyzes features of dynamic land-use change of the basin from 1993 to 2013, in order to study the influence of land-use pattern change on the basin water quality, according to the land-use/land-cover(LUCC) chart from 2000 to 2013 made by ArcGIS and ENVI. It shows cultivated land, wetland and forestland constitute most of Bosten River basin, taking up over 41.7% of the total; from 1993-2000, LUCC of the basin is relatively small, with an increase of cultivated land, residential-industry land, water wetlands by 15.09%-18.33%,most of which are transformed from forestland, grassland and unused land; from 2000-2013, LUCC of the basin is relatively significant, with a continuing and bigger increase of cultivated land and Residential-industry area, most of which are transformed from water wetlands and unused land. Based on analysis of landuse pattern and water quality index, it can be told that water pollution is positively correlated to cultivated land and residential-industry area and negatively correlated to water and grassland. Also, the influence of land-use pattern change on water quality has been discussed, whose finding can serve as the scientific evidence for land-use optimization and water pollution control.

  18. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  19. Modeling diffuse pollution with a distributed approach.

    PubMed

    León, L F; Soulis, E D; Kouwen, N; Farquhar, G J

    2002-01-01

    The transferability of parameters for non-point source pollution models to other watersheds, especially those in remote areas without enough data for calibration, is a major problem in diffuse pollution modeling. A water quality component was developed for WATFLOOD (a flood forecast hydrological model) to deal with sediment and nutrient transport. The model uses a distributed group response unit approach for water quantity and quality modeling. Runoff, sediment yield and soluble nutrient concentrations are calculated separately for each land cover class, weighted by area and then routed downstream. The distributed approach for the water quality model for diffuse pollution in agricultural watersheds is described in this paper. Integrating the model with data extracted using GIS technology (Geographical Information Systems) for a local watershed, the model is calibrated for the hydrologic response and validated for the water quality component. With the connection to GIS and the group response unit approach used in this paper, model portability increases substantially, which will improve non-point source modeling at the watershed scale level.

  20. Pollution Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Research Ventures, Inc.'s visiplume is a portable, microprocessor-controlled air pollution monitor for measuring sulfur dioxide emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants, and facilities that manufacture sulfuric acid. It observes smokestack plumes at a distance from the stack obviating the expense and difficulty of installing sample collectors in each stack and later analyzing the samples.

  1. Exploring Detergent Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the ecological dangers of certain types of detergents, and the action taken by government agencies and detergent manufacturers to alleviate the problem. Describes classroom activities and instructional procedures designed to illustrate detergent characteristics and the effects of detergent pollution. (MLH)

  2. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  3. Pollution--Who Pays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The cost of dealing with pollution and ensuring an acceptable environment must be regarded as part of the price to be paid for providing ourselves with the products of industrial activity. However, since environmental problems are relative rather than absolute, any judgment of risk needs to be balanced against the assessment of the benefit.…

  4. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This article is the last of a three-part series dealing with sound measurement, effects, pollution, and indoor/door learning activities. This section focuses on outdoor activities and equipment that students can make to assist them in data collection. (Author/SA)

  5. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  6. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  7. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Chemistry for Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Larry

    This booklet presents some methods of quantitative chemical analysis currently used in the field of fresh water pollution control. Only those tests that may be performed with little or no special reagents or pieces of equipment are listed. The booklet addresses the following determinations: (1) acidity; (2) alkalinity; (3) chloride; (4) hardness;…

  9. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  11. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  12. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  13. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  14. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  15. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  16. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  17. Measuring River Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  18. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  19. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    released by the renown non governmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice Programme under the aegis of friends of the Earth indicated that the coastal region of Nigeria along accounts for 16 percent of the world's total flare in view of the above coupled with the increasing oil spillages in the African Gulf of Guinea region resulted in the rapid decline in fish, plankton, shrimps and other sea lives along the Coast of Africa facing the Atlantic Ocean. ii. In the more recent time the revering dwellers living around the Coast of Gulf of Guinea region and Somalia's Coast have been complaining of increasing cases of child respiratory illness, land degradation, well pollution, infertility and premature death. iii. Geological strata of the Atlantic Ocean are adversely destroyed by the seismographic activities going on around the Gulf of Guinea region and Angola in particular. iv. The general means of livelihood of the revering dwellers are often threaten by the pollution. POSITION OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF AFRICA Apart from the governments of the federal republic of Nigeria, South Africa, Ghana, Senegal and Tanzania that have either established institutes of Oceanography or Environmental Protection Agencies, the majority of the African governments have shown no signs of checking the menace. POSITION OF THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION The Netherlands based Climate Justice and the Nigeria Environmental Rights Action are the only non-governmental organizations out of very many that have shown signs of fighting this incessant increase in ocean pollution in Africa. RECOMMENDATION In view of the above situation I came up with the under-listed suggestions/recommendations: i. International organizations who's work that are related to Ocean and Pollution should send their teams of researchers to come and investigate the trend of this menace and proffer a possible lasting solution. ii. The United Nations should use its capacity to educate and

  20. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  1. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are about "strange…

  2. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  3. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  4. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  5. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  6. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegeas, Robin G.; Claire, Robert W.; Guptill, Stephen C.; Anderson, K. Eric; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changesthat center on the emerging influence ofdigital manipulation and analysis ofdata for the preparation of cartographic materials and for use in geographic information systems. Operational requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been edited and assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced. This chapter 895-E, describes the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System that is used in conjunction with the USGS land use and land cover classification system to encode, edit, manipuate, and analyze land use and land cover digital data.

  7. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  8. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  9. [GIS and L-THIA based analysis on variations of non-point pollution in the Guanlan River watershed, Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng-jiao; Li, Tian-hong

    2012-08-01

    In order to reveal the influence of land use change, on the non-point source pollution load during the rapid urbanization process in the Guanlan River watershed, Shenzhen, Guangdong, with the support of GIS, L-THIA model was used to analyze the changes in spatial distribution of non-point source pollution load in the river watershed from 1996 to 2008. The parameters in L-THIA model were revised according to the environmental conditions of the study region. The results showed that during the urbanization from 1996 to 2008, the load of major pollutants, namely TN, TP and COD, showed an obviously increasing trend with increase rates being 62.78%, 59.73% and 55.40%, respectively, and the distribution of areas with high pollution load was expanding along the river and the main roads, and then connected into large areas. The total load of SS was decreased by 7.59%. This was caused by the reduction of land for development, which was the land use pattern with high SS output. Therefore, in order to control the non-point pollution effectively, the Guanlan River watershed could be divided into four pollution control areas according to the distribution of pollution load and different land use patterns. The results of this research would provide scientific references for non-point source pollution control in the Guanlan River watershed.

  10. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. PMID:27128934

  11. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T A; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-04-27

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas.

  12. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T A; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. PMID:27128934

  13. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    PubMed Central

    Setton, Eleanor M; Hystad, Perry W; Keller, C Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1) creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2) enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3) using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments. PMID:16262893

  14. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  15. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  16. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  17. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  18. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  19. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  20. Macroinvertebrates as indicators of pollution.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Sharma, Arti

    2005-04-01

    Various pollution indicators of stream Ban-Ganga have been identified on the basis of presence/absence/numerical abundance at various stations. They have been categorized as pollution tolerant, facultative and pollution intolerant groups in relation with the water quality at different stations of stream. PMID:16161974

  1. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  2. Evolving policies to regulate pollution from animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Centner, T J

    2001-11-01

    Due to concentrations of animals at large facilities, animal feeding operations (AFOs) have emerged as a major potential source of water pollution. The federal government regulates concentrated animal feeding operations under its point-source pollution permitting regulations. A major determinant of whether an operation must apply for a permit is the number of animals at an individual lot or facility. This paper examines federal mandatory controls and voluntary guidelines that seek to reduce contaminant pollution from AFOs. Land treatment practices are delineated due to their importance in reducing the injurious by-products of agricultural production. An evaluation of proposed revisions to federal regulations on confined animal feeding operations suggests they diverge from their goal of controlling water pollution. Federal regulations focus on the size of operation and amount of manure governed by the permitting process to the exclusion of other criteria related to the impairment of water quality. Given the uncertainties about the amount of pollution from AFOs, lack of enforcement of existing regulations, localization of problems, and possible alternatives for addressing the pollution, more demanding federal regulations may not form an appropriate response.

  3. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  4. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  5. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture- and PCR-based measurements of fecal pollution were determined and compared to hydrologic and land use indicators. Stream water samples (n = 235) were collected monthly over a two year period from ten streams draining headwatersheds with different land use intensities ra...

  6. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  7. Removal of hazardous organic pollutants by biomass adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.P.; Tsezos, M.

    1987-04-01

    This study is aimed at understanding adsorption in biological treatment processes and developing models for predicting the fate of hazardous organic pollutants entering biological wastewater treatment plants. Adsorption of organic chemicals onto two types of inactive microbial biomass was examined. Desorption, temperature effects, and the thermodynamics of the adsorption process were also investigated. Adsorption reversibility demonstrated by pesticides indicate their potential for leaching from land disposal sludges. (Refs. 30).

  8. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp. PMID:27456146

  9. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  10. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  11. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  12. Lead polluters get punished

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice last week cracked down on 36 US companies for polluting the environment with lead. EPA slapped fines totaling more than $10 million on 12 of the offending companies, and Justice filed 24 civil complaints. Hank Habicht, deputy administrator of the EPA, said that his agency's initiative comes after 8 months of intense - and presumably successful - efforts at locating and documenting lead pollution in the soil, air, and water supply. Most feared has been lead's ability to damage the intellectual development of children. This caused the agency, Habicht said, to look beyond the usual suspect - lead in the water supply - to lead-laced dirt in residential areas. Meanwhile, the Department of Justice is using the EPA contamination data as well. Twenty US attorneys have been assigned to pore over the federal environmental statutes, including the Clean Water Act and the Superfund Law, in order to file civil complaints.

  13. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Innovation for Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic Controls Inc.'s refuse-fired steam generating facility led to the development of an air pollution equipment control device. The device is currently marketed by two NASA/Langley Research Center employees. It automatically senses and compensates for the changes in smoke composition when refuse is used as a fuel by adjusting the precipitator's voltage and current to permit maximum collection of electrically charged dust particles. The control adapts to any electrostatic precipitator and should have extensive commercial applications.

  15. Megacities and atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Molina, Mario J; Molina, Luisa T

    2004-06-01

    About half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunity for a better quality of life. Many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, leading to the growth of megacities, which are defined as metropolitan areas with populations exceeding 10 million inhabitants. These concentrations of people and activity are exerting increasing stress on the natural environment, with impacts at urban, regional and global levels. In recent decades, air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities. Initially, the main air pollutants of concern were sulfur compounds, which were generated mostly by burning coal. Today, photochemical smog--induced primarily from traffic, but also from industrial activities, power generation, and solvents--has become the main source of concern for air quality, while sulfur is still a major problem in many cities of the developing world. Air pollution has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze, and has the potential to contribute significantly to climate change. Yet, with appropriate planning, megacities can efficiently address their air quality problems through measures such as application of new emission control technologies and development of mass transit systems. This review is focused on nine urban centers, chosen as case studies to assess air quality from distinct perspectives: from cities in the industrialized nations to cities in the developing world. While each city--its problems, resources, and outlook--is unique, the need for a holistic approach to the complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in reducing air pollution in megacities; a mix of policy measures will be needed to improve air quality. Experience shows that strong political will coupled with public dialog is essential to effectively implement the regulations required to address air quality problems.

  16. Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong; Schultz, Natalie; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-08-23

    The urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban land than the surrounding rural land, is commonly attributed to changes in biophysical properties of the land surface associated with urbanization. Here we provide evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the biogeochemical effect of urban aerosol or haze pollution is also a contributor to the UHI. Our results are based on satellite observations and urban climate model calculations. We find that a significant factor controlling the nighttime surface UHI across China is the urban-rural difference in the haze pollution level. The average haze contribution to the nighttime surface UHI is 0.7±0.3 K (mean±1 s.e.) for semi-arid cities, which is stronger than that in the humid climate due to a stronger longwave radiative forcing of coarser aerosols. Mitigation of haze pollution therefore provides a co-benefit of reducing heat stress on urban residents.

  17. Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong; Schultz, Natalie; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban land than the surrounding rural land, is commonly attributed to changes in biophysical properties of the land surface associated with urbanization. Here we provide evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the biogeochemical effect of urban aerosol or haze pollution is also a contributor to the UHI. Our results are based on satellite observations and urban climate model calculations. We find that a significant factor controlling the nighttime surface UHI across China is the urban–rural difference in the haze pollution level. The average haze contribution to the nighttime surface UHI is 0.7±0.3 K (mean±1 s.e.) for semi-arid cities, which is stronger than that in the humid climate due to a stronger longwave radiative forcing of coarser aerosols. Mitigation of haze pollution therefore provides a co-benefit of reducing heat stress on urban residents. PMID:27551987

  18. Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong; Schultz, Natalie; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban land than the surrounding rural land, is commonly attributed to changes in biophysical properties of the land surface associated with urbanization. Here we provide evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the biogeochemical effect of urban aerosol or haze pollution is also a contributor to the UHI. Our results are based on satellite observations and urban climate model calculations. We find that a significant factor controlling the nighttime surface UHI across China is the urban-rural difference in the haze pollution level. The average haze contribution to the nighttime surface UHI is 0.7±0.3 K (mean±1 s.e.) for semi-arid cities, which is stronger than that in the humid climate due to a stronger longwave radiative forcing of coarser aerosols. Mitigation of haze pollution therefore provides a co-benefit of reducing heat stress on urban residents. PMID:27551987

  19. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  20. The Economics of Pollution; Part Three: Can Pollution Be Controlled? Teaching About: Can Pollution Be Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolozin, Harold; Reilly, Patricia R.

    In this third of three articles on the economics of pollution control general statements from several sources present a background which questions our ability to devise the necessary tools to fight pollution, even if adequate expenditures of money are provided. In the struggle to control pollution, the economist, it is believed, can provide…

  1. Nonpoint source pollution management for the multipurpose dam watersheds.

    PubMed

    Choi, J-Y

    2008-01-01

    Main pollution sources in multipurpose dam watersheds in Korea are highland fields, stream banks, livestock farms, roads, and construction sites. Specifically, highland fields are the major nonpoint pollution sources. Excessive organic chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticide can be exuded from the land, and the area is likely to be eroded by heavy rain. Fallow, conservative cultivation, and covering can be alternatives for soil protection and reinforcement. In addition to these, construction of detour waterways and improvement of irrigation method can minimize the impact of runoff. In the case of slope in 15% degree or more, prohibiting cultivation and restoring the surface is preferred to improving cultivation method in order to control nonpoint pollution sources efficiently.

  2. Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice

    SciTech Connect

    Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  4. Terrestrial pollutant runoff to the Great Barrier Reef: An update of issues, priorities and management responses.

    PubMed

    Brodie, J E; Kroon, F J; Schaffelke, B; Wolanski, E C; Lewis, S E; Devlin, M J; Bohnet, I C; Bainbridge, Z T; Waterhouse, J; Davis, A M

    2012-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World Heritage Area and contains extensive areas of coral reef, seagrass meadows and fisheries resources. From adjacent catchments, numerous rivers discharge pollutants from agricultural, urban, mining and industrial activity. Pollutant sources have been identified and include suspended sediment from erosion in cattle grazing areas; nitrate from fertiliser application on crop lands; and herbicides from various land uses. The fate and effects of these pollutants in the receiving marine environment are relatively well understood. The Australian and Queensland Governments responded to the concerns of pollution of the GBR from catchment runoff with a plan to address this issue in 2003 (Reef Plan; updated 2009), incentive-based voluntary management initiatives in 2007 (Reef Rescue) and a State regulatory approach in 2009, the Reef Protection Package. This paper reviews new research relevant to the catchment to GBR continuum and evaluates the appropriateness of current management responses.

  5. Terrestrial pollutant runoff to the Great Barrier Reef: An update of issues, priorities and management responses.

    PubMed

    Brodie, J E; Kroon, F J; Schaffelke, B; Wolanski, E C; Lewis, S E; Devlin, M J; Bohnet, I C; Bainbridge, Z T; Waterhouse, J; Davis, A M

    2012-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World Heritage Area and contains extensive areas of coral reef, seagrass meadows and fisheries resources. From adjacent catchments, numerous rivers discharge pollutants from agricultural, urban, mining and industrial activity. Pollutant sources have been identified and include suspended sediment from erosion in cattle grazing areas; nitrate from fertiliser application on crop lands; and herbicides from various land uses. The fate and effects of these pollutants in the receiving marine environment are relatively well understood. The Australian and Queensland Governments responded to the concerns of pollution of the GBR from catchment runoff with a plan to address this issue in 2003 (Reef Plan; updated 2009), incentive-based voluntary management initiatives in 2007 (Reef Rescue) and a State regulatory approach in 2009, the Reef Protection Package. This paper reviews new research relevant to the catchment to GBR continuum and evaluates the appropriateness of current management responses. PMID:22257553

  6. The economic impact of remote sensing data as the source of nonpoint pollution monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Nonpoint pollution of streams with sediment as a result of runoff from alternative uses of land has become a socially unacceptable product of economic activity. This report describes a research approach to economically achieve correction of the nonpoint pollution problem. The research approach integrates the economic model with those data which may be obtainable from remotely sensed sources. The economic problem involves measurement of the direct benefits and costs associated with the changes in land management activities necessary to reduce the level of nonpoint pollution. Remotely sensed data from ERTS-1 may provide some of the information required for the economic model which indicates efficient solutions to the nonpoint pollution problem. Three classes of data (i.e., soil categories, vegetative cover, and water turbidity) have the potential to be measured by ERTS-1 systems. There is substantial research which indicates the ability of ERTS-1 to measure these classes of data under selected conditions.

  7. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  8. The White Promised Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    1978-01-01

    Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)

  9. Space Shuttle night landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenstein, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    The tracking and guidance requirements of the Indian National Satellite during its transition from the low-earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit dictated a night launch and subsequent night landing. The development of an Orbiter-independent external lighting system (ELS) that would work in conjunction with the Orbiter navigation, guidance, and control systems used for day approach and landing is described. The ELS includes the night landing visual aids; the heading alignment circle precision approach path indicator lights, as an aid for the outer glide slope; the runway floodlight, to accommodate for the transition area between preflare and intercepting inner glide slope (IGS) system; the ball/bar reference IGS system; and heads-up displays. The aspects of the lakebed dust problems are discussed. Diagrams illustrating the approach trajectory, final night-lighting configurations, and the approach and land symbology are included.

  10. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  11. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  12. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  13. Issues of Rural Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.

    2001-12-01

    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  14. Storm water pollution prevention plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rossmiller, R.L. )

    1993-03-01

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

  15. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  16. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  17. Landing techniques in volleyball.

    PubMed

    Lobietti, Roberto; Coleman, Simon; Pizzichillo, Eduardo; Merni, Franco

    2010-11-01

    Knee injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament lesions and patellar tendonitis are very frequent in volleyball, and are often attributed to micro traumas that occur during the landing phase of airborne actions. The aim of the present study was to compare different jumping activities during official men's and women's volleyball games. Twelve top-level matches from the Italian men's and women's professional leagues were analysed. The jumps performed during the games were classified according to the landing technique used by the player (left or right foot or both feet together), court position, and ball trajectory. Chi-square analyses were performed to detect differences in landing techniques between the sexes, court positions, and trajectories when serving, attacking, blocking, and setting. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the sexes for block, set, and spike but not for the jump serve. The frequency of landings on one foot was related to court position and the trajectory of the sets: when spiking faster sets, the players were more likely to use a one-footed landing. The present results should help coaches and physiotherapists to devise appropriate training and prevention programmes, and reveal the need for further detailed biomechanical investigations of the relationships between landings and knee injuries. PMID:20967671

  18. Explaining nitrate pollution pressure on the groundwater resource in Kinshasa using a multivariate statistical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2013-04-01

    Drinking water in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is provided by extracting groundwater from the local aquifer, particularly in peripheral areas. The exploited groundwater body is mainly unconfined and located within a continuous detrital aquifer, primarily composed of sedimentary formations. However, the aquifer is subjected to an increasing threat of anthropogenic pollution pressure. Understanding the detailed origin of this pollution pressure is important for sustainable drinking water management in Kinshasa. The present study aims to explain the observed nitrate pollution problem, nitrate being considered as a good tracer for other pollution threats. The analysis is made in terms of physical attributes that are readily available using a statistical modelling approach. For the nitrate data, use was made of a historical groundwater quality assessment study, for which the data were re-analysed. The physical attributes are related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology of the region. Prior to the statistical modelling, intrinsic and specific vulnerability for nitrate pollution was assessed. This vulnerability assessment showed that the alluvium area in the northern part of the region is the most vulnerable area. This area consists of urban land use with poor sanitation. Re-analysis of the nitrate pollution data demonstrated that the spatial variability of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater body is high, and coherent with the fragmented land use of the region and the intrinsic and specific vulnerability maps. For the statistical modeling use was made of multiple regression and regression tree analysis. The results demonstrated the significant impact of land use variables on the Kinshasa groundwater nitrate pollution and the need for a detailed delineation of groundwater capture zones around the monitoring stations. Key words: Groundwater , Isotopic, Kinshasa, Modelling, Pollution, Physico-chemical.

  19. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  20. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

  1. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach.

  2. Water resources and the land-water interface.

    PubMed

    Karr, J R; Schlosser, I J

    1978-07-21

    Development and implementation of local and regional plans to control nonpoint sources of pollution from agricultural land are major mandates of section 208 of Public Law 92-500. Many planners tend to equate erosion control as measured by the universal soil loss equation with improvements in water quality. Others implement channel management practices which degrade rather than improve water quality and thereby decrease the effectiveness of other efforts to control nonpoint sources. Planners rarely recognize the importance of the land-water interface in regulating water quality in agricultural watersheds. More effective planning can result from the development of "best management systems" which incorporate theory from all relevant disciplines.

  3. Magnetic properties of the profiles of polluted and non-polluted soils. A case study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeleńska, Maria; Hasso-Agopsowicz, Agata; Kopcewicz, Barbara; Sukhorada, Anatoliy; Tyamina, Ksenija; Kadziałko-Hofmokl, Magdalena; Matviishina, Zhanna

    2004-10-01

    This report deals with the preliminary study of the magnetic properties of the chernozem depth profiles from polluted and non-polluted areas situated in the Volnovaha-Mariupol agro-soil region in southeast Ukraine. The profiles of soil for study were taken from the chernozem virgin land of the Homutovski steppe and from the nearby polluted area of Mariupol belonging to the Dniprovsko-Donetskij industrial region. The magnetic mineralogy and magnetic properties were examined along the profiles to determine the vertical structure of the non-polluted soil and to find differences caused by pollution. The soil from the non-polluted area is characterized by maghemite and haematite content. Magnetite is present in the topsoil of profiles from the polluted area of Mariupol. Blocking temperatures increase with depth in all profiles, becoming close to the temperature characteristic for haematite. Hysteresis parameters show that the deep soil is characterized by higher coercivity and coercivity of remanence values and lower saturation isothermal remanent magnetization and saturation magnetization values than the respective parameters in the topsoil. The grain size of magnetic minerals also changes with depth, becoming larger for deeper horizons. The surface values of susceptibility, saturation magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization and anhysteretic remanent magnetization for the polluted profiles from Mariupol show enhancement in relation to the values for the Homutowski steppe as a result of contamination by magnetite and haematite. However, starting from a depth of approximately 80-100 cm, the magnetic parameters approach the same values. This suggests that in deep horizons a lithogenic contribution prevails, similar for both areas.

  4. Estimating potential wind erosion of agricultural lands in northern China using the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) and GIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine materials emissions from severe wind-induced soil erosion have multiple impacts on land degradation and environmental pollution in the agro-pastoral ecotone in northern China (APEC). Assessment of wind erosion for the agricultural land management systems in APEC are needed to determine which sy...

  5. Curbing pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1991-03-01

    Existing policies to control pollution are inadequate especially those in developing countries. National economic policies do not consider environmental effects. For example, some governments subsidize fossil fuels, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Those governments in the process of restructuring pollution control policies must seek ways to reduce their conceivable side effects on economic growth, revenue raising, and equity. They need to consider key administrative, technological, and institutional drawbacks and depend on numerous fiscal means to complement more traditional pollution control mechanism. They must intervene to prevent or reduce pollution since markets do not consider the interests of those affected by pollution. They can do so by imposing regulations on polluters, taxing emissions, limiting the amount of pollution, subsidizing cleaner options, and/or assigning and enforcing property rights. Pollution and environmental quality standards im most developing countries parallel those in the US and in Europe, but these standards are not effective because monitoring, enforcement, and regulatory capacities are inclined to be weak. In the early phases of pollution control, governments should tax fixed inputs (e.g., fuels) based on the level of expected emissions. These taxes would advance public budgets. For transnational pollution problems, affected nations should negotiate together and consider international transfers to support environmental solutions. When developing policy, governments must consider the competitive behavior of the marketplace and how people and companies will react to policy tools. These prudent considerations will define the likelihood of reducing costs and strengthen the efficiency of intervention thus determining the ability to afford environmental protection.

  6. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  7. Land Management, River Restoration and the Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ben; Clifford, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    The influence of catchment land-use on river ecosystems is well established, with negative changes in hydrology, sediment supply and pollutants causing widespread degradation in modified catchments across Europe. The strength of relationship found between different land-use types and impacts on river systems varies from study to study as a result of issues around data quality, scale, study design and the interaction of stressors at multiple scales. Analysis of large-scale datasets can provide important information about the way that catchments pressures affect WFD objectives at a national scale. Comparisons of relationships between land-use and WFD status in different types of catchment within the UK allow an assessment of catchment sensitivity and analysis of the catchment characteristics which influence these relationships. The results suggest prioritising catchments at or near land-use thresholds, or targeting waterbodies with limited land-use pressures but which are failing to achieve GES or GEP. This paper uses UK datasets on land cover and WFD waterbody status to examine how catchment land-use impacts on WFD status and to evaluate opportunities to achieve Good Ecological Status or Good Ecological Potential. Agricultural and urban land-use are shown to have different types of relationship with respect to the likelihood of achieving Good Ecological Status, and with clear threshold effects apparent for urban land-use in the catchment. Broad-scale analysis shows the influence of different sized buffer strips in mitigating the negative effects of different types of land-cover, and reinforces the positive effects of riparian woodland on river ecosystems and their potential under the WFD.

  8. Pollution Detection Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Barringer Research, Inc.'s COSPEC IVB (correlation spectrometer) can sense from a considerable distance emissions from a volcanic eruption. Remote sensor is capable of measuring sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. An associated product, GASPEC, a compression of Non-dispersive Gas Filter Spectrometer, is an infrared/ultraviolet gas analyzer which can be used as either a ground based detector or in aircraft/spacecraft applications. Extremely sensitive, it is useful in air pollution investigations for detecting a variety of trace elements, vapors, which exist in the atmosphere in small amounts.

  9. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  10. Organotin pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Liu, Ji-yan

    2002-03-12

    A preliminary investigation of the occurrence of butyltin compounds was made in various environmental samples including water, sediment, sea products, and other commodities from China. Detection was carried out by the method of hydrogenation coupled with SPME or Grignard derivatization, followed by GC-FPD analysis. The results showed the universal existence of butyltin compounds in a wide range of tested samples, which was a potential danger for human health. Urgent control or management of organotin compounds is necessary to prevent the underlying hazard caused by this kind of pollutant. PMID:12805991

  11. Ocean Pollution Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Ocean Pollution Research Center (OPRC) is a University of Miami center based at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) and with significant involvement by the College of Engineering. It was formed in 1992 out of concerns for potential oil spills placing at risk the fragile ecosystems of the Florida Keys. OPRC's scope also includes the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the South Atlantic Bight. Focus is on the physical transport of oil spills and information management for response operations. Studies of the fates and effects of oil spills are also undertaken.

  12. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  13. PLUS: 'Planning Land Use with Students' is a Local Land Use Policy That Showcase the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides

  14. Inferring land use and land cover impact on stream water quality using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach in the Xitiaoxi River Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rongrong; Cai, Shanshan; Li, Hengpeng; Yang, Guishan; Li, Zhaofu; Nie, Xiaofei

    2014-01-15

    Lake eutrophication has become a very serious environmental problem in China. If water pollution is to be controlled and ultimately eliminated, it is essential to understand how human activities affect surface water quality. A recently developed technique using the Bayesian hierarchical linear regression model revealed the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on stream water quality at a watershed scale. Six LULC categories combined with watershed characteristics, including size, slope, and permeability were the variables that were studied. The pollutants of concern were nutrient concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), common pollutants found in eutrophication. The monthly monitoring data at 41 sites in the Xitiaoxi Watershed, China during 2009-2010 were used for model demonstration. The results showed that the relationships between LULC and stream water quality are so complicated that the effects are varied over large areas. The models suggested that urban and agricultural land are important sources of TN and TP concentrations, while rural residential land is one of the major sources of TN. Certain agricultural practices (excessive fertilizer application) result in greater concentrations of nutrients in paddy fields, artificial grasslands, and artificial woodlands. This study suggests that Bayesian hierarchical modeling is a powerful tool for examining the complicated relationships between land use and water quality on different scales, and for developing land use and water management policies.

  15. Inferring land use and land cover impact on stream water quality using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach in the Xitiaoxi River Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rongrong; Cai, Shanshan; Li, Hengpeng; Yang, Guishan; Li, Zhaofu; Nie, Xiaofei

    2014-01-15

    Lake eutrophication has become a very serious environmental problem in China. If water pollution is to be controlled and ultimately eliminated, it is essential to understand how human activities affect surface water quality. A recently developed technique using the Bayesian hierarchical linear regression model revealed the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on stream water quality at a watershed scale. Six LULC categories combined with watershed characteristics, including size, slope, and permeability were the variables that were studied. The pollutants of concern were nutrient concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), common pollutants found in eutrophication. The monthly monitoring data at 41 sites in the Xitiaoxi Watershed, China during 2009-2010 were used for model demonstration. The results showed that the relationships between LULC and stream water quality are so complicated that the effects are varied over large areas. The models suggested that urban and agricultural land are important sources of TN and TP concentrations, while rural residential land is one of the major sources of TN. Certain agricultural practices (excessive fertilizer application) result in greater concentrations of nutrients in paddy fields, artificial grasslands, and artificial woodlands. This study suggests that Bayesian hierarchical modeling is a powerful tool for examining the complicated relationships between land use and water quality on different scales, and for developing land use and water management policies. PMID:24342905

  16. Pollution from urban development and setback outfalls as a catchment management measure for river water quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather; Arthur, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Urban development causes an increase in fine sediment and heavy metal stormwater pollution. Pollution load estimation theorises that stormwater pollutant load and type are strongly, directly influenced by contributing catchment land use. The research presented investigates the validity of these assumptions using an extensive novel field data set of 53 catchments. This research has investigated the relationships between land use and pollutant concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca, Ba, Sn, Mn) in urban stormwater outfall sediments. Cartographic and aerial photography data have been utilised to delineate the surface and subsurface contributing catchment land use. A zoned sub-catchment approach to catchment characterisation of stormwater pollutant concentration has been defined and tested. This method effectively describes the specific land use influence on pollutant concentrations at the stormwater outfall, showing strong dependency with road length, brake points, impervious area and open space. Road networks and open space are found to influence land use, and thus stormwater pollution, closer to stormwater outfall/receiving waterbody suggesting storage, treatment, assimilation, loss or dilution of the land use influence further away from stormwater outfall. An empirical description has been proposed with which to predict outfall pollutant contributions to the receiving urban waterbody based on catchment land use information. With the definition and quantification of contributing catchment specific fine sediment and urban heavy metal pollutants, the influence of urban stormwater outfall management on the receiving watercourse has been considered. The locations of stormwater outfalls, and their proximity to the receiving waterway, are known as key water quality and river health influences. Water quality benefits from the implementation of stormwater outfalls set back from the receiving waterway banks have been investigated using the catchment case study. Setback outfalls

  17. The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections

  18. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  19. Anticipating land surface change.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify "near misses," close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management.

  20. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  1. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  2. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  3. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  4. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  5. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  6. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    PubMed

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  7. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    PubMed

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  8. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  9. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  10. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  11. System interactions of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1992-06-01

    The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

  12. The contribution of megacities to regional sulfur pollution in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Calori, Giuseppe; Eck, Christina; Woo, Jung-Hun

    Asia is undergoing rapid urbanization resulting in increasing air pollution threats in its cities. The contribution of megacities to sulfur emissions and pollution in Asia is studied over a 25-year period (1975-2000) using a multi-layer Lagrangian puff transport model. Asian megacities cover <2% of the land area but emit ˜16% of the total anthropogenic sulfur emissions of Asia. It is shown that urban sulfur emissions contribute over 30% to the regional pollution levels in large parts of Asia. The average contribution of megacities over the western Pacific increased from <5% in 1975 to >10% in 2000. Two future emission scenarios are evaluated for 2020—"business as usual (BAU)" and "maximum feasible controls (MAXF)" to establish the range of reductions possible for these cities. The MAXF scenario would result in 2020 S-emissions that are ˜80% lower than those in 2000, at an estimated control cost of US 87 billion per year (1995 US) for all of Asia. An urban scale analysis of sulfur pollution for four megacities—Shanghai, and Chongqing in China; Seoul in South Korea; and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) in India is presented. If pollution levels were allowed to increase under BAU, over 30 million people in these cities alone would be exposed to levels in excess of the WHO guidelines.

  13. This Land is Your Land. The Problem of Land Utilization. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Carl; And Others

    This unit, written for seventh-grade school children, focuses on the variety of factors that are involved in land utilization. It specifically examines land use in St. Louis County, Missouri, and discusses such concepts as the variety of ways man has used this land, the influence surface features have on land use, the influence of socio-cultural…

  14. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  15. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  16. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  17. [Empirical study on non-point sources pollution based on landscape pattern & ecological processes theory: a case of soil water loss on the Loess Plateau in China].

    PubMed

    Suo, An-ning; Wang, Tian-ming; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Ge, Jian-ping

    2006-12-01

    Non-point sources pollution is one of main pollution modes which pollutes the earth surface environment. Aimed at soil water loss (a typical non-point sources pollution problem) on the Losses Plateau in China, the paper applied a landscape patternevaluation method to twelve watersheds of Jinghe River Basin on the Loess Plateau by means of location-weighted landscape contrast index(LCI) and landscape slope index(LSI). The result showed that LSI of farm land, low density grass land, forest land and LCI responded significantly to soil erosion modulus and responded to depth of runoff, while the relationship between these landscape index and runoff variation index and erosion variation index were not statistically significant. This tell us LSI and LWLCI are good indicators of soil water loss and thus have big potential in non-point source pollution risk evaluation.

  18. Coastal influence on vertical pollutant partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peake, D.

    Coastal outflow describes the horizontal ventilation of pollutants from the continental boundary layer (CBL) by advection above the shallower marine boundary layer. Passive tracers incorporated in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are used to simulate coastal outflow over the eastern United States for the summer of 2004. The results are interpreted with a simple box-model containing a diurnally varying CBL height and uniform wind flow. Ventilation by coastal outflow from the US occurs at the same magnitude as vertical ventilation into the free troposphere for the eastern half of the US. The diurnal variability in coastal outflow is determined by the lifetime of the tracer and the cycle of CBL height. Over the diurnal cycle, pollutants with lifetimes less than 24 hours experience a maximum in the evening and a minimum in the mid-morning. Pollutants with lifetimes greater than 24 hours undergo continuous coastal outflow with little diurnal variability. The dominant parameters in this study are tracer lifetime α, wind-speed U and width of emissions (i.e. land) L. The box-model indicates the presence of a critical threshold, αU/L ≈ 10, above which increasing the cross-coastal wind speed decreases coastal out-flow by reducing the availability of tracer in the residual layer to undergo coastal outflow at night. Of tracer advected across the coast in the MetUM simulation, 65% and 67% of tracer with 3- and 24-hour lifetimes undergo coastal outflow respectively. For the 24-hour tracer, the box-model has the highest correlation with the MetUM simulation when the advection rate U/L≈ 2 x 10-5s-1. Given the observed wind speed the distance near the coast over which emissions significantly contribute to coastal outflow is ≈ 100-110km.

  19. Human Activity and Pollution in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, H.-F.; Shirsat, S. V.; Podzun, R.

    2009-04-01

    A regional climate chemistry model is used to determine the level of pollution of the Antarctic continent due to anthropogenic and natural emission of sulphur species. Based on an emission inventory for the year 2004/2005 including emissions from energy use and ground traffic at and between Antarctic research stations, flight activity, tourist and scientific ship operations, and emissions from the Mt. Erebus volcano, atmospheric concentration and deposition rates of sulphur species and black carbon were simulated at 0.5 degree resolution for the whole Antarctic continent. The biggest anthropogenic source of pollution is ship operations. These concentrate near the Antarctic Peninsula and close to the big scientific stations at Queen Maud Land and in the Ross sea area. The prevailing winds guarantee that most of the anthropogenic emissions from sources near the coast will be blown to lower latitudes and do not affect the continent. While atmospheric concentrations over vast areas remain extremely low, in some places locally concentrations and deposition rates are reached that may be detectable by in-situ measurements and give rise to concern. Especially at the Peninsula atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of sulphur and soot are dominated by ship emissions. The largest part of shipping activity in this region is from tourist ships, a strongly increasing business. The by far biggest source of sulphur species in Antarctica is the Mt. Erebus volcano. It is also the only source that remains equally strong in polar winter. However, due to its high altitude and the long life time of SO2, especially in winter resulting in long range transport and dilution, Erebus emissions contribute relatively little to deposition of sulphur in the most anthropogenic polluted areas while they dominate the sulphur deposition in central Antarctica.

  20. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  1. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  2. Global Land Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

  3. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  4. Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Oki, Kazuo; Wang, Yi; Oki, Taikan

    2009-01-01

    Land cover changes around river basins have caused serious environmental degradation in global surface water areas, in which the direct monitoring and numerical modeling is inherently difficult. Prediction of pollutant loads is therefore crucial to river environmental management under the impact of climate change and intensified human activities. This research analyzed the relationship between land cover types estimated from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery and the potential annual pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. Then an empirical approach, which estimates annual pollutant loads directly from satellite imagery and hydrological data, was investigated. Six water quality indicators were examined, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The pollutant loads of TN, TP, SS, BOD, COD, and DO were then estimated for 30 river basins in Japan. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. These results may be useful in establishing total maximum annual pollutant loads and developing best management strategies for surface water pollution at river basin scale.

  5. Midweek Intensification of Rain in the U.S.: Does Air Pollution Invigorate Storms?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Hahnenberger, M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pollution on rainfall has been observed to depend both on the type of pollution and the precipitating environment. The climatological consequences of pollution for rainfall are uncertain. In some urban areas, pollution varies with the day of the week because of weekly variations in human activity, in effect providing a repeated experiment on the effects of pollution. Weekly variations in temperature, pressure, cloud characteristics, hails and lightning are observed in many areas. Observing a weekly cycle in rainfall statistics has proven to be more difficult, although there is some evidence for it. Here we examine rainfall statistics from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite over the southern U.S. and adjacent waters, and find that there is a distinct, statistically significant weekly cycle in summertime rainfall over the southeast U.S., as well as weekly variations in rainfall over the nearby Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Rainfall over land peaks in the middle of the week, suggesting that summer rainfall on large scales may increase as pollution levels rise. Both rain statistics over land and what appear to be compensating effects over adjacent seas support the suggestion that air pollution invigorates convection and outflow aloft.

  6. Urban Heat Islands in China Enhanced by Haze Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Lee, X.; Liu, S.; Oleson, K. W.; Schultz, N. M.; Xiao, W.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land conversion from natural surfaces to artificial urban structures has led to the phenomenon of urban heat island (UHI). The intensity of UHI is thought to be controlled primarily by biophysical factors such as changes in albedo, aerodynamic resistance and evapotranspiration, while influences of biogeochemical factors such as aerosol pollution have long been ignored. We hypothesize that increased downward longwave radiation associated with anthropogenic aerosols in urban air will exacerbate nighttime UHI intensity. Here we tested this hypothesis by using the MODIS satellite land surface temperature product and the Community Land Model (CLM) for 39 cities in China. Our results showed that in contrast to observations in North America and elsewhere, nighttime surface UHI of these Chinese cities (3.34 K) was greater than daytime UHI (2.06 K). Variations in the nighttime UHI among the cities were positively correlated with difference in the aerosol optical depth between urban and the adjacent rural area (confidence level p < 0.01). The CLM was able to reproduce the MODIS UHI intensity in the daytime but underestimated the observed UHI intensity at night. The model performance was improved by including an aerosol-enhanced downward longwave radiation in urban land and a more realistic anthropogenic heat flux. Our study illustrates that although climate background largely determine spatial differences in the daytime UHI, in countries like China with serious air quality problems, aerosol-induced pollution plays an important role in the night-time UHI formation. Mitigation of particulate pollution therefore has the added co-benefit by reducing UHI-related heat stress on urban residents.

  7. Facilitating the afforestation of Mediterranean polluted soils by nurse shrubs.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, María T; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Murillo, José M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-09-15

    The revegetation of polluted sites and abandoned agricultural soils is critical to reduce soil losses and to control the spread of soil pollution in the Mediterranean region, which is currently exposed to the greatest soil erosion risk in Europe. However, events of massive plant mortality usually occur during the first years after planting, mainly due to the adverse conditions of high irradiance and drought stress. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of considering the positive plant-plant interactions (facilitation effect) in the afforestation of polluted agricultural sites, using pre-existing shrubs as nurse plants. We used nurse shrubs as planting microsites for acorns of Quercus ilex (Holm oak) along a gradient of soil pollution in southwestern Spain, and monitored seedling growth, survival, and chemical composition during three consecutive years. Seedling survival greatly increased (from 20% to more than 50%) when acorns were sown under shrub, in comparison to the open, unprotected matrix. Facilitation of seedling growth by shrubs increased along the gradient of soil pollution, in agreement with the stress gradient hypothesis that predicts higher intensity of the facilitation effects with increasing abiotic stress. Although the accumulation of trace elements in seedling leaves was higher underneath shrub, the shading conditions provided by the shrub canopy allowed seedlings to cope with the toxicity provoked by the concurrence of low pH and high trace element concentrations in the most polluted sites. Our results show that the use of shrubs as nurse plants is a promising tool for the cost-effective afforestation of polluted lands under Mediterranean conditions.

  8. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  9. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  10. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  11. Statistical approaches for identifying air pollutant mixtures associated with aircraft departures at Los Angeles International Airport.

    PubMed

    Diez, David M; Dominici, Francesca; Zarubiak, Darcy; Levy, Jonathan I

    2012-08-01

    Aircraft departures emit multiple pollutants common to other near-airport sources, making it challenging to determine relative source contributions. While there may not be unique tracers of aircraft emissions, examination of multipollutant concentration patterns in combination with flight activity can facilitate source attribution. In this study, we examine concentrations of continuously monitored air pollutants measured in 2008 near a departure runway at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), considering single-pollutant associations with landing and takeoff (LTO) of the aircraft (LTO activity, weighted by LTO cycle fuel burn), as well as multipollutant predictors of binary LTO activity. In the single-pollutant analyses, one-minute average concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide are positively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures on the runway proximate to the monitor, whereas ozone is negatively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures. In analyses in which the flight departure is predicted by pollutant concentrations, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the best individual predictors, but including all five pollutants greatly increases the power of prediction compared to single-pollutant models. Our results demonstrate that air pollution impacts from aircraft departures can be isolated using time-resolved monitoring data, and that combinations of simultaneously measured pollutants can best identify contributions from flight activity.

  12. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S. Khardi, S.

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  13. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  14. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  15. Indoor air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A major contribution of the pediatrician is to help families rank the multitude of pollutants according to their known risk for child health. Elimination of household smoking and completely effective venting of indoor heating devices are beneficial to all and mandatory in homes of allergic children. Acute releases of NO/sub 2/ by gas ranges and ovens may be a significant factor in an increased incidence of respiratory infection, especially in children under two years. Despite intensive investigation, immunosuppressive and other health effects have not been defined for indoor levels of PBBs, PCBs, and related halogenated hydrocarbons. The analytic ability to determine nanomolar concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals opens a Pandora's box of inquiry. New methods, particularly immunologic, are urgently needed to quantitate the dose response to multiple combinations of chemicals and determine their significance for the health of the tight-box generation of children. 136 references.

  16. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-10-01

    This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings. This review is divided into the following sections: biological agents, disinfection by-products (DBPs), halogenated compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other emerging contaminants. PMID:27620105

  17. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  18. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-10-01

    This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings. This review is divided into the following sections: biological agents, disinfection by-products (DBPs), halogenated compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other emerging contaminants.

  19. Altruism, politicians and polluters

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, B.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the Udall/Cheney Bill (H.R. 5370), which amends the Clean Air Act to deal with the problem of acid rain, examines its methods and weaknesses. The bill creates a program to eliminate 11 million tons of sulfur dioxide particulate emissions, but two of the three alternative plans ask for altruistic action from either politicians or polluters, which is unlikely. The final alternative is dependent upon the existing State Implementation Plan (SIP) procedures, which have been ineffective. Modifications to give the regional approach more teeth and better funding, a revision of the SIP procedures, and a lowering of smoke stacks would remedy some of the problems with the bill.

  20. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat.

  1. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat. PMID:24727071

  2. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  3. Aerosols and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth's radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  5. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  6. Living off the Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  7. STS-82 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery touches down in darkness on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility, bringing to a close the 10-day STS-82 mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Main gear touchdown was at 3:32:26 a.m. EST on February 21, 1997. It was the ninth nighttime landing in the history of the Shuttle program and the 35th landing at KSC. The first landing opportunity at KSC was waved off because of low clouds in the area. The seven-member crew performed a record- tying five back-to-back extravehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks to service the telescope, which has been in orbit for nearly seven years. Two new scientific instruments were installed, replacing two outdated instruments. Five spacewalks also were performed on the first servicing mission, STS-61, in December 1993. Only four spacewalks were scheduled for STS-82, but a fifth one was added during the flight to install several thermal blankets over some aging insulation covering three HST compartments containing key data processing, electronics and scientific instrument telemetry packages. Crew members are Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox, Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Gregory J. Harbaugh, Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner and Steven A. Hawley. STS-82 was the 82nd Space Shuttle flight and the second mission of 1997.

  8. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  9. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  10. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Apollo Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Artist rendering of the Lunar Orbiter, the most successful of the pre-Apollo probes, which mapped the equatorial regions of the moon and gave NASA the data it needed to pinpoint ideal landing spots. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 314.

  12. The Mayflower Landed Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

    This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

  13. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  14. STS-90 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A flock of birds takes flight as the orbiter Columbia, with its drag chute deployed, touches down on Runway 22 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the Space Center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission included Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Sapce Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  15. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... and air pollution . Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... exposure to pollutants. Learn more about disparities and air pollution . Living Near Highways Being in heavy traffic, or ...

  16. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a... pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on behalf of the lessee and the pollution...

  18. National priorities in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

    1988-02-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

  19. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  20. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  1. Mixing and transport. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.J.W.

    1982-06-01

    The mixing and transport of water pollution is the subject of this literature review with 110 references. The environmental transport of pollutants is examined in streams, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, estuaries, salt marshes and coastal waters. The dynamics of fluid flow, and the physical properties of jets, plumes, and stratified fluids are discussed. (KRM)

  2. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  3. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  4. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  5. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  6. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  7. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  8. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  9. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  10. Role of remote sensing in documenting land use as it affects the Bay and Bay use as it affects the land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, W. F.; Garber, J. M.; Hill, J. M.; Raum, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The remote sensing technology required for locating, identifying, and monitoring nonpoint, or diffuse, pollution caused by improper land use practices is discussed. Establishment of an information system to include all remote sensed data acquired on the Bay and to disseminate information to users is considered.

  11. Land-use Change: Deforestation by land grabbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudel, Tom

    2015-10-01

    Leases of land concessions in Cambodia have accelerated in the last ten years. An analysis using high-resolution maps and official documents shows that deforestation rates in the land concessions are higher than in other areas.

  12. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... the full address. In proposed rule FR Doc. 2013-12708, published in the issue of May 29, 2013, make...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions...

  13. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Separate entries shall be made for the acquisition, transfer, or sale of each parcel of land, and each land right. A record shall be maintained showing the nature of ownership, full legal description, area,...

  14. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Separate entries shall be made for the acquisition, transfer, or sale of each parcel of land, and each land right. A record shall be maintained showing the nature of ownership, full legal description, area,...

  15. Impact assessment of subsurface drainage on waterlogged and saline lands.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, Abdul R; Ghazaw, Yousry Mahmoud; Niazi, Muhammed F; Hashmi, Hashim N

    2011-01-01

    Waterlogging and salinity due to seepage from canals have polluted land and environment in various parts of Pakistan. A sustainable environment requires urgent remedial measures for this problem. The research in this paper presents the impacts of the Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad on the twin problem of waterlogging and salinity. Monitoring of the project was made on regular basis. The key performance indicators for the project include the lowering of water table, improvement of water quality and soil salinity, increase in area under cultivation, cropping intensity, and socioeconomic status of the project population. Data regarding water levels and discharge from the drain pipes were collected to monitor the impact on waterlogging. Soil samples were tested to evaluate the impact of drainage on land. It has been found that the percentage of the contaminated land in the project area has considerably been decreased, while the cropping intensities have been increased.

  16. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

  17. Psychological reactions to air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W.; Colome, S.D.; Shearer, D.F.

    1988-02-01

    Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state health advisories by reducing automobile driving or restricting activity during air pollution episodes. Preliminary modeling of citizen compliance with air pollution health advisories suggest that personal beliefs about negative health effects are a important predictor of compliance. Finally, modest but significant relationships are noted between ambient photochemical oxidants and anxiety symptoms. The latter finding controls for age, socioeconomic status, and temperature.

  18. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  19. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  20. [Groundwater pollution risk mapping method].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-na; Li, Guang-he

    2010-04-01

    Based on methods for groundwater vulnerability assessment not involving in contamination source elements, and lack of the systemic and effective techniques and parameter system on groundwater pollution risk mapping in present, through analyzing the structure of groundwater system and characteristics of contaminant sources, and coupling groundwater intrinsic vulnerability with contaminant sources, the integrated multi-index models were developed to evaluate the risk sources of groundwater contaminant and form the groundwater pollution risk mapping in this paper. The models had been used to a large-scale karst groundwater source of northern China as a case study. The results indicated that vulnerability assessment overlaid risk pollution sources of groundwater could effectively confirm the high risk regions of groundwater pollution, and the methods might provide necessary support for the supervision of groundwater pollution.