Science.gov

Sample records for land warfare domain

  1. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  2. Engaging Two Domain Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the foundation from which the Army can leverage its ability to operate in Land and Cyberspace. However, since we have transitioned to LandCyber...other electronic devices demand consideration in the virtual sense as well as the physical. The two dimensional ideol - ogy (LandCyber) must

  3. Toxic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    77; Gert G. Harigel, Chemical and Biological Weapons: Use in Warfare, Impact on Society and Environment, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace...production is discussed in Gert G. Harigel, The Concept of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Chemical and Biological Weapons, Use in Warfare, Impact on Society and...poisoning was much smaller than that caused by land mines in the region, the use of poison was nonetheless an effective ter- ror weapon. 6See Jason Pate, Gary

  4. 43 CFR 3101.2-1 - Public domain lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public domain lands. 3101.2-1 Section 3101.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3101.2-1 Public domain lands. (a) No person or entity shall take, hold, own or control more than...

  5. 43 CFR 3101.2-1 - Public domain lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public domain lands. 3101.2-1 Section 3101.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3101.2-1 Public domain lands. (a) No person or entity shall take, hold, own or control more than...

  6. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Return of public domain land. 644.534 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.534 Return of public domain land. (a) General. The procedures... Department of the Army to assist and advise the land holder and protect the public from dangerous...

  7. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Anatomic location of injury, cause of injury, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. The frequency of injuries was 0.025 per Operator per month. Most injuries involved the upper extremity (38.1% of injuries). Frequent anatomic sublocations for injuries were the shoulder (23.8%) and lumbopelvic region of the spine (12.7%). Lifting was the cause of 7.9% of injuries. Subjects were participating in training when 38.1% of injuries occurred and recreational activity/sports when 12.7% of injuries occurred. Frequent injury types were strain (20.6%), pain/spasm/ache (19.0%), fracture (11.1%), and sprain (11.1%). The results of this analysis underscore the need to investigate the risk factors, especially of upper extremity and physical activity related injuries, in this population of Operators. There is a scope for development of a focused, customized injury prevention program, targeting the unique injury profile of this population.

  8. Electronic Warfare for Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    This research paper provides complete course content for the AFIT EENG 509, Electronic Warfare class. It is intended as a replacement for the existing course and designed for Intermediate Developmental Education (IDE) students in the Cyber Warfare degree program. This course provides relevant academic courseware and study material to give cyber warriors an academic and operational perspective on electronic warfare and its integration in the cyber domain.

  9. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Return of public domain land. 644.534 Section 644.534 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  10. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C (Guidance, Navigation and Control) functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking.

  11. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    The advent of cyber warfare has sparked a debate amongst theorists as to whether timeless Clausewitzian principles remain true in the 21st century...Violence, uncertainty, and rationality still accurately depict the nature of cyber warfare , however, its many defining attributes and means by which...this style of warfare is conducted has definitively changed the character of war. Although cyber warfare is contested in the cyber domain, it often

  12. Learning How to Fight Together: The British Experience with Joint Air-Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    operational responsibility for all of North Africa and the Mediter - ranean. Only the RAF had the experience and the expertise to create and run such a...mandy. “Applied history,” studied in the outdoor classroom , enabled senior army and air force commanders to explore con- temporary air-land

  13. Land use and surface process domains on alpine hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are generally considered to protect hillslopes from erosion. As a consequence, shrub encroachment on mountain pastures after abandoning grazing is not considered a threat to soils. However, the abandonment of mown or grazed grasslands causes a shift in vegetation composition and thus a change in landscape ecology and geomorphology. On many alpine slopes, current changes in land use and vegetation cover are accompanied by climate change, potentially generating a new geomorphic regime. Most of the debate focuses on the effect of land abandonment on water erosion rates. Generally, an established perennial vegetation cover improves the mechanical anchoring of the soil and the regulation of the soil water budget, including runoff generation and erosion. However, changing vegetation composition affects many other above- and below-ground properties like root density, -diversity and -geometry, soil structure, pore volume and acidity. Each combination of these properties can lead to a distinct scenario of dominating surface processes, often not reflected by common erosion risk assessment procedures. The study of soil properties along a chronosequence of green alder (alnusviridis) encroachment on the Unteralptal in central Switzerland reveals that shrub encroachment changes soil and vegetation properties towards an increase of resistance to run-off related erosion processes, but a decrease of slope stability against shallow landslides. The latter are a particular threat because of the currently increasing frequency of slide-triggering high magnitude rainfalls. The potential change of process domain on alpine pastures highlights the need for a careful use of erosion models when assessing future land use and climate scenarios. In mountains, but also other intensively managed agricultural landscapes, risk assessment without the appropriate reflection on the shifting relevance of surface processes carries the risk of missing future threats to environmental

  14. Possibilities of Land Administration Domain Model (ladm) Implementation in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babalola, S. O.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Choon, L. T.; Van Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2015-10-01

    LADM covers essential information associated components of land administration and management including those over water and elements above and below the surface of the earth. LADM standard provides an abstract conceptual model with three packages and one sub-package. LADM defined terminology for a land administration system that allows a shared explanation of different formal customary or informal tenures. The standard provides the basis for national and regional profiles and enables the combination of land management information from different sources in a coherent manner. Given this, this paper started with the description of land and land administration in Nigeria. The pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial era with organization structure was discussed. This discussion is important to present an understanding of the background of any improvement needed for the LADM implementation in Nigeria. The LADM, ISO 19152 and the packages of LADM was discussed, and the comparison of the different aspects of each package and classes were made with Nigerian land administration and the cadastral system. In the comparison made, it was discovered that the concept is similar to LADM packages in Nigerian land administration. Although, the terminology may not be the same in all cases. Having studied conceptualization and the application of LADM, as a model that has essential information associated with components of the land administration. Including those on the land, over water as well as elements above and below the surface of the earth and discovered that the standard is suitable for the country. The model can, therefore, be adopted into Nigerian land administration system by mapping in some of the concepts of LADM.

  15. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  16. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reservation effected by the Act, the Department of the Army shall make safe for nonmilitary uses the land... neutralizing unexploded ammunition, bombs, artillery projectiles, or other explosive objects and chemical... values are such as to make dedudding or decontamination advisable, the Secretary of the Interior...

  17. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reservation effected by the Act, the Department of the Army shall make safe for nonmilitary uses the land... neutralizing unexploded ammunition, bombs, artillery projectiles, or other explosive objects and chemical... values are such as to make dedudding or decontamination advisable, the Secretary of the Interior...

  18. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reservation effected by the Act, the Department of the Army shall make safe for nonmilitary uses the land... neutralizing unexploded ammunition, bombs, artillery projectiles, or other explosive objects and chemical... values are such as to make dedudding or decontamination advisable, the Secretary of the Interior...

  19. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  20. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Nodes and Codes explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet, a string of weaponized code that reached through a domain...nodes. Stuxnet served as a proof-of-concept for cyber weapons and provided a comparative laboratory to study the reality of cyber warfare from the...military powers most often associated with advanced, offensive cyber attack capabilities. The reality of cyber warfare holds significant operational

  1. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  2. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the...alternative form of conflict, reviews the traditional principles of warfare and why they may or may not apply to cyber warfare , and proposes new principles of...warfare that may be needed to conduct cyber warfare . Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2

  3. Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    January–February 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 44 FeatureCyber Focus Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought Maj Sean C. Butler, USAF In September 2007...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought 5a...2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 45 Butler Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought FeatureCyber Focus characterized by the use of electronics and the

  4. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  5. Maneuver Warfare in Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    government departments and agencies; (2) National security and military strategies must outline a response to the threats and opportunities of cyber ... warfare ; and (3) the Department of Defense’s offensive and defensive responsibilities, parameters, and capabilities for strategic information warfare need

  6. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. PMID:16318712

  7. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    intergovernmental organizations impose both immediate and long term penalties for an enemy. Finally, tools such as cyber attacks and GPS spoofing ...Exclusion Zones to interfere with shipping networks, and GPS jamming or spoofing of merchant vessels are discussed and analyzed for potential...SUBJECT TERMS Maritime Trade Warfare, Commerce Warfare, China, Cyber, GPS , Jamming, Spoofing , Maritime Interdiction, Exclusion Zone. 16. SECURITY

  8. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  9. Cyber Warfare: An Evolution in Warfare not Just War Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    cyber warfare is greatly debated. While some argue that Just War Theory is irrelevant to cyber warfare , a careful analysis demonstrates that it is a...useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare . This paper examines the application of Just War Theory to cyber warfare and contends that...Just War Theory is a useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare .

  10. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  11. Electronic Warfare Training Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    accomplishment of EW 73 MISS ON.. (1) Intelligence Commurity (a) Information gathered (b) Publications and use (2) Beach Jumper Units (3) Fleet Electronic Warfare... UNITED STATES INTELLIGENCE ORGANIZATION The student will be familiar with: a. The national intelligence structure b. Functions within the...TAIGREPOT 4ELECTRONIC WARFARE TRANEG ANALYS 197 ,IVA FOCUS O N THE TRAINED MAN 1 -- Aoproved for Public Release; Distribution is unlimited. NAA TRINN

  12. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  13. The catalytic domain CysPc of the DEK1 calpain is functionally conserved in land plants.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhe; Demko, Viktor; Wilson, Robert C; Johnson, Kenneth A; Ahmad, Rafi; Perroud, Pierre-François; Quatrano, Ralph; Zhao, Sen; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Otegui, Marisa S; Olsen, Odd-Arne; Johansen, Wenche

    2013-09-01

    DEK1, the single calpain of land plants, is a member of the ancient membrane bound TML-CysPc-C2L calpain family that dates back 1.5 billion years. Here we show that the CysPc-C2L domains of land plant calpains form a separate sub-clade in the DEK1 clade of the phylogenetic tree of plants. The charophycean alga Mesostigma viride DEK1-like gene is clearly divergent from those in land plants, suggesting that a major evolutionary shift in DEK1 occurred during the transition to land plants. Based on genetic complementation of the Arabidopsis thaliana dek1-3 mutant using CysPc-C2L domains of various origins, we show that these two domains have been functionally conserved within land plants for at least 450 million years. This conclusion is based on the observation that the CysPc-C2L domains of DEK1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens complements the A. thaliana dek1-3 mutant phenotype. In contrast, neither the CysPc-C2L domains from M. viride nor chimeric animal-plant calpains complement this mutant. Co-evolution analysis identified differences in the interactions between the CysPc-C2L residues of DEK1 and classical calpains, supporting the view that the two enzymes are regulated by fundamentally different mechanisms. Using the A. thaliana dek1-3 complementation assay, we show that four conserved amino acid residues of two Ca²⁺-binding sites in the CysPc domain of classical calpains are conserved in land plants and functionally essential in A. thaliana DEK1.

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  19. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  20. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  1. Dehumanization and Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of the threats depend on both the 109 John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, “The Bases of Social...1997). French, John and Raven, Bertram . “The Bases of Social Power.” Studies in Social Power, 1959. Galula, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare Theory

  2. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  3. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depth strategy. We must recognize that we are engaged in a form of warfare, cyber warfare , and... warfare . This causes security devices to be used ineffectively and responses to be untimely. Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the... cyber warfare strategy and tactics requires a cyber warfare command and control system. Responses to cyber attacks do not require offensive measures

  4. The Physics of Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics isn't always abstract. It is true that the examples and applications in this warfare class practically wrote themselves, but I wanted more for my students. I wanted them to embrace the iterative nature of scientific understanding. I wanted them to yearn for the breakthroughs that lead to paradigm shifts. I wanted them to demand experimental verification of each novel idea. This paper discusses the formation and implementation of a conceptual physics course, full of in-class demonstrations and solidly rooted in the context of humankind's ever-evolving methods of waging war.

  5. Hybrid Warfare and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    against financial targets. Hybrid challenges are not limited to non - state actors. States can shift their conventional units to irregular formations and... non -state actors, using both simple and sophisticated technolo- gies in innovative ways.”23 Tomorrow’s conflicts will not be easily categorized into...between “regular” and “irregu- lar” warfare are blurring. Even non -state groups are increasingly gaining access to the kinds of weapons that were once

  6. Investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey of soil and moisture conservation on public domain lands, 1941-1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, H.V.; Melin, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The passage of the Taylor Grazing Act in 1934 marked the end of an era in the land policies in the United States in that disposal of the public lands by homesteading was terminated except under rigidly prescribed procedures, and the remaining public lands covering about 175 million acres in the western conterminous states were brought under regulatory authority for grazing use. In 1934 the lands were mostly in a severe state of deterioration as a result of overgrazing and drought. In addition to reducing numbers of livestock using the lands, successive programs of conservation practices were established of which the Soil and Moisture Conservation Program of the Department of the Interior is of particular interest here. The services of the Geological Survey, in an investigational and advisory capacity were enlisted in this program. The work of the Geological Survey has consisted of the collection of hydrologic data, investigations of range-water supplies to facilitate management and provide information for design of structures and land-treatment measures. Appraisal of the effects of treatment practices has also been an important activity. Conservation on the public domain involves mainly growing vegetation for forage and reducing erosion. The two elements are intimately related--accomplishment in one is usually reflected by an improvement in the other. Erosion is a serious problem on most of the public domain, but particularly in the Colorado River and Rio Grande basins where, despite low annual water yields, the public domain and similar lands on the Indian reservations contribute the major part of the sediment measured at the downstream gaging stations. In parts of the Missouri River basin also, erosion is obviously very active but the sediment yield contributed by the public domain cannot be as readily isolated. The reasons for the erosion are generally evident--the erodibility of the rock and soils and the sparsity of vegetation as a result of low precipitation

  7. Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Software is a key component in nearly every critical system used by the Department of Defense. Attacking the software in a system- cyber warfare - is a...revolutionary method of pursuing war. This article describes various cyber warfare approaches and suggests methods to counter them.

  8. The Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    frontmatter.indd 6 7/29/08 12:15:43 PM Introduction The term nonkinetic warfare may seem to be an oxy- moron . How can warfare be described as...the hallmark of the previous two genera- tions of warfare. The authors attribute the evolution of warfare largely to the advancement in technology and

  9. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages.

  10. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  11. Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-27

    Vision 2020 2.2.2 Joint Vision 2020 and Network Centric Warfare 2.2.3 Information Superiority and Decision Superiority 2.2.4 Dominant Maneuver...Chiefs of Staff, shall designate the Commander in Chief (CINC) of the United States Joint Forces Command to carry out the study and prepare the report...Implementing NCW (the key role of the GIG, DoD’s strategy, policies and procedures DoD initiatives and programs designed to make NCW a reality, an assessment

  12. Countermine Warfare Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    require revision to meet the tempo of modern warfare. FM 20-32 and FM 71-1 advocate the use of time-consumfng, antiquated mine locating | methods . They... method I -9- F1 of clearing a path through a minefield was the use of soldiers with bayonets or other probes to locate and remove mines. Although mining... methods of employment. They discontinued emplacing mines in patterns, increased the use of anti-personnel I -37- mines in anti-tank minefields, and

  13. The evolution of human warfare.

    PubMed

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution.

  14. A unique RPW8-encoding class of genes that originated in early land plants and evolved through domain fission, fusion, and duplication

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2016-01-01

    Duplication, lateral gene transfer, domain fusion/fission and de novo domain creation play a key role in formation of initial common ancestral protein. Abundant protein diversities are produced by domain rearrangements, including fusions, fissions, duplications, and terminal domain losses. In this report, we explored the origin of the RPW8 domain and examined the domain rearrangements that have driven the evolution of RPW8-encoding genes in land plants. The RPW8 domain first emerged in the early land plant, Physcomitrella patens, and it likely originated de novo from a non-coding sequence or domain divergence after duplication. It was then incorporated into the NBS-LRR protein to create a main sub-class of RPW8-encoding genes, the RPW8-NBS-encoding genes. They evolved by a series of genetic events of domain fissions, fusions, and duplications. Many species-specific duplication events and tandemly duplicated clusters clearly demonstrated that species-specific and tandem duplications played important roles in expansion of RPW8-encoding genes, especially in gymnosperms and species of the Rosaceae. RPW8 domains with greater Ka/Ks values than those of the NBS domains indicated that they evolved faster than the NBS domains in RPW8-NBSs. PMID:27678195

  15. Chemical Warfare: Many Unanswered Questions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-29

    do the -niad Stes end thi Soviet U ion com- pare in de,-,se equipmn Mid persorwd? 2.S How and to ea e have the Uit States and the Soviet Union pe A...limited military use of biological weapons (Carlton and Schaerf, 1975). The outcome was the 1972 Biological Warfare Treaty, which prohibits the producton ...discussed the utility of chemical weapons, concluding that Li only arms-limitation will permanently remove the threat of chem- ical warfare and that

  16. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    The upper- right quadrant of the PW spectrum represents direct, covert actions. Covert political warfare is any action that can be attributed to a...15 3. Covert, Indirect Actions The lower- right quadrant represents covert, indirect political warfare actions. Indirect PW is conducted through an... life . From those identities, social ties and organizational forms emerge both the collective claims that people make and the means they have for making

  17. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  18. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    with special warfare, (3) to explore how special warfare campaigns could be used to address challenges identified in strategic guidance , and (4) to...provide guidance to military and civilian leaders and planners in designing and executing these campaigns.

  19. Cyber warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Security concerns over the growing capability of Cyber Warfare are in the forefront of national policy and security discussions. In order to enable a...realistic discussion of the topic this thesis seeks to analyze demonstrated Cyber Warfare capability and its ability to achieve strategic political...objectives. This study examines Cyber Warfare conducted against Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Israel in 2008. In all three cases Cyber Warfare did

  20. Application of frequency domain handling qualities criteria to the longitudinal landing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafian, S. K.; Powers, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Under NASA sponsorship, an in-flight simulation of the longitudinal handling qualities of several configurations for the approach and landing tasks was performed on the USAF/AFWAL Total In-Flight Simulator by the Calspan Corporation. The basic configuration was a generic transport airplane with static instability. The control laws included proportional plus integral gain loops to produce pitch-rate and angle-of-attack feedback loops. The evaluation task was a conventional visual approach to a flared touchdown at a designated spot on the runway with a lateral offset. The general conclusions were that the existing criteria are based on pitch-attitude response and that these characteristics do not adequately discriminate between the good and bad configurations of this study. This paper describes the work that has been done to further develop frequency-based criteria in an effort to provide better correlation with the observed data.

  1. Coupled Soil Water and Heat Transport Near the Land Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions - Multi-Domain Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Binayak; Yang, Zhenlei

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and simulating coupled water and heat transfer appropriately in the shallow subsurface is of vital significance for accurate prediction of soil evaporation that would improve the coupling between land surface and atmosphere, which consequently could enhance the reliability of weather as well as climate forecast. The theory of Philip and de Vries (1957), accounting for water vapor diffusion only, was considered physically incomplete and consequently extended and improved by several researchers by explicitly taking water vapor convection, dispersion or air flow into account. It is generally believed that the soil moisture is usually low in the near surface layer under highly transient field conditions, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, and that accurate characterization of water vapor transport is critical when modeling simultaneous water and heat transport in the shallow field soils. The first objective of this study is thus mainly to test existing coupled water and heat transport theories and to develop reasonable and simplified numerical models using field experimental data collected under semi-arid and arid hydro-climatic conditions. In addition, more complex multi-domain models are developed for ubiquitous heterogeneous terrestrial surfaces such as horizontal textural contrasts or structured heterogeneity including macropores (fractures, cracks, root channels, etc.). This would make coupled water and heat transfer models applicable in such non-homogeneous soils more meaningful and enhance the skill of land-atmosphere interaction models at a larger context.

  2. Geospatial Database for Strata Objects Based on Land Administration Domain Model (ladm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasorudin, N. N.; Hassan, M. I.; Zulkifli, N. A.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Recently in our country, the construction of buildings become more complex and it seems that strata objects database becomes more important in registering the real world as people now own and use multilevel of spaces. Furthermore, strata title was increasingly important and need to be well-managed. LADM is a standard model for land administration and it allows integrated 2D and 3D representation of spatial units. LADM also known as ISO 19152. The aim of this paper is to develop a strata objects database using LADM. This paper discusses the current 2D geospatial database and needs for 3D geospatial database in future. This paper also attempts to develop a strata objects database using a standard data model (LADM) and to analyze the developed strata objects database using LADM data model. The current cadastre system in Malaysia includes the strata title is discussed in this paper. The problems in the 2D geospatial database were listed and the needs for 3D geospatial database in future also is discussed. The processes to design a strata objects database are conceptual, logical and physical database design. The strata objects database will allow us to find the information on both non-spatial and spatial strata title information thus shows the location of the strata unit. This development of strata objects database may help to handle the strata title and information.

  3. Sucrose phosphate phosphatase in the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) lacks an extensive C-terminal domain and differs from that of land plants.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Manabu; Uemura, Matsuo

    2012-04-01

    Previously, it was reported that like land plants, the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) accumulates sucrose during cold acclimation (Nagao et al. Plant Cell Environ 31:872-885, 2008), suggesting that synthesis of sucrose could enhance the freezing tolerance of this alga. Because sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP; EC 3.1.3.24) is a key enzyme in the sucrose synthesis pathway in plants, we analyzed the SPP gene in K. flaccidum (KfSPP, GenBank accession number AB669024) to clarify its role in sucrose accumulation. As determined from its deduced amino acid sequence, KfSPP contains the N-terminal domain that is characteristic of the L-2-haloacid-dehalogenase family of phosphatases/hydrolases (the HAD phosphatase domain). However, it lacks the extensive C-terminal domain found in SPPs of land plants. Database searches revealed that the SPPs in cyanobacteria also lack the C-terminal domain. In addition, the green alga Coccomyxa (Chlorophyta) and K. flaccidum, which are closely related to land plants, have cyanobacterial-type SPPs, while Chlorella (Chlorophyta) has a land plant-type SPP. These results demonstrate that even K. flaccidum (Streptophyta), as a recent ancestor of land plants, has the cyanobacterial-type SPP lacking the C-terminal domain. Because SPP and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyze sequential reactions in sucrose synthesis in green plant cells and the lack of the C-terminal domain in KfSPP is predicted to decrease its activity, the interaction between decreased KfSPP activity and SPS activity may alter sucrose synthesis during cold acclimation in K. flaccidum.

  4. The RST and PARP-like domain containing SRO protein family: analysis of protein structure, function and conservation in land plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The SROs (SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE) are a group of plant-specific proteins which have important functions in stress adaptation and development. They contain the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain and a C-terminal RST (RCD-SRO-TAF4) domain. In addition to these domains, several, but not all, SROs contain an N-terminal WWE domain. Results SROs are present in all analyzed land plants and sequence analysis differentiates between two structurally distinct groups; cryptogams and monocots possess only group I SROs whereas eudicots also contain group II. Group I SROs possess an N-terminal WWE domain (PS50918) but the WWE domain is lacking in group II SROs. Group I domain structure is widely represented in organisms as distant as humans (for example, HsPARP11). We propose a unified nomenclature for the SRO family. The SROs are able to interact with transcription factors through the C-terminal RST domain but themselves are generally not regulated at the transcriptional level. The most conserved feature of the SROs is the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PS51059) domain. However, bioinformatic analysis of the SRO PARP domain fold-structure and biochemical assays of AtRCD1 suggested that SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Conclusions The SROs are a highly conserved family of plant specific proteins. Sequence analysis of the RST domain implicates a highly preserved protein structure in that region. This might have implications for functional conservation. We suggest that, despite the presence of the catalytic core of the PARP domain, the SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Nevertheless, the function of SROs is critical for plants and might be related to transcription factor regulation and complex formation. PMID:20226034

  5. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Land (SEAL), or Navy Special Warfare (NSW) Combatant Craft Crewman (SWCC) operator; (2) enable the NSW... completing Navy SEAL accession training. Affected Public: Individuals interested in becoming Navy SEAL or... potentially become an NSW recruit (Navy SEAL or SWCC), to determine which information is most appropriate...

  6. Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    warfare, storage jamming, unauthorized modification, Trojan horse 1 INTRODUCTION Ammann, Jajodia, McCollum, and Blaustein define information warfare as the...information warfare, and we adopt the latter term. To provide context, Amman et al. specifically do not consider Trojan horses within the database system...called internal jammers (McDermott and Goldschalg, 1996b)), but instead consider a wide range of attacks other than Trojan horses . Both groups agree that

  7. Cyber Warfare as an Operational Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-03

    This paper explores cyber warfare as an option for creating operational fires effects. Initially, cyberspace is defined and explained from the...fires are defined and the advantages of their use are explained. From there, discussion focuses on how cyber warfare fulfills the purposes of...operational fires. Finally, the paper draws conclusions about the viability of cyber warfare as an operational fire and makes recommendations about how to prioritize the activities of the newly approved U.S. Cyber Command.

  8. RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    RTO-MP-IST-091 P4 - 1 RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare Mikko Kiviharju P.O.Box 10 FIN-11311 Riihimaki FINLAND mikko.kiviharju@mil.fi...auditing existing systems and planning new establishments. 1 INTRODUCTION Cyber warfare , especially computer network operations (CNO) have a deep...SUBTITLE RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  9. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HYBRID WARFARE: PREPARING FOR FUTURE CONFLICT by Michael Miller, Lieutenant Colonel, United States Air...00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hybrid Warfare: Preparing For Future Conflict 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hybrid warfare will be the most likely type of conflict the US and its allies will face in the future

  10. Unified physical mechanism of frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic exploration on land and in ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changsheng; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Fengdao; Hu, Ruihua; Sun, Caitang

    2013-12-01

    The frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic method (FDCSEM) has played an important role in the terrestrial and oceanic exploration. However, the measuring manners and the detecting abilities in two kinds of environment are much different. This paper analyses the electromagnetic theories of the FDCSEM exploration on land and in ocean, simulates the electromagnetic responses in the two cases based on a united physical and mathematical model, and studies the physical mechanism leading to these differences. In this study, the relationship between the propagation paths and the detecting ability is illuminated and the way to improve the detecting ability of FDCSEM is brought forward. In terrestrial exploration, FDCSEM widely adopts the measuring manner of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT), which records the electromagnetic fields in the far zone in the broadside direction of an electric dipole source. This manner utilizes the airwave (i.e. the Earth surface wave) and takes the stratum wave as interference. It is sensitive to the conductive target but insensitive to the resistive one. In oceanic exploration, FDCSEM usually adopts the measuring manner of marine controlled-source electromagnetic method (MCSEM), which records the electromagnetic fields, commonly the horizontal electric fields, in the in-line direction of the electric dipole source. This manner utilizes the stratum wave (i.e. the seafloor wave and the guided wave in resistive targets) and takes the airwave as interference. It is sensitive to the resistive target but relatively insensitive to the conductive one. The numerical simulation shows that both the airwave and the stratum wave contribute to the FDCSEM exploration. United utilization of them will enhance the anomalies of targets and congregate the advantages of CSAMT and MCSEM theories. At different azimuth and different offset, the contribution of the airwave and the stratum wave to electromagnetic anomaly is

  11. Information Warfare and International Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Warfare and...for International Studies; Melanie Greenberg of the Stanford University Center for International Security and Arms Control (CISAC); Daniel Kuehl of

  12. United States and Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    deterrent to terrorism. While the immediate adversaries in the Global War on Terrorism campaign are Al Qaeda and its allies , the reality exists that...Qaeda and its allies , the reality exists that legitimate nation-states would resort to unconventional warfare operations in order to defeat the United...quarter 2009): 2-7. Goodes, Jeffery 0, and Sharon Tosi Moore. "Hizbollah: The Party of God." Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal, Volume X

  13. Rethinking Cultural Influences on Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    International Affairs 87/6 (November 2011): 1520. 6 to show that the broad categories of Western and non-Western warfare have been socially ...that cultural knowledge is essential in a counterinsurgency campaign as the American social perspective of reality is not a universal outlook.20 “It...capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”37 Geert Hofstede, a social psychologist, defines culture as “the collective programming

  14. Irregular Warfare: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Airman’s Assessment of FM 3-24 and the Case for Developing Truly Joint COIN Doctrine. Maxwell Air Force Base: U.S. Air University, 2007. 111pp. (UG635.33...handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494289 Pinnell , Daniel A. The Tenets of Airpower in an Insurgent Environment. Strategy Research Project. Carlisle...Non-Kinetic Capabilities for Irregular Warfare: Four Case Studies. Alexandria: Institute for Defense Analyses, Joint Advanced Warfighting Program

  15. Evolution of S-domain receptor-like kinases in land plants and origination of S-locus receptor kinases in Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The S-domain serine/threonine receptor-like kinases (SRLKs) comprise one of the largest and most rapidly expanding subfamilies in the plant receptor-like/Pelle kinase (RLKs) family. The founding member of this subfamily, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), functions as the female determinant of specificity in the self-incompatibility (SI) responses of crucifers. Two classes of proteins resembling the extracellular S domain (designated S-domain receptor-like proteins, SRLPs) or the intracellular kinase domain (designated S-domain receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases, SRLCKs) of SRK are also ubiquitous in land plants, indicating that the SRLKs are composite molecules that originated by domain fusion of the two component proteins. Here, we explored the origin and diversification of SRLKs by phylogenomic methods. Results Based on the distribution patterns of SRLKs and SRLCKs in a reconciled species-domain tree, a maximum parsimony model was then established for simultaneously inferring and dating gene duplication/loss and fusion /fission events in SRLK evolution. Various SRK alleles from crucifer species were then included in our phylogenetic analyses to infer the origination of SRKs by identifying the proper outgroups. Conclusions Two gene fusion events were inferred and the major gene fusion event occurred in the common ancestor of land plants generated almost all of extant SRLKs. The functional diversification of duplicated SRLKs was illustrated by molecular evolution analyses of SRKs. Our findings support that SRKs originated as two ancient haplotypes derived from a pair of tandem duplicate genes through random regulatory neo-/sub- functionalization in the common ancestor of the Brassicaceae. PMID:23510165

  16. Airship Renaissance: Considerations for Operational Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare 5a. CONTRACT...Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare by Daniel W. Smith III Major, United States Air Force A paper submitted...resources needed now on the battlefield…to get more intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre .” 5 Recognizing budget

  17. Strategic Impact of Cyber Warfare Rules for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Despite the growing complexities of cyberspace and the significant strategic challenge cyber warfare poses on the United States’ vital interests few...specific rules for cyber warfare exist. The United States should seek to develop and maintain cyber warfare rules in order to establish...exemplify the need for multilaterally prepared cyber warfare rules that will reduce the negative influence cyber warfare presently has on the United States’ national interests.

  18. Analytic tools for information warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  19. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  20. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  1. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  2. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Unpreparedneas: The American Expeditionary Forces and Chemical Warfare." MILITARY REVIEW , Vol. 65, January 1985, pp. 12-25. (Periodical) US Army Command and...WEAPONS. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984. (UG447 M86 1984) US Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International...34 Cover Story. WORLD PRESS REVIEW , Vol. 36, March 1989, pp. 11-21. (Periodical) "A Chemical Warfare Glossary." ARMY, Vol. 37, August 1987, pp. 34-35

  3. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 229 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, Alberto J C; Ruxton, Graeme D; Gardner, Andy

    2017-02-22

    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression-i.e. 'genomic imprinting'-in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence.

  10. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression—i.e. ‘genomic imprinting’—in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence. PMID:28228515

  11. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  12. Development of JSDF Cyber Warfare Defense Critical Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    attack identification capability is essential for a nation to defend her vital infrastructures against offensive cyber warfare . Although the necessity of...cyber-attack identification capability is quite clear, the Japans preparation against cyber warfare is quite limited.

  13. Friction in the U.S. Army During Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    and great friction during irregular warfare. Historic analysis confirms this trend, and reveals a dominant grammar of traditional warfare supported by...dominant grammar of traditional warfare, the alternate grammar of irregular warfare is visible only when politicians force the Army to conduct...operations in that manner. Doctrine and theory from other nations, although available, did not facilitate maturation of this second grammar in the U.S. Army

  14. Department of Defenses Enhanced Requirement for Offensive Cyber Warfare Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) needs to further develop its offensive cyber warfare capabilities at all levels. In an asymmetric environment...battlefields. If the DoD does not prosecute offensive cyber warfare tactics then the DoD has effectively allowed a significant advantage to be given...offensive cyber warfare operations, These states utilize their cyber warfare capabilities to support their national, operational and strategic

  15. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Article 51.24 Cyber warfare is unique in that vulnerabilities that a network target may have could be discovered by software developers who then... cyber warfare rather than physical combat, a future subject to air strikes or ground-forces raids would likely be a powerful deterrent. Some in the U.S...Manwaring, The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare, (Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 2012), 126-129. 23 Arie J. Schaap, “ Cyber Warfare Operations

  16. Equipping Network Warfare: Industrial-Era Bureaucracies for Information-Era Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    precision and standoff, intercepting any hostile platform early in its flight is increasingly important. — General Ronald R. Fogleman, 16th Chief of...reach; however, the above situations could all be worthwhile operational requirements of a network warfare platform . This suggests that the breadth...hardware and software requirements of cyberspace weapons platforms will be unique, driven by the defining characteristics of their domain and most

  17. Optimization of Graphene Sensors to Detect Biological Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    OPTIMIZATION OF GRAPHENE BIOSENSORS TO DETECT BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS THESIS MARCH 2014 Matthew J. Quinton, Major, USAF AFIT...M-42 OPTIMIZATION OF GRAPHENE BIOSENSORS TO DETECT BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering...WARFARE AGENTS Matthew J. Quinton, BS, MS Major, USAF Approved: //Signed//___________________________ 3/14/2014

  18. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  19. Biological warfare--an emerging threat.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Reshma; Shukla, S K; Dharmani, S; Gandhi, A

    2004-09-01

    As we approach the 21st century, there is an increasing worldwide awareness and threat regarding the use of biological warfare agents both for war and terrorist attack. Biological agents include microorganisms or biological toxins that are used to produce death in humans, animals and plants. They are characterized by low visibility, high potency, substantial accessibility and relatively easy delivery. Biological warfare agents are unconventional weapons that can be delivered by unconventional means like aerosol sprays, food and water contamination, conventional explosive munitions or by covert injections. Because of their concealed delivery, easy transportation and difficult identification they are readily adaptable for terrorist operations or to gain political advantages. The detection of such attack requires recognition of the clinical syndromes associated with various biological warfare agents. Diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds and on investigations. Protective measures can be taken against biological warfare agents. These should be implemented early (if warning is received) or later (once suspicion of agent use is made). After the confirmation of diagnosis emergency medical treatment and decontamination are performed in rapid sequence. Patients are then evacuated and specific therapy is given according to the agent involved. Appropriate emergency department and hospital response could significantly limit the morbidity and mortality of biological warfare agents.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life of Chemical Warfare Victims: An Assessment with the Use of a Specific Tool

    PubMed Central

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. Objective: This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL. PMID:24719824

  1. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  2. The role of rewards in motivating participation in simple warfare.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this "cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis" with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare.

  3. Information Warfare and the Principles of War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-07

    information dominance , control of ’cyberspace’ or the ’Infosphere’ and Information Warfare. Some argue that Information Warfare (IW) is just a repackaging of old concepts and current practices, while others contend it is the next Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). The question that needs to be addressed is; can IW achieve strategic and operational military objectives on its on merit? A way to answer this questions is to analyze IW against our current doctrine. Using the principles of war as a framework, does IW fit (or can it be employed) in the

  4. US Army Special Warfare. Its Origins: Psychological and Unconventional Warfare, 1941-1952

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    expansion was NSC 68, issued on 14 April 1950, which called for a nonmilitary offensive against the Soviet Union , including covert economic, political...cold war tensions with the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union . But Pace believed that the Korean situation offered an "especial opportunity...through the back door of the psychological warfare house. While the marriage of psychological and unconventional warfare was probably a union of con

  5. Philippine Counterinsurgency Success: Implications for the Human Domain of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    defensive success by an indigenous warrior, the modern-day Philippines has been greatly influenced by nearly 350 years of challenging Spanish occupation...against the communist New People’s Army, population relocation was not an option. Muslims have long lived in the Philippines and with indigenous Filipino...including physical, social, demographic, religious, multi-cultural, indigenous , settled, and psychological issues. As 19 a result, and

  6. Modeling Team Performance in the Air Defense Warfare Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    members as envisioned by the system designers. In Figures 6 we depict the different task flows between an ideal team (that envisioned by the system...Figure 1. The main difference between the ideal team and the tested teams is the degree to which the team members passed tasks between...themselves. The ideal team members handle tasks independently and in parallel; however, for teams 1 and 2 there were various degrees of “meddling” between

  7. Cross-Domain Synergy: Warfare in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-19

    operational planning paradigms and processes have put the United States Military in a perilous situation and hindered its ability to conduct effective and...unsustainable operations tempos, inadequate training, and current operational planning paradigms and processes have put the United States Military in a...Operations Directive ( AOD ), and an Air Tasking Order (ATO) to facilitate mission execution. Mission planners utilized elements of the Joint

  8. Tribal Warfare: The Society of Modern Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    impact of computer cyberspace and artificial intelligence on contemporary warfare is profound. Rather than relying exclusively May–June 2015 | 85...service pins more wings on new drone pilots than on fighter and bomber pilots.13 The latter is true, but among at least some of those who dream to fly

  9. Preparing the British Army for Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    author recognizes that proscribing major combat training supported by expanded conceptual education is far from a revelation. But, like Plato’s Utopia ...be reshaped to provide a realistic environment in which to best achieve the military utopia of preparing flexibly for future warfare. From the

  10. Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

  11. Modern Warfare From the Colombian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Involved into a Fourth Generation, 1. 7 M-19 Movimiento revolucionario 19 de abril. Former insurgency group. 8 Alberto Pinzon Sanchez. En Causa Propia...a Fourth Generation. Alberto Pinzon Sanchez. En Causa Propia. http://www.anncoI.nu Mao Tse Tung. On Guerrilla Warfare, Baltimore, Md.: Nautical

  12. Situation Awareness Information Dominance & Information Warfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Information warfare and its primary objective of achieving information dominance over enemy forces have arisen as a major area of emphasis for future...military actions. The concept of information dominance and the issues involved in attaining it are explored through a model of situation awareness...directions for the development of systems to support the goal of information dominance can be established.

  13. Organizing the Army for Information Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Information Operations2 Career Field to meet the challenges of 21st Century Warfare. Bill Clinton was President. The Army’s operational construct was...deception; releasing clone information; and establishing network spy stations” for espionage while concurrently defending themselves against such

  14. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  15. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  16. AirLand Battle and Low Intensity Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-12

    terrorims , counterterrorism, rescues sad military aasistJabcs, often under coadltils of armed eppolition. the cmitment of regular armed forces, other than...and the respnding nations. It include the use of Nuclear weepens and way lacude soe Or e the teownique aId charecte1tize of low ad id intensity

  17. Information Operation and the Conduct of Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sitting behind their computer terminals launching war-winning cyber- attacks at the stroke of a key. A third vision is derived from the cyberpunk ... genre . It is that of Johnny Mnemonic-type individuals, with hardwires in their brains and enough downloaded information to make a modem supercomputer

  18. Information Technologies and the Future of Land Warfare,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    ployment patterns, export flows, and the composition of private- sector investment. It is also drastically altering American homes, workplaces, and leisure...is easier than monopolizing even a niche in the global information market; and as physical commodities find global markets-such as oil -the possession...Long View, New York: Doubleday/Currency, 1991, pp. 47-60, for his story of the anticipation of a global oil market by Royal Dutch Shell. Shell realized

  19. Cyber Warfare: China’s Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    CYBER WARFARE : CHINA‘S STRATEGY TO DOMINATE IN CYBER SPACE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...warfare supports the use of cyber warfare in future conflict. The IW militia unit organization provides each Chinese military region commander with...China, Strategy, Cyber Warfare , Cyber Space, Information Warfare, Electronic Warfare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  20. Foreword to the Air Anti-Submarine Warfare Theme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. FOREWORD TO THE AIR ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE THEME Air ASW Board: RADM Mike Manazir, Director Air...Mission Programs (Received April 1, 2014) We are honored to introduce the Air Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) themed compendium for the Journal of Underwater...reflect upon. Three main themes emerge from the last decade relating to the air community’s positioning relative to anti-submarine warfare: a shift in

  1. Cyber Warfare: A Need for Beyond Goldwater-Nichols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    of Military Studies Research Paper September 2010- May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater...22134-5068 MASTER OF MlLIT AR Y STUDJES Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater Nichols" SlffiMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFitLMENT OF THE...DOCUMENT IS PERMITTED PROVIDED PROPER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE.· l . ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater Nichols

  2. The Navy’s Educational Programs in Electronic Warfare,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    WARFARE GRADUATE PROGRAMS The Naval Postgraduate School currently offers two ad- vanced curricula in electronic warfare : Electronic Warfare Engineering...extension . DURATION OF COURSES OF STUDY All graduate programs at the Naval Postgraduate School include a graduate preparatory phase in addition to the...officers enter graduate programs in subject areas different from their under- graduate discipline . Consequently , the typical master ’s pro- gram for an

  3. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division (EPHD) is currently engaged in research aimed at developing a measure that estimates overall environmental quality at the county level for the United States. This work is being conducted as an effort to learn more about how various environmental factors simultaneously contribute to health disparities in low-income and minority populations, and to better estimate the total environmental and social context to which humans are exposed. This dataset contains the finalized transformed variables chosen to represent the Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains of the total environment. Six criteria air pollutants and 81 hazardous air pollutants are included in this dataset. Data sources are the EPA's Air Quality system (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/) and the National-scale Air Toxics Assessment (http://www.epa.gov/nata/). Variables are average pollutant concentrations or emissions for 2000-2005 at the county level for all counties in the United States. Data on water impairment, waste permits, beach closures, domestic water source, deposition for 9 pollutants, drought status, and 60 chemical contaminants. Data sources are the EPA's WATERS (Watershed Assessment, Tracking and Environmental ResultS) Database (http://www.epa.gov/waters/), the U.S. Geological Survey Estimates of Water Use in the

  4. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Kenneth; Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  5. Modeling the Thermal Destruction of Chemical Warfare ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper In the event of a terrorist attack with chemical warfare agents (CWAs), large quantities of materials, both indoor and outdoor, may be treated with thermal incineration during the site remediation process. This paper reports on a study to examine the thermal decomposition of surrogate CWAs and formation of decomposition by-products bound in model building materials (in this case, ceiling tile) in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator.

  6. Soviet Partisan Warfare: Integral to the Whole,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-20

    irregular and regular warfare fail to grasp the inseparable nature of the two in Soviet thinking. I Table of Contents I . Introduction...additional corps of the 48th Army attacking north of Rogatchev. South of Bobruisk the other pincer of this attack was executed by the 65th and 28th...deep objectives to hasten the advance of the southern pincer while closing escape routes for the Germans. Roads to Bobruisk were cut. The partisans

  7. Transforming USMC Intelligence to Address Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    nation’s 衟 force" demands that it be prepared to face these irregular warfare challenges with little or no preparation time. This presents a...rarely attribute these skills to a result of thorough preparation by the intelligence or military supporting establishment prior to the individual’s...identify areas where the Mmine Corps can improve its intelligence capabilities in order to be prepared to face the current and future IW threats. Although

  8. Economic Warfare in Time of Belligerency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-05-31

    bauxite , copper, nickel ··BDd lead). c. !etiiles,. leathers’ and mrioer. d. Foodstuffs. e. Shipping acti:vi ties. ANNEX 2 Measures of Axis Ru.le in... Sulphur ~he- .New .Economic ·warfare Jnwmin BaiSch . !l!ptal Imports in 1000 metric tons 450.2 488.1 197.6 4021.0 271.9 .. I¥¥+.7 87.3

  9. Systems versus Classical Approach to Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    events at others. In sequencing and synchronizing the use of military and non - military sources of power, operational com- manders must have the ability...approach, regardless of their differences, essen- tially share the mechanistic or Newtonian view of warfare. They believe that the information age...nonlinear.45 The Newtonian view of the world is that of a giant machine. Everything runs smoothly, precisely, and predictably. Everything is measurable.46

  10. Distributed Computing Environment for Mine Warfare Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    AD-A268 799 j -•111lllli UliilllI ME ii El UU NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC V4 * cLP i0 1993 RA THESIS DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT...Project No [Task No lWork Unit Accession 1 -1 No 11 Title (include security classification) DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT FOR MINE WARFARE COMMAND 12... DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ..... .. 26 A. STANDARDS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS ... .......... 27 1. OSI Model .......... ................. 28 2. DOD Model

  11. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    part was devoted to an extensive research into extant, open source Soviet literature. The second part was devoted to continuing research , an analysis...extensive research into extant, open source Soviet literature. The second part was devoted to continuing research , an analysis and report of findings...This Document Reproduced FromBest Available Copy AD-AO22 998 SOVIET TACTICAL DOCTRINE FOR URBAN WARFARE John C. Scharfen, et al Stanford Research

  12. Physical Readiness Testing of Surface Warfare Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    REPORT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2b. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 4 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 5...MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6a NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School...READINESS TESTING OF SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Hatch, William D. II and Swinney, Lori D. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14

  13. Entomological terrorism: a tactic in assymmetrical warfare.

    PubMed

    Monthei, Derek; Mueller, Scott; Lockwood, Jeffrey; Debboun, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    The current operational environment presents military forces with enemies that use unconventional warfare to achieve their goals. Although the US government has dedicated significant resources to address threats of bioterrorism, the adaptive nature of our adversaries necessitates additional emphasis on bioterrorism awareness amongst military health professionals. This article provides an overview of three categories of entomological terrorism and examples from each category with a risk assessment.

  14. Electronic Warfare in Army Models - A Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    CCM) PROVING GROUND TENIAS SAMJAM EIEM SPREAD SPECTRUM US ARMY ELECTRONIC FOREIGN SCIENCE & OFFICE OF MISSILE WARFARE LAB (EWL) TECHNOLOGY CENTER...IPAR MULTIRADAR SPREAD SPECTRUM ECMFUZ IRSS OTOALOC TAC ZINGERS EIEM ITF PATCOM TAM EOCM SIM FAC MGM-H4D RFSS TENIAS GTSF MG(-H4H ROLJAM ZAP I HMSM MSL...USAFAS TRASANA USAPAS TCF ASD WPAFU TENIAS ______ ___ ECAC _________ WAR EAGLE _________CATRADA WARRANT am________ 3DBDM ZAP 1 ____________ MEW EWL ZAP 2

  15. Measuring Progress and Effects in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-05

    warfare activities? As Clancy and Crossett point out, ―we do not yet possess a framework within which we might interpret success or failure against...as guns, but by who has more sympathizers and committed supporters.21 7 As indicated above, Clancy and Crossett recognize the need to develop a...perceived by the population).26 Clancy and Crossett further argue that the counterinsurgent force should focus on specific measures that will

  16. Fitness costs of warfare for women.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2014-12-01

    Research to date has focused on fitness costs that coalitional aggression imposes on men and how these may have shaped male cognitive design. This study investigated whether warfare may have shaped female cognitive design by identifying fitness costs that lethal raiding imposes on women and determining how widespread these fitness costs are across a sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist societies. To this end, archaeological and ethnographic accounts of lethal raiding were used to generate a list of fitness costs suffered by women in warfare. Five costs were identified: woman killed, woman captured, offspring killed, mate killed/captured, and adult male kin killed/captured. A cross-cultural sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist oral traditions was then surveyed for the presence of these costs. Results suggest that lethal raiding has recurrently imposed fitness costs on women, and that female cognitive design bears reexamination in terms of the motivational and decision-making mechanisms that may have evolved in response to them. This study differs from previous studies of lethal raiding by addressing the lack of comparative research on the fitness costs of warfare for women, by examining a wider range of fitness costs, and by using oral tradition as a database.

  17. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  18. Information Fusion and Visualisation in Anti Asymmetric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Information Fusion and Visualisation in Anti Asymmetric Warfare Felix Opitz, Thilo Trapp, Kaeye Dästner, Thomas Kausch Defence and Communications...Anti Asymmetric Warfare Felix Opitz, Thilo Trapp, Kaeye Dästner, Thomas Kausch IST-063/RWS-010 Workshop on Visualising Network Information Seite 2

  19. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Used in this Evaluation Code Decontaminant Name Formulation Ingredients Rationale A Aero Wash IV Sodium nitrite, proprietary detergent blend...Surfactant designed for use on aircraft B Chlor Floc Sodium dichloroisocyanurate, water Previously used for chemical warfare agent decontamination...C Clorox bleach 6% Sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, water Previously used for chemical warfare agent decontamination D DI water Water

  20. A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare This information is provided for your review only and is not for any distribution...A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  1. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    5 Irregular conflicts such as counterinsurgency and stability operations are typically protracted in nature ...but growing audience began to question the nature of future threats.30 Martin Van Creveld’s, The Transformation of War31 described recent changes in...the nature of military conflict and the future of warfare. Van Creveld argued that conventional warfare between states was being replaced with the

  2. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    SciTech Connect

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  3. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    tools of IW can— in fact, should—be brought to bear before the onset of military operations in order to achieve the state’s objectives without having to...Shaheen Gori, “Brandishing the Cybered Bear .” 39 Russia is believed to have conducted low-level information warfare against Ukraine since at least 2009...Unwala and Shaheen Gori, “Brandishing the Cybered Bear : Information War and the Russian-Ukraine Conflict,” Military Cyber Affairs: Volume 1, Issue 1

  4. Finding Lawrence: Recruiting Talent for Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    too dangerous a job to endeavor by dissipation. The men who come out here better be prepared for a country life among the birds and trees. They had...Dickens, SAS: The Jungle Frontier (London: Arms and Armour Press, Ltd., 1983); Tony Geraghty, Inside the S.A.S. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1980...Velky, ―Special Forces Assessment and Selection,‖ Special Warfare 3, no. 1 (1990): 12–15; Alan Vick, Snakes in the Eagles nest : A History of Ground

  5. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  6. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  7. Sensor fusion with application to electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzalari, Robert M.; Van Alstine, Edward

    1999-03-01

    The Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate, Survivability/Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Division mission is to provide affordable aircraft and ground electronic sensor/systems and signature management technologies which enhance survivability and lethality of US and International Forces. Since 1992, efforts have been undertaken in the area of Situational Awareness and Dominant Battlespace Knowledge. These include the Radar Deception and Jamming Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD), Survivability and Targeting System Integration, Integrated Situation Awareness and Targeting ATD, Combat Identification, Ground Vehicle Situational Awareness, and Combined Electronic Intelligence Target Correlation. This paper will address the Situational Awareness process as it relates to the integration of Electronic Warfare (EW) with targeting and intelligence and information warfare systems. Discussion will be presented on the Sensor Fusion, Situation Assessment and Response Management Strategies. Sensor Fusion includes the association, correlation, and combination of data and information from single and multiple sources to achieve refined position and identity estimates, and complete and timely assessments of situations and threats as well as their significance. Situation Assessment includes the process of interpreting and expressing the environmnet based on situation abstract products and information from technical and doctrinal data bases. Finally, Response Management provides the centralized, adaptable control of all renewable and expendable countermeasure assets resulting in optimization of the response to the threat environment.

  8. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM.

  9. Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    s c h o o l o f S Y S T E M S a n d L O G I S T I C S education service research Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare Maj...DATE MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare 5a...AFIT Cyber 200/300 Courses Cyber Warfare IDE Program 34 Special Emphasis On… Enterprise Integration (Active Directory, PKI) Security

  10. The Future of Warfare and Impact of Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    cyber warfare is occurring as a preferred method of conflict between large players on the global stage. Smaller players also have reasons to avoid conventional warfare and remain hidden. In Iraq and Afghanistan, those who fight against us attempt to remain hidden. The individual who places an improvised explosive device (IED) attempts to engage us without exposure or identification. Those who aid the individual emplacing an IED do so with hidden networks of support. The IED is an anonymous weapon. Both cyber warfare and insurgent use of IEDs depend

  11. Command and Control for Large-Scale Hybrid Warfare Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-05

    conceptualize , design, manage, and implement increas- ingly complex rules and missions successfully. ADEC has a promising structure wherein control and... photography , radar, electronic warfare, satellites (communications, reconnais- sance), and advances in navigation such as magnetic com- pass and global

  12. The Cyber Warfare Professional: Realizations for Developing the Next Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    consequences for the others. However, just as airpower soon emerged as a revolution in military affairs during the early twentieth century, so may cyber warfare become the next revolution for the new millennium.

  13. The Airpower Advantage in Future Warfare: The Need for Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    organized violence is criminal profit, cultur- ally induced and licensed recreation, or just sheer hooliganism on a large scale, it cannot be warfare...but these are very early years and there is ample cause for concern already. The good news is that unlike the twentieth century from 1917 until 1991...instead to fit that still improving competence into a truly holistic approach to warfare. That approach, in its turn, needs to fit into a genu - inely

  14. Issues and Requirements for Cybersecurity in Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    as simple as denial of service attacks and some as complex as attacks that exploit cyber vulnerabilities in order to alter key networks and software...and software security in light of the network centric warfare paradigm. In view of the need and threat, we present a new strategy for cyber defense...in the cyber battlespace in support of network centric warfare. Next, the paper presets a discussion of background material necessary to understand

  15. Fourth Generation Warfare and Its Impact on the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In 1989, the authors of an article entitled, "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation ," offered a glimpse of the future rooted in the...decline of the West in a world rife with cultural conflicts and the powerful influences of a form of cultural Marxism known as political correctness...were combining in America to create conditions for a new generation of warfare. Their vision included a form of warfare that bypassed the military

  16. Networked enabled sensors for the future soldier in urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Clive L.; Robinson, Colin

    2004-11-01

    In Urban Warfare, the enemy is at close range; snipers are almost always present; stress is extremely high; and the opposing force is frequently indistinguishable from the civilian population. On-going events in the Middle East and the general rise in world-wide terrorism has shown that small cells of "terrorist" forces are able to inflict severe developments in Urban Warfare sensors and their possible role.

  17. Hybrid Warfare: How to Shape Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    issue. The thesis does not suggest any doctrinal changes for hybrid warfare. Neither does it suggest any direct changes to the current force structure ...to the current force structure within NATO Special Operations Forces (SOF). This paper seeks relations between hybrid warfare and NATO SOF as the...it suggest any direct changes to the current force structure within NATO SOF. Such proposals and solutions are subject to other researchers and

  18. Microbes, warfare, religion, and human institutions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, R J; Lee, N C

    1986-03-01

    A significant number of practicing microbiologists are not aware of the historical impact of infectious agents on the development of human institutions. Microbes have played a profound role in warfare, religion, migration of populations, art, and in diplomacy. Boundaries of nations have changed as a result of microbial diseases. Infectious agents have terminated some kingdoms and elevated others. There is a need for microbiologists to have a historical perspective of some of the major ways in which a pathogen may influence civilized populations. Conditions may exist in contemporary society for a repeat of some of the kinds of plagues suffered by previous societies. The purpose of this paper is to review examples of situations where pathogenic microbes have forced societal modifications on centers of human population.

  19. Biological agents: weapons of warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Broussard, L A

    2001-12-01

    The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularaemia), filoviruses (Ebola hemorrrhagic fever and Marburg hemorrhagic fever), and arenaviruses Lassa (Lassa fever) and Junin (Argentine hemorrhagic fever). The pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these agents are discussed. Rapid identification and diagnosis using molecular diagnostic techniques such as PCR is an essential element in the establishment of coordinated laboratory response systems and is the focus of current research and development. Molecular techniques for detection and identification of these organisms are reviewed.

  20. The impacts of modern warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Francis, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and 'informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  1. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Munro, Nancy B; Watson, Annetta Paule; King, J.; Hauschild, Veronique

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  2. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-11-01

    you irill undertake the appointment of an appropriate committee to survey all phases of this matter. Tour organisation- already has.before it a... phase of the matter, I trust that appropriate i~ •<-* integration of these efforts can be arranged. "t j-. <. 7 C < v % A month later, on...Bacteriological Warfare Service, C7S. In CD 222(2^ ...correlate and accumulate information and data on biological phases of chemical warfare

  3. At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare: Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare : Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force by Craig Stallard, Squadron leader, Royal...in the conduct of cyber warfare . The 2009 Defence White Paper provided some clarity by indentifying cyber warfare as critical to the maintenance...of national security, but left open the most important issue: should cyber warfare be a joint engagement or a service oriented fight? The RAAF

  4. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and... Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  5. Sensitivity Simulation of Compressed Sensing Based Electronic Warfare Receiver Using Orthogonal Matching Pursuit Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0006 SENSITIVITY SIMULATION OF COMPRESSED SENSING BASED ELECTRONIC WARFARE RECEIVER USING ORTHOGONAL MATCHING PURSUIT...TITLE AND SUBTITLE SENSITIVITY SIMULATION OF COMPRESSED SENSING BASED ELECTRONIC WARFARE RECEIVER USING ORTHOGONAL MATCHING PURSUIT ALGORITHM 5a...August 2014. Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT The wideband coverage of the traditional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based electronic warfare

  6. Cyberspace as a Complex Adaptive System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    CYBERSPACE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM AND THE POLICY AND OPERTIONAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CYBER WARFARE A Monograph by Major Albert O. Olagbemiro...serves the US, especially in regards to the protect ion o f the 1S. SUBJECT TERMS omplex Adaptive System, Cyberspace, lnfosphere, Cyber Warfare ber...System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph Director Jeffrey

  7. Developing a Hybrid Virtualization Platform Design for Cyber Warfare Training and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    CYBER WARFARE TRAINING AND EDUCATION THESIS Kyle E. Stewart 2nd...Government. AFIT/GCE/ENG/10-06 DEVELOPING A HYBRID VIRTUALIZATION PLATFORM DESIGN FOR CYBER WARFARE TRAINING...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GCE/ENG/10-06 DEVELOPING A HYBRID VIRTUALIZATION PLATFORM DESIGN FOR CYBER WARFARE

  8. Electronic Warfare: Rethinking the Importance of Its Role In Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Aug 2010), 21. 25 Control Center (JEMSCC), the Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC) and the Joint...the new EW mindset should be. 2 Elsworth, Adam T., Electronic Warfare (New York: Nova ...Adam T., Electronic Warfare. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Aug 2010. Ettrich, Brian B., “The Principles of War: Are They Still

  9. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  10. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  11. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  12. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  13. Air Force Cyber Warfare: Now and the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    cyber warfare in popular culture. Most of them focus on the individual s uncanny grasp of technology the ability to exploit any system with a dizzying flurry of keystrokes or to fend off adversaries with a smartphone, a paper clip, and an ingenious plan. These socially awkward heroes and heroines fill the silver screen with visions of a new kind of warfare. Contradicting these stereotypes, Air Force cyber operations are carefully planned and controlled by disciplined, rigorously trained operators. Rather than acting alone, these professionals produce effects in support of

  14. Sources of Occupational Stress and Prevalence of Burnout and Clinical Distress Among U.S. Air Force Cyber Warfare Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    distress within the cyber warfare community. This study involved cyber warfare operators including active duty (n = 376) and civilian contractor and...revealed that when compared to civilian cyber warfare operators, active duty cyber warfare operators are more likely to suffer from the facets of...8217 write-in responses revealed cyber warfare operators attributed shift work, shift changes, and hours worked as the primary sources of high occupational

  15. Biological warfare in a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

    2002-08-01

    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse.

  16. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of public domain and acquired lands of the United States for the protection of all species of...

  17. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of public domain and acquired lands of the United States for the protection of all species of...

  18. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  19. Influence Operations in Insurgencies: Identifying Framing Strategies for Special Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Military Information Support Operations MAR Minorities at Risk MAROB Minorities at Risk Organizational Behavior POQC Psychological Operations...meaningful quantitative research has been conducted using the MAR dataset, the commonality is that virtually all of the research conducted using MAR...indigenous personnel for Special Warfare through psychological and cognitive means. The Military Information Support Operations Command (MISOC) mission

  20. Final MTI Data Report: Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.

    2003-03-17

    During the period from February 2001 to August 2002, paved-surface (tarmac) temperatures were collected at the Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center. This effort was led by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), with the assistance of base personnel, as part of SRTC's ground truth mission for the U.S. Department of Energy's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite.

  1. Traditional and Irregular Warfare: A Flawed Concept for Categorizing Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-18

    be completely seen. The flavors do not exceed five, but the changes in the five flavors can never be completely tasted . In warfare the strategic...believes together they can even influence populations beyond the zone of guerrilla operations and can ultimately lead to one side wining and one losing

  2. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    future warfare. Van Creveld is an influential source in this study. Van Creveld sees recent changes in the world that are significant in historical ......is intended that this novel approach will inform and assist the analysis of, future conflicts where dirty fighting may well occur. v

  3. Thirteenth Century Mongol Warfare: Classical Military Strategy of Operational Art?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-05

    two arguments. The first purports that operational art emerged with the industrial revolution. Union General Ulysses S. Grant’s 1864-65 campaign during...wage war. T= CZUAL EUROPEA CAMPAIGN (1241, Genghis Khan died in 1227, but his successors carried on his method of warfare with extraordinary skill

  4. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  5. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  6. Evaluation of U.S. Navy Surface Ship Operations in the Information Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    information dominance . An evaluation of past experiences and current technology will be used to recommend how to employ current surface assets information operations (IO) capabilities. This thesis also will include an evaluation of current topics regarding information dominance and the cyber domain, focusing on the areas of electronic warfare, cyberwarfare, and military information support operations

  7. Mine/Countermine Problems During Winter Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    INFORMATION ON THE MINE/COUNTERMINE WORKSHOP USACRREL, hANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 21-23 OCTOBER 1980 Registration list Aubin, Maj. Thomas , U.S. Army Engineer...703) 664-4895. Romanko, Thomas , U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005. Tarlow, Irving, U.S. Army Natick...speed and offensive action, estab- lish the need for U.S. forces to field flexible and versatile tacics, cech - niques, and weapons systems. Land mines are

  8. Tests of Level B Suits - Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Tests of Level B Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary Robert S. Lindsay April...Final; Jan 98 – Jun 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tests of Level B Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants...Occupational Safety and Health Level B∗ suit designs were tested to assess their capability to protect in a chemical warfare agent

  9. Technology Strategy in Irregular Warfare: High-Tech Versus Right-Tech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    STRATEGY IN IRREGULAR WARFARE: HIGH-TECH VERSUS RIGHT-TECH by Kevin P. Rowlette December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Robert Burks Second Reader: Ian...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY IN IRREGULAR WARFARE: HIGH- TECH VERSUS RIGHT-TECH 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...that advanced militaries should develop technology strategies for irregular warfare that are based on tailored capabilities. Additionally, these

  10. The Three Warfares: PLA Soft Power Aspirations Along the Cognitive Dimension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    strategy. 14. SUBJECT TERMS China , PLA, Three Warfares, Information Warfare, Information Operations, Military Modernization, Media Warfare, Legal...2 Office of the Secretary of Defense, Annual Report to Congress - Military Power of the People’s Republic of China 2008 (Washington, D.C...Defense, Annual Report to Congress - Military Power of the People’s Republic of China 2009 (Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, [2009]), http

  11. The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare, Spring 2008 - Project 08-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Global Innovation and Strategy Center The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare Spring 2008 – Project 08-01 May 2008...and Measurement of Cyber Warfare N/A N/A N/A 08-01Dobitz, Kyle Haas, Brad Holtje, Michael Jokerst, Amanda Ochsner, Geoff Silva, Stephanie...research team as critical for purposes of cyber act characterization: Motivation, Intent, Target, Effects, and Actors. cyberspace, cyber warfare , targets

  12. Seeking Shadows in the Sky: The Strategy of Air Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    feasibility of the concept of air guerilla warfare, and the final chapter explores the implications of air guerrilla warfare for the current and future...called this form of fighting guerrilla—“little war”—and with these harassment tactics, the guerrilleros sapped the strength of the French and thus...and to enhance surprise attacks.34 In the Napoleonic Wars, the French faced irregular warfare not only from the guerrilleros in Spain, but also from

  13. Seeking Shadows in the Sky: The Strategy of Air Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    weighs the evidence to determine the feasibility of the concept of air guerilla warfare and also explores the implications of air guerrilla warfare for...the guerrilleros sapped the strength of the French and thus set the stage for their eventual expulsion from the Iber- ian Peninsula by the Duke of...irregular warfare not only from the guerrilleros in Spain but also from partisans in Russia. Lt Col Denis Davydov led a small regular unit operating in

  14. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  16. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Smart Climatology Applications for Undersea Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    project specifications. Green shading indicates resolution finer than 1 degree, global domain, and at least a 30- year period. Table from World...climatologies. 1. Generalized Digital Environmental Model Ocean Climatology Over 100 years worth of ocean observations are available in the form of various...R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40- year re-analysis project . Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437-471. Kistler, R., and Co

  1. Electronic Warfare (EW) Historical Perspectives and Its Relationship to Information Operations (IO) - Considerations for Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    situation can be drawn from conclusions that can be drawn from information about, for example, the types and locations of battle space entities” (Alberts...environment is considered distinct, it still resides within each of the four domains: sea, land, space , and air (Joint Publication 3-13, I-1). To...2001, 12). “Command and control systems, and supporting infrastructures that enable individuals and organizations across air, land, sea and space

  2. Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de’ Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de’ Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event. PMID:12194776

  3. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  4. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  5. Mustard: a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Saladi, R N; Smith, E; Persaud, A N

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most important vesicant agents, the destructive properties of mustards on the skin, eyes and respiratory system, combined with a lack of antidote, makes them effective weapons. Such weapons are inexpensive, easily obtainable and frequently stockpiled. Sulphur mustard (mustard gas) has been used as a chemical warfare agent in at least 10 conflicts. In this article, the use of mustard as a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism is outlined. The dose-dependent effects of acute sulphur mustard exposure on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system are described, as well as the possible extents of injuries, the mechanisms of action and the long-term complications. Prevention and management of mustard exposure are briefly discussed. The need for awareness and preparedness in the dermatological community regarding mustard exposure is emphasized.

  6. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Non-Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division (EPHD) is currently engaged in research aimed at developing a measure that estimates overall environmental quality at the county level for the United States. This work is being conducted as an effort to learn more about how various environmental factors simultaneously contribute to health disparities in low-income and minority populations, and to better estimate the total environmental and social context to which humans are exposed. This dataset contains the finalized non-transformed variables chosen to represent the Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains of the total environment. This does not represent the final variables for the EQI. The Transformed dataset was used to create the EQI. This dataset is for information purposes only for those who want to see the original non-transformed variables. Six criteria air pollutants and 81 hazardous air pollutants are included in this dataset. Data sources are the EPA's Air Quality system (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/) and the National-scale Air Toxics Assessment (http://www.epa.gov/nata/). Variables are average pollutant concentrations or emissions for 2000-2005 at the county level for all counties in the United States. Data on water impairment, waste permits, beach closures, domestic water source, deposition for 9 pollutants, drought st

  7. Institutional Challenges to Developing Metrics of Success in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    War ISF Iraqi Security Forces IW Irregular Warfare JSS Joint Security Station JUSMAPG Joint United States Military Advisory and Planning Group...concept to Iraq by installing Joint Security Stations ( JSS ) in every district to collect actionable intelligence and launch reaction forces.154...158 Thus, during the surge, every few weeks another JSS or Coalition outpost (COP) was constructed, and within a short time the residents and

  8. Proximal detection of chemical warfare agents using PMIRRAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Michael W. P.; Marenco, Armando J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-contact chemical warfare agent detection has been demonstrated on military painted surfaces using polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS). Notably, VX has been detected on chemical agent resistance coating (CARC) paint at a distance of approximately 10 cm. PMIRRAS does not rely on the presence of chemical vapors and is not affected by many common battlefield interferants such as aerosolized dust, water and diesel vapors, etc., making it highly suitable for use in operational environments.

  9. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  10. Molecular Rotors for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Maity, Shubhra Bikash; Bouffard, Jean; Kim, Youngmi

    2016-09-20

    The fluorogenic probe o-OH is able to detect and quantify organophosphorus nerve agent mimics in solution and in the vapor phase following immobilization on a solid substrate, making the system a suitable candidate for the field detection of chemical warfare agents. Detection is achieved by the suppression of internal rotation upon phosphorylation of a reactive phenolate, resulting in a large fluorescence "turn-on" response.

  11. Interagency Cooperation for Irregular Warfare at the Combatant Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    and more complex forms of warfare.89 Washington Post global security expert and columnist David Ignatius advanced the argument and suggested the...long overdue. Ignatius recently reported that: Gates is right about the imbalance between civilian and military power. A new report by Refugees...www.foreignaffairs.org/20090101faessay88103/robert-m-gates/a­ balanced-strategy.html?mode=print (accessed 17 December 2008). 90David Ignatius

  12. Contemporary Security Challenges: Irregular Warfare and Indirect Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Yarger Ph.D., History, Professor of National Security Policy , U.S. Army War College and JSOU Associate Fellow On the cover. A U.S. Special Forces...views, policy or position of the United States Government, Department of Defense, United States Special Operations Command, or the Joint Special...officer, provides an analysis of surrogate warfare, mandating changes in policy and doctrine to include “comprehensive guidance” from the U.S. government

  13. Effects-Based Operations: Change in the Nature of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    terms of “the required number of sorties to achieve the desired damage against each target.”32 The bread and butter of a targeting officer involves...warfare. Slobodan Milosevic’s ultimate capitulation supports the assertion of NATO spokesman Jamie Shea that “we [the coalition] are able to turn off and...Alabama, April 13, 1991. 59. Jamie Shea , NATO Spokesman, NATO news backgrounder, 4 May 1999; on-line, Internet, 22 Feb 2000, available from http

  14. New Catalysts for the Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-15

    are the main carbon-containing products that desorb from TiO2 . On the Ni surfaces, approximately the same amount of methane is produced from DMMP...to methyl radicals, methane and H2, the Ni clusters and films are more active for DMMP decomposition at room temperature. Small Ni clusters on TiO2 ...of Cu and Ni nanoparticles supported on titania as model catalysts for the decomposition of chemical warfare agents. Specifically, dimethyl

  15. Constitution aims to bring an end to health economy warfare.

    PubMed

    Harding, Mary-Louise; Martin, Daniel

    2005-02-10

    A rough new constitution is being drawn up for the NHS in a bid to prevent health economies sliding into bitter 'Bradford-style' warfare in the era of foundations trusts and payment by results. The rules of engagement are part of a package of measures designed to rescue some of the government's flagship reforms amid warnings from audit chiefs on the impact of PbR.

  16. Next-Generation Undersea Warfare and Undersea Distributed Networked Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-31

    strike group CVN Aircraft carrier (nuclear propulsion) DDG Guided missile destroyer DME Deploy, manage, and exploit DMER5 Deployment, management...Littoral combat ship LPD Amphibious transport dock M&S Modeling and simulation MIW Mine warfare OMFTS Operational maneuver from the sea Pfa...operations. "* Provide a capability to rapidly deploy, manage, and exploit ( DME ) offboard sensors and to rapidly redeploy, refuel, reposition, replace, and

  17. USMC Electronic Warfare 2025: Trading Expertise for Advanced Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-15

    airborne electronic warlare during the transition period away from legacy equipment. EA-6B pilots and Electroilic Countermeasures Officers ( ECMOs ...Electronic Warfare (EW) capability. As an EA-6B Electronic Countenneasures Officer ( ECMO ), I anticipate that both the United States Marine Corps and all... ECMOs . An increased workload for Radio Battalion will have the same effect that the assumption of an additional function of Marine aviation will have on

  18. Towards a Semiotic Information Position Framework for Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Centric Warfare Topics Information and Knowledge Exploration Information and Knowledge Exploitation Concepts, Theory , and Policy Saša...Transformation Roadmaps are based on the NCW theory [45], and NEC is at the core of 16th ICCRTS: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations...situational awareness, has long been a key aspect of military theory . For instance, Clausewitz talked about the “fog of war” [12, p. 104] and Sun Tzu wrote

  19. Strategic Information Warfare: Challenges for the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    effort to patch security holes.205 A 1996 survey based on the use of commercially available tools to test security of public and private Web sites ...Warfare- Defense, ES-3 also draws the analogy to the nuclear age in characterizing deterrence as the "first line of defense" in the information age...chemical explosives or kinetic energy as primary means of achieving effect versus the mega-force unleashed by nuclear weapons based on the fission or

  20. Improved Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Effectiveness MSSE Capstone Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ...9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER NPS-SE-08-002 11...Aircraft M& S – Modeling and Simulation MOE – Measure of Effectiveness MSSE – Master of Science System Engineering NETWARCOM – Naval Network Warfare

  1. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Bolscher, Jan G M; Bikker, Floris J

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF. Furthermore we aimed to increase the antimicrobial potency of the bLF derived peptides by cationic amino acid substitutions. Overall, the bactericidal activity of the peptides could be related to membrane disturbing effects, i.e. membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Those effects were most prominent for the LFchimera. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for displaying antimicrobial activity, as lysine to arginine substitutions resulted in an increased antimicrobial activity, affecting mostly LFampin265-284 whereas arginine to lysine substitutions resulted in a decreased bactericidal activity, predominantly in case of LFcin17-30.

  2. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. Results: The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P < 0.001, r = − 0.33). So that the patients who had more than three organs involved had lower quality of life. 95.4% of our participants experienced another complication with respiratory complication and the ophthalmologic complications were the most frequent accompanying condition. Conclusions: The results imply that chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life. PMID:25031863

  3. U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare: Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment...U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority...Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority The character of

  4. 33 CFR 165.1103 - Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1103 Section 165.1103 Navigation and Navigable... Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San... the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, bound by the following coordinates: 32°43′40.9″ N,...

  5. Tests of Level A Suits - Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Tests of Level A Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary Richard B. Belmonte...AND SUBTITLE Test Results of Level A Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary 5. FUNDING...words) Twelve Level A protective suits were tested for GB and HD permeation swatch testing using modified procedures of TOP

  6. Missed Opportunity? Was Iran s Green Movement an Unconventional Warfare Option?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    MISSED OPPORTUNITY? WAS IRAN’S GREEN MOVEMENT AN UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE OPTION? A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...Missed Opportunity? Was Iran’s Green Movement an Unconventional Warfare Option? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...disputed 2009 Iranian Presidential elections, the Green Movement demonstrated reformist insurgency potential. Capable movement leadership mobilized

  7. Composite Warfare Doctrine - Providing the JFMCC with the Optimal Command and Control Method for Amphibious Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    Gazette, November 1992: 69. 24 T. C. Gillespie, S. M. Lesher, P. D. Miner, B. P. Cyr, ”Composite Warfare and The Amphibians ,” Marine Corps...Composite Warfare and The Amphibians .” Marine Corps University, Command and Control Systems Course. Quantico, VA, 23 March 1992: 9-30, 9-31, 9-34

  8. Network Centric Warfare and Its Effect on Unit of Employmentx (UEx) Use of Mission Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-26

    Army policies, UEX structural and conceptual limitations, and features of network centric warfare theory. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Command and Control, UEx... structure and resources to translate accelerated, low-level decision making into action. The decision to merge these practices and concepts, coupled... structural and conceptual limitations, and features of network centric warfare theory. Therefore, to retain the advantages of mission command, UEX

  9. China’s Development of Asymmetric Warfare and the Security of Taiwan, Republic of China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or...DETERRENCE AND LIMITED DETERRENCE ................48 D. BALLISTIC MISSILE’S THREAT TO THE ROC...................................49 1. Psycological and...Electronic Warfare GPS Global Positioning System ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile IO Information Operations IW Information Warfare

  10. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  11. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-27

    organizations that have a role in IW operations. The Navy established the Navy Irregular Warfare Office in July 2008, published a vision statement for...7 2010 Navy Vision Statement for Countering Irregular...Appendix D. 2010 Navy Irregular Warfare Vision Statement ....................................................... 30 Contacts Author Contact

  12. Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.

    PubMed

    Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

    2003-08-01

    It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans.

  13. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.

  14. Evolution of human longevity, population pressure and the origins of warfare.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Robin

    2005-01-01

    In a protected environment, humans have the longest lifespan of all primates. However, during the emergence of Homo sapiens from pre-hominids, the expectation of life at birth would have been quite low. On the basis of reasonable assumptions, an average expectation of life of less than 20 years is sufficient to maintain a population of hunter-gatherers. As individuals became better adapted to their environment, the mortality rate would gradually decrease, and this would result in the survival of more offspring to adulthood. Thus, the population will increase, and one of the consequences in human evolution is the migration of human communities to many new habitats. The development of agriculture provided a more reliable source of food, and stimulated further the increase in population size. Villages became towns, and then cities, states and empires arose which had very large populations, and competed for land and other resources. Armies were raised and were often at war. All this was due to population pressure, as Malthus had realised more than 200 years ago. However, neither he, nor any of the others who discussed warfare, understood that the demographic changes that produced large human populations was a steady increase in the expectation of life at birth. This inevitably occurred at the same time as man gradually gained more control over his environment, and achieved far more reproductive success than is seen in hunter-gatherers living in a harsh, stressful environment.

  15. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  16. Block-Periodized Training Improves Physiological and Tactically Relevant Performance in Naval Special Warfare Operators.

    PubMed

    Abt, John P; Oliver, Jonathan M; Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Lovalekar, Mita T; Beals, Kim; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Human performance training and prevention strategies are necessary to promote physical readiness and mitigate musculoskeletal injuries of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operator. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of 2 training programs when performed during a training evolution of Operators. A total of 85 Operators (experimental: n = 46, age: 29.4 ± 5.5 years, height: 176.7 ± 6.4 cm, mass: 86.7 ± 11.6 kg; control: n = 39, age: 29.0 ± 6.0 years, height: 177.1 ± 6.3 cm, mass: 85.7 ± 12.5 kg) participated in a trial to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve physical, physiological, and performance characteristics. Operators in the experimental group performed a 12-week block-periodized program, whereas those in the control group performed a nonlinear periodized program. Pretesting/posttesting was performed to assess body composition, aerobic capacity/lactate threshold, muscular strength, flexibility, landing biomechanics, postural stability, and tactically relevant performance. The experimental group demonstrated a significant loss in body fat, fat mass, and body mass compared with the control group, whereas aerobic capacity increased for the both groups. The experimental group demonstrated a significant increase in posterior shoulder flexibility and ankle dorsiflexion, whereas the control group had a significant reduction in shoulder, knee, and ankle flexibility. The experimental group also improved landing strategies and balance. Both groups improved upper and lower muscular power and upper-body muscular endurance, whereas only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in agility and total body muscular strength. Implementation of a population-specific training program provides structured and progressive training effectively and promotes physical readiness concurrently with tactical training without overload.

  17. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Della A; Hulst, Albert G; de Reuver, Leo P J; van Krimpen, Simon H; van Baar, Ben M L

    2007-11-01

    Forensic laboratories do not have the infrastructure to process or store contaminated DNA samples that have been recovered from a crime scene contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents. Previous research has shown that DNA profiles can be recovered from blood exposed to several chemical warfare agents after the agent has been removed. The fate of four toxic agents, sulfur mustard, sodium 2-fluoroacetate, sarin, and diazinon, in a lysis buffer used in Promega DNA IQ extraction protocol was studied to determine if extraction would render the samples safe. Two independent analytical methods were used per agent, selected from GC-MS, 1H NMR, 19F NMR, (31)P NMR, or LC-ES MS. The methods were validated before use. Determinations were carried out in a semi-quantitative way, by direct comparison to standards. Agent levels in the elution buffer were found to be below the detectable limits for mustard, sarin, sodium 2-fluoroacetate or low (<0.02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory.

  18. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  19. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species.

  20. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  1. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  2. Chemical warfare agent detectors probe the fogs of war

    SciTech Connect

    Ember, L.R. )

    1994-08-01

    The air-power-dominated Persian Gulf War was the largest massing of coalition forces since World War II. This short conflict left its own intriguing legacy of unanswered questions. Were chemical weapons used in the theater of war Some US Allies, many US service members, and a US Senator believe they were. Yet both US and U.K. defense establishments offer emphatic denials. If Saddam Hussein didn't use chemical weapons, how can the multitude of warning alarms that sounded, alarms indicating the presence of these warfare agents, be explained Did the chemical warfare (CW) agent monitors and detectors the US deployed operate properly And were they sensitive enough to detect not just militarily significant levels, for which troops would have had to don full protective gear, but also very low concentrations of these weapons, levels that Sen. Richard C. Shelby (D.-Ala.) believes may be responsible for the illnesses many Gulf War veterans are now experiencing In this paper, the author addressed these questions.

  3. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each.

  4. Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

    1991-02-11

    This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Templer Death Anxiety Scale-Extended in Veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Ebadi, Abbas; Lehto, Rebecca H; Mousavi, Batool; Peyrovi, Hamid; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Templer Death Anxiety Scale-Extended (DAS-E) in veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 211 male veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare completed the 51 item DAS-E. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation was used to assess domain structure of the DAS-E. Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Test–retest reliability was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients for absolute agreement for the individual items and domains. Results: The construct validity of the scale was obtained using exploratory factor analysis that showed four factors with Eigen values of greater than 1 (1, 11 items, α = 0.83; 2, 7 items; α = 0.87; 3, 5 items, α = 0.73; and 4, 4 items, α = 0.75). Test–retest and internal consistency (total alpha) was 0.91 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion: The DAS-E demonstrated suitable validity and reliability among the veterans under study. The factor analysis demonstrated that the DAS-E has a multi-dimensional structure. With consideration of the proper psychometric characteristics, this scale can be used to further research about death anxiety in this population. PMID:25798171

  6. Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Investigations of Alleged Use of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Robert W.

    Chemical warfare agents were used extensively throughout the twentieth century. Many such uses are well documented; however some allegations of use of chemical warfare agents were not easily confirmed. During the early 1980s interest developed into investigation of alleged use by analytical techniques, particularly mass spectrometry. Since that time, many combined chromatographic - mass spectrometric methods have been developed, both for application to the analysis of environmental and biomedical samples and for investigation of physiological interactions of chemical warfare agents. Examples are given of some of the investigations in which the author has been involved, including those into Yellow Rain and uses of chemical warfare agents in Iraq and Iran. These examples illustrate the use of combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods and emphasise the importance of controls in analytical investigations.

  7. 78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Forest Service Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center... Navy, Energy, Installations & Environment and the Secretary of Agriculture signed a joint interchange order authorizing the transfer of administrative jurisdiction from the Department of Agriculture to...

  8. "No practical capabilities": American biological and chemical warfare programs during the Korean war.

    PubMed

    Crane, Conrad C

    2002-01-01

    Much controversy still surrounds accusations that American forces in the Far East during the Korean War used biological warfare against North Korea and China. An analysis of recently declassified documents reveals that, although the United States attempted to accelerate its development and acquisition of such weapons during that period, its efforts to create a viable biological warfare capability were unsuccessful. Plans to similarly expand chemical warfare stocks and capabilities were also frustrated. Technological difficulties, personnel shortages, bureaucratic battles between the armed services, and policy limitations combined to hold back advances in American chemical and biological warfare. In light of the recent fears of terrorist attacks with such weapons, this analysis highlights the great difficulties involved in developing, acquiring, and delivering such capabilities.

  9. From Gettysburg to the Gulf and Beyond: Coping With Revolutionary Technological Change in Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    sixteenth century revolution in astronomy. Until then, astronomers shared the Ptolemaic view of the universe--that all other heavenly bodies orbited the...earth. However, astronomical observations increasingly conflicted with Ptolemaic predictions. To eliminate the conflict, Coperni- cus developed his...Doctrine, strategy, tactics, techniques, defense pro- grams, and weapon systems --all are developed from this set of fundamental "truths." Some

  10. The DTIC Review. Volume 2, Number 1: Land Mine Warfare: Detection and Clearance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    every month 500 to 800 people (mostly civilians) are killed by mines and about 2,000 are maimed. The statistics represent a cost to human life that is...to cost $200 each, resulting in a growing inventory of mines in use. [ Walker, 1995] - Following the end of the Cold War, Congress has begun to take...frequency band loss in some soils. Contact/Non-contact Pros: lower cost ,power and weight than GPR. detects non-metallic objects. Cons: Small stand-off for

  11. U.S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory. Volume 1. Project Report, Appendix A. Documentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Spin Polarization System 08-A-66 Mine Firing Switch MES - Xl 09-A-66 Ferrite Antennas 10-A-66 Hilbert Transform & SSB-FN Radios 1I-A--66’ Thermal...Tnvwstigation A-166 Biological Sciences Br. 01-BA-72 New Antipersonnel Device 02-BA-72 Evaluation of Samarium Cobalt (SAIS) 03-BA-72 Personal Water Dispenser

  12. U. S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory. Volume II Appendix B. Task Sheets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    to determine the parameters for making a positive color-change test for detection of heroin or morphine compounds in urine . A specimen of urine can be...could be made without taking a blood or urine sample . This approach could provide both legally admissible evidence for enforcement purposes and...specific inforiation for medical treatment purposes. Results have shown that one must use blood or urine samples for wapid determination. The Drug

  13. An Australian Land Force for Conflict in a World Without Precedent (Future Warfare Concept Paper)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    chaos of future conflict. Discussion: In order to gain the best effect from the greater lethality of its weapon systems , and ensure its own...have and will continue to greatly enhance the lethality of weapon systems ; this will also change tactics and organizations as it has in the past... chaos of future conflict. Intended to 5 replace Industrial Age infantry brigades, the smaller ETF possesses greater combat weight. While possessing

  14. Anti-Guerilla Warfare in Aceh, Indonesia from 1980-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Anti-Guerilla Warfare In Aceh, Indonesia From 1980-2005 CSC 2005 Subject Area Warfighting ANTI-GUERILLA WARFARE IN ACEH, INDONESIA FROM... Indonesia From 1980-2005 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK... Indonesia . This paper will also examine possible solutions to this conflict. I have focused on recent articles that show that the use of military

  15. On Pecuniary Resiliency, Early Warning, and Market Imitation under Unrestricted Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    ON PECUNIARY RESILIENCY, EARLY WARNING, AND MARKET IMITATION UNDER UNRESTRICTED WARFARE DISSERTATION David M. Smalenberger, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENS-DS...be used to imply or infer actual mission capability or limitations. AFIT-ENS-DS-15-S-034 ON PECUNIARY RESILIENCY, EARLY WARNING, AND MARKET IMITATION...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS-DS-15-S-034 ON PECUNIARY RESILIENCY, EARLY WARNING, AND MARKET IMITATION UNDER UNRESTRICTED WARFARE David M

  16. The Role of Airpower in Irregular Warfare for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    You have been an awesome mother to our three children and hold the family together through everything. For all of the proofreading papers and... paper focuses on the role that airpower will play in irregular warfare during the 21st century. Recommendations include developing a robust aviation IW...Unconventional Warfare (UW) and Counterinsurgency (COIN), are the heart of IW and are currently the most prevalent forms of IW. Thus, this paper will focus

  17. A Review of Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasures Against Chemical Warfare and Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    tering. The present challenge of defending against the myriad of expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as threat chemicals and toxins ...in chemical warfare agents, hazardous chemicals, toxins , and even oa ta sithe 1980 to 1988 terroristattacksirJaq-Iran.confli nd ir infectious agents...and Inflammatory Response chemical warfare agents, toxins , and a broader menu of toxic The fact that inflammation causes or contributes to numer

  18. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dolislager, Frederick; Bansleben, Dr. Donald; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  19. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DOD for computer network defense and computer network attack. As such, it is the trigger-puller for this new branch of warfare. It is the pathfinder ...Forces CNA Capabilit ies CINC & Unif ied Command Support JTF-CNO is the pathfinder organization for new warfare area Tailored CINC Support Teams... Lisa Hoffman, “A Surprise: Fewer Cyber-Attacks after 9-11,” Scripps Howard News Service available at URL: <www.knowstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk

  20. Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center at Pickel Meadow, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    AD-A131 460 GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF MARINE CORPS MOUNTAIN WARFARE TRAININO CENTER AT PICKEL MEADOW CALIFORNIANU NAVALWEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE CA K...ATOAL’ 8u*Au OF STANOAO - 196 3 -A ONWC Technical Memorandum 4898 GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF MARINE CORPS MOUNTAIN WARFARE TRAINING CENTER AT PICKEL...MEADOW, CALIFORNIA by .Kathy Danti J. A. Whelan Allan M. Katzenstein Geothermal Utilization Division Public Works Department May 1983 Approved for public

  1. Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

  2. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  3. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  4. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  5. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  6. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side. PMID:21240320

  7. The impact of warfare on the soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

  8. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  9. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  10. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  11. Three-dimensional visualization of buildings for urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoennessen, Ulrich; Gross, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    Future conflicts will probably lead the armed forces also into regions, for which topographical data are missing as well as out of date. Here IMINT must support the planning and transaction of military operations through improved target recognition in combination with topographical information. High-resolution LIDAR data, multi-spectral image data and GIS with orthorectified elevation data, combined with 3Dimage maps with high geometrical and spatial precision integrated in a network (Smart Sensor Web, SSW), open new additional possibilities of the reconnaissance. To improve reconnaissance, we investigate the 3D-modeling of built up areas including texturing and visualization for the observer. In a future joint-sensor system the information of several sensors should be used in common and should also be combined with non-imaging knowledge (Rapid Terrain Visualization, RTV). By this, the technology is a key technology for military applications in urban warfare and in the battle against terrorism.

  12. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

  13. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

  14. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  15. Investigation of ELF Signals Associated with Mine Warfare: A University of Idaho and Acoustic Research Detachment Collaboration, Phase Three

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    with Mine Warfare: A University of Idaho and Acoustic Research Detachment Collaboration, Phase Three 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Warfare, A University of Idaho and Acoustic Research Detachment Collaboration, Phase Three.” Phase Three is a continuation of the Phase One and Two...of ELF Signals Associated with Mine Warfare: A University of Idaho and Acoustic Research Detachment Collaboration, Phase Three By Jeffrey L

  16. Emerging Roles of Combat Communication Squadrons in Cyber Warfare as Related to Computer Network Attack, Defense and Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    EMERGING ROLES OF COMBAT COMMUNICATION SQUADRONS IN CYBER WARFARE AS RELATED TO COMPUTER NETWORK ATTACK, DEFENSE AND EXPLOITATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...Communication Squadrons in Cyber Warfare as Related to Computer Network Attack, Defense and Exploitation GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty...Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Cyber Warfare Michael J. Myers Major, USAF June 2011

  17. USAF Cyber Capability Development: A Vision for Future Cyber Warfare & a Concept for Education of Cyberspace Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Significant and interrelated problems are hindering the Air Force’s development of cyber warfare capabilities. The first is a lack of awareness about...why the AF has chosen to take cyber warfare on as a core capability on par with air and space. The second stems from the lack of a commonly...the cyber capabilities needed in the future? The contributions of this research include a strategic vision for future cyber warfare capabilities that

  18. Modern warfare as a significant form of zoogeomorphic disturbance upon the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupy, Joseph P.; Koehler, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The damage exerted by warfare on the physical landscape is one, of many, anthropogenic impacts upon the environment. Bombturbation is a term that describes the impacts of explosive munitions upon the landscape. Bombturbation, like many other forms of zoogeomorphology, is a disruptive force, capable of moving large amounts of sediments, and denuding landscapes to the point where changes in micro and mesotopography have long-term implications. The long term implication of bombturbative actions depends on the type and duration of explosive device that rendered the disturbance, and the geographic context of the landscape disturbed; i.e. cultural and physical factors. Recovery from bombturbative activity, in the context of this research, is measured by vegetative regrowth and soil development in cratered disturbances. A comparison and contrast between the two battlefields of Verdun, France and Khe Sanh, Vietnam show that bombturbative actions have significantly altered the topography at each location, thus influencing surface runoff and processes of soil development. Principals of the Runge pedogenic model, or the energy of water moving through the soil profile, best explain how the varying climate and parent material at each location influence post disturbance soil development rates. Whereas the data collected at Verdun suggest that explosive munitions have put that landscape on diverging path of development, thus rendering it much different post-disturbance landscape, Khe Sanh displays much different recovery patterns. Preliminary research at Khe Sanh indicates that reforestation and soil development following disturbance are not so much influenced by bombturbative patterns as land use activities in the area of study.

  19. Land Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  20. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  1. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhanshan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic

  2. Gender Differences in the Impact of Warfare Exposure on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joyce M.; Lee, Lewina O.; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. METHODS Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. FINDINGS Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. In men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared to those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. In women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women, but in men, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared to those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. PMID:25442366

  3. Swatch Test Results of Phase 2 Commercial Chemical Protective Gloves to Challenge by Chemical Warfare Agents: Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    TEST RESULTS OF PHASE 2 COMMERCIAL CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE GLOVES TO CHALLENGE BY CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS : SUMMARY REPORT Robert S...Swatch testing Permeation testing GB Chemical protective gloves 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 53 16. PRICE CODE 17... warfare (CW) agent environment. Swatches of material from each glove design were tested for resistance to

  4. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek... danger zone in the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County,...

  5. 75 FR 3901 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center... proposed action, announces its decision to improve the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...

  6. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  7. Effectiveness of Unmanned Surface Vehicles in Anti-submarine Warfare with the Goal of Protecting a High Value Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    200 words) Littoral anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations generally focus on deterring and eliminating enemy diesel -electric submarines from...submarine warfare (ASW) operations generally focus on deterring and eliminating enemy diesel -electric submarines from transit routes and protecting...2  Figure 2.  A diesel -electric submarine (image from Jane’s Fighting Ships, https

  8. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime.

  9. Microbiological, biological, and chemical weapons of warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ronald A; Brown, Brent R; Hutchins, James B; Iandolo, John J; Jackson, Rhett; Slater, Leonard N; Bronze, Michael S

    2002-06-01

    Microbiological, biological, and chemical toxins have been employed in warfare and in terrorist attacks. In this era, it is imperative that health care providers are familiar with illnesses caused by these agents. Botulinum toxin produces a descending flaccid paralysis. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B produces a syndrome of fever, nausea, and diarrhea and may produce a pulmonary syndrome if aerosolized. Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin could possibly be aerosolized to produce acute pulmonary edema. Ricin intoxication can manifest as gastrointestinal hemorrhage after ingestion, severe muscle necrosis after intramuscular injection, and acute pulmonary disease after inhalation. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase and thus produce symptoms of increased cholinergic activity. Ammonia, chlorine, vinyl chloride, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, tear gas, and zinc chloride primarily injure the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. Sulfur mustard (and nitrogen mustard) are vesicant and alkylating agents. Cyanide poisoning ranges from sudden-onset headache and drowsiness to severe hypoxemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Health care providers should be familiar with the medical consequences of toxin exposure, and understand the pathophysiology and management of resulting illness.

  10. Passive standoff detection of chemical warfare agents on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O

    2004-11-01

    Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible.

  11. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

    2011-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX.

  12. Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

    1999-07-01

    The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

  13. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  14. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  15. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  16. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  17. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon.

  18. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  19. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  20. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  1. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    CEMA ) team with fully trained cyber, electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, and electromagnetic spec- trum operators, and cyberspace in gen- eral, are...or a space, cyber/ CEMA , and technical operations fusion cell. The FXD SCC will synchronize, plan, and coordinate cyber operations, although it is

  2. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control.

  3. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized.

  4. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  5. Special Operations, Irregular Warfare, and Operational Art: A Theory of Special Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    Press, 1996. Mill , John Stuart . A System of Logic. 8th ed. New York: Harper & Brothers, 2009. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/27942/27942-pdf.pdf...of warfare from an historical analysis of the evolution of warfare over the past two centuries. Using John Stuart Mill’s method of difference, it...depending on the historical context of each individual war: Clausewitz, On War, 585–594. 40John Stuart Mill , A System of Logic, 8th ed. (New York

  6. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  7. Anaerobic toxicity and biodegradability of hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sklyar, V I; Mosolova, T P; Kucherenko, I A; Degtyarova, N N; Varfolomeyev, S D; Kalyuzhnyi, S V

    1999-08-01

    The toxicity and biodegradability of the main hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents were investigated under methanogenic conditions. Among the tested substances, only MPhA does not have any toxic effect with regard to the aceticlastic methanogenic activity. The toxicity of other compounds varied between moderate (TDG, mercaptoethanol) to strong (ethanolamine, diisobutyl ester of MPhA). Biodegradability tests showed that all the products of chemical detoxification of mustard gas (ethanolamine, ethylene glycol, TDG, mercaptoethanol) can be biomineralized under methanogenic conditions. On the contrary, phosphorus-containing compounds from the chemical detoxification of nerve warfare agents (Sarin, Soman, Vx-gases) are quite persistent under these conditions.

  8. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  9. The history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Noah, Donald L; Huebner, Kermit D; Darling, Robert G; Waeckerle, Joseph F

    2002-05-01

    The inevitable conclusion is that the availability of biological warfare agents and supporting technologic infrastructure, coupled with the fact that there are many people motivated to do harm to the United States, means that America must be prepared to defend her homeland against biological agents. Some have argued to the contrary, that the threat and risks from a biological weapon attack are not to be considered serious, because [39]: They've not been used yet on a large scale so they probably won't be in the near future. Their use is so morally repugnant that they probably won't be used at all. The technologic hurdles associated with isolating, growing, purifying, weaponizing, and disseminating adequate quantities of pathologic agents are so high that only the most advanced laboratories could attempt the process. Similar to a 'nuclear winter,' the aftermath of a biological attack is so unthinkable that none would attempt it. Unfortunately, the trends associated with biotechnology globalization, terrorist group dynamics, and global/regional politics render these beliefs untenable and inappropriate, as recent events have underscored. To that end, the United States has accelerated its program of defense against biological weapons, as it must. Biological weapons are such dreadful weapons of uniqueness and complexity that a specific defense strategy is paramount. Elements of this program include pharmaceutical stockpiles, heightened surveillance systems, energized vaccine development programs, and comprehensive training initiatives. Although the depth and breadth of these efforts are unprecedented, above all these efforts is the absolute necessity for medical and public health care professionals to be educated and actively involved. These professionals are the sine qua non of future defensive readiness. This is just the start; unfortunately, there is no end yet in sight.

  10. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  11. DESI-MS/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Paul A.

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A "dip and shoot" method was also developed for the rapid sampling and DESI-MS analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by simply dipping fused silica, stainless steel or SPME tips into the organic or aqueous samples. Replicate analyses were completed within several minutes under ambient conditions with no sample pre-treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput. The developed sample handling and analysis method was applied to the determination of chemical warfare agent content in samples containing unknown chemical and/or biological warfare agents. Ottawa sand was spiked with sulfur mustard, extracted with water and autoclaved to ensure sterility. Sulfur mustard was completely hydrolysed during the extraction/autoclave step and thiodiglycol was identified by DESI-MS, with analyses generally being completed within 1 min using the "dip and shoot" method.

  12. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  13. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Albert T

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10(-21)), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  14. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Albert T. . E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  15. Instructional Development and Classroom Technology: Prototype Classrooms at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; And Others

    The first phase of the process of developing a plan to promote increased use of educational technology by the instructors and students of the U.S. Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS) in Newport, Rhode Island, began with a needs assessment which focused on the mission and organization of the school; the SWOS curriculum and the teaching…

  16. The Making of a Government LSI: From Warfare Capability to Operational System (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    The Making of a Government LSI From Warfare Capability to Operational System Ron Carlson Paul Montgomery Naval Postgraduate School 1...the IWC mission- capability model to ensure that the POR meets mission needs. 14 Conclusions/Future Research ( Montgomery , Carlson 2012...Defense Acquisition: Use of Lead System Integrators (LSIs) – Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress”. • Montgomery , P., Carlson, R

  17. Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hight Walker, Angela R.; Suenram, Richard D.; Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Woolard, Dwight L.; Wiebach, W.

    1999-01-01

    Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy is an established is an established technique for observing the rotational spectra of molecules and complexes in molecular beams. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are adapting this measurement technology for applications in analytical chemistry. Presently, FTMW spectroscopy is being used to investigate chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors. A FTMW spectroscopy facility has been established at a surety laboratory at the Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, where the capabilities exist for handling these deadly warfare agents. Here, the rotational spectra of Sarin, Soman and DF have been observed and assigned. Also, microwave spectroscopic studies of less toxic precursors such as pinacolyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and thiodiglycol have been carried out at NIST. Tests will be undertaken to assess the potential of using FTMW spectroscopy for detecting trace amounts of chemical-warfare agents and precursors in air. A database of rotational transition frequencies is being compiled for use in conjunction with a FTMW spectrometer to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical weapons. The sensitivity and resolution of FTMW spectroscopy of FTMW spectroscopy suggest that the technique may offer real-time, unequivocal identification of chemical-warfare agents at trace vapor concentrations in air.

  18. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  19. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    A combined approach was developed that integrated two types of testing—dilute liquid-phase reactor results to determine 18 chemical reactivity...TRANSPORT AND REACTIVITY OF DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL ...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a

  20. Laser-based instrumentation for detection of chemical-warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Sander, R.K.; Hartford, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being developed for remote, point, and surface contamination detection of chemical warfare agents. These techniques include optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. Detection limits in the part-per-million to part-per-billion regime have been demonstrated.

  1. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  2. Emerging Threat to America: Non-State Entities Fighting Fourth Generation Warfare in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    warfare in Juarez, Mexico contrasts with the “peaceful” cities of Ciudad Acuña and Piedras Negras controlled by the Zetas who demonstrate 4GW tactics...Vulliamy, 2009). Within the cities of Acuna and Piedra Negras where one Pack Virus (the Zetas) has effective control of these limited geographic

  3. An Evaluation of Bioregulators/Modulators as Terrorism and Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    peptide bioregulators in offensive biological weapons programmes. They are new class of weapons that can damage nervous system, alter moods, trigger...incapacitation. Peptide bioregulators are interesting regulatory molecules for many reasons. Their range of activity covers the entire living system, from...AN EVALUATION OF BIOREGULATORS /MODULATORS AS TERRORISM AND WARFARE AGENTS Slavko Bokan, Zvonko Orehovec MOD of the Republic of

  4. Community, identity, and conflict: Iron Age warfare in the Iberian Northwest.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Inés

    2008-12-01

    This paper proposes a new view of conflict in European Iron Age societies: considering isolationism as an alternative to warfare. Study of the castros (fortified settlements) of the Iberian Northwest suggests the organization of production as a main explanatory element in the emergence of identities based on exclusion and the imposition of communal structures of power. The relationship between these communities must have been one of conflict, and the unequal productive success of domestic units and the requirement of external marriage interchanges created realms of interaction in which internal conflict surely arose. These tendencies were kept in check by controlling settlement growth. Although a conflict-prone situation is documented in the archaeological record, there is no evidence that warfare as an endemic reality created groups of warriors. Warfare-related activity in these Iron Age societies was neither heroic nor hierarchical. Warfare did not determine the form of society but rather was related to the productive and reproductive organization of the societies that engaged in it.

  5. A Theoretical Exploration of Lawrence of Arabia’s Inner Meanings on Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-05

    Asprey, Robert . War in the shadows: The Guerrilla in history, ( Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2002), 4 2 T.E. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. A...the Solow growth model and the Ricardian model of economic rent, with two classic studies of guerrilla warfare by T.E Lawrence and Mao Zedong. Four

  6. Chemical Warfare and the Gulf War: A Review of the Impact on Gulf Veterans’ Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    revriew by several expert panels pretreatment for chemical agent esre 7 Further re- have deterriniied: that no evidence exists that chemical warfare... tpo gophosphousneitveak .:J emiimiscienit:i evidence concernming associations between -agents to l&ý 393-401- which Gulf Warveteran-snmay have been

  7. Navy Role in Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-04

    1 Edmund Sanders, “U.S. Missile Strike in Somalia Kills 6,” Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2008; Stephanie McCrummen and...Southeast Asia. The Arleigh Burke - class destroyers have also been used in recent irregular warfare capacities, such as the Bainbridge (DDG-96), which

  8. The NATO Response Force: Facilitating Coalition Warfare through Technology Transfer and Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    information concerning network architectures, interfaces, protocols, and file structures needed to allow the seamless transfer of information between...planning and agreement on the sharing of network and database architectural and structural information. Network-centric warfare, which is in...gained steam in Europe to move toward a separate “European” security identify, defense capability, and supporting industrial structure . The

  9. Acute Toxicity Estimation and Operational Risk Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    December 2001 Deputy Assistant to The Secretary of Defense Chemical and Biological (Warfare Agent) Defense ((DATSD- CBD ) interim-certified acute...avoidance (detection), protection, decontamination, and medical intervention. d. Compares the DATSD- CBD interim-certified acute toxicity values...defense. 2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. a. Translating Toxicity Information into ORM Terminology. The 2001 DATSD- CBD toxicity

  10. Usability Evaluation of Air Warfare Assessment & Review Toolset in Exercise Black Skies 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AWAR tool on the AAR learning process is reported separately. User Testing and Activity Theory approaches were applied in parallel to test the...comment process .................................. 41 B.2. Save Session process ...Activity Theory ADGE Air Defence Ground Environment AOD Air Operations Division AWAR Air Warfare Assessment & Review CSUQ Computer System

  11. Recognizing and Understanding Revolutionary Change in Warfare: The Sovereignty of Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Rimland concept was developed in the early 1940s by the Yale-based Dutch-American political scientist, Nicholas J. Spykman. See his books: America’s...56 of War, New York: Free Press, 1991; John Keegan, A History of Warfare, London: Hutchinson, 1993; Mary Kaldor , New and Old Wars: Organized

  12. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  13. Initial Training of Surface Warfare Officers: A Historical Perspective from World War II to 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-12

    Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair John T. Kuehn, Ph.D. , Member Thomas G. Bradbeer, MMAS, M.A. , Member CDR Peter J...Warfare Officers. 3 seamanship to weapons employment. Reportedly Captain John Paul Jones, Continental...of a fine tradition of effective and gallant naval battles, which stretches back to Captain John Paul Jones in the American Revolution. Surface

  14. Novel Photocatalysts and Processes for the Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    1 NOVEL PHOTOCATALYSTS AND PROCESSES FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS (CWA) Panagiotis G. Smirniotis Department of Chemical...Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0171 ABSTRACT The present research project aims at developing novel photocatalysts ...reactors including "closed cycle" systems, photocatalysts , which operate with visible/solar radiation and finally use of novel processes such as

  15. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  16. Network Centric Warfare: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    see CRS Report RS21294, Unmanned Vehicles for U.S. Naval Forces: Background and Issues for Congress. 15 Edward A. Smith , “Network Centric Warfare...excess of non- defense-related agencies. While outsourcing may have been initially motivated by CRS-12 42 Patrick Theobald and Sumner Lemon, “R&D

  17. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    PubMed

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  18. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 5. Executive Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-23

    tlel, WI,-I/TT H2100 B .1700 .0850 .2150 I( awout laqv net C4󈨁 F .3321 .16E .157 ,I . support system C426 F .3321 . 1660 1857 rI.n, ,iasolne, 5 K4128...0034 AAFS. M69HC 80685 B .0082 .0037 .0925 . 0046 Generator, 3KW60, NEP-0I6A 80730 8 .0504 .0261 .0620 .0052 Generator, IOKW60, NEP-003A 808 1 8 .0226...1600 .0800 .1600 .0074 Landing veh, FT, LVTP7 E0845 K .1600 .0800 .1620 . 0046 Landing veh, FT, LVTR? E0855 K .1600 .0800 .2231 .0176 Launcher. rkt

  19. Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared

    PubMed Central

    Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Background A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. Methods The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. Results and discussion The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3 – 6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. Conclusion The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent

  20. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  1. Beyond Mission Command: Maneuver Warfare for Cyber Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    January 2015), 5. 4 Cyberspace gained attention as a warfighting domain in 2009 when the Department of Defense (DOD) established U.S. Cyber Command...can keep U.S. cyberspace operations on the technological edge.24 OBJECTIVE ACCOMPLISHMENT THROUGH DECENTRALIZATION Just as it can best maximize

  2. The Further Integration of the Intelligence and Surface Warfare Communities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    The establishment of the Information Dominance Corps and the subsequent adjustment of naval resources to accommodate this newly formed cadre provide a ripe opportunity to close the gap between the Surface and Intelligence communities, and in doing so, enhance United States Navy s ability to dominate the global maritime domain.

  3. Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-26

    Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq A Monograph by Major...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions. searching existing data...Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  4. Boyd and the Past: A Look at the Utility of Ancient History in the Development of Modern Theories of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    BOYD AND THE PAST: A LOOK AT THE UTILITY OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THEORIES OF WARFARE A Monograph by Major Richard M...PAST: A LOOK AT THE UTILITY OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THEORIES OF WARFARE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT What utility does ancient military history have

  5. "Beyond-the-Box" Thinking on Future War: The Art and Science of Unrestricted Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    URW framework : “The anti-Japanese riots that swept China in April? That would be psychological warfare against a major Asian rival. The stage- managed ...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Command And...warfare against the overwhelming conventional power of American military forces. 1 AU/ACSC/1172/AY09 Such a framework unveils a fundamental

  6. Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare for Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-26

    which are designed directly to meet challenges from barriers , obstacles , land mines, and other explosive hazards. These three are breaching operations...Provide Security . Barriers , obstacles , and minefields can be used in critical areas along the flanks of advancing forces to restrict enemy attacks. At...flank security . Shallows, reefs, and other maritime hazards can be used at sea. Existing barriers and obstacles can be strengthened with reinforcing

  7. Bridging the Gap in the Realm of Information Dominance: A Concept of Operations for the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    THE REALM OF INFORMATION DOMINANCE : A CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS FOR THE NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL CENTER FOR CYBER WARFARE by Cynthia R. Duke...Bridging the Gap in the Realm of Information Dominance : A Concept of Operations for the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Cyber Warfare 6...of importance to the U.S. Military service and its allies. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 102 14. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Warfare, Information Dominance 16

  8. An overview of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Black, Robin M

    2008-01-01

    An overview is given of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents. Metabolites, protein, and/or DNA adducts have been identified for most nerve agents and vesicants and validated in experimental animals or in a small number of human exposures. For several agents, metabolites derived from hydrolysis are unsatisfactory biomarkers of exposure because of background levels in the human population. These are assumed to result from environmental exposure to commercial products that contain these hydrolysis products or chemicals that are metabolized to them. In these cases, metabolites derived from glutathione pathways, or covalent adducts with proteins or DNA, provide more definitive biomarkers. Biomarkers for cyanide and phosgene are unsatisfactory as indicators of chemical warfare exposure because of other sources of these chemicals or their metabolites.

  9. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments.

  10. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  11. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material.

  12. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  13. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Graffelman, J; Hoekstra, R F

    2000-06-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and shortly after periods of war the human secondary sex ratio is higher has received little statistical treatment. In this paper we evaluate the war hypothesis using 3 statistical methods: linear regression, randomization, and time-series analysis. Live birth data from 10 different countries were included. Although we cannot speak of a general phenomenon, statistical evidence for an association between warfare and live birth sex ratio was found for several countries. Regression and randomization test results were in agreement. Time-series analysis showed that most human sex-ratio time series can be described by a common model. The results obtained using intervention models differed somewhat from results obtained by regression methods.

  14. Experimental examination of ultraviolet Raman cross sections of chemical warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, F.; Landström, L.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, Pär.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering from the commonly used chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl sulfoxide, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphonoacetate was measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 210 to 410 nm using a pulsed laser based spectrometer system with a probing distance of 1.4 m and with a field of view on the target of less than 1mm. For the purpose of comparison with well explored reference liquids the Raman scattering from simulants was measured in the form of an extended liquid surface layer on top of a silicon wafer. This way of measuring enabled direct comparison to the Raman scattering strength from cyclohexane. The reference Raman spectra were used to validate the signal strength of the simulants and the calibration of the experimental set up. Measured UV absorbance functions were used to calculate Raman cross sections. Established Raman cross sections of the simulants make it possible to use them as reference samples when measuring on chemical warfare agents in droplet form.

  15. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  16. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

  17. On Naval Actions and Reactions in Limited Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    CV Albania 40 3 Algeria x 22/12 7/ 4 3 Angola 22/ 6 Argentina x x 12 9/ 9 6/ 6 7 Bahrain x 32/ 8 Bangladesh 26/ 4 3 Brazil x x 8 23/ 9 9/ 1 7 Brunei 6...or landSSMs+ASMs t e Argentina Argentina Algeria n Brazil Brazil Argentina t China China Brazil Egypt Egypt China T India India Cuba h Pakistan Libya...Level of Threat Blue Water Undersea Coastal Potential IF Argentina Argentina Argentina Potent gg Brazil Brazil Brazil Peru Peru Cuba Peru Chile Chile

  18. Helicopters in Irregular Warfare: Algeria, Vietnam, and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    drop smoke to show wind conditions, first assault helicopter lands 100-300 yards behind last rocket pass with successive aircraft as permitted by the...agents on VC tunnel complexes. Later, the 1st Cavalry Division employed a few of their Chinooks as “Go-Go birds ,” armed with twenty millimeter Gatling...cannons, forty-millimeter grenade launchers, fifty caliber machine guns, and rockets.182 Of the three “Go-Go birds ” that flew, the enemy downed two

  19. Modern Warfare: NATO’s War amongst the People in Kosovo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Michael A. Felice, United States Air Force 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) This monograph explores the application of Rupert Smith’s theory regarding the utility of force and the six characteristics...tensions within NATO and the intricacy of conducting alliance warfare as well as the need to determine NATO’s role in a post-Cold War world. Focusing

  20. Above the Influence: The Strategic Effects of Airpower in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    of War. (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1991), 224. 3 See for example James Kiras, ―Irregular Warfare,‖ in David Jordan, et al, Understanding Modern...The Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2006-2008, (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 2009), 91-126. 7 See for...reacting 3 See for example, David Galula, Counterinsurgency: Principles and Practice. (Westport, CT

  1. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2015-02-16

    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR.

  2. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-15

    Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli. 12 NCIS states on its website that “the NCIS mission is to investigate and defeat criminal, foreign...reporting/2011/08/08/110808fa_fact_schmidle. For a press report commenting on Schmidle’s sources for the article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details...Sinclair Harris, Director, Navy Irregular Warfare Office, is as follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the

  3. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-10

    Jennifer E. Lake, and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli...www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/08/08/110808fa_fact_schmidle. For a press report commenting on Schmidle’s sources for the article, see Paul Farhi...Director, Navy Irregular Warfare Office, is as follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed

  4. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-18

    Jennifer E. Lake, and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli...08/08/110808fa_fact_schmidle. For a press report commenting on Schmidle’s sources for the article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin...Warfare Office, is as follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and

  5. The Impact of Mine Warfare Upon U.S. Naval Operations During the Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    voltaic piles . These mines were usually placed in such a way that one shore station could control several mines. A series of range stakes would be...Civil War was the first conflict in history in which mine warfare played a significant role both at sea and in the riverine operating environment. Much...mine as a naval weapon. These developments took place initially in America and then the focus of activity shifted to Europe. The first known use of

  6. Mountain Warfare and Other Lofty Problems: Foreign Perspectives on High-Altitude Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    is often a problem. The rarefied atmosphere permits increased ultraviolet ray exposure, which creates problems with sunburn and snow blindness... measure to capture personnel and equipment, destroy installations, bait traps to draw enemy reaction, and attack morale. Since 8 Mountain Warfare and... measures . In Kashmir, stone or wooden bunkers, which double as living accommodations and fighting bunkers, are found at posts below 13,000 feet, but

  7. Operational Ethics in Coalition Warfare: Whose Ethics Will Prevail? A Philosophical/Theological Conundrum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-13

    Tzu, The Art of War, trans. S. A. Griffith (New York: Oxford University Press , 1963), p. 84. 3 William K. Frankena and John T. Granrose, Editors...Oxford: Oxford University Press , 1978), p. 86. governed Israel’s conduct of war and established far more humane rules of warfare than were practiced by...Editor, The Oxford History of Western Philosophy, (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 1994), pp, 4, 8; Elizabeth Flower and Murray G. Murphey, A History

  8. Airpower and the Environment: The Ecological Implications of Modern Air Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    mission along the lines of Operation Desert Fox against Iraq in December 1998. Indeed, Pen- tagon spokesman Kenneth Bacon announced on the eve of the rst...International Peace Research Institute. Warfare in a Fragile World: Military Impact on the Human Environment. London: Taylor & Francis Group, Inc... Francis A. Schiermeier, 741–43. New York: Springer Publishing, 2001. Wall, Robert, and Douglas Barrie. “US, UK Eye Upgrades to Newest Weapons.” Aviation

  9. The Return to Attrition: Warfare in the Late Nation-State Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    will be defined. Stemming from this analysis , defense planners must prepare themselves to confront the likely threats of the coming century with...that this analysis attributes this period of limited warfare and increasing sub-state violence to permanent changes in the nature of the nation...a confluence of sub-state tension and regional economic inter- penetration that will act like spark and tinder for regional conflict. The main

  10. Improvements Needed for Awarding Service Contracts at Naval Special Warfare Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    Awarding Service Contracts at Naval Special Warfare Command Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective The objective of the audit was to determine whether...conducted this audit in response to a request by the House Committee on Armed Services. We reviewed a nonstatistical sample of 35 contracts...was at r isk for price increases. We conducted this audit in response to a request by the House Committee on Armed Services. We conducted this audit in

  11. Management of chemical warfare injuries (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping their skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.

  12. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase III. Electronic Warfare Trainers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase III- Electronic Warfare Trainers) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Polzella . Donald J...Features, addressed a portion of this subthrust. Dr. Wayne Waag (AFHRL/OTU) was the Contract Monitor and Dr. Donald J. Polzella and Dr. David C. Hubbard...training is practicable (see Polzella , 1983, p.8). However, instructional features are expensive to implement, especially those features that require the

  13. The Implications of Network-Centric Warfare for United States and Multinational Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    impact of network-centric warfare on United States naval operations will be without conducting much more research and many more experiments. Until...recognizable as the same species it is today? Perhaps, but progress will be slow. As a result, the impact of NCW on the Navy between now and 2010...force deployments in the future will be associated with multinational operations.1 This paper will focus initially on the impact of NCW on United

  14. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.

  15. Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    USAARL Report No. 2016-07 Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test By...David Myers1 Timothy Gowen2 Angus Rupert3 Ben Lawson3 Justin Dailey3,4 1Chesapeake Technology International 2Naval Aviation Center for...and this report:  Mr. John Noulis (CAPT, USN, retired), an outstanding aviator , who had the foresight to see the value of tactile cueing as a means

  16. Attacking the Lion: A Study of Cohesion in Naval Special Warfare Operational Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    study is that it simply assumes that the SF units have higher levels of cohesion. 41 Steven C. Funk...71 Louis M. McCray and Steven K. Renly, ―Naval Special Warfare 21: An Analysis of Organizational Change in...described in a previous study on the topic of NSW-21 conducted by Louis McCray and Steven Renly at the Naval Postgraduate School, under what was called

  17. Space Superiority, Down to the Nanosecond: Why the Global Positioning System Remains Essential to Modern Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    vulnerable to “ spoofing ,” a deception technique using elec- tronic warfare to fool a GPS receiver into locking onto false signals rather than GPS ...Anti- Spoof Module, which introduced over-the-air rekey, over- the-air distribution, and contingency recovery—a technique that resets GPS receivers...Vulnerability of Civil Unmanned Aer- ial Vehicles and Other Systems to GPS Spoofing , Submitted to the Subcommittee on Oversight, In- vestigations, and

  18. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-30

    and explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution. • riverine warfare operations to secure...partnership. Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC) The Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek ...sailors. The Navy established Riverine Group 1 (which oversees the three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006. The three

  19. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-14

    explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution; • riverine warfare operations to secure waterways...Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, was established informally in October 2005 and formally on...Riverine Group 1 (which oversees the three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006. The three current riverine squadrons

  20. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    destroying captured weapon and explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution. • riverine warfare operations...Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, was established informally in October 2005 and formally on...three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006. The three current riverine squadrons were established in 2006-2007. As

  1. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-11

    explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution; • riverine warfare operations to secure waterways...headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, was established informally in October 2005 and formally on January 13, 2006. The creation...900 sailors. The Navy established Riverine Group 1 (which oversees the three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006

  2. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Strategic and International Studies, 1998. (CSIS panel reports). 42 p. NPS/DKL Location: GENERAL VA50 .G68 1998 Harris , Brayton. The Navy times book...Minardi, Salvatore. Il disarmo navale italiano (1919-1936): un confronto politico- diplomatico per il potere marittimo. Roma: Ufficio storico della...NAVAL STRATEGY/WARFARE -- WWII – GENERAL Bath, Alan Harris . Tracking the axis enemy: the triumph of Anglo-American naval intelligence. Lawrence, KS

  3. [War and medicine in a culture of peace. 3. Synopsis of chemical warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E

    2002-01-01

    A variety of chemical components can be used as warfare threats directly targeting humans. They can be classified according to their main biological effects as nerve agents, vesicants, lung damaging agents, cyanogen agents and incapacitants. Other chemical agents are water and food contaminants. Still other less aggressive compounds are mainly used to control riots. Smokes, flame materials and herbicides belong to other classes of chemical agents of the warlike armamentum exhibiting a direct effect on man.

  4. U.S. Naval Mine Warfare Strategy: Analysis of the Way Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    not until October 1944 that a similar specialized command structure existed in the Pacific Fleet. 26 Ironically, spurred by Pacific Fleet Admiral...the European and Pacific theaters. The greatest European theater mine warfare challenges occurred during the Normandy invasions in 1944 . In early 1944 ...Hitler ordered that 4000 pressure mines be sown around Normandy, Le Havre and Cherbourg.28 Extensive combined British and American minesweeping

  5. Unconventional Warfare and Operational Art: Can We Achieve Continuity in Command and Control?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    THREE: UW AND SENGE’S LEARNING DISABILITIES , AN ANALYSIS....... 27 CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........Error! Bookmark not defined...legitimacy and relevancy of unconventional warfare in achieving the nation’s goals. The Seven Learning Disabilities from Peter Senge’s The Fifth Discipline...the Seven Learning Disabilities . The book describes seven deficiencies that might identify whether or not an organization is a learning

  6. Information Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy and Organizational Considerations for Assurance. Second Edition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-24

    Information Systems Security .............................................. 2-36 2-2-6 NS/EP Concerns with the Telecommunications Act of 1996...vulnerability issues and the need for national policy to deal with them. The Chief, Information Warfare Division (J6K), Directorate of Command, Control...activities. A consolidated list of points of contact with telephone numbers follows the organizational summaries. " Appendix B includes: - An annotated

  7. The DTIC Review: Volume 2, Number 4, Surviving Chemical and Biological Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    Stereoisomers of Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Primer. Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Against Using Cyclodextrin Capillary Columns. MAY 95 16P...of 3.5 lb/gal, but there will be lower limits in the cyclodextrin stationary phases developed for gas future. This report summarizes progress in the...butyryl gamma- cyclodextrins were DESCRIPTORS: (U) *PRIMERS, *COATINGS, able to successfully resolve all four soman stereoisomers. The *CHEMICAL

  8. Total Quality Leadership Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Surface Warfare Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    material utilized for the education and training of the TQ Team Organization, (2) Five studies of corporate quality managers and (3) information on the Air...the surface warfare community as a whole at all levels. Additionally, the five studies on corporate quality managers skills and characteristics are...further assumed to represent those of all corporate quality managers. D. ORGANIZATION OF THESIS Chapter II follows with a brief history of Navy

  9. BALTIC Coin: Using a Counterinsurgency Model to Counter Russian Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    warfare, Estonia , Latvia, Lithuania, NATO 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...aggression, EUCOM and NATO commanders can expect to see it reprised in the Baltic countries of Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania, all relatively recent...the population.1 As Ida- Viru shares a border with Russia, this north-east corner of Estonia is ripe for conflict and would be a logical bridge into

  10. Courses of Action for Enhancing USAF ’Irregular Warfare’ Capabilities: A Functional Solutions Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Warfare Center to ensure that technological opportunities for novel IW appli- cations were explored, developed, and fielded. (See pp. 38–40...activities; transnational criminal activities, including narco -trafficking, illicit arms dealing, and illegal financial transactions, that support or...opportunities for novel IW applications are explored, devel- oped, and fielded. In fact, over time, it might be appropriate for the USAF to create a

  11. Understanding the Public Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carrie

    2003-01-01

    This overview of the public domain covers: defining the public domain; figuring out if a work is protected by copyright; being sure a work is in the public domain; asserting the copyright protection and term; the Creative Commons initiative; building the Information Commons; when permission is needed for using a public domain work; and special…

  12. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  13. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  14. Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, Alex; Zhukov, Vladimir; Kempf, C Ruth

    2006-08-01

    Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation is not that clear, though the new guidelines and clean-up values are being generated based on re-evaluation of toxicological and risk data. For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist. In this paper the current status of airborne exposure limits (AELs) for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on BW agents that lack such data. An efficient, temporary solution to bridge the gap in experimental infectious data and to set provisional AELs for BW agents is suggested. It is based on mathematically generated risks of infection for BW agents grouped by their alleged ID50 values in three categories: with low, intermediate and high ID50 values.

  15. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  16. Miniaturized low-cost ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Stefan; Barth, Sebastian; Baether, Wolfgang K M; Ringer, Joachim

    2008-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a well-known method for detecting hazardous compounds in air. Typical applications are the detection of chemical warfare agents, highly toxic industrial compounds, explosives, and drugs of abuse. Detection limits in the low part per billion range, fast response times, and simple instrumentation make this technique more and more popular. In particular, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized low-cost IMS for hand-held devices and air monitoring of public areas by sensor networks. In this paper, we present a miniaturized aspiration condenser type ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents. The device is easy to manufacture and allows single substance identification down to low part per billion-level concentrations within seconds. The improved separation power results from ion focusing by means of geometric constraints and fluid dynamics. A simple pattern recognition algorithm is used for the identification of trained substances in air. The device was tested at the German Armed Forces Scientific Institute for Protection Technologies-NBC-Protection. Different chemical warfare agents, such as sarin, tabun, soman, US-VX, sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard, and lewisite were tested. The results are presented here.

  17. [Chemical treatment and decomposition technique of the chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals].

    PubMed

    Kaise, Toshikazu; Kinoshita, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The old Japanese army developed several chemical warfare agents on Ohkuno Island in Seto inland sea, Hiroshima Japan, during the period between 1919 and 1944. These chemical agents including yperite (mustard; irritating agent), lewisite (irritating agent), diphenylchloroarsine (DA; vomiting agent), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC; vomiting agent) and other poisonous gases were manufactured to be used in China. After World War II, the old Japanese army abandoned or dumped these agents into seas inside or outside of Japan and interior of China. Rather than being used for terrorism, these chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals may cause injury to some workers at the digging site of abandoned chemical weapons. Moreover, the leakage of chemical agents or an explosion of the bomb may result in environmental pollution, as a result, it is highly possible to cause serious health damage to the residents. There are still many abandoned or dumped warfare agents in Japan and China, therefore chemical agents containing arsenic are needed to be treated with alkaline for decomposition or to decompose with oxidizing agent. Presently, a large quantity of chemical agents and the contaminated soil are processed by combustion, and industrial waste is treated with sulfur compounds as the insoluble sulfur arsenic complex. This report describes the methods for the disposal of these organic arsenic agents that have been implemented until present and examines the future prospects.

  18. An Evaluation of the Human Domain Concept: Organizing the Knowledge, Influence, and Activity in Population-Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    3 Raymond T.Odierno, James F. Amos , and William H. McRaven, “Strategic Landpower: Winning the Clash of Wills” (Washington DC, May 2013), 2...Iraq, 2005-2007 (Palo Alto, CA , USA: Stanford University Press, 2010), 196-204, accessed March 19, 2015, ProQuest ebrary. 30 innovations, Army...Theo Farrell, Frans Osinga, and James Russell (Palo Alto, CA , USA: Stanford University Press, 2013), 311, accessed March 20, 2015, ProQuest ebrary

  19. The Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Irani, Fred M.

    1991-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system, available in the public domain, for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. The system was developed to support earth sciences research and development activities. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete on-line and hardcopy documentation, extensive image data file management, reformatting, and conversion utilities, and high level device independent access to image display hardware. The capabilities are summarized of the latest release of the system (version 5). Emphasis is given to the system portability and the isolation of hardware and software dependencies in this release.

  20. Test Results of Air-Permeable Charcoal Impregnated Suits to Challenge by Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants. Executive Summary and Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    proteCt in a "CW ( chemical warfare ) and BW (biological warfare )" agents environment. Swatches of material from each suit design were tested for...factors were determined for each suit. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES HD Swatch testing Permeation testing 63 GB Chemical protective suits... Testing Procedures This testing was conducted to measure the permeation of chemical agents GB

  1. The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1997-07-01

    Leonard A. Cole. W. H. Freeman: New York, 1997. 250 pp. ISBN 0-7167-2950-4. $22.95 hc. The Eleventh Plague begins with a recitation of the ten plagues brought down upon Egypt, part of the Passover Seder celebrated each spring by Jews all over the world. Spring is also the anniversary of the first use of chemical weapons. On April 22, 1915, German soldiers released chlorine gas from 5,739 cylinders installed along the battle line at Ypres in southeastern Belgium. Germany achieved complete surprise. The gas drifted across no man's land, causing widespread terror and creating ten thousand serious casualties and five thousand deaths. Chlorine, of course, was a poor weapon, easily neutralized, but German scientists, including future Nobel laureates Fritz Haber, Otto Hahn, and James Franck, and the German chemical industry created ever more dangerous chemical weapons, culminating with the introduction of mustard gas in 1917. Despite cries of moral outrage, the Allies countered with their own chemical weapons efforts. The eleventh plague had been unleashed.

  2. Analysis of the Landing Ship Tank (LST) and its Influence on Amphibious Warfare During World War Two

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    tour of LST-325 and sharing his in-depth knowledge about the LST. In memory of Captain Lawrence Jack Goddard, USNR (Ret), Commanding Officer, LST...utilized during amphibious combat operation for the Normandy invasion. The numerous memoirs, biographical and autobiographical works that have been

  3. Incorporating JULES into NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Investigations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  4. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  5. 43 CFR 3101.2-1 - Public domain lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to the left limit of the Tanana River (63°9′38″ north latitude, 142°20′52″ west longitude), then westerly along the left limit to the confluence of the Tanana and Yukon Rivers, and then along the...

  6. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  7. Identification of water-bearing fractures by the use of geophysical logs, May to July 1998, former Naval Air Warfare Center, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    1999-01-01

    Between May and July 1998, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground water in shallow and intermediate water-bearing fractures. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources. Three boreholes were drilled on the property at 960 Jacksonville Road, at the northwestern side of NAWC, along strike from Area A; seven boreholes were drilled in Area B in the southeastern corner of NAWC. Depths range from 40.5 to 150 feet below land surface. Borehole geophysical logging and video surveys were used to identify water-bearing fractures so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Video surveys were obtained at three monitor wells in the southeastern corner of the NAWC property. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures. Inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing fractures in each monitor well.

  8. Mass Spectrometry Applications for the Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers Resulting from Human Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Richard; Capacio, Benedict R.

    In recent years, a number of analytical methods using biomedical samples such as blood and urine have been developed for the verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents. The majority of methods utilize gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In a small number of cases of suspected human exposure to chemical warfare agents, biomedical specimens have been made available for testing. This chapter provides an overview of biomarkers that have been verified in human biomedical samples, details of the exposure incidents, the methods utilized for analysis, and the biomarker concentration levels determined in the blood and/or urine.

  9. The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: evidence for offensive biological warfare research in the third Reich.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    In January 1942, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and police in Nazi Germany, ordered the creation of an entomological institute to study the physiology and control of insects that inflict harm to humans. Founded in the grounds of the concentration camp at Dachau, it has been the focus of previous research, notably into the question of whether it was involved in biological warfare research. This article examines research protocols by the appointed leader Eduard May, presented here for the first time, which confirm the existence of an offensive biological warfare research programme in Nazi Germany.

  10. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  11. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  12. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  13. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  14. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  15. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution.

  16. Sex differences in intergroup competition, aggression, and warfare: the male warrior hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Mark

    2009-06-01

    The social science literature abounds with examples of human tribalism, the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership and treat in-group members benevolently and out-group members malevolently. I argue that this tribal inclination is an evolved response to the threat of intergroup violence and warfare that was endemic in ancestral human environments (and is still common today). Here I hypothesize that intergroup conflict has profoundly affected the social psychology of human males in particular--the male warrior hypothesis--and present evidence consistent with this claim. I also discuss implications of this hypothesis for managing intergroup relations in our society.

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. The most important bacterial warfare agents - review.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, M; Skládal, P

    2009-01-01

    There are three most important bacterial causative agents of serious infections that could be misused for warfare purposes: Bacillus anthracis (the causative agent of anthrax) is the most frequently mentioned one; however, Fracisella tularensis (causing tularemia) and Yersinia pestis (the causative agent of plague) are further bacterial agents enlisted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention into the category A of potential biological weapons. This review intends to summarize basic information about these bacterial agents. Military aspects of their pathogenesis and the detection techniques suitable for field use are discussed.

  19. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder.

  20. To Find, and Not to Yield. How Advances in Information and Firepower can Transform Theater Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Directorate of Plans, Hq USAF. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data To find , and not to yield : how advances in information and firepower can...Internet: order@rand.org TO FIND , AND NOT TO YIELD How Advances in Information and Firepower %4c> Can Transform Theater Warfare David A. Ochmanek...which we are, we are; One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will To strive, to seek, to find , and not to yield

  1. Puncturing the Counterinsurgency Myth: Britain and Irregular Warfare in the Past, Present, and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Academy also concedes that, in relation to Northern Ireland, “[ I ]t is easy in the light of the later success . . . to for- get the early mistakes and the...publicized incidents in Iraq, such as the death in Brit- ish custody of Basra hotel clerk Baha Mousa in 2003 and the subsequent court-martial of the...exemplars of COIN warfare. It can now look at An- bar province and the Surge as the new ideal case stud- ies in COIN textbooks. The Americans have

  2. Nanodispersive mixed oxides for destruction of warfare agents prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis with urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daněk, Ondřej; Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Kalendová, Andrea; Opluštil, Frantisek

    2007-05-01

    Nanocrystalline mixed oxides of Ti, Zn, Al and Fe were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphates with urea at temperature of 100 °C in an aqueous solution. The prepared samples were characterized by BET and BJH measurements, an X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with yperite (2,2‧-dichloroethyl sulphide), soman (3,3-dimethyl-2-butyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and matter VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothionate). An excellent activity in decomposition of chemical warfare agents was observed in these materials (conversion degree higher then 96%/h).

  3. High-sensitivity, high-selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Webber, Michael E.; Macdonald, Tyson; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2006-01-01

    We report high-sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agents (nerve gases) with very low probability of false positives (PFP). We demonstrate a detection threshold of 1.2ppb (7.7μg/m3 equivalent of Sarin) with a PFP of <1:106 in the presence of many interfering gases present in an urban environment through the detection of diisopropyl methylphosphonate, an accepted relatively harmless surrogate for the nerve agents. For the current measurement time of ˜60s, a PFP of 1:106 corresponds to one false alarm approximately every 23months. The demonstrated performance satisfies most current homeland and military security requirements.

  4. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Seth D.

    2003-09-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability.

  5. Field-Effect Transisttors to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents in Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A LEVEL Report SAM.TR.80-25 FlL-] EfECT TANSISTORS TO DECT ~ CHEMICAL WARFAK AGENTS...34Types of CHEMFETs for Detection of EDITOR’S NOTE: Also availahle is another publication on the subject of chemical warfare-etectors -- SAM-TR-80-21 , A...presently taking place in electronics. The theory of IGFETs is well developed, and is generally presented in the language of the electron- ics

  6. Organizing for Effective Joint Warfare: A Deductive Analysis of U.S. Armed Forces Joint Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    AD-A266 735 (Unclassified Paper) NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. ORGANIZING FOR EFFECTIVE JOINT WARFARE: A DEDUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF U.S. ARMED FORCES...8217biGJ-Tji--𔃼T JOINT WARFLRE: A DEDUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF U.S. ARMED FORGES JOINT DOCTRINE (j 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) JESSE J. KELSO, GOMI-ANDER. U. S... ANALYSIS OF U.S. ARMED FORCES JOINT DOCTRINE Using organizational concepts embodied in existing joint doctrine, this paper deduces rational criteria for

  7. Surface-immobilization of molecules for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Indrani; Neelam

    2014-09-07

    Fabrication of nanoscale molecular assemblies with advanced functionalities is an emerging field. These systems provide new perspectives for the detection and degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The main concern in this context is the design and fabrication of "smart surfaces" able to immobilize functional molecules which can perform a certain function or under the input of external stimuli. This review addresses the above points dealing with immobilization of various molecules on different substrates and describes their adequacy as sensors for the detection of CWAs.

  8. Next-generation Expeditionary Warfare Intelligent Training (NEW-IT) Program Summary Booklet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-07

    generation Expeditionary Warfare Intelligent Training (NEW-IT) program summary booklet 7 October 2009, Internal program review meeting, Orlando, FL...create tailored training scenarios based on selected training standards from which the performance is automatically evaluated based on the provided...g. , co or di na tio n, ta ct ic s, de ci si on -m ak in g) C la ss ro om Si m ul at or s w ith ou t sk ill ed i ns tru ct io n ar e vi rtu al

  9. Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

    2013-12-21

    Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications.

  10. Medical defense against blistering chemical warfare agents. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.; Dunn, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    First used in World War I, chemical blistering agents present a serious medical threat that has stimulated renewed interest in the light of extensive use in recent conflicts. Current medical management cannot yet prevent or minimize injury from the principal agent of concern--sulfur mustard. Research directed at this goal depends on defining effective intervention in the metabolic alterations induced by exposure to sulfur mustard. Chemicals capable of inducing blisters, known as blistering or vesicating agents, have been widely known for more than 150 years. They were extensively used in chemical warfare during World War I, well before the development of the more deadly nerve agents 25 years later.

  11. Trends in American agriculture. Their implications for biological warfare against crop and animal resources.

    PubMed

    Deen, W A

    1999-01-01

    Current trends in American agriculture have changed the vulnerability to use of biological weapons against plant and animal resources. The major effect has been a requirement to look again at the model of the U.S. BW program of widespread dissemination of agent and look to attack models requiring much lower levels of resources. The U.S. biological warfare program models must take the effects of these major trends into account when considering the possible widespread dissemination of a biological agent. The models must also acknowledge the lowered levels or resources required to make such attacks given the modern trends in American agriculture.

  12. Land Revitalization Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA created the Land Revitalization Initiative to promote cross-program coordination on land reuse and revitalization projects to ensure that contaminated property is appropriately put back into productive use.

  13. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  14. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  15. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  16. Army Aviation and Unified Land Operations: Renewing Army Aviation’s Role and Doctrine to Dominate the Third Dimension of Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    iUniverse, 2005), 69. 20 Jr. Weinert , Richard P., A History of Army Aviation- 1950-1962, ed. Susan Canedy, TRADOC Historical Monograph Series...demand for nearly 100 organic aircraft per division. Weinert , Army Aviation 1950-1962, 142. 24 Department of the Army, FM 20-100: Army Aviation...37 Weinert , Army Aviation 1950-1962, 147. 38 Gast, "Army Aviation ROAD Organizations," 56-58. 39

  17. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  18. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  19. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  20. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  1. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  2. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  3. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  4. Fiber-optic microsphere-based arrays for multiplexed biological warfare agent detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2006-02-15

    We report a multiplexed high-density DNA array capable of rapid, sensitive, and reliable identification of potential biological warfare agents. An optical fiber bundle containing 6000 individual 3.1-mum-diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield microwells and used as the substrate for the array. Eighteen different 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes were covalently attached to 3.1-mum microspheres. Probe sequences were designed for Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella melitensis, Clostridium botulinum, Vaccinia virus, and one biological warfare agent (BWA) simulant, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. The microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized multiplexed high-density DNA array. A detection limit of 10 fM in a 50-microL sample volume was achieved within 30 min of hybridization for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, Vaccinia virus, and B. thuringiensis kurstaki. We used both specific responses of probes upon hybridization to complementary targets as well as response patterns of the multiplexed array to identify BWAs with high accuracy. We demonstrated the application of this multiplexed high-density DNA array for parallel identification of target BWAs in spiked sewage samples after PCR amplification. The array's miniaturized feature size, fabrication flexibility, reusability, and high reproducibility may enable this array platform to be integrated into a highly sensitive, specific, and reliable portable instrument for in situ BWA detection.

  5. Detailed investigation of the radical-induced destruction of chemical warfare agent simulants in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Amberashley; Sierakowski, Tim; Kiddle, James J; Clark, Kristin K; Mezyk, Stephen P

    2010-06-10

    The persistence of delivered chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in a variety of environmental matrices is of serious concern to both the military and civilian populations. Ultimately understanding all of the degradation pathways of the various CWAs in different environmental matrices is essential for determining whether native processes would offer sufficient decontamination of a particular material or if active chemical decontamination is required. Whereas much work on base-promoted chemical degradation has been reported, additional remediation strategies such as the use of advanced oxidation or reduction process free radical treatments may also be a viable option. We have examined here the primary kinetics and reaction mechanisms for an extensive library of chemical warfare agent simulants with the oxidizing hydroxyl radical and reducing hydrated electrons in water. From these values, it is seen that the reductive destruction occurs primarily through a single mechanism, consisting of hydrated electron capture at the phosphorus group with subsequent elimination, whereas hydroxyl radical oxidation shows two separate reaction mechanisms, dependent on the aqueous pK(a) of the leaving group.

  6. A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

    2004-11-01

    The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism.

  7. The challenges experienced by Iranian war veterans living with chemical warfare poisoning: a descriptive, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Taleghani, Fariba; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2010-06-01

    This exploratory, descriptive study investigates the experiences of Iranian war veterans living with chronic disease acquired as a result of chemical warfare. Sulphur mustard (SM) is considered one of the most important agents of chemical warfare and was widely used during the Iran-Iraq conflict in 1980-1988. There are approximately 100 000 Iranian SM casualties who suffer from serious long-term progressive health problems involving their respiratory organs, eyes and skin. Seventeen male Iranian war veterans aged between 30 and 59 years and four victims' family members participated in the study. Data was generated during individual in-depth interviews that used open-ended questions. Grounded theory techniques, including the constant comparative method of concurrent data generation and analysis, were employed in the analysis of data. Preliminary results indicate two main thematic categories: social isolation and physical disability. It is argued that a lack of knowledge about the outcomes of SM poisoning, physical restrictions and difficulty in adjusting socially decreases war veterans' functional capacity and levels of independence.

  8. Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Janet D.

    2014-05-01

    Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

  9. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced.

  10. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons.

  11. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  12. A decade of major vascular trauma: Lessons learned from gang and civilian warfare.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, M J; Harnarayan, P

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Trinidad and Tobago is a trans-shipment point for the illegal trade of drugs, arms and ammunition and, as such, has a high incidence of gang-related warfare and drug-related crimes. This has led to a high incidence of gunshot and stab wounds, with associated major vascular injuries. We describe our management strategies learned from a decade of vascular trauma experience. METHODS A retrospective analysis of age, gender, type of trauma, vessel injured, procedure and outcome for all cases of vascular trauma between 2006 and 2015 at two surgical units in Trinidad and Tobago. RESULTS There were 198 vascular trauma cases (232 procedures), involving 159 (80%) males at a mean age of 33 years. Gunshots accounted for 103 (52%) cases, followed by stabs/chops (n=50; 25%) and lacerations (n=15; 8%). The most commonly injured vessels were the radial/ulnar arteries (n=39; 20%) and the superficial femoral artery (n=37; 19%). There were seven pseudoaneurysms and three traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Repair techniques included primary (n=82; 35%), reversed vein (n=63; 27%), polytetrafluoroethylene (n=58; 25%), oversew (n=24; 10%) and endovascular (n=5; 2%) techniques. There were eight (4%) secondary amputations and eight (4%) deaths. CONCLUSIONS Major vascular trauma causes significant morbidity and mortality in Trinidad and Tobago, with the majority of cases due to gunshot injuries secondary to gang-related warfare and civilian violence. We compare our experience with that in the literature on the epidemiology and management of vascular trauma.

  13. Translation of Land Surface Model Accuracy and Uncertainty into Coupled Land-Atmosphere Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A.; Kumar, Sujay; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Zhou, Shuija

    2012-01-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) Interactions playa critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface heat and moisture budgets, as well as controlling feedbacks with clouds and precipitation that lead to the persistence of dry and wet regimes. Recent efforts to quantify the strength of L-A coupling in prediction models have produced diagnostics that integrate across both the land and PBL components of the system. In this study, we examine the impact of improved specification of land surface states, anomalies, and fluxes on coupled WRF forecasts during the summers of extreme dry (2006) and wet (2007) land surface conditions in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The improved land initialization and surface flux parameterizations are obtained through the use of a new optimization and uncertainty estimation module in NASA's Land Information System (US-OPT/UE), whereby parameter sets are calibrated in the Noah land surface model and classified according to a land cover and soil type mapping of the observation sites to the full model domain. The impact of calibrated parameters on the a) spinup of the land surface used as initial conditions, and b) heat and moisture states and fluxes of the coupled WRF Simulations are then assessed in terms of ambient weather and land-atmosphere coupling along with measures of uncertainty propagation into the forecasts. In addition, the sensitivity of this approach to the period of calibration (dry, wet, average) is investigated. Finally, tradeoffs of computational tractability and scientific validity, and the potential for combining this approach with satellite remote sensing data are also discussed.

  14. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Dolislager, Fredrick G

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also

  15. Speed of adaptation and genomic footprints of host-parasite coevolution under arms race and trench warfare dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Aurélien; Moreno-Gámez, Stefany; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Coevolution between hosts and their parasites is expected to follow a range of possible dynamics, the two extreme cases being called trench warfare (or Red Queen) and arms races. Long-term stable polymorphism at the host and parasite coevolving loci is characteristic of trench warfare, and is expected to promote molecular signatures of balancing selection, while the recurrent allele fixation in arms races should generate selective sweeps. We compare these two scenarios using a finite size haploid gene-for-gene model that includes both mutation and genetic drift. We first show that trench warfare do not necessarily display larger numbers of coevolutionary cycles per unit of time than arms races. We subsequently perform coalescent simulations under these dynamics to generate sequences at both host and parasite loci. Genomic footprints of recurrent selective sweeps are often found, whereas trench warfare yield signatures of balancing selection only in parasite sequences, and only in a limited parameter space. Our results suggest that deterministic models of coevolution with infinite population sizes do not predict reliably the observed genomic signatures, and it may be best to study parasite rather than host populations to find genomic signatures of coevolution, such as selective sweeps or balancing selection.

  16. Models, Analysis, and Recommendations Pertaining to the Retention of Naval Special Warfare s Mid-Level Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    The Analytic Hierarch/Network Process,” in Rev. R. Acad. Cien. Serie A. Mat (RACSAM), submitted by Francisco Javier Giron (Real Academia de Ciencias ...Academia de Ciencias : Spain. Scott, Nathan. Naval Special Warfare Officer Retention Survey. Monterey, CA: NPS Press, September 2013. Whittenberger

  17. How clean is clean enough? Recent developments in response to threats posed by chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; Carlsen, Tina; Folks, Karen; Kirvel, Robert; Daniels, Jeffrey; Bogen, Kenneth

    2004-02-01

    Recent terrorist events underscore the urgent need to develop a comprehensive set of health-protective cleanup standards and effective decontamination technologies for use in the restoration of civilian facilities. Accurate scientific information remains limited in the area of biological warfare agents. However, new guidelines and calculated cleanup values are emerging for initial re-entry and long-term reoccupation following use of chemical warfare agents. This article addresses airborne, soil, and surface exposures following release of G-type chemical warfare agents and VX. Cleanup goals should be tailored to the type of population that may be exposed, potential exposure times, and other scenario-specific considerations. Three different airborne concentrations are proposed for cleanup of public sector facilities. One value is recommended for initial re-entry; a more conservative value is recommended for long-term monitoring and increased public confidence; and a third, even more conservative concentration represents essentially a no-effect level for round-the-clock airborne exposure. Health-based cleanup levels are provided for contaminated residential and industrial soil. Results are presented on the outcome of a preliminary risk assessment to determine safe surface levels (e.g., walls, floors, and handrails) for cleanup after exposure to the G agents and VX. Because specific cleanup criteria for most biological warfare agents remain problematic, recommendations are made for filling the knowledge gaps.

  18. Why people believe they were exposed to biological or chemical warfare: a survey of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Noel T; Lillie, Sarah E; Hallman, William K

    2006-04-01

    The study sought to understand better how people come to believe they have been exposed to biological and chemical warfare. We conducted telephone interviews with 1,009 American veterans (65% response rate) deployed and not deployed to the Gulf War, a conflict during which there were credible threats that such warfare could be used. Only 6% of non-Gulf War veterans reported exposure to biological or chemical warfare, but most of Gulf War veterans reported exposure (64%). The majority of these were unsure whether the exposure was chemical or biological in nature. The most commonly reported exposure indicators were receiving an alert from the military and having physical symptoms. Veterans who were certain of the type of exposure (biological or chemical) were more likely to recall having been told by the military and to recall physical symptoms. Future communications with soldiers and the general public about biological and chemical warfare may need to emphasize the uncertain nature of such risk information. Evaluations of exposure diagnostic technologies should take into account the problem of people initially believing, but not later discounting, false positive results.

  19. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Iavarone, M; Moore, S A; Fedor, J; Ciocys, S T; Karapetrov, G; Pearson, J; Novosad, V; Bader, S D

    2014-08-28

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application.

  20. The Venus "Shell-over-Star" hieroglyph and Maya warfare: An examination of the interpretation of a Mayan symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Claudia Ann

    For decades, Maya scholars have associated the Mayan "Shell-Star" (also referred to as "Star-War") hieroglyph with Maya warfare. Put forward by scholars such as Floyd Lounsbury and David Kelley, and later advanced by Linda Schele, David Freidel, Ian Graham, Peter Matthews, Anthony Aveni and others, there are now dozens of published articles and chapters relating the hieroglyph to Venus and warfare. Venus is one of the most notable celestial objects outside of the Sun and Moon and was highly visible to the inhabitants of the Maya world. The Dresden Codex (an astronomical almanac) contains important information about the planet Venus, and the calendar section was deciphered by the librarian and mathematician, Ernst Förstemann in the late 1800s. In his decipherment, he deduced that the numbers contained in the tables must be connected to the orbital period of the planet. There is no other planet with the same orbital period 3 as Venus. Förstemann suggested that the decoded astronomy tables were used by the Maya to determine when to wage war. This interpretation, along with others, like Floyd Lounsbury`s study of Venus and the Long Count date at Bonampak were the seeds that have led to methodological errors that first began to take root in Maya research. The idea of the Venus association with warfare took hold and continues to propagate. Many scholars continue to assert that the "shell-star" glyph is related to warfare events. Others, like Gerardo Aldana, and Stanley Guenter, have recently come forward to reexamine and question the hieroglyph and its relationship, if any, to Maya warfare. I suggest, further, that methodological errors may have occurred along the way. I propose that these errors include data lost in translation, and inaccurate translations. In addition, the statistical analysis of Venus cycles has weak points. If this identification of the errors is correct, we need to re-evaluate the weakened foundation on which we are building our assertions about

  1. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  2. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  3. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  4. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  5. A Domain Analysis Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Bauhaus , a prototype CASE workstation for D-SAPS development. [ARAN88A] Guillermo F. Arango. Domain Engineering for Software Reuse. PhD thesis...34 VITA90B: Domain Analysis within the ISEC Rapid Center 48 CMU/SEI-90-SR-3 Appendix III Alphabetical by Organization/Project BAUHAUS * ALLE87A

  6. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  7. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  8. Causal Learning Across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Laura E.; Gopnik, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Five studies investigated (a) children's ability to use the dependent and independent probabilities of events to make causal inferences and (b) the interaction between such inferences and domain-specific knowledge. In Experiment 1, preschoolers used patterns of dependence and independence to make accurate causal inferences in the domains of…

  9. Sac phosphatase domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W E; Cooke, F T; Parker, P J

    2000-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in controlling cellular functions such as endocytosis, exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton have included new insights into the phosphatases that are responsible for the interconversion of these lipids. One of these is an entirely novel class of phosphatase domain found in a number of well characterized proteins. Proteins containing this Sac phosphatase domain include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Sac1p and Fig4p. The Sac phosphatase domain is also found within the mammalian phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase synaptojanin and the yeast synaptojanin homologues Inp51p, Inp52p and Inp53p. These proteins therefore contain both Sac phosphatase and 5-phosphatase domains. This review describes the Sac phosphatase domain-containing proteins and their actions, with particular reference to the genetic and biochemical insights provided by study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:10947947

  10. Cross Domain Analogies for Learning Domain Theories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Example Problem and Worked Solution All problems and worked solutions used in this work were taken from the same physics textbook ( Giancoli 1991...domain theory. We close with a discussion of related work and our plans for the future. Representations and Problem Solving Representing physics ...small compared to the 30,000+ concepts and 8,000+ predicates already defined in the KB. Thus, objects, relations, and events that appear in physics

  11. Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1/15Deg and 1/30/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and 3.7 km, respectively). The model grid covers the Baltic from 9.3 to 24.6E and from 53.0 to 60.2N. The Transport module of the model takes the predetermined velocity field and uses the random walk technique to predict the motion of individual particles, the sum of which constitutes a consid- ered chemical agent. Several different approaches for modeling are used for different kind of chemical agents. Basic processes affecting the chemicals to be modeled are hydrolysis, solubility, and microbiological destruction. All available toxicity data re- garding the chemical warfare agents of primary concern and the expected degradation products in the Baltic environment were gathered and summarized. This information was used to compare the toxicities of the different agents and their degradation prod- ucts and to decide which chemicals may represent a toxic threat to the environment. The model was adapted to be used for chemical agents with various characteristics and behavior (as Sarin, Lewsite, Musturd, etc.) in seawaters. Special algorithms are developed to describe nonlinear reactions producing toxic and nontoxic products in result of the warfare agent destruction. Sources of chemical pollution in the sea are considered as steady state (chronic) point and/or distributed releases because princi- pally different two methods were used in dumping CW: 1) concentrated dumping of containers, shells, and bombs together with ships; 2) dispersed dumping of individual containers, shells and aircraft bombs from moving vessels. The model was run with four most recurrent climatic wind fields for the Bornholm and Gotland

  12. The United States Navy’s Ability to Counter the Diesel and Nuclear Submarine Threat With Long-Range Antisubmarine Warfare Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2002 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE...95 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST...106 CERTIFICATION FOR MMAS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ......................... 107 vi ACRONYMS AAW Antiair Warfare ACES

  13. Binding of chemical warfare agent simulants as guests in a coordination cage: contributions to binding and a fluorescence-based response.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher G P; Piper, Jerico R; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-07

    Cubic coordination cages act as competent hosts for several alkyl phosphonates used as chemical warfare agent simulants; a range of cage/guest structures have been determined, contributions to guest binding analysed, and a fluorescent response to guest binding demonstrated.

  14. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  15. The effects of war on land-use/land-cover change: An analysis of Landsat imagery for northeast Bosnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witmer, Frank D. W.

    The use of satellite technology by military planners has a relatively long history as a tool of warfare, but little research has used satellite technology to study the effects of war. This research addresses this gap by applying satellite remote sensing imagery to study the effects of war on land-use/land-cover change in northeast Bosnia. The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995, resulted in over 100,000 deaths, many more wounded, and the mass displacement of nearly half the population of 4.2 million. When combined with the destruction of much of the transportation infrastructure and housing stock, widespread mine placement, and loss of agricultural machinery, the impacts to both the people and land were dramatic. Though the most severe war impacts are visible at local scales (e.g. destroyed buildings), this study focuses on impacts to agricultural land, a larger scale visible to satellite sensors. Multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data (30m pixels) from before and during the war in addition to recent imagery from 2004/05 were used to detect abandoned agricultural land. The satellite images were co-registered to enable a perpixel analysis of changes based on the statistical properties of the pixels using multiple change detection methods. Ground reference data were collected in May of 2006 at survey sites selected using a stratified random sampling approach based on the derived map of abandoned agricultural land. Fine resolution (60cm) Quickbird imagery was also used to verify the accuracy of the classification. The remote sensing analysis results were then used to test two hypotheses related to war outcomes: (a) land abandonment is due to wartime minefields and (b) land abandonment is greater in pre-war Croat areas and areas where ethnic cleansing was heaviest. The effects of minefields on land abandonment was first tested in a geographic information system (GIS), and then by using multiple regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation among observations

  16. Pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.

  17. Defending a New Domain: The Pentagon’s Cyberstrategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    mentali.tT will not work. The United States cannot retreat behind a Maginot Line offire- wttlls or it will risk being overrun. Cyber - warfare is like...provides a dear and accountable way to marshal cyber - warfare resources from across tl~e military. A single chain of command runs f’rom the U.S

  18. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  19. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  20. Five domains of environmental quality and birth outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human health is affected by simultaneous exposure to stressors and amenities, but research employs single exposure models. To address this, we constructed a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) with data representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built a...

  1. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  2. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  3. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  4. Radiation-Neutralization of Stored Biological Warfare Agents with Low-Yield Nuclear Warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, H.

    2000-08-21

    MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport computations were performed exploring the capability of low-yield nuclear fusion and fission warheads to neutralize biological warfare agents with the radiation dose deposited in the agent by the prompt neutron output. The calculations were done for various typical storage configurations on the ground in the open air or in a warehouse building. This application of nuclear weapons is motivated by the observation that, for some military scenarios, the nuclear collateral effects area is much smaller than the area covered with unacceptable concentrations of biological agent dispersed by the use of conventional high explosive warheads. These calculations show that biological agents can be radiation-neutralized by low-yield nuclear warheads over areas that are sufficiently large to be useful for military strikes. This report provides the calculated doses within the stored agent for various ground ranges and heights-of-burst.

  5. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S.

    1997-12-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

  6. [Toxicological effects of weapons of mass destruction and noxious agents in modern warfare and terrorism].

    PubMed

    Vucemilović, Ante

    2010-06-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) best portray the twisted use of technological achievements against the human species. Despite arm control efforts, WMD threat continues to exist and even proliferate. This in turn calls for improvement in defensive measures against this threat. The modern soldier is exposed to a number of chemical, biological, and radiological agents in military and peace operations, while civilians are mainly exposed to terrorist attacks. Regardless of origin or mode of action, WMDs and other noxious agents aim for the same - to make an organism dysfunctional. Because their effects are often delayed, these agents are hard to spot on time and treat. This review presents a biomedical aspect of agents used in warfare and terrorism, including polonium-210, depleted uranium, salmonella, anthrax, genetically modified bacteria, cobweb-like polymer fibre, sarin, and mustard gas.

  7. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-07-15

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  8. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  9. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX.

  10. The 'Hittite plague', an epidemic of tularemia and the first record of biological warfare.

    PubMed

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2007-01-01

    A long-lasting epidemic that plagued the Eastern Mediterranean in the 14th century BC was traced back to a focus in Canaan along the Arwad-Euphrates trading route. The symptoms, mode of infection, and geographical area, identified the agent as Francisella tularensis, which is also credited for outbreaks in Canaan around 1715 BC and 1075 BC. At first, the 14th century epidemic contaminated an area stretching from Cyprus to Iraq, and from Israel to Syria, sparing Egypt and Anatolia due to quarantine and political boundaries, respectively. Subsequently, wars spread the disease to central Anatolia, from where it was deliberately brought to Western Anatolia, in what constitutes the first known record of biological warfare. Finally, Aegean soldiers fighting in western Anatolia returned home to their islands, further spreading the epidemic.

  11. The two sides of warfare: an extended model of altruistic behavior in ancestral human intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-09-01

    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (a) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve for defenses than for attacks. (b) Risk aversion, deterrence, and the interplay of migration levels and brutality can change evolutionary dynamics substantially. (c) Unexpectedly, one occasional simulation outcome is a dynamically stable state of "tolerated intergroup theft," raising the question as to whether corresponding patterns also exist in real intergroup conflicts. Finally, possible implications for theories of the coevolution of bellicosity and altruism in humans are discussed.

  12. Symptoms of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to organophosphate chemical warfare agents at Khamisiyah, Iraq.

    PubMed

    McCauley, L A; Rischitelli, G; Lambert, W E; Lasarev, M; Sticker, D L; Spencer, P S

    2001-01-01

    During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to sarin/cyclosarin as the result of the destruction of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah. To evaluate the prevalence of past and current symptoms known to be associated with exposure to these chemical warfare agents, the authors conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2,918 U.S. Gulf War veterans. Veterans who had participated in or witnessed the demolition in 1991 were more likely to report historical or extant symptoms than were veterans from other military units. These results should be viewed cautiously because they are based on symptoms recalled nine years after the event without precise characterization of exposure. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that symptoms consistent with low-level sarin exposure may have initially occurred, and health effects may have persisted in the veterans who were nearest to the demolition activity. Further research is warranted.

  13. Solvolysis of chemical warfare agent VX is more efficient with hydroxylamine anion: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Abdul Shafeeuulla; Kesharwani, Manoj K; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2009-09-01

    The reaction of the chemical warfare agent VX with hydroxylamine anion (NH(2)O(-)) has been studied using a combination of correlated molecular orbital and density functional theory. It has been found that the hydroxylamine anion leads to predominant formation of non-toxic products for solvolysis of VX. The calculated activation barrier for the rate determining step of hydroxylamine anion with VX was found to be lower than that of hydroperoxidolysis and suggesting a more facile solvolysis with the former alpha-nucleophile. The conformational search was performed for VX using Monte Carlo search method with Merck Molecular force fields (MMFFs), which lead to a more stable conformation than reported. The anomeric effect operates in the lowest energy conformation of VX and contributes towards its stabilization. The reactivity of the alpha-nucleophiles towards VX was correlated well with the corresponding charges on nucleophilic oxygen atoms.

  14. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs.

  15. Biasing hydrogen bond donating host systems towards chemical warfare agent recognition.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Jennifer R; Wells, Neil J; Ede, Jayne A; Gale, Philip A; Sambrook, Mark R

    2016-10-12

    A series of neutral ditopic and negatively charged, monotopic host molecules have been evaluated for their ability to bind chloride and dihydrogen phosphate anions, and neutral organophosphorus species dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) and the chemical warfare agent (CWA) pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD, soman) in organic solvent via hydrogen bonding. Urea, thiourea and boronic acid groups are shown to bind anions and neutral guests through the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the urea and thiourea groups typically exhibiting higher affinity interactions. The introduction of a negative charge on the host structure is shown to decrease anion affinity, whilst still allowing for high stability host-GD complex formation. Importantly, the affinity of the host for the neutral CWA GD is greater than for anionic guests, thus demonstrating the potential for selectivity reversal based on charge repulsion.

  16. The art of antibacterial warfare: Deception through interference with quorum sensing-mediated communication.

    PubMed

    Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia; Williams, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Almost a century on from the discovery of penicillin, the war against bacterial infection still rages compounded by the emergence of strains resistant to virtually every clinically approved antibiotic and the dearth of new antibacterial agents entering the clinic. Consequently there is renewed interest in drugs which attenuate virulence rather than bacterial growth. Since the metaphors of warfare are often used to describe the battle between pathogen and host, we will describe in such a context, the molecular communication (quorum sensing) mechanisms used by bacteria to co-ordinate virulence at the population level. Recent progress in exploiting this information through the design of anti-virulence deception strategies that disrupt quorum sensing through signal molecule inactivation, inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis or the blockade of signal transduction and their advantages and disadvantages are considered.

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman as a water monitor for warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Janni, James A.

    2002-02-01

    The threat of chemical warfare agents being released upon civilian and military personnel continues to escalate. One aspect of chemical preparedness is to analyze and protect the portable water supply for the military. Chemical nerve, blister, and choking agents, as well as biological threats must all be analyzed and low limits of detection must be verified. For chemical agents, this generally means detection down to the low ppb levels. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique that can detect trace levels of contaminants directly in the aqueous environment. In this paper, results are presented on the use of SERS to detect chemical and biological agent simulants with an end goal of creating a Joint Service Agent Water Monitor. Detection of cyanide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, phosphonates, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using SERS has been performed and is discussed herein. Aspects of transferring laboratory results to an unattended field instrument are also discussed.

  18. Impedance based detection of chemical warfare agent mimics using ferrocene-lysine modified carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Diakowski, Piotr M; Xiao, Yizhi; Petryk, Michael W P; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2010-04-15

    A recognition layer formed by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) covalently modified with a ferrocene-lysine conjugate deposited on the indium tin oxide (ITO) was investigated as a sensor for chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that upon addition of CWA mimic dramatic changes occurred in the electrical properties of the recognition layer. These changes allowed the detection of nerve agent analogues at the micromolar level, and a limited sensitivity was observed toward a sulfur mustard mimic. Experimental parameters were optimized so as to allow the detection of CWAs at single frequency, thereby significantly reducing acquisition time and simplifying data treatment. A proposed method of detection represents a significant step toward the design of an affordable and "fieldable" electrochemical CWA sensor.

  19. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in groundwater polluted by warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Daus, Birgit; Hempel, Michael; Wennrich, Rainer; Weiss, Holger

    2010-11-01

    Groundwater polluted with phenylarsenicals from former warfare agent deposits and their metabolites was investigated with respect to the behavior of relevant arsenic species. Depth profiles at the estimated source and at about 1km downgradient from the source zone were sampled. The source zone is characterized by high total arsenic concentrations up to 16mgL(-1) and is dominated by organic arsenic compounds. The concentrations in the downgradient region are much lower (up to 400μgL(-1)) and show a high proportion of inorganic arsenic species. Iron precipitation seems to be an effective mechanism to prevent dispersion of inorganic arsenic as well as phenylarsonic acid. Reductive conditions were observed in the deeper zone with predominant occurrence of trivalent arsenic species. The inorganic species are in redox equilibrium, whereas the phenylarsenic compounds have variable proportions. Methylphenylarsinic acid was identified in groundwater in traces which indicates microbial degradation activity.

  20. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration.