Science.gov

Sample records for land warfare domain

  1. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  2. Engaging Two Domain Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the foundation from which the Army can leverage its ability to operate in Land and Cyberspace. However, since we have transitioned to LandCyber...other electronic devices demand consideration in the virtual sense as well as the physical. The two dimensional ideol - ogy (LandCyber) must

  3. Philippine Counterinsurgency Success: Implications for the Human Domain of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    most complex of the domains. As dissimilar as mountainous jungles are to the arctic tundra , humans have adapted to thrive in these, and other... humans directly impacted by military interaction, non-combatants, and one of the primary reasons why there is now a human domain. 10 Why is Today...Philippine Counterinsurgency Success: Implications for the Human Domain of Warfare by Colonel Fran Beaudette United

  4. U.S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory. Volume 1. Project Report, Appendix A. Documentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Cooking Odors 02-CA-70 Determination of Effluvia from Flowering Cannabis 03-CA-70 Population Control Disseminator S04-CA-70 Ecological Control Technique... CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE US Army Land Warfare Laboratory June 1974 Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 14...MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(it different from Controlling Office) 1S, SECURITY CLASS. (.,I, this Unclassified 15.. D•CLASSIFICATION DOWNGRADIN6

  5. Toxic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    77; Gert G. Harigel, Chemical and Biological Weapons: Use in Warfare, Impact on Society and Environment, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace...production is discussed in Gert G. Harigel, The Concept of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Chemical and Biological Weapons, Use in Warfare, Impact on Society and...poisoning was much smaller than that caused by land mines in the region, the use of poison was nonetheless an effective ter- ror weapon. 6See Jason Pate, Gary

  6. 43 CFR 3101.2-1 - Public domain lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public domain lands. 3101.2-1 Section 3101.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3101.2-1 Public domain lands. (a) No person or entity shall take, hold, own or control more than...

  7. 43 CFR 3101.2-1 - Public domain lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public domain lands. 3101.2-1 Section 3101.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3101.2-1 Public domain lands. (a) No person or entity shall take, hold, own or control more than 246...

  8. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Anatomic location of injury, cause of injury, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. The frequency of injuries was 0.025 per Operator per month. Most injuries involved the upper extremity (38.1% of injuries). Frequent anatomic sublocations for injuries were the shoulder (23.8%) and lumbopelvic region of the spine (12.7%). Lifting was the cause of 7.9% of injuries. Subjects were participating in training when 38.1% of injuries occurred and recreational activity/sports when 12.7% of injuries occurred. Frequent injury types were strain (20.6%), pain/spasm/ache (19.0%), fracture (11.1%), and sprain (11.1%). The results of this analysis underscore the need to investigate the risk factors, especially of upper extremity and physical activity related injuries, in this population of Operators. There is a scope for development of a focused, customized injury prevention program, targeting the unique injury profile of this population.

  9. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Return of public domain land. 644.534 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.534 Return of public domain land. (a) General. The procedures... Department of the Army to assist and advise the land holder and protect the public from dangerous substances...

  10. Electronic Warfare for Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    This research paper provides complete course content for the AFIT EENG 509, Electronic Warfare class. It is intended as a replacement for the existing course and designed for Intermediate Developmental Education (IDE) students in the Cyber Warfare degree program. This course provides relevant academic courseware and study material to give cyber warriors an academic and operational perspective on electronic warfare and its integration in the cyber domain.

  11. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    The advent of cyber warfare has sparked a debate amongst theorists as to whether timeless Clausewitzian principles remain true in the 21st century...Violence, uncertainty, and rationality still accurately depict the nature of cyber warfare , however, its many defining attributes and means by which...this style of warfare is conducted has definitively changed the character of war. Although cyber warfare is contested in the cyber domain, it often

  12. Learning How to Fight Together: The British Experience with Joint Air-Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    operational responsibility for all of North Africa and the Mediter - ranean. Only the RAF had the experience and the expertise to create and run such a...mandy. “Applied history,” studied in the outdoor classroom , enabled senior army and air force commanders to explore con- temporary air-land

  13. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C (Guidance, Navigation and Control) functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking.

  14. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Return of public domain land. 644.534 Section 644.534 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed...

  15. 43 CFR 2372.3 - Return of lands to the public domain; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Return of lands to the public domain; conditions. 2372.3 Section 2372.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RESTORATIONS AND...

  16. Land use and surface process domains on alpine hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are generally considered to protect hillslopes from erosion. As a consequence, shrub encroachment on mountain pastures after abandoning grazing is not considered a threat to soils. However, the abandonment of mown or grazed grasslands causes a shift in vegetation composition and thus a change in landscape ecology and geomorphology. On many alpine slopes, current changes in land use and vegetation cover are accompanied by climate change, potentially generating a new geomorphic regime. Most of the debate focuses on the effect of land abandonment on water erosion rates. Generally, an established perennial vegetation cover improves the mechanical anchoring of the soil and the regulation of the soil water budget, including runoff generation and erosion. However, changing vegetation composition affects many other above- and below-ground properties like root density, -diversity and -geometry, soil structure, pore volume and acidity. Each combination of these properties can lead to a distinct scenario of dominating surface processes, often not reflected by common erosion risk assessment procedures. The study of soil properties along a chronosequence of green alder (alnusviridis) encroachment on the Unteralptal in central Switzerland reveals that shrub encroachment changes soil and vegetation properties towards an increase of resistance to run-off related erosion processes, but a decrease of slope stability against shallow landslides. The latter are a particular threat because of the currently increasing frequency of slide-triggering high magnitude rainfalls. The potential change of process domain on alpine pastures highlights the need for a careful use of erosion models when assessing future land use and climate scenarios. In mountains, but also other intensively managed agricultural landscapes, risk assessment without the appropriate reflection on the shifting relevance of surface processes carries the risk of missing future threats to environmental

  17. Millennial Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...to technical experts in social media and cyber warfare. Millennials are the first “Global Generation”, the internet and social media have removed...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area code) (U) (U) (U) (U) 84 Standard Form 298 (Rev

  18. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  19. Possibilities of Land Administration Domain Model (ladm) Implementation in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babalola, S. O.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Choon, L. T.; Van Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2015-10-01

    LADM covers essential information associated components of land administration and management including those over water and elements above and below the surface of the earth. LADM standard provides an abstract conceptual model with three packages and one sub-package. LADM defined terminology for a land administration system that allows a shared explanation of different formal customary or informal tenures. The standard provides the basis for national and regional profiles and enables the combination of land management information from different sources in a coherent manner. Given this, this paper started with the description of land and land administration in Nigeria. The pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial era with organization structure was discussed. This discussion is important to present an understanding of the background of any improvement needed for the LADM implementation in Nigeria. The LADM, ISO 19152 and the packages of LADM was discussed, and the comparison of the different aspects of each package and classes were made with Nigerian land administration and the cadastral system. In the comparison made, it was discovered that the concept is similar to LADM packages in Nigerian land administration. Although, the terminology may not be the same in all cases. Having studied conceptualization and the application of LADM, as a model that has essential information associated with components of the land administration. Including those on the land, over water as well as elements above and below the surface of the earth and discovered that the standard is suitable for the country. The model can, therefore, be adopted into Nigerian land administration system by mapping in some of the concepts of LADM.

  20. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Nodes and Codes explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet, a string of weaponized code that reached through a domain...nodes. Stuxnet served as a proof-of-concept for cyber weapons and provided a comparative laboratory to study the reality of cyber warfare from the...military powers most often associated with advanced, offensive cyber attack capabilities. The reality of cyber warfare holds significant operational

  1. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reservation effected by the Act, the Department of the Army shall make safe for nonmilitary uses the land... neutralizing unexploded ammunition, bombs, artillery projectiles, or other explosive objects and chemical... values are such as to make dedudding or decontamination advisable, the Secretary of the Interior...

  2. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reservation effected by the Act, the Department of the Army shall make safe for nonmilitary uses the land... neutralizing unexploded ammunition, bombs, artillery projectiles, or other explosive objects and chemical... values are such as to make dedudding or decontamination advisable, the Secretary of the Interior...

  3. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reservation effected by the Act, the Department of the Army shall make safe for nonmilitary uses the land... neutralizing unexploded ammunition, bombs, artillery projectiles, or other explosive objects and chemical... values are such as to make dedudding or decontamination advisable, the Secretary of the Interior...

  4. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  5. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  6. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the...alternative form of conflict, reviews the traditional principles of warfare and why they may or may not apply to cyber warfare , and proposes new principles of...warfare that may be needed to conduct cyber warfare . Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2

  7. Domain adaptation for land use classification: A spatio-temporal knowledge reusing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yilun; Li, Xia

    2014-12-01

    Land use classification requires a significant amount of labeled data, which may be difficult and time consuming to obtain. On the other hand, without a sufficient number of training samples, conventional classifiers are unable to produce satisfactory classification results. This paper aims to overcome this issue by proposing a new model, TrCbrBoost, which uses old domain data to successfully train a classifier for mapping the land use types of target domain when new labeled data are unavailable. TrCbrBoost adopts a fuzzy CBR (Case Based Reasoning) model to estimate the land use probabilities for the target (new) domain, which are subsequently used to estimate the classifier performance. Source (old) domain samples are used to train the classifiers of a revised TrAdaBoost algorithm in which the weight of each sample is adjusted according to the classifier's performance. This method is tested using time-series SPOT images for land use classification. Our experimental results indicate that TrCbrBoost is more effective than traditional classification models, provided that sufficient amount of old domain data is available. Under these conditions, the proposed method is 9.19% more accurate.

  8. Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    January–February 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 44 FeatureCyber Focus Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought Maj Sean C. Butler, USAF In September 2007...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought 5a...2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 45 Butler Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought FeatureCyber Focus characterized by the use of electronics and the

  9. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  10. Maneuver Warfare in Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    government departments and agencies; (2) National security and military strategies must outline a response to the threats and opportunities of cyber ... warfare ; and (3) the Department of Defense’s offensive and defensive responsibilities, parameters, and capabilities for strategic information warfare need

  11. The geography of warfare

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, P.; Miller, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Focusing on the geographical considerations of preparing for and waging war, the authors examine tactics and terrain in conventional warfare under a variety of environmental conditions. The kinds of strategies, informational needs and logistical factors involved in a war as opposed to a battle are outlined with particular attention given to sea, air and nuclear, as well as guerilla and urban, warfare.

  12. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    intergovernmental organizations impose both immediate and long term penalties for an enemy. Finally, tools such as cyber attacks and GPS spoofing ...Exclusion Zones to interfere with shipping networks, and GPS jamming or spoofing of merchant vessels are discussed and analyzed for potential...SUBJECT TERMS Maritime Trade Warfare, Commerce Warfare, China, Cyber, GPS , Jamming, Spoofing , Maritime Interdiction, Exclusion Zone. 16. SECURITY

  13. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  14. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  15. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. PMID:16318712

  16. Cyber Warfare: An Evolution in Warfare not Just War Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    cyber warfare is greatly debated. While some argue that Just War Theory is irrelevant to cyber warfare , a careful analysis demonstrates that it is a...useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare . This paper examines the application of Just War Theory to cyber warfare and contends that...Just War Theory is a useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare .

  17. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  18. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  19. Future Of Privatized Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    explanations for the recent growth of private military companies (PMCs). This study fills this void by defining the logic of privatized warfare, those... Companies , PMCs, State-Society Relationship, Evolution of the Nation- State and Warfare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...future in the United States. Current literature is nearly devoid of theoretical explanations for the recent growth of private military companies

  20. Understanding Information Age Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    control systems will often be used in sustained crisis action or warfare arenas. Hence, human lives will be at stake and the operators under considerable...JHU/APL Gary Wheatley EBR Larry Wiener OPNAV/N6C Doug Williams Litton TASC xiii Preface Understanding the Emerging Theory of Warfare The age we live ...are not alone. Organizations in every competitive space and individuals in every area of human endeavor are grappling with the relentless demands of our

  1. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  3. Polsar Land Cover Classification Based on Hidden Polarimetric Features in Rotation Domain and Svm Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.-S.; Chen, S.-W.; Li, Y.-Z.; Xiao, S.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Land cover classification is an important application for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data utilization. Rollinvariant polarimetric features such as H / Ani / α / Span are commonly adopted in PolSAR land cover classification. However, target orientation diversity effect makes PolSAR images understanding and interpretation difficult. Only using the roll-invariant polarimetric features may introduce ambiguity in the interpretation of targets' scattering mechanisms and limit the followed classification accuracy. To address this problem, this work firstly focuses on hidden polarimetric feature mining in the rotation domain along the radar line of sight using the recently reported uniform polarimetric matrix rotation theory and the visualization and characterization tool of polarimetric coherence pattern. The former rotates the acquired polarimetric matrix along the radar line of sight and fully describes the rotation characteristics of each entry of the matrix. Sets of new polarimetric features are derived to describe the hidden scattering information of the target in the rotation domain. The latter extends the traditional polarimetric coherence at a given rotation angle to the rotation domain for complete interpretation. A visualization and characterization tool is established to derive new polarimetric features for hidden information exploration. Then, a classification scheme is developed combing both the selected new hidden polarimetric features in rotation domain and the commonly used roll-invariant polarimetric features with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Comparison experiments based on AIRSAR and multi-temporal UAVSAR data demonstrate that compared with the conventional classification scheme which only uses the roll-invariant polarimetric features, the proposed classification scheme achieves both higher classification accuracy and better robustness

  4. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  5. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  6. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-07-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or reserved...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  11. The catalytic domain CysPc of the DEK1 calpain is functionally conserved in land plants.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhe; Demko, Viktor; Wilson, Robert C; Johnson, Kenneth A; Ahmad, Rafi; Perroud, Pierre-François; Quatrano, Ralph; Zhao, Sen; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Otegui, Marisa S; Olsen, Odd-Arne; Johansen, Wenche

    2013-09-01

    DEK1, the single calpain of land plants, is a member of the ancient membrane bound TML-CysPc-C2L calpain family that dates back 1.5 billion years. Here we show that the CysPc-C2L domains of land plant calpains form a separate sub-clade in the DEK1 clade of the phylogenetic tree of plants. The charophycean alga Mesostigma viride DEK1-like gene is clearly divergent from those in land plants, suggesting that a major evolutionary shift in DEK1 occurred during the transition to land plants. Based on genetic complementation of the Arabidopsis thaliana dek1-3 mutant using CysPc-C2L domains of various origins, we show that these two domains have been functionally conserved within land plants for at least 450 million years. This conclusion is based on the observation that the CysPc-C2L domains of DEK1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens complements the A. thaliana dek1-3 mutant phenotype. In contrast, neither the CysPc-C2L domains from M. viride nor chimeric animal-plant calpains complement this mutant. Co-evolution analysis identified differences in the interactions between the CysPc-C2L residues of DEK1 and classical calpains, supporting the view that the two enzymes are regulated by fundamentally different mechanisms. Using the A. thaliana dek1-3 complementation assay, we show that four conserved amino acid residues of two Ca²⁺-binding sites in the CysPc domain of classical calpains are conserved in land plants and functionally essential in A. thaliana DEK1.

  12. Dehumanization and Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of the threats depend on both the 109 John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, “The Bases of Social...1997). French, John and Raven, Bertram . “The Bases of Social Power.” Studies in Social Power, 1959. Galula, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare Theory

  13. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  14. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  15. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depth strategy. We must recognize that we are engaged in a form of warfare, cyber warfare , and... warfare . This causes security devices to be used ineffectively and responses to be untimely. Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the... cyber warfare strategy and tactics requires a cyber warfare command and control system. Responses to cyber attacks do not require offensive measures

  16. The Physics of Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics isn't always abstract. It is true that the examples and applications in this warfare class practically wrote themselves, but I wanted more for my students. I wanted them to embrace the iterative nature of scientific understanding. I wanted them to yearn for the breakthroughs that lead to paradigm shifts. I wanted them to demand experimental verification of each novel idea. This paper discusses the formation and implementation of a conceptual physics course, full of in-class demonstrations and solidly rooted in the context of humankind's ever-evolving methods of waging war.

  17. Electronic Warfare in Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-25

    through gamma radiation (at the short-wavelength end). It covers wavelengths from thousands of kilometers to a fraction of the size of an atom...INFORMATION FUSION EXCHANGE F-13. The Knowledge and Information Fusion Exchange (sometimes called KnIFE ) is a program sponsored by U.S. Joint Forces...Warfare Analysis Center, 7-9 K–L–M Knowledge and Information Fusion Exchange ( KnIFE ), F-13 lasers, directed energy and, A-7 leadership (element

  18. Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Software is a key component in nearly every critical system used by the Department of Defense. Attacking the software in a system- cyber warfare - is a...revolutionary method of pursuing war. This article describes various cyber warfare approaches and suggests methods to counter them.

  19. Special Operations And Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    special operations, core activities, Special Warfare, Surgical Strike, future warfare, technology, low intensity conflict, Internet , networks, non...Identity, Trust, Security and the Internet , 18 Carlo Munoz, “Do Special Operations Forces Need...Edward Lucas, Cyberphobia: Identity, Trust, Security and the Internet (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015), Chapter 8. 12 observes that there is a

  20. Chemical Warfare: Many Unanswered Questions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-29

    these questions was a major effort. REVIEWING THE CHEMICAL WARFARE DEBATE Chemical warfare uses weapons that disperse incendiary mixtures, smoke , or...structured, frequently computer-based, gaming techniques. Documentary Presents expository "eye witness" material, often secondhand . Test and Collects

  1. The Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    frontmatter.indd 6 7/29/08 12:15:43 PM Introduction The term nonkinetic warfare may seem to be an oxy- moron . How can warfare be described as...the hallmark of the previous two genera- tions of warfare. The authors attribute the evolution of warfare largely to the advancement in technology and

  2. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  3. Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-27

    Vision 2020 2.2.2 Joint Vision 2020 and Network Centric Warfare 2.2.3 Information Superiority and Decision Superiority 2.2.4 Dominant Maneuver...Chiefs of Staff, shall designate the Commander in Chief (CINC) of the United States Joint Forces Command to carry out the study and prepare the report...Implementing NCW (the key role of the GIG, DoD’s strategy, policies and procedures DoD initiatives and programs designed to make NCW a reality, an assessment

  4. Countermine Warfare Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    require revision to meet the tempo of modern warfare. FM 20-32 and FM 71-1 advocate the use of time-consumfng, antiquated mine locating | methods . They... method I -9- F1 of clearing a path through a minefield was the use of soldiers with bayonets or other probes to locate and remove mines. Although mining... methods of employment. They discontinued emplacing mines in patterns, increased the use of anti-personnel I -37- mines in anti-tank minefields, and

  5. Investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey of soil and moisture conservation on public domain lands, 1941-1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, H.V.; Melin, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The passage of the Taylor Grazing Act in 1934 marked the end of an era in the land policies in the United States in that disposal of the public lands by homesteading was terminated except under rigidly prescribed procedures, and the remaining public lands covering about 175 million acres in the western conterminous states were brought under regulatory authority for grazing use. In 1934 the lands were mostly in a severe state of deterioration as a result of overgrazing and drought. In addition to reducing numbers of livestock using the lands, successive programs of conservation practices were established of which the Soil and Moisture Conservation Program of the Department of the Interior is of particular interest here. The services of the Geological Survey, in an investigational and advisory capacity were enlisted in this program. The work of the Geological Survey has consisted of the collection of hydrologic data, investigations of range-water supplies to facilitate management and provide information for design of structures and land-treatment measures. Appraisal of the effects of treatment practices has also been an important activity. Conservation on the public domain involves mainly growing vegetation for forage and reducing erosion. The two elements are intimately related--accomplishment in one is usually reflected by an improvement in the other. Erosion is a serious problem on most of the public domain, but particularly in the Colorado River and Rio Grande basins where, despite low annual water yields, the public domain and similar lands on the Indian reservations contribute the major part of the sediment measured at the downstream gaging stations. In parts of the Missouri River basin also, erosion is obviously very active but the sediment yield contributed by the public domain cannot be as readily isolated. The reasons for the erosion are generally evident--the erodibility of the rock and soils and the sparsity of vegetation as a result of low precipitation

  6. The evolution of human warfare.

    PubMed

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution.

  7. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages. PMID:23899506

  8. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages.

  9. Additive Interaction between Heterogeneous Environmental Quality Domains (Air, Water, Land, Sociodemographic, and Built Environment) on Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Grabich, Shannon C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Jagai, Jyotsna S; Jian, Yun; Messer, Lynne C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000 to 2005. The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built, and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n = 3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for (a) each individual domain main effect, (b) the interaction contrast, and (c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e., the "net effect") to show departure from additivity for the all U.S. counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interactions, between the sociodemographic/air domains [net effect (i.e., the association, including main effects and interaction effects) PD: -0.004 (95% CI: -0.007, 0.000), interaction contrast: -0.013 (95% CI: -0.020, -0.007)] and built/air domains [net effect PD: 0.008 (95% CI 0.004, 0.011), interaction contrast: -0.008 (95% CI: -0.015, -0.002)]. Most interactions were between the air domain and other respective domains. Interactions differed by urbanicity, with more interactions observed in non-metropolitan regions. Observed

  10. Air Power and Maneuver Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    way to integrate air power on the one hand with maneuver warfare on the other. While American commanders such as Robert E. Lee and George S. Patton...MANEUVER WARFARE years .’ Nevertheless, it should not be forgotten that few commanders of any time or place have fought as many great battles- batailles ...the process to a boxer who uses one arm to parry his opponent’s punches and draw his attention while striking with the other. Gen George S. Patton

  11. Adapting Unconventional Warfare Doctrine to Cyberspace Operations: An Examination of Hacktivist Based Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    governments working with hacktivists. They also present ideas relevant to modern unconventional warfare in the cyber domain. The actions and reactions of...impact of modern technologies on insurgencies and the informed reader should also consider those discussions relevant to the dynamics of unconventional...effects of cyberspace operations. Unconventional warfare through cyberspace provides the way to bridge the gap linking modern concepts of war in the

  12. Land Mine Warfare - Applying the Principles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Conflicto Malvinas Tom: I I. (Buen,s Aries, 7 July 1983): seccion IV and Anexo 70. 12. Department of Defense, ICS Publication I Dictionary of Military an...Trends No. 3. Washington. 26 August. 1943. 4: MANUSCRIPTS . I. Ejercitc Argentine. Conflicto Malvinas, Tomo I, II. F.uenos Ari4es 7 July 1933. 2

  13. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  14. 32 CFR 644.376 - Procedure for disposal of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transmitted to HQDA (DAEN-REM) Washington, DC 20314 and to the appropriate GSA regional office. (b) If any restoration, or other work, is proposed to be performed on the land, the matter will be forwarded to DAEN-REM...

  15. 32 CFR 644.376 - Procedure for disposal of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transmitted to HQDA (DAEN-REM) Washington, DC 20314 and to the appropriate GSA regional office. (b) If any restoration, or other work, is proposed to be performed on the land, the matter will be forwarded to DAEN-REM...

  16. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL...

  18. Reverse engineering the national land cover database: A machine learning algorithm for replicating land cover data in the spatial and temporal domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclaurin, Galen J.

    Land cover datasets are generally produced from satellite imagery using state-of-the-art model-based classification methods while integrating large amounts of ancillary data to help improve accuracy levels. The knowledge base encapsulated in this process is a resource that could be used to produce new data of similar quality, more efficiently. Specifically, the question addressed in this dissertation is whether this richness of information could potentially be extracted from the underlying remote sensing imagery to then classify an image for a different geographic extent or a different point in time. This research developed a machine learning framework to replicate the U.S. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) from Landsat 5 TM imagery in the spatial and temporal domains. Information characterizing individual land cover classes was extracted using a maximum entropy classifier on a Landsat image to create a generalizable model for land cover data replication. This framework was then demonstrated for spatial extrapolation and temporal extension of the NLCD by applying the model to Landsat imagery for a different geographic extent and for a different point in time. The experimental setup of this dissertation used three study areas in the U.S. featuring different landscape compositions to test the stability and generalizability of this framework. Results for the spatial and temporal replication of the NLCD showed that the objective of reproducing similar levels of overall and within class accuracies could be met and demonstrated that the knowledge base encapsulated in the NLCD can effectively be extracted for replication. The algorithm proved to be generalizable to the range of landscapes represented by the three study sites and showed stability in both spatial and temporal replication. This dissertation demonstrates how such a framework could potentially extend the NLCD into Canada or Mexico, for example, and how it could be implemented to produce annual land cover

  19. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    with special warfare, (3) to explore how special warfare campaigns could be used to address challenges identified in strategic guidance , and (4) to...provide guidance to military and civilian leaders and planners in designing and executing these campaigns.

  20. A unique RPW8-encoding class of genes that originated in early land plants and evolved through domain fission, fusion, and duplication

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2016-01-01

    Duplication, lateral gene transfer, domain fusion/fission and de novo domain creation play a key role in formation of initial common ancestral protein. Abundant protein diversities are produced by domain rearrangements, including fusions, fissions, duplications, and terminal domain losses. In this report, we explored the origin of the RPW8 domain and examined the domain rearrangements that have driven the evolution of RPW8-encoding genes in land plants. The RPW8 domain first emerged in the early land plant, Physcomitrella patens, and it likely originated de novo from a non-coding sequence or domain divergence after duplication. It was then incorporated into the NBS-LRR protein to create a main sub-class of RPW8-encoding genes, the RPW8-NBS-encoding genes. They evolved by a series of genetic events of domain fissions, fusions, and duplications. Many species-specific duplication events and tandemly duplicated clusters clearly demonstrated that species-specific and tandem duplications played important roles in expansion of RPW8-encoding genes, especially in gymnosperms and species of the Rosaceae. RPW8 domains with greater Ka/Ks values than those of the NBS domains indicated that they evolved faster than the NBS domains in RPW8-NBSs. PMID:27678195

  1. Cyber warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Security concerns over the growing capability of Cyber Warfare are in the forefront of national policy and security discussions. In order to enable a...realistic discussion of the topic this thesis seeks to analyze demonstrated Cyber Warfare capability and its ability to achieve strategic political...objectives. This study examines Cyber Warfare conducted against Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Israel in 2008. In all three cases Cyber Warfare did

  2. Application of frequency domain handling qualities criteria to the longitudinal landing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafian, S. K.; Powers, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Under NASA sponsorship, an in-flight simulation of the longitudinal handling qualities of several configurations for the approach and landing tasks was performed on the USAF/AFWAL Total In-Flight Simulator by the Calspan Corporation. The basic configuration was a generic transport airplane with static instability. The control laws included proportional plus integral gain loops to produce pitch-rate and angle-of-attack feedback loops. The evaluation task was a conventional visual approach to a flared touchdown at a designated spot on the runway with a lateral offset. The general conclusions were that the existing criteria are based on pitch-attitude response and that these characteristics do not adequately discriminate between the good and bad configurations of this study. This paper describes the work that has been done to further develop frequency-based criteria in an effort to provide better correlation with the observed data.

  3. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  4. Biological warfare. A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Christopher, G W; Cieslak, T J; Pavlin, J A; Eitzen, E M

    1997-08-06

    The deliberate use of microorganisms and toxins as weapons has been attempted throughout history. Biological warfare has evolved from the crude use of cadavers to contaminate water supplies to the development of specialized munitions for battlefield and covert use. The modern development of biological agents as weapons has paralleled advances in basic and applied microbiology. These include the identification of virulent pathogens suitable for aerosol delivery and industrial-scale fermentation processes to produce large quantities of pathogens and toxins. The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors. These include difficulties in verification of alleged or attempted biological attacks, the use of allegations of biological attacks for propaganda purposes, the paucity of pertinent microbiological or epidemiologic data, and the incidence of naturally occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Biological warfare has been renounced by 140 nations, primarily for strategic and other pragmatic reasons. International diplomatic efforts, including the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, have not been entirely effective in preventing the enhancement and proliferation of offensive biological warfare programs. The threats posed by biological weapons are likely to continue into the future.

  5. Coupled Soil Water and Heat Transport Near the Land Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions - Multi-Domain Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Binayak; Yang, Zhenlei

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and simulating coupled water and heat transfer appropriately in the shallow subsurface is of vital significance for accurate prediction of soil evaporation that would improve the coupling between land surface and atmosphere, which consequently could enhance the reliability of weather as well as climate forecast. The theory of Philip and de Vries (1957), accounting for water vapor diffusion only, was considered physically incomplete and consequently extended and improved by several researchers by explicitly taking water vapor convection, dispersion or air flow into account. It is generally believed that the soil moisture is usually low in the near surface layer under highly transient field conditions, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, and that accurate characterization of water vapor transport is critical when modeling simultaneous water and heat transport in the shallow field soils. The first objective of this study is thus mainly to test existing coupled water and heat transport theories and to develop reasonable and simplified numerical models using field experimental data collected under semi-arid and arid hydro-climatic conditions. In addition, more complex multi-domain models are developed for ubiquitous heterogeneous terrestrial surfaces such as horizontal textural contrasts or structured heterogeneity including macropores (fractures, cracks, root channels, etc.). This would make coupled water and heat transfer models applicable in such non-homogeneous soils more meaningful and enhance the skill of land-atmosphere interaction models at a larger context.

  6. Geospatial Database for Strata Objects Based on Land Administration Domain Model (ladm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasorudin, N. N.; Hassan, M. I.; Zulkifli, N. A.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Recently in our country, the construction of buildings become more complex and it seems that strata objects database becomes more important in registering the real world as people now own and use multilevel of spaces. Furthermore, strata title was increasingly important and need to be well-managed. LADM is a standard model for land administration and it allows integrated 2D and 3D representation of spatial units. LADM also known as ISO 19152. The aim of this paper is to develop a strata objects database using LADM. This paper discusses the current 2D geospatial database and needs for 3D geospatial database in future. This paper also attempts to develop a strata objects database using a standard data model (LADM) and to analyze the developed strata objects database using LADM data model. The current cadastre system in Malaysia includes the strata title is discussed in this paper. The problems in the 2D geospatial database were listed and the needs for 3D geospatial database in future also is discussed. The processes to design a strata objects database are conceptual, logical and physical database design. The strata objects database will allow us to find the information on both non-spatial and spatial strata title information thus shows the location of the strata unit. This development of strata objects database may help to handle the strata title and information.

  7. Sucrose phosphate phosphatase in the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) lacks an extensive C-terminal domain and differs from that of land plants.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Manabu; Uemura, Matsuo

    2012-04-01

    Previously, it was reported that like land plants, the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) accumulates sucrose during cold acclimation (Nagao et al. Plant Cell Environ 31:872-885, 2008), suggesting that synthesis of sucrose could enhance the freezing tolerance of this alga. Because sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP; EC 3.1.3.24) is a key enzyme in the sucrose synthesis pathway in plants, we analyzed the SPP gene in K. flaccidum (KfSPP, GenBank accession number AB669024) to clarify its role in sucrose accumulation. As determined from its deduced amino acid sequence, KfSPP contains the N-terminal domain that is characteristic of the L-2-haloacid-dehalogenase family of phosphatases/hydrolases (the HAD phosphatase domain). However, it lacks the extensive C-terminal domain found in SPPs of land plants. Database searches revealed that the SPPs in cyanobacteria also lack the C-terminal domain. In addition, the green alga Coccomyxa (Chlorophyta) and K. flaccidum, which are closely related to land plants, have cyanobacterial-type SPPs, while Chlorella (Chlorophyta) has a land plant-type SPP. These results demonstrate that even K. flaccidum (Streptophyta), as a recent ancestor of land plants, has the cyanobacterial-type SPP lacking the C-terminal domain. Because SPP and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyze sequential reactions in sucrose synthesis in green plant cells and the lack of the C-terminal domain in KfSPP is predicted to decrease its activity, the interaction between decreased KfSPP activity and SPS activity may alter sucrose synthesis during cold acclimation in K. flaccidum.

  8. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    which is focused on extracting more from a situation than the starting conditions would suggest is achievable. Lastly, strategy is a study of the...acknowledge Russia’s penchant for studying history, analyzing forms and methods of warfare in order to develop thoughtful strategies and operational...and Company, 1926; reprint, Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 1993. Freedman, Lawrence. Strategy : A History. New York: Oxford

  9. The Evolution of Naval Warfare Technology and the Impact of Space Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    or Greek fire. Larger missile devices such as the trebuchet were commonly used in land warfare, particularly in siege operations. However, the...were being used more widely in the Mediterranean. Mangonels and trebuchets were used to heave a variety of projectiles. Their adaptation for use on

  10. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Land (SEAL), or Navy Special Warfare (NSW) Combatant Craft Crewman (SWCC) operator; (2) enable the NSW... completing Navy SEAL accession training. Affected Public: Individuals interested in becoming Navy SEAL or... potentially become an NSW recruit (Navy SEAL or SWCC), to determine which information is most appropriate...

  11. RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    RTO-MP-IST-091 P4 - 1 RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare Mikko Kiviharju P.O.Box 10 FIN-11311 Riihimaki FINLAND mikko.kiviharju@mil.fi...auditing existing systems and planning new establishments. 1 INTRODUCTION Cyber warfare , especially computer network operations (CNO) have a deep...SUBTITLE RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  12. Cyber Warfare as an Operational Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-03

    This paper explores cyber warfare as an option for creating operational fires effects. Initially, cyberspace is defined and explained from the...fires are defined and the advantages of their use are explained. From there, discussion focuses on how cyber warfare fulfills the purposes of...operational fires. Finally, the paper draws conclusions about the viability of cyber warfare as an operational fire and makes recommendations about how to prioritize the activities of the newly approved U.S. Cyber Command.

  13. Russian Political Warfare: Origin, Evolution, and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    WARFARE: ORIGIN , EVOLUTION, AND APPLICATION by Jeffrey V. Dickey Thomas B. Everett Zane M. Galvach Matthew J. Mesko Anton V. Soltis June...blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RUSSIAN POLITICAL WARFARE: ORIGIN ...political warfare (PW) campaign. Analysis of the origin , history, and evolution of Soviet/Russian PW from 1917 through today reveals that Russia is

  14. Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    warfare, storage jamming, unauthorized modification, Trojan horse 1 INTRODUCTION Ammann, Jajodia, McCollum, and Blaustein define information warfare as the...information warfare, and we adopt the latter term. To provide context, Amman et al. specifically do not consider Trojan horses within the database system...called internal jammers (McDermott and Goldschalg, 1996b)), but instead consider a wide range of attacks other than Trojan horses . Both groups agree that

  15. PM Signals Warfare Contract Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-06

    06MAY2002 - 07MAY2002 Title and Subtitle PM Signals Warfare Contract Opportunities Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s...The Future” • Full ISR Wartime Capability • Support OOTW, Counter Narcotic, and Emergency /Natural Disaster Operations • FLIR, IRLS, DIS, MTI/SAR and...ACS Contract Opportunities 3/29/02 Aerial Common Sensor • Objective: Develop, Produce, and Field the Army’s Objective ISR System • Contract Type: CAD

  16. Evolutionary Models of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the Red Queen in Through the Looking Glass – Alice finds that however fast she runs, she always stays in the same place. If adapta- tion has become...2011 to 04 August 2012 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Office of Scientific Research European Office of Aerospace Research and...Z39-18 1 Evolutionary Models of Irregular Warfare Dominic Johnson 4 March 2013 Report on: US Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  17. The American Way of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Church, Diary of King Philip’s War 1675-76, ed. Alan and Mary Simpson ( Chester , CT: Pequot Press, 1975), 106. 29 colonists could adapt a skulking...accessed August 11, 2011). Church, Benjamin. Diary of King Philip’s War 1675-76. Edited by Alan and Mary Simpson. Chester , CT: Pequot Press, 1975... Arthur Wagner as well as military writers such as John Bigelow and Francis Greene believed that the conduct of modern warfare had profoundly changed

  18. Irregular Warfare: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Airman’s Assessment of FM 3-24 and the Case for Developing Truly Joint COIN Doctrine. Maxwell Air Force Base: U.S. Air University, 2007. 111pp. (UG635.33...handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494289 Pinnell , Daniel A. The Tenets of Airpower in an Insurgent Environment. Strategy Research Project. Carlisle...Non-Kinetic Capabilities for Irregular Warfare: Four Case Studies. Alexandria: Institute for Defense Analyses, Joint Advanced Warfighting Program

  19. Information Warfare and International Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Warfare and...for International Studies; Melanie Greenberg of the Stanford University Center for International Security and Arms Control (CISAC); Daniel Kuehl of

  20. Breaching Walls in Urban Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    Investigation reveals that a distinct need for a wall-breaching capability in infantry units does exist, and that current weapons and equipment readily...8217■ •• ABSTRACT 1 The process of urbanization throughout the world Is making urban warfare a major aspect of future military conflicts...exist, and that current weapons and equipment readily available to the infantry rifle company are inadequate for this purpose. Further examination

  1. United States and Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    deterrent to terrorism. While the immediate adversaries in the Global War on Terrorism campaign are Al Qaeda and its allies , the reality exists that...Qaeda and its allies , the reality exists that legitimate nation-states would resort to unconventional warfare operations in order to defeat the United...quarter 2009): 2-7. Goodes, Jeffery 0, and Sharon Tosi Moore. "Hizbollah: The Party of God." Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal, Volume X

  2. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    is the Russians.13 Although students of Russian (or French) military history know about Russia’s scorched earth policy—leaving no resources for the...7 6. Russians in the Caucasus Russia has a long history in the Caucasus going back centuries. During the “First” Chechen war, Russia fought an...Russian irregular warfare in previous wars. Although history is an imperfect teacher, in that events will never repeat exactly as they once occurred, it

  3. Fire Support For Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    118 “HIMARS Rocket Artillery Systems.” 119Andreas Parsch, “Lockheed Martin (Vought) MLRS Rockets ( M26 /M30/M31). Directory of U.S. Military... Rockets ( M26 /M30/M31). Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles: MLRS. Available from http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/app4...PAGES 107 14. SUBJECT TERMS Irregular Warfare, Fire Support, Artillery, Mortars, Rocket Artillery, GMLRS 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  4. Rethinking Cultural Influences on Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    education system. Within military education, culture is approached as a dimension of warfare that must be operationalized at all levels of war by...capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”37 Geert Hofstede , a social psychologist, defines culture as “the collective programming...Putnam and Sons, 1920), 1. 38 Geert Hofstede , Communication Between Cultures eds. L.A. Samovar and R.E. Porter. (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1984), 51. 13

  5. The RST and PARP-like domain containing SRO protein family: analysis of protein structure, function and conservation in land plants.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Pinja; Overmyer, Kirk; Wrzaczek, Michael; Vainonen, Julia P; Blomster, Tiina; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Reddy, Ramesha A; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2010-03-12

    The SROs (SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE) are a group of plant-specific proteins which have important functions in stress adaptation and development. They contain the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain and a C-terminal RST (RCD-SRO-TAF4) domain. In addition to these domains, several, but not all, SROs contain an N-terminal WWE domain. SROs are present in all analyzed land plants and sequence analysis differentiates between two structurally distinct groups; cryptogams and monocots possess only group I SROs whereas eudicots also contain group II. Group I SROs possess an N-terminal WWE domain (PS50918) but the WWE domain is lacking in group II SROs. Group I domain structure is widely represented in organisms as distant as humans (for example, HsPARP11). We propose a unified nomenclature for the SRO family. The SROs are able to interact with transcription factors through the C-terminal RST domain but themselves are generally not regulated at the transcriptional level. The most conserved feature of the SROs is the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PS51059) domain. However, bioinformatic analysis of the SRO PARP domain fold-structure and biochemical assays of AtRCD1 suggested that SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. The SROs are a highly conserved family of plant specific proteins. Sequence analysis of the RST domain implicates a highly preserved protein structure in that region. This might have implications for functional conservation. We suggest that, despite the presence of the catalytic core of the PARP domain, the SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Nevertheless, the function of SROs is critical for plants and might be related to transcription factor regulation and complex formation.

  6. The RST and PARP-like domain containing SRO protein family: analysis of protein structure, function and conservation in land plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The SROs (SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE) are a group of plant-specific proteins which have important functions in stress adaptation and development. They contain the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain and a C-terminal RST (RCD-SRO-TAF4) domain. In addition to these domains, several, but not all, SROs contain an N-terminal WWE domain. Results SROs are present in all analyzed land plants and sequence analysis differentiates between two structurally distinct groups; cryptogams and monocots possess only group I SROs whereas eudicots also contain group II. Group I SROs possess an N-terminal WWE domain (PS50918) but the WWE domain is lacking in group II SROs. Group I domain structure is widely represented in organisms as distant as humans (for example, HsPARP11). We propose a unified nomenclature for the SRO family. The SROs are able to interact with transcription factors through the C-terminal RST domain but themselves are generally not regulated at the transcriptional level. The most conserved feature of the SROs is the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PS51059) domain. However, bioinformatic analysis of the SRO PARP domain fold-structure and biochemical assays of AtRCD1 suggested that SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Conclusions The SROs are a highly conserved family of plant specific proteins. Sequence analysis of the RST domain implicates a highly preserved protein structure in that region. This might have implications for functional conservation. We suggest that, despite the presence of the catalytic core of the PARP domain, the SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Nevertheless, the function of SROs is critical for plants and might be related to transcription factor regulation and complex formation. PMID:20226034

  7. Airship Renaissance: Considerations for Operational Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare 5a. CONTRACT...Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare by Daniel W. Smith III Major, United States Air Force A paper submitted...resources needed now on the battlefield…to get more intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre .” 5 Recognizing budget

  8. Unified physical mechanism of frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic exploration on land and in ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changsheng; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Fengdao; Hu, Ruihua; Sun, Caitang

    2013-12-01

    The frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic method (FDCSEM) has played an important role in the terrestrial and oceanic exploration. However, the measuring manners and the detecting abilities in two kinds of environment are much different. This paper analyses the electromagnetic theories of the FDCSEM exploration on land and in ocean, simulates the electromagnetic responses in the two cases based on a united physical and mathematical model, and studies the physical mechanism leading to these differences. In this study, the relationship between the propagation paths and the detecting ability is illuminated and the way to improve the detecting ability of FDCSEM is brought forward. In terrestrial exploration, FDCSEM widely adopts the measuring manner of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT), which records the electromagnetic fields in the far zone in the broadside direction of an electric dipole source. This manner utilizes the airwave (i.e. the Earth surface wave) and takes the stratum wave as interference. It is sensitive to the conductive target but insensitive to the resistive one. In oceanic exploration, FDCSEM usually adopts the measuring manner of marine controlled-source electromagnetic method (MCSEM), which records the electromagnetic fields, commonly the horizontal electric fields, in the in-line direction of the electric dipole source. This manner utilizes the stratum wave (i.e. the seafloor wave and the guided wave in resistive targets) and takes the airwave as interference. It is sensitive to the resistive target but relatively insensitive to the conductive one. The numerical simulation shows that both the airwave and the stratum wave contribute to the FDCSEM exploration. United utilization of them will enhance the anomalies of targets and congregate the advantages of CSAMT and MCSEM theories. At different azimuth and different offset, the contribution of the airwave and the stratum wave to electromagnetic anomaly is

  9. Strategic Impact of Cyber Warfare Rules for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Despite the growing complexities of cyberspace and the significant strategic challenge cyber warfare poses on the United States’ vital interests few...specific rules for cyber warfare exist. The United States should seek to develop and maintain cyber warfare rules in order to establish...exemplify the need for multilaterally prepared cyber warfare rules that will reduce the negative influence cyber warfare presently has on the United States’ national interests.

  10. Initial Report of the Deans Cyber Warfare Ad Hoc Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-22

    in a cyber warfare environment. Among the more notable recent developments have been the establishment of a new Cyber Warfare Command (USCYBERCOM) at...information-warfare-centric organization. Clearly, future Naval Academy graduates will be expected to know more about cyber warfare than those we have...graduated in the past. The Academic Dean and Provost tasked an ad hoc committeethe Cyber Warfare ad hoc Committeeto examine how USNA can best ensure that

  11. Analytic tools for information warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  12. Compound Warfare: That Fatal Knot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Peninsula. The article, written to support CSI’s course in modern warfare at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, received high praise from...would Ruin the Army.”26 True, Rogers was far more democratic than most officers, although he held his unit to a very high level of performance in contact...finally was relieved by William Pitt in late 1757 for failure to win the war, specifically for the disaster at Fort William Henry. Pitt’s new high command

  13. Technology Transition for Hybrid Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College ,122 Forbes Ave.,Carlisle,PA,17013-5220 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...2009). 3 John J. Kruzel, “U.S. must prepare for ’hybrid’ warfare, general says,” http://www.jfcom.mil/newslink/storyarchive/2009/no021309.html...Thomas H. Killion, Carolyn Nash , “ An Overview of the Army Science and Technology (S&T) Program,” Army AL&T, October-December 2007, 5-6. 16

  14. Evolution of S-domain receptor-like kinases in land plants and origination of S-locus receptor kinases in Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The S-domain serine/threonine receptor-like kinases (SRLKs) comprise one of the largest and most rapidly expanding subfamilies in the plant receptor-like/Pelle kinase (RLKs) family. The founding member of this subfamily, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), functions as the female determinant of specificity in the self-incompatibility (SI) responses of crucifers. Two classes of proteins resembling the extracellular S domain (designated S-domain receptor-like proteins, SRLPs) or the intracellular kinase domain (designated S-domain receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases, SRLCKs) of SRK are also ubiquitous in land plants, indicating that the SRLKs are composite molecules that originated by domain fusion of the two component proteins. Here, we explored the origin and diversification of SRLKs by phylogenomic methods. Results Based on the distribution patterns of SRLKs and SRLCKs in a reconciled species-domain tree, a maximum parsimony model was then established for simultaneously inferring and dating gene duplication/loss and fusion /fission events in SRLK evolution. Various SRK alleles from crucifer species were then included in our phylogenetic analyses to infer the origination of SRKs by identifying the proper outgroups. Conclusions Two gene fusion events were inferred and the major gene fusion event occurred in the common ancestor of land plants generated almost all of extant SRLKs. The functional diversification of duplicated SRLKs was illustrated by molecular evolution analyses of SRKs. Our findings support that SRKs originated as two ancient haplotypes derived from a pair of tandem duplicate genes through random regulatory neo-/sub- functionalization in the common ancestor of the Brassicaceae. PMID:23510165

  15. Evolution of S-domain receptor-like kinases in land plants and origination of S-locus receptor kinases in Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shilai; Li, Mengya; Liu, Pei

    2013-03-19

    The S-domain serine/threonine receptor-like kinases (SRLKs) comprise one of the largest and most rapidly expanding subfamilies in the plant receptor-like/Pelle kinase (RLKs) family. The founding member of this subfamily, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), functions as the female determinant of specificity in the self-incompatibility (SI) responses of crucifers. Two classes of proteins resembling the extracellular S domain (designated S-domain receptor-like proteins, SRLPs) or the intracellular kinase domain (designated S-domain receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases, SRLCKs) of SRK are also ubiquitous in land plants, indicating that the SRLKs are composite molecules that originated by domain fusion of the two component proteins. Here, we explored the origin and diversification of SRLKs by phylogenomic methods. Based on the distribution patterns of SRLKs and SRLCKs in a reconciled species-domain tree, a maximum parsimony model was then established for simultaneously inferring and dating gene duplication/loss and fusion /fission events in SRLK evolution. Various SRK alleles from crucifer species were then included in our phylogenetic analyses to infer the origination of SRKs by identifying the proper outgroups. Two gene fusion events were inferred and the major gene fusion event occurred in the common ancestor of land plants generated almost all of extant SRLKs. The functional diversification of duplicated SRLKs was illustrated by molecular evolution analyses of SRKs. Our findings support that SRKs originated as two ancient haplotypes derived from a pair of tandem duplicate genes through random regulatory neo-/sub- functionalization in the common ancestor of the Brassicaceae.

  16. [Psychology and psychopathology of information warfare].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ; Goncharenko, A Iu; Ovchinnikov, B V; Chermianin, S V

    2014-06-01

    Tension of information warfare as a form of modern war has a global character nowadays. Topicality of research of psychological reaction peculiarities and psychopathology phenomena developing during information warfare is determined by necessity of scientific development of the effective means of diagnosis and prophylaxis of these phenomena. The article is devoted to analytical review of modern articles about aim, goals and methods of information warfare, covering some signs of manipulative influence on people's mind. Authors set forward opinion about possible psychological peculiarities and psychopathological consequences of targeted aggressive information influence and also suggest some methods against this influence.

  17. Understanding the impact of changes in land-use/land-cover and atmospheric dust loading and their coupling upon climate change in the NEESPI study domain drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, I.; Darmenova, K.; Darmenov, A.; Xi, X.; Shao, Y.; Marticorena, B.; Bergametti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Science Plan identifies atmospheric aerosols and pollutions and their impacts on and interactions with the Earth systems (and terrestrial ecosystem dynamics in particular) as a cross-cutting topic of special interest. Wind-blown mineral dust, being an important atmospheric constituent in the NEESPI drylands, can exert strong radiative forcing upon the regional climate and cause adverse impacts on human and ecosystems health. The impacts of dust storms are not only regional, but may affect areas thousands of kilometers from their source, making interactions between climate change, land use and dust aerosols globally relevant. Given the intimate coupling between the land processes and wind-blown atmospheric dust and their importance in the climate system, an improved understanding of how land-use/land-cover changes affect Asian dust and associated feedbacks is needed to make assessments of climate change more realistic. To improve the ability to predict impacts of dust on the climate and environment, we have been developing a coupled regional dust modeling system for Central and East Asia. This includes implementation of a new dust module DuMo into the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as well as a coupled treatment of dust aerosol interactions with atmospheric radiation. The dust module DuMo includes two different state-of-the art schemes that explicitly account for land properties (including vegetation and soil geomorphology and moisture) and meteorology, and, thus, improves modeling capability. The focus of this talk will be on the impact of atmospheric dust on the surface energy balance and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Both processes play a key role in the ecosystem functioning as well as overall in land-atmosphere interactions, but they are rarely considered in an integrated fashion.

  18. A Taxonomy of Network Centric Warfare Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Database Theory, an area of Computer Science that has studied information flow in networks extensively ( Ceri & Pelagatti 1984, Mullender 1993...Australian Department of Defence, 2003, Australian Defence Force Network Centric Warfare Roadmap (First Draft), September. Ceri , S. & Pelagatti

  19. Gas Warfare in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintham, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

  20. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  1. Cyber-Warfare: Jus Post Bellum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    ability to contain and reverse cyberattacks. This thesis proposes a cyber-warfare jus post bellum framework, with emphasis on prevention and cyber...thesis proposes a cyber-warfare jus post bellum framework, with emphasis on prevention and cyber weapons control, proposes cyberattack relief-effort...can cause civilian entities to end up being collateral damage. The damage cyber weapons can cause these various organizations can be just as

  2. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare: Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    ARROYO CENTER Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare Appendixes Dan Madden, Dick Hoffmann, Michael Johnson, Fred T. Krawchuk, Bruce R. Nardulli...counterinsurgency through and with indigenous forces or personnel.”1 The report has four aims: (1) to adapt conventional operational art to the unique...tional context to supplement the discussions presented in Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare (available at www.rand.org/t/RR779). Appendix A

  3. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    also McCulloh and Johnson who demonstrate throughout their study that context is critical . Indeed, their summary statement for “hybrid warfare theory ...Muhr, eds., Hybrid and Cyber War as Consequences of the Asymmetry, Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2011, p.95. Interestingly, the CFD Hybrid Warfare Concept...the highest political and military levels. The study of hybrid-type case studies yields the critical lesson that: “leadership is essential to victory

  4. The Art of Aerial Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    and context of the conflict to an extent that other forms of warfare gener­ ally do not. Notes 1. Giulio Douhet, The Command of the Air ( New   York ...difference between victory or defeat.  On occasion,  new   ideas and  tactics develop  in  the heat of battle. An example occurred during the post­D­day...not produced success or to select a  new  option appropriate to the circum­ stances encountered? There is no right answer, per se, to this dilemma

  5. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, Alberto J C; Ruxton, Graeme D; Gardner, Andy

    2017-02-22

    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression-i.e. 'genomic imprinting'-in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence.

  6. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression—i.e. ‘genomic imprinting’—in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence. PMID:28228515

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 229 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  14. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  15. Development of JSDF Cyber Warfare Defense Critical Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    attack identification capability is essential for a nation to defend her vital infrastructures against offensive cyber warfare . Although the necessity of...cyber-attack identification capability is quite clear, the Japans preparation against cyber warfare is quite limited.

  16. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  17. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  18. Friction in the U.S. Army During Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    and great friction during irregular warfare. Historic analysis confirms this trend, and reveals a dominant grammar of traditional warfare supported by...dominant grammar of traditional warfare, the alternate grammar of irregular warfare is visible only when politicians force the Army to conduct...operations in that manner. Doctrine and theory from other nations, although available, did not facilitate maturation of this second grammar in the U.S. Army

  19. Department of Defenses Enhanced Requirement for Offensive Cyber Warfare Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) needs to further develop its offensive cyber warfare capabilities at all levels. In an asymmetric environment...battlefields. If the DoD does not prosecute offensive cyber warfare tactics then the DoD has effectively allowed a significant advantage to be given...offensive cyber warfare operations, These states utilize their cyber warfare capabilities to support their national, operational and strategic

  20. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Article 51.24 Cyber warfare is unique in that vulnerabilities that a network target may have could be discovered by software developers who then... cyber warfare rather than physical combat, a future subject to air strikes or ground-forces raids would likely be a powerful deterrent. Some in the U.S...Manwaring, The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare, (Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 2012), 126-129. 23 Arie J. Schaap, “ Cyber Warfare Operations

  1. Beyond Mission Command: Maneuver Warfare for Cyber Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    operation in an A2AD environment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS command and control; maneuver warfare; cyberspace; cyberspace operations; cyber warfare , mission...Some Principles of Cyber Warfare (NWC 2160) (U.S. Naval War College, Joint Military Operations Department, Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College...research/ innovationleadership.pdf. Crowell, Richard M. Some Principles of Cyber Warfare (NWC 2160). U.S. Naval War College, Joint Military Operations

  2. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  3. Biological warfare--an emerging threat.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Reshma; Shukla, S K; Dharmani, S; Gandhi, A

    2004-09-01

    As we approach the 21st century, there is an increasing worldwide awareness and threat regarding the use of biological warfare agents both for war and terrorist attack. Biological agents include microorganisms or biological toxins that are used to produce death in humans, animals and plants. They are characterized by low visibility, high potency, substantial accessibility and relatively easy delivery. Biological warfare agents are unconventional weapons that can be delivered by unconventional means like aerosol sprays, food and water contamination, conventional explosive munitions or by covert injections. Because of their concealed delivery, easy transportation and difficult identification they are readily adaptable for terrorist operations or to gain political advantages. The detection of such attack requires recognition of the clinical syndromes associated with various biological warfare agents. Diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds and on investigations. Protective measures can be taken against biological warfare agents. These should be implemented early (if warning is received) or later (once suspicion of agent use is made). After the confirmation of diagnosis emergency medical treatment and decontamination are performed in rapid sequence. Patients are then evacuated and specific therapy is given according to the agent involved. Appropriate emergency department and hospital response could significantly limit the morbidity and mortality of biological warfare agents.

  4. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  5. Equipping Network Warfare: Industrial-Era Bureaucracies for Information-Era Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    precision and standoff, intercepting any hostile platform early in its flight is increasingly important. — General Ronald R. Fogleman, 16th Chief of...reach; however, the above situations could all be worthwhile operational requirements of a network warfare platform . This suggests that the breadth...hardware and software requirements of cyberspace weapons platforms will be unique, driven by the defining characteristics of their domain and most

  6. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  7. [The history of biological warfare].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Amir; Robenshtok, Eyal; Rotman, Eran; Sagi, Rami

    2002-05-01

    Selected events in the history of biological weapons are highlighted to increase the physician's awareness of this crucial threat. The deliberate use of biological substances originated in antiquity and has pervaded the history of human wars throughout time until the 21th century. The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors. These include the difficulty in verification of allegation, the use of the threat of this weapon for propaganda purposes, the lack of microbiological or epidemiological data, and the incidence of natural occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Although it may be problematic to verify at times, the use of such weapons has not been limited to national armies or militia. Frustrated civilians, terrorists and even physicians have used biological substances to promote their interests. Today, the biological threat has become more serious. It's potency, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to manufacture and deploy it with little sophistication, or under the semblance of legitimate commercial endeavors, will ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to human health.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life of Chemical Warfare Victims: An Assessment with the Use of a Specific Tool

    PubMed Central

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. Objective: This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL. PMID:24719824

  9. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    PubMed

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  10. Stealth: A revolutionary change to air warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kevin J.

    1992-02-01

    'Stealth, A Revolutionary Change To Warfare' highlights the unique capabilities stealth weapons bring to the battlefield and asserts they offer new and valuable options to the commander. It suggests these capabilities must be completely understood to be fully effective. With a focus at the doctrinal level, the paper claims the following: stealth assets take away from the absolute primacy of aerospace control (air superiority) and in many cases, allows force application to became the primary task. The claim is also made that stealth assets expand and enhance the potential opportunities for effective use of air power across the spectrum of warfare to include the force presence role. These and other changes will impact air warfare at all levels. Capitalizing on stealth requires the following: (1) a recognition of unique stealth attributes; (2) fully embracing these attributes through Air Force doctrinal changes; and (3) a fresh look for potential applications in all operational planning.

  11. Environmental mimics of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Claborn, David M

    2004-12-01

    There are several natural and artificial factors that mimic the effects of chemical warfare agents, thereby causing unwarranted alarm and confusion on the battlefield. Symptoms associated with chemical warfare include paralysis, muscle tremors, heavy salivation, severe burns, blistering, and corrosive skin injuries among others. Similar symptoms can be produced from a variety of environmental sources, artificial and natural. This article reviews several published and unpublished examples of environmental factors that produce syndromes similar to those caused by these agents. Examples of such mimics include pesticides, blistering exudates from insects and plants, various types of bites, and naturally occurring diseases. The potential for confusion caused by these factors is discussed and means of discriminating between warfare agents and naturally occurring events are identified. Recommendations for the use of this information and for needed research are also discussed.

  12. The role of rewards in motivating participation in simple warfare.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this "cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis" with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare.

  13. Information Warfare and the Principles of War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-07

    information dominance , control of ’cyberspace’ or the ’Infosphere’ and Information Warfare. Some argue that Information Warfare (IW) is just a repackaging of old concepts and current practices, while others contend it is the next Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). The question that needs to be addressed is; can IW achieve strategic and operational military objectives on its on merit? A way to answer this questions is to analyze IW against our current doctrine. Using the principles of war as a framework, does IW fit (or can it be employed) in the

  14. Cognitive systems in electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Szczepankiewicz, Michał; Żywek, Marcin; Malanowski, Mateusz; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Samczyński, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Electronic warfare (EW) techniques were invented 70 years ago and are still being developed, all the time with a key role played by their operators. However, a human operator responds far too slowly for the on-going needs since to be adequate to current threats the EW system reaction should be within 1 ms or less. Too slow reaction defers an achievement of the objectives, and generally may lead to disclosure of the applied strategy and to waste of resources. Developing the adequate response to the threat is a multifaceted matter that requires considerable experience and knowledge on the one hand, and thorough observation of outcomes of the applied strategy on the other hand. Such action requires the use of not only intelligence but also more complex algorithms for automatic control than the classical ones, and it heavily builds on the experience. It is therefore a cognitive task in its nature, and a human operator acts naturally this way. Consequently, a proper training and experience gained are what really matters. As a result of tests and actions in EW the operator builds his own knowledge base, thus, gains a capability of responding to the known threats in a balanced way. New threats, however, are much more challenging since they should be handled as fast as possible but in a fresh and creative manner. To this end, adapting the algorithms of radar jamming protection for the new conditions of the battlefield is an example of such challenging tasks. At present, such adjustments are done in a long feedback loop when the operator, after recognizing the problem, notifies the equipment manufacturers, and then, their engineers work on required solutions accordingly. Thus, the reaction time is counted in years, not a single milliseconds or seconds. Speeding up the response time is therefore the key issue, and a solution to it would be feasible only when cognitive systems were used. A concept of such cognitive system is presented in this paper.

  15. US Army Special Warfare. Its Origins: Psychological and Unconventional Warfare, 1941-1952

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    expansion was NSC 68, issued on 14 April 1950, which called for a nonmilitary offensive against the Soviet Union , including covert economic, political...cold war tensions with the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union . But Pace believed that the Korean situation offered an "especial opportunity...through the back door of the psychological warfare house. While the marriage of psychological and unconventional warfare was probably a union of con

  16. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  17. Organizing the Army for Information Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Information Operations2 Career Field to meet the challenges of 21st Century Warfare. Bill Clinton was President. The Army’s operational construct was...deception; releasing clone information; and establishing network spy stations” for espionage while concurrently defending themselves against such

  18. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  19. Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

  20. Tenets of Counter-Insurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-17

    confronted with an insurgency led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was an ethnic Tagalog and so were most of the insurgents. U.S. forces in the Philippines...to help frame and refine our understanding of insurgency warfare so we can develop and implement effective measures against it. 22 Rabasa , Angel

  1. Preparing the British Army for Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    author recognizes that proscribing major combat training supported by expanded conceptual education is far from a revelation. But, like Plato’s Utopia ...be reshaped to provide a realistic environment in which to best achieve the military utopia of preparing flexibly for future warfare. From the

  2. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  3. Tribal Warfare: The Society of Modern Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    impact of computer cyberspace and artificial intelligence on contemporary warfare is profound. Rather than relying exclusively May–June 2015 | 85...service pins more wings on new drone pilots than on fighter and bomber pilots.13 The latter is true, but among at least some of those who dream to fly

  4. Magazine Coverage of Issues of Nuclear Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight William

    To see whether the subject matter of magazines of general circulation and the subject matter of public concern coincide, a study examined the volume of coverage of United States-Soviet relations, communism, and issues of nuclear warfare between the two nations in twentieth century popular magazines. The "Reader's Guide to Periodical…

  5. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    WORLD ARMA - MENTS AND DISARMAMENT. SIPRI Yearbook 1990. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. (REF JX1974 S775 1990) Pp. 107-133: "Chemical and...Report. Norton D. Zinder, Chairman. Washington: National Academy Press, 1984. (UG447 N33 1984) LEGACY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICA !L WARFARE Some 20th

  6. Modeling Team Performance in the Air Defense Warfare Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    members as envisioned by the system designers. In Figures 6 we depict the different task flows between an ideal team (that envisioned by the system...Figure 1. The main difference between the ideal team and the tested teams is the degree to which the team members passed tasks between...themselves. The ideal team members handle tasks independently and in parallel; however, for teams 1 and 2 there were various degrees of “meddling” between

  7. Cross-Domain Synergy: Warfare in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-19

    operational planning paradigms and processes have put the United States Military in a perilous situation and hindered its ability to conduct effective and...unsustainable operations tempos, inadequate training, and current operational planning paradigms and processes have put the United States Military in a...Operations Directive ( AOD ), and an Air Tasking Order (ATO) to facilitate mission execution. Mission planners utilized elements of the Joint

  8. Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    of Technology , 1966), 51. 31 manpower, equipment, and funding. The North Vietnamese and...exchange programs, which systematically imposed a collectivism economy by paying worker groups to work the land and conducting agro - engineering projects...Techniques of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1966. 58 Porter

  9. Cyber Warfare: China’s Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    CYBER WARFARE : CHINA‘S STRATEGY TO DOMINATE IN CYBER SPACE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...warfare supports the use of cyber warfare in future conflict. The IW militia unit organization provides each Chinese military region commander with...China, Strategy, Cyber Warfare , Cyber Space, Information Warfare, Electronic Warfare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  10. Maneuver from the Air Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    cognitive maneuver mechanisms developed in the 1980s as part of broader maneuver warfare theory. The result is a proposed definition of maneuver from the...air power employment and results from two case studies - Operation Rolling Thunder and Operation Iraqi Freedom - support that the proposed definition is...question – what is maneuver from the air domain? Simply placing the doctrinal definition of maneuver in an air power context is not enough. Ultimately

  11. Information Operation and the Conduct of Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sitting behind their computer terminals launching war-winning cyber- attacks at the stroke of a key. A third vision is derived from the cyberpunk ... genre . It is that of Johnny Mnemonic-type individuals, with hardwires in their brains and enough downloaded information to make a modem supercomputer

  12. AirLand Battle and Low Intensity Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-12

    terrorims , counterterrorism, rescues sad military aasistJabcs, often under coadltils of armed eppolition. the cmitment of regular armed forces, other than...and the respnding nations. It include the use of Nuclear weepens and way lacude soe Or e the teownique aId charecte1tize of low ad id intensity

  13. Information Technologies and the Future of Land Warfare,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    ployment patterns, export flows, and the composition of private- sector investment. It is also drastically altering American homes, workplaces, and leisure...is easier than monopolizing even a niche in the global information market; and as physical commodities find global markets-such as oil -the possession...Long View, New York: Doubleday/Currency, 1991, pp. 47-60, for his story of the anticipation of a global oil market by Royal Dutch Shell. Shell realized

  14. Containment 2.0: U.S. Political Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    increasing preference for using Cold War–era political warfare techniques, which are deeply rooted in its doctrine and foreign policies. To date, the...U.S. response comprises the conventional military aspects of the Cold War–era deterrence and containment rather than political warfare strategies...three hypotheses regarding U.S. political warfare experience during the Cold War. The exploration of these hypotheses shows that a strategic influence

  15. The Navy’s Educational Programs in Electronic Warfare,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    WARFARE GRADUATE PROGRAMS The Naval Postgraduate School currently offers two ad- vanced curricula in electronic warfare : Electronic Warfare Engineering...extension . DURATION OF COURSES OF STUDY All graduate programs at the Naval Postgraduate School include a graduate preparatory phase in addition to the...officers enter graduate programs in subject areas different from their under- graduate discipline . Consequently , the typical master ’s pro- gram for an

  16. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    theory and postmodern warfare thought, and though imperfect, provides a vital contrast to modern military thinking, which furthers the ongoing postmodern ...espoused by modernism . With respect to society and warfare, postmodernism sees history, the present and the future through a lens of multiplicity...the book—not the words or events themselves—determine the meaning.”15 Thus, postmodern society and warfare is far more complex than modern society and

  17. Cyber Warfare: A Need for Beyond Goldwater-Nichols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    of Military Studies Research Paper September 2010- May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater...22134-5068 MASTER OF MlLIT AR Y STUDJES Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater Nichols" SlffiMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFitLMENT OF THE...DOCUMENT IS PERMITTED PROVIDED PROPER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE.· l . ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater Nichols

  18. Foreword to the Air Anti-Submarine Warfare Theme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. FOREWORD TO THE AIR ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE THEME Air ASW Board: RADM Mike Manazir, Director Air...Mission Programs (Received April 1, 2014) We are honored to introduce the Air Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) themed compendium for the Journal of Underwater...reflect upon. Three main themes emerge from the last decade relating to the air community’s positioning relative to anti-submarine warfare: a shift in

  19. Sub state Unconventional Warfare: Expanding United States Military Political Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    consists of the interrelated fields of guerrilla warfare, evasion and escape, and subversion against hostile states (resistance). Unconventional warfare...describing what UW consists of, and how it is applied, in FM 31-21 (1969). “Unconventional warfare consists of military, political, psychological, or...philosopher, economist, and revolutionary sociologist Karl Marx.66 Marx proposed that economic evolution occurs in five sequential steps. Those steps are

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPLOSIVES AND INITIATORS FOR SPECIAL WARFARE OPERATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUZES(ORDNANCE), FUZES(ORDNANCE), DETONATORS, DETONATING CORD, PREPARATION, CORDAGE, PHENOLS, NITRATES, WARFARE, EXPLOSIONS, DEMOLITION, MERCURY COMPOUNDS, NITRIC ACID, ALCOHOLS, EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS.

  1. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Kenneth; Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  2. Psychological effects of nuclear and radiological warfare.

    PubMed

    Salter, C A

    2001-12-01

    Not since 1945 has the world experienced nuclear warfare, although there has been the threat of nuclear terrorism and a large number of nuclear/radiological accidents. Most people fear a nuclear/radiological threat even more than a conventional explosion due both to their inability to perceive the presence of radiation with the ordinary human senses and to concerns about perceived long-lasting radiation effects. Studies of radiological accidents have found that for every actually contaminated casualty, there may be as many as 500 people who are concerned, eager to be screened for contamination, sometimes panicked, and showing psychosomatic reactions mimicking actual radiation effects. Data from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki attacks revealed widespread acute reactions such as psychic numbing, severe anxiety, and disorganized behavior, and there were later chronic effects such as survivor guilt and psychosomatic reactions. Such responses would likely be common in any future nuclear/radiological accident, terrorist attack, or warfare.

  3. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    in the writings of Ernesto “Che” Guevara (Guerrilla Warfare, 1961) and Regis Debray (Revolution in the Revolution? 1967). At the very beginning of... Regis Debray (1967) describes: One may well consider it a stroke of good luck that Fidel had not read the military writings of Mao Tse-tung before...of proportion to what it produces” (Guevara, 1961, p. 99). Nevertheless, Regis Debray (1967) admits the value of terror as a supplementary strategy

  4. Entomological terrorism: a tactic in assymmetrical warfare.

    PubMed

    Monthei, Derek; Mueller, Scott; Lockwood, Jeffrey; Debboun, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    The current operational environment presents military forces with enemies that use unconventional warfare to achieve their goals. Although the US government has dedicated significant resources to address threats of bioterrorism, the adaptive nature of our adversaries necessitates additional emphasis on bioterrorism awareness amongst military health professionals. This article provides an overview of three categories of entomological terrorism and examples from each category with a risk assessment.

  5. Electronic Warfare in Army Models - A Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    CCM) PROVING GROUND TENIAS SAMJAM EIEM SPREAD SPECTRUM US ARMY ELECTRONIC FOREIGN SCIENCE & OFFICE OF MISSILE WARFARE LAB (EWL) TECHNOLOGY CENTER...IPAR MULTIRADAR SPREAD SPECTRUM ECMFUZ IRSS OTOALOC TAC ZINGERS EIEM ITF PATCOM TAM EOCM SIM FAC MGM-H4D RFSS TENIAS GTSF MG(-H4H ROLJAM ZAP I HMSM MSL...USAFAS TRASANA USAPAS TCF ASD WPAFU TENIAS ______ ___ ECAC _________ WAR EAGLE _________CATRADA WARRANT am________ 3DBDM ZAP 1 ____________ MEW EWL ZAP 2

  6. Transformation: A Bold Case for Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    government headed by Chiang Kai-shek for the popular support of the Chinese People. Thus, even though Mao was fighting an invading army much of the...advocate of unconventional warfare would assert that UW efforts could defeat the Russian or Chinese army in a conventional battle, and similarity...control of the population. • Redeployment of military/police assets around the capitol versus the countryside : This simple metric is useful to

  7. Distributed Computing Environment for Mine Warfare Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    AD-A268 799 j -•111lllli UliilllI ME ii El UU NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC V4 * cLP i0 1993 RA THESIS DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT...Project No [Task No lWork Unit Accession 1 -1 No 11 Title (include security classification) DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT FOR MINE WARFARE COMMAND 12... DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ..... .. 26 A. STANDARDS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS ... .......... 27 1. OSI Model .......... ................. 28 2. DOD Model

  8. Systems versus Classical Approach to Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    events at others. In sequencing and synchronizing the use of military and non - military sources of power, operational com- manders must have the ability...approach, regardless of their differences, essen- tially share the mechanistic or Newtonian view of warfare. They believe that the information age...nonlinear.45 The Newtonian view of the world is that of a giant machine. Everything runs smoothly, precisely, and predictably. Everything is measurable.46

  9. Economic Warfare in Time of Belligerency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-05-31

    bauxite , copper, nickel ··BDd lead). c. !etiiles,. leathers’ and mrioer. d. Foodstuffs. e. Shipping acti:vi ties. ANNEX 2 Measures of Axis Ru.le in... Sulphur ~he- .New .Economic ·warfare Jnwmin BaiSch . !l!ptal Imports in 1000 metric tons 450.2 488.1 197.6 4021.0 271.9 .. I¥¥+.7 87.3

  10. Soviet Partisan Warfare: Integral to the Whole,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-20

    irregular and regular warfare fail to grasp the inseparable nature of the two in Soviet thinking. I Table of Contents I . Introduction...additional corps of the 48th Army attacking north of Rogatchev. South of Bobruisk the other pincer of this attack was executed by the 65th and 28th...deep objectives to hasten the advance of the southern pincer while closing escape routes for the Germans. Roads to Bobruisk were cut. The partisans

  11. Transforming USMC Intelligence to Address Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    nation’s 衟 force" demands that it be prepared to face these irregular warfare challenges with little or no preparation time. This presents a...rarely attribute these skills to a result of thorough preparation by the intelligence or military supporting establishment prior to the individual’s...identify areas where the Mmine Corps can improve its intelligence capabilities in order to be prepared to face the current and future IW threats. Although

  12. Some Cautionary Thoughts on Information Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    These suggestions almost invariably lack any technical foundations and fail to consider countermeasures while assuming total system...able to oversimplify or play loose with the facts. Consider, for example, the following passage from Army Focus 94: FORCE XXI explaining how Robert E...Information War- fare,” Airpower Journal 9, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 31–39; Col Owen E. Jensen, “Information Warfare: Principles of Third-Wave War,” Airpower

  13. Modeling the Thermal Destruction of Chemical Warfare ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper In the event of a terrorist attack with chemical warfare agents (CWAs), large quantities of materials, both indoor and outdoor, may be treated with thermal incineration during the site remediation process. This paper reports on a study to examine the thermal decomposition of surrogate CWAs and formation of decomposition by-products bound in model building materials (in this case, ceiling tile) in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator.

  14. 14th Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-19

    USN, Deputy Commander, Military Sealift Command Wednesday, 18 November, 2009 GUEST SPEAKER · Vice Admiral Kevin McCoy, USN, Commander, Naval...Resources in Support of Expeditionary Warfare in Complex Joint Operating Environments Moderator: Rear Admiral Kevin Scott, USN, Deputy Director for...00 AM Conference Remarks 8:00 - 8:45 AM Guest Speaker Vice Admiral Kevin McCoy, USN, Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command 8:45 - 9:50 AM

  15. Measuring Progress and Effects in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-05

    warfare activities? As Clancy and Crossett point out, ―we do not yet possess a framework within which we might interpret success or failure against...as guns, but by who has more sympathizers and committed supporters.21 7 As indicated above, Clancy and Crossett recognize the need to develop a...perceived by the population).26 Clancy and Crossett further argue that the counterinsurgent force should focus on specific measures that will

  16. Fitness costs of warfare for women.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2014-12-01

    Research to date has focused on fitness costs that coalitional aggression imposes on men and how these may have shaped male cognitive design. This study investigated whether warfare may have shaped female cognitive design by identifying fitness costs that lethal raiding imposes on women and determining how widespread these fitness costs are across a sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist societies. To this end, archaeological and ethnographic accounts of lethal raiding were used to generate a list of fitness costs suffered by women in warfare. Five costs were identified: woman killed, woman captured, offspring killed, mate killed/captured, and adult male kin killed/captured. A cross-cultural sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist oral traditions was then surveyed for the presence of these costs. Results suggest that lethal raiding has recurrently imposed fitness costs on women, and that female cognitive design bears reexamination in terms of the motivational and decision-making mechanisms that may have evolved in response to them. This study differs from previous studies of lethal raiding by addressing the lack of comparative research on the fitness costs of warfare for women, by examining a wider range of fitness costs, and by using oral tradition as a database.

  17. Warfare-related secondary anterior cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza; Ebrahimi, Azin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cranial bone defects secondary to global war cranial defects pose a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of alloplastic reconstructions of cranial bone with titanium mesh and fat graft after warfare-related cranial trauma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients at the plastic and reconstructive surgery ward of our hospital underwent anterior cranioplasty with titanium mesh with or without fat grafts from lower abdominal wall. Inclusion criteria were anterior cranial bone defect due to warfare injuries, the mean age of these patients was 31 years (range, 23–48 years). Ninety-five percent were male, and 5% were female. Average follow-up was 12 months. Fat grafts were used to help obliterate endocranial dead spaces. Results: Twenty-five patients (71%) had more than 0.5 cm dead space under cranial defects, and we used fat graft under the titanium mesh. The majority groups of patients (80%) were injured as a result of previous explosive device blasts with or without neurosurgical procedures in the past. The average patient age was 31 years, and 95% of patients were male. The mean anterior cranial defect size was 6 cm × 8 cm, and there were no wound infection or flap necrosis after operations. Conclusion: We recommend this procedure (titanium mesh with or without fat graft) for warfare injured cranial defects in secondary anterior cranial reconstructions. Fat grafts eliminates dead space and reduce secondary complications. PMID:27563609

  18. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  19. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division (EPHD) is currently engaged in research aimed at developing a measure that estimates overall environmental quality at the county level for the United States. This work is being conducted as an effort to learn more about how various environmental factors simultaneously contribute to health disparities in low-income and minority populations, and to better estimate the total environmental and social context to which humans are exposed. This dataset contains the finalized transformed variables chosen to represent the Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains of the total environment. Six criteria air pollutants and 81 hazardous air pollutants are included in this dataset. Data sources are the EPA's Air Quality system (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/) and the National-scale Air Toxics Assessment (http://www.epa.gov/nata/). Variables are average pollutant concentrations or emissions for 2000-2005 at the county level for all counties in the United States. Data on water impairment, waste permits, beach closures, domestic water source, deposition for 9 pollutants, drought status, and 60 chemical contaminants. Data sources are the EPA's WATERS (Watershed Assessment, Tracking and Environmental ResultS) Database (http://www.epa.gov/waters/), the U.S. Geological Survey Estimates of Water Use in the

  20. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384...Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...experiments were performed with commercial products and decontaminants to identify viable dual-use products for the decontamination of the chemical

  1. A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare This information is provided for your review only and is not for any distribution...A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  2. Combat Simulation Modeling in Naval Special Warfare Mission Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    This thesis explores the potential role of combat simulation modeling in the Naval Special Warfare mission planning cycle. It discusses methods for...at the tactical level. The thesis concludes by discussing additional applications of combat simulation modeling within the Naval Special Warfare community and makes recommendations for its effective and efficient implementation.

  3. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    5 Irregular conflicts such as counterinsurgency and stability operations are typically protracted in nature ...but growing audience began to question the nature of future threats.30 Martin Van Creveld’s, The Transformation of War31 described recent changes in...the nature of military conflict and the future of warfare. Van Creveld argued that conventional warfare between states was being replaced with the

  4. Information Fusion and Visualisation in Anti Asymmetric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Information Fusion and Visualisation in Anti Asymmetric Warfare Felix Opitz, Thilo Trapp, Kaeye Dästner, Thomas Kausch Defence and Communications...Anti Asymmetric Warfare Felix Opitz, Thilo Trapp, Kaeye Dästner, Thomas Kausch IST-063/RWS-010 Workshop on Visualising Network Information Seite 2

  5. Screening for peripheral neuropathy in chemical warfare victims.

    PubMed

    Holisaz, Mohammad Taghi; Rayegani, Seyyed Mansoor; Hafezy, Rahmatollah; Khedmat, Hossein; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein K

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in chemical warfare victims. We speculated that peripheral neuropathy is a late complication of exposure to chemical warfare agents. Late complications of exposure to chemical warfare agents are not well known and are poorly discussed in the existing literature. Scientific data regarding delayed complications are sparse, but this warrants recognition, especially when the clinician has to treat chemical warfare victims. The hazards of organophosphate pesticides and several toxins, although recognized to some extent, are, however, different from the hazards of chemical warfare agents which are far more serious. In this study, 100 chemical warfare patients, with varying degrees of exposure and an average age of 37.2+/-9.0 years, were examined clinically and studied electrodiagnostically from January 2002 to January 2003. Five of these patients proved to be suffering from axonal neuropathy. This rate was significantly higher than that found in the normal population. Our data indicate that chemical warfare agents may cause peripheral neuropathy in chemical warfare victims. In conclusion, organophosphorous agents used against Iranian troops during the war on Iran correlate with delayed neuropathy in these victims.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Warfare: Identification of Winning Factors with a Focus on Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    conflicts. Selected variables from both types of conflict were synthesized using a descriptive statistics and decision tree methodology to identify...both types of conflict were synthesized using a descriptive statistics and decision tree methodology to identify important trends in warfare. The...VI. CLASSIFICATION AND REGRESSION TREE MODELS ........................187 A. INTRODUCTION

  7. Zone Defense -- Anti-Submarine Warfare Strategy in the age of Littoral Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) iv ABSTRACT ZONE DEFENSE – ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE STRATEGY...22  Significance of Thesis in Relation to Existing Literature...after the Cold War.” MIT Security Studies Program. http://web.mit.edu/SSP/Publications/confseries/ASW/ASW_Report.html [accessed July 7, 2008], 3

  8. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    SciTech Connect

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  9. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  10. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  11. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM.

  12. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  13. Sensor fusion with application to electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzalari, Robert M.; Van Alstine, Edward

    1999-03-01

    The Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate, Survivability/Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Division mission is to provide affordable aircraft and ground electronic sensor/systems and signature management technologies which enhance survivability and lethality of US and International Forces. Since 1992, efforts have been undertaken in the area of Situational Awareness and Dominant Battlespace Knowledge. These include the Radar Deception and Jamming Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD), Survivability and Targeting System Integration, Integrated Situation Awareness and Targeting ATD, Combat Identification, Ground Vehicle Situational Awareness, and Combined Electronic Intelligence Target Correlation. This paper will address the Situational Awareness process as it relates to the integration of Electronic Warfare (EW) with targeting and intelligence and information warfare systems. Discussion will be presented on the Sensor Fusion, Situation Assessment and Response Management Strategies. Sensor Fusion includes the association, correlation, and combination of data and information from single and multiple sources to achieve refined position and identity estimates, and complete and timely assessments of situations and threats as well as their significance. Situation Assessment includes the process of interpreting and expressing the environmnet based on situation abstract products and information from technical and doctrinal data bases. Finally, Response Management provides the centralized, adaptable control of all renewable and expendable countermeasure assets resulting in optimization of the response to the threat environment.

  14. The Future of Warfare and Impact of Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    cyber warfare is occurring as a preferred method of conflict between large players on the global stage. Smaller players also have reasons to avoid conventional warfare and remain hidden. In Iraq and Afghanistan, those who fight against us attempt to remain hidden. The individual who places an improvised explosive device (IED) attempts to engage us without exposure or identification. Those who aid the individual emplacing an IED do so with hidden networks of support. The IED is an anonymous weapon. Both cyber warfare and insurgent use of IEDs depend

  15. Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    s c h o o l o f S Y S T E M S a n d L O G I S T I C S education service research Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare Maj...DATE MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare 5a...AFIT Cyber 200/300 Courses Cyber Warfare IDE Program 34 Special Emphasis On… Enterprise Integration (Active Directory, PKI) Security

  16. The Cyber Warfare Professional: Realizations for Developing the Next Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    consequences for the others. However, just as airpower soon emerged as a revolution in military affairs during the early twentieth century, so may cyber warfare become the next revolution for the new millennium.

  17. Design and implementation of intelligent electronic warfare decision making algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hsin-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Kuo; Hsueh, Chi-Shun

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetic signals and the requirements of timely response have been a rapid growth in modern electronic warfare. Although jammers are limited resources, it is possible to achieve the best electronic warfare efficiency by tactical decisions. This paper proposes the intelligent electronic warfare decision support system. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid algorithm, Digital Pheromone Particle Swarm Optimization, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). We use PSO to solve the problem and combine the concept of pheromones in ACO to accumulate more useful information in spatial solving process and speed up finding the optimal solution. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal solution in reasonable computation time by using the method of matrix conversion in SFLA. The results indicated that jammer allocation was more effective. The system based on the hybrid algorithm provides electronic warfare commanders with critical information to assist commanders in effectively managing the complex electromagnetic battlefield.

  18. Stability Study for Ultra-Dilute Chemical Warfare Agent ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The purpose of this project was to determine the stability over time of the ultra-dilute chemical warfare agent (CWA) analytical standard solutions in dichloromethane and hexane for the five CWAs under normal conditions of storage and use.

  19. Command and Control for Large-Scale Hybrid Warfare Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-05

    conceptualize , design, manage, and implement increas- ingly complex rules and missions successfully. ADEC has a promising structure wherein control and... photography , radar, electronic warfare, satellites (communications, reconnais- sance), and advances in navigation such as magnetic com- pass and global

  20. Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-30

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 JUL 10-30 JUN 12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Naval Special Warfare Group 4 Injury Prevention and Human Performance...from suboptimal biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and physiological characteristics and is further compounded with poor or inadequate nutrition . The...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance

  1. Networked enabled sensors for the future soldier in urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Clive L.; Robinson, Colin

    2004-11-01

    In Urban Warfare, the enemy is at close range; snipers are almost always present; stress is extremely high; and the opposing force is frequently indistinguishable from the civilian population. On-going events in the Middle East and the general rise in world-wide terrorism has shown that small cells of "terrorist" forces are able to inflict severe developments in Urban Warfare sensors and their possible role.

  2. The Airpower Advantage in Future Warfare: The Need for Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    organized violence is criminal profit, cultur- ally induced and licensed recreation, or just sheer hooliganism on a large scale, it cannot be warfare...but these are very early years and there is ample cause for concern already. The good news is that unlike the twentieth century from 1917 until 1991...instead to fit that still improving competence into a truly holistic approach to warfare. That approach, in its turn, needs to fit into a genu - inely

  3. The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and Information Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    information confrontation operations across the elec- tromagnetic spectrum. In doing so, as Dr. Wortzel’s monograph explains, the PLA used innovative means...and in- formation confrontation operations across the electro- magnetic spectrum. As this monograph explains, the PLA used innovative means to...information warfare concepts as a barometer of how the PLA approached the concept, by 2007 the threads of integrated network electronic warfare

  4. Issues and Requirements for Cybersecurity in Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    as simple as denial of service attacks and some as complex as attacks that exploit cyber vulnerabilities in order to alter key networks and software...and software security in light of the network centric warfare paradigm. In view of the need and threat, we present a new strategy for cyber defense...in the cyber battlespace in support of network centric warfare. Next, the paper presets a discussion of background material necessary to understand

  5. Fourth Generation Warfare and Its Impact on the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In 1989, the authors of an article entitled, "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation ," offered a glimpse of the future rooted in the...decline of the West in a world rife with cultural conflicts and the powerful influences of a form of cultural Marxism known as political correctness...were combining in America to create conditions for a new generation of warfare. Their vision included a form of warfare that bypassed the military

  6. Performance Evaluation of Network Centric Warfare Oriented Intelligent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Performance Evaluation o f Network Centric Warfare Oriented Intelligent Systems Edward Dawidowicz, Member, IEEE Abstract The concepts o f Network...performance evaluation o f NCW oriented intelligent systems . The warfighter desires the ’right’ information at the ’right’ time. Such information can be...to 00-00-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance Evaluation of Network Centric Warfare Oriented Intelligent Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  7. [Biological warfare, bioterrorism and public health].

    PubMed

    da Silva, L J

    2001-01-01

    Biological agents as weapons are not new to mankind. For centuries and into the present, biological warfare has been the subject of much research and speculation, but little action. Their limited use has probably been due to fear of unexpected counter-effects and doubts about their efficiency as weapons. Recently a new form of terrorism employing infectious agents has emerged slowly and without much fanfare, until the recent events with Bacillus anthracis in the United States. Smallpox is potentially the most devastating of these agents. Less than 25 years after the eradication of smallpox, the public health field is now forced to deal with the possibility of its re-introduction. The author discusses the scenario of smallpox re-introduction into Brazil.

  8. Microbes, warfare, religion, and human institutions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, R J; Lee, N C

    1986-03-01

    A significant number of practicing microbiologists are not aware of the historical impact of infectious agents on the development of human institutions. Microbes have played a profound role in warfare, religion, migration of populations, art, and in diplomacy. Boundaries of nations have changed as a result of microbial diseases. Infectious agents have terminated some kingdoms and elevated others. There is a need for microbiologists to have a historical perspective of some of the major ways in which a pathogen may influence civilized populations. Conditions may exist in contemporary society for a repeat of some of the kinds of plagues suffered by previous societies. The purpose of this paper is to review examples of situations where pathogenic microbes have forced societal modifications on centers of human population.

  9. Biological warfare from a dermatologic perspective.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Jeffrey J

    2003-07-01

    Biological warfare agents have been used in this century by both organized armed forces and terrorist organizations. Beset with many problems that limit their tactical value on the battlefield, such "weapons of mass destruction" have tremendous terror appeal. Unusual presentations or clustering of diseases associated with biowarfare might alert the clinician that an attack has occurred. The clinical presentations, current recommended treatments, and preventive measures of agents such as anthrax, smallpox, plague, and the viral hemorrhagic fevers are discussed, as well as some of the issues that have been raised as authorities are considering how and when to resume smallpox vaccinations. References focus on current Internet web sites, which will provide up-to-date information and advice for allergists with immunization questions or who feel they might have encountered a patient with one of these diseases.

  10. Biological agents: weapons of warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Broussard, L A

    2001-12-01

    The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularaemia), filoviruses (Ebola hemorrrhagic fever and Marburg hemorrhagic fever), and arenaviruses Lassa (Lassa fever) and Junin (Argentine hemorrhagic fever). The pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these agents are discussed. Rapid identification and diagnosis using molecular diagnostic techniques such as PCR is an essential element in the establishment of coordinated laboratory response systems and is the focus of current research and development. Molecular techniques for detection and identification of these organisms are reviewed.

  11. The impacts of modern warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Francis, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and 'informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  12. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Munro, Nancy B; Watson, Annetta Paule; King, J.; Hauschild, Veronique

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  13. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare: Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare : Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force by Craig Stallard, Squadron leader, Royal...in the conduct of cyber warfare . The 2009 Defence White Paper provided some clarity by indentifying cyber warfare as critical to the maintenance...of national security, but left open the most important issue: should cyber warfare be a joint engagement or a service oriented fight? The RAAF

  15. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and...Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  16. Developing a Hybrid Virtualization Platform Design for Cyber Warfare Training and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    CYBER WARFARE TRAINING AND EDUCATION THESIS Kyle E. Stewart 2nd...Government. AFIT/GCE/ENG/10-06 DEVELOPING A HYBRID VIRTUALIZATION PLATFORM DESIGN FOR CYBER WARFARE TRAINING...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GCE/ENG/10-06 DEVELOPING A HYBRID VIRTUALIZATION PLATFORM DESIGN FOR CYBER WARFARE

  17. Major disaster management in chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Betts-Symonds, G

    1994-07-01

    A disaster is internationally defined as: 'a catastrophic event which, relative to the manpower and resources available, overwhelms a healthcare facility and usually occurs in a short period of time'. War produces such events following every major engagement, resulting in continuous streams of casualties with injuries reflecting the type of campaign being fought and weapons used. Chemical weapons are designed more to injure than to kill, as has been demonstrated in conflicts that have involved the use of such weapons where mortality has been 3-5%. However, the use of such weapons when overlaid on conventional injury cause added medical problems along with a massive tactical contamination problem. It is therefore essential that disaster planning and training takes account of these hazards in areas where such a threat exists, in order to save the maximum number of lives and prevent secondary casualties among hospital and rescue staff. The principles outlined in this paper apply equally well to civilian disasters involving the many hazardous materials of industry being transported daily on roads, railways and in the air. This paper will give an overview of the nature of chemical weapons and of some of the medical/tactical problems when disaster involves chemical warfare agents.

  18. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  19. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  20. IRST: a key system in modern warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missirian, Jean-Michel; Ducruet, Laurent

    1997-08-01

    A naval infra red search and track (IRST) system is a passive surveillance device capable of detecting and tracking air and surface threats in the region where electromagnetic sensors are less efficient, typically within a few degrees around the horizon. The evolution in anti ship sea skimming missiles performances has outlined the benefit that can be gained from infrared systems in ship self-defense. The complementary nature of radar and IRST systems can also be exploited to full advantage in the field of multisensor data fusion. The combined use of radar and infrared secures the detection by redundancy of data; it substantially enhances target tracking, classification and identification and reduces the combat system's reaction time. Designing an IRST implies matching technical choices with operational requirements, and this under increasingly stringent cost constraints. This paper first reminds the benefits that can be obtained with an IRST system in the context of modern naval warfare, then retraces the evolutions from the first generation IRST systems, such as VAMPIR, to the second-generation systems now entering service. A general presentation of the current SAGEM SA IRST family is also made for naval, air and ground-based applications.

  1. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  2. Chemical warfare agents: emergency medical and emergency public health issues.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R J; Waeckerle, J F; Sharp, T W; Lillibridge, S R

    1999-08-01

    The threat of exposure to chemical warfare agents has traditionally been considered a military issue. Several recent events have demonstrated that civilians may also be exposed to these agents. The intentional or unintentional release of a chemical warfare agent in a civilian community has the potential to create thousands of casualties, thereby overwhelming local health and medical resources. The resources of US communities to respond to chemical incidents have been designed primarily for industrial agents, but must be expanded and developed regarding incident management, agent detection, protection of emergency personnel, and clinical care. We present an overview of the risk that chemical warfare agents presently pose to civilian populations and a discussion of the emergency medical and emergency public health issues related to preparedness and response.

  3. [The spectrum of symptoms associated with biological warfare].

    PubMed

    Yinnon, Amos M; Katz, Lior H; Robenshtok, Eyal; Schlesinger, Yechiel; Brenner, Baruch; Raveh, David

    2002-05-01

    There are hundreds of potential agents that could be used in biological warfare or bioterrorism: bacteria, viruses and toxins. There are no similarities between clinical presentations of organisms or toxins belonging to specific microbial families. Therefore, it is important for the physician, required to cope with an unusual disease or outbreak among his patients, to become familiar with the various symptoms that victims of biological warfare or bioterrorism may present. To describe the six most common groups of symptoms expected in the above setting. The most common symptoms will be described as they appear in nature, because of a fortunate lack of experience with the majority of these agents in biological warfare. Hence, variations of these presentations may be possible. The six most common presentations reviewed are: 1) respiratory tract symptoms; 2) hemorrhagic fevers; 3) meningitis and encephalitis; 4) flaccid paralyses; 5) fever syndromes with rash; and 6) diarrheal syndromes. Additional presentations may be possible due to alterations made in these organisms or development of new agents and mixtures. A list is provided of features that may alert a physician of the possibility of biological warfare or bioterrorism. Knowledge of the principal clinical presentations of victims of biological warfare or bioterrorism is essential to all physicians. This knowledge may contribute to the early recognition of a cluster of patients, an epidemic, an unusual disease, or biological warfare; quick referral to the emergency department, leading to early microbiological diagnosis; and rapid notification of the Ministry of Health. All these, and the institution of appropriate measures, will ultimately contribute to the survival of individual patients and at-risk populations.

  4. Air Force Cyber Warfare: Now and the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    cyber warfare in popular culture. Most of them focus on the individual s uncanny grasp of technology the ability to exploit any system with a dizzying flurry of keystrokes or to fend off adversaries with a smartphone, a paper clip, and an ingenious plan. These socially awkward heroes and heroines fill the silver screen with visions of a new kind of warfare. Contradicting these stereotypes, Air Force cyber operations are carefully planned and controlled by disciplined, rigorously trained operators. Rather than acting alone, these professionals produce effects in support of

  5. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  6. Chemical warfare: disaster preparation in an Israeli hospital.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, C

    1993-01-01

    The situation in the Middle East makes it imperative that Israeli hospitals be prepared for disaster, particularly that associated with chemical warfare. To prepare for the impact of chemical warfare, Israeli hospitals have designed mass trauma programs, which include staff training and simulated disaster drill exercises. These have been incorporated in the conventional disaster program since 1989. This article provides a brief overview of the trauma program at Beilinson Medical Center in Petach Tikva, Israel, including definition of four stages of injury, guidelines for intervention, and a discussion of the role of the social worker in the disaster plan.

  7. Sources of Occupational Stress and Prevalence of Burnout and Clinical Distress Among U.S. Air Force Cyber Warfare Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    distress within the cyber warfare community. This study involved cyber warfare operators including active duty (n = 376) and civilian contractor and...revealed that when compared to civilian cyber warfare operators, active duty cyber warfare operators are more likely to suffer from the facets of...8217 write-in responses revealed cyber warfare operators attributed shift work, shift changes, and hours worked as the primary sources of high occupational

  8. Biological warfare in a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

    2002-08-01

    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse.

  9. Traditional and Irregular Warfare: A Flawed Concept for Categorizing Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-18

    be completely seen. The flavors do not exceed five, but the changes in the five flavors can never be completely tasted. In warfare the strategic...have been swept away in our lifetime by the elemental violence of war. It is, in fact, a broadening and intensification of the fermentation process

  10. Improving Professional Development for USAF Electronic Warfare Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY IMPROVING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR USAF ELECTRONIC WARFARE OFFICERS by Gregory M. Patschke, Col...and planning. Professional development comprises both continuing education and career development. In the US Air Force, the acquisition, space...and cyberspace communities have professional development programs already in place. For the continuing education half of professional development , the

  11. Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics: Threats and Potential Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-23

    as covert or deniable activities, supported by conventional or nuclear forces, to influence the domestic politics of target countries. These tactics...covert or deniable activities, supported by conventional or nuclear forces, to influence the domestic politics of target countries. Estonia and Latvia...the domestic politics of target countries. By emphasizing that hybrid warfare influences domestic politics, this definition highlights the role of

  12. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  13. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  14. Thirteenth Century Mongol Warfare: Classical Military Strategy of Operational Art?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-05

    two arguments. The first purports that operational art emerged with the industrial revolution. Union General Ulysses S. Grant’s 1864-65 campaign during...wage war. T= CZUAL EUROPEA CAMPAIGN (1241, Genghis Khan died in 1227, but his successors carried on his method of warfare with extraordinary skill

  15. PBT screening profile of chemical warfare agents (CWAs).

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Peter B

    2007-09-05

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been used and disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts have been dumped in the Baltic Sea following the disarmament of Germany after World War II causing environmental concerns. There is a data gap pertaining to chemical warfare agents, environmental properties not the least their aquatic toxicities. Given this gap and the security limitations relating to working with these agents we applied Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) models in accordance with the European Technical Guidance Document (2003) to 22 parent CWA compounds and 27 known hydrolysis products. It was concluded that conservative use of EPI Suite (Q)SAR models can generate reliable and conservative estimations of chemical warfare agents acute aquatic toxicity. From an environmental screening point of view the organoarsenic chemical warfare agents Clark I and Adamsite comprise the most problematic of the screened CWA compounds warranting further investigation in relation to a site specific environmental risk assessment. The mustard gas agents (sulphur and nitrogen) and the organophosphorous CWAs (in particular Sarin and Soman) are a secondary category of concern based upon their toxicity alone. The undertaken approach generates reliable and conservative estimations for most of the studied chemicals but with some exceptions (e.g. the organophosphates).

  16. Airway responses to salbutamol after exposure to chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad H; Attaran, Dawood; Shaffei, Mohammad N

    2008-03-01

    Increased airway responsiveness to beta-agonists is noted in asthmatics and smokers. The lung may be exposed to chemical warfare agents such as mustard gas and pulmonary complications of exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. There is little understanding of airway hyperresponsiveness to beta-agonist drugs in chemical war victims and this study examined airway responsiveness to salbutamol in victims of chemical warfare. The threshold concentrations of inhaled salbutamol required for a 20% change in FEV(1) as PC(20), or a 35% change in specific airway conductance (sGaw) as PC(35) were measured in 22 persons exposed to chemical warfare and 15 normal control subjects. In 11 of the 22 subjects PC(20) salbutamol could be measured and in 15 of the 22 subjects PC(35) salbutamol could be measured. This group of patients was the responder group (PC(20) = 10.79 and PC(35) = 8.55 mg/L) and in them the concentration of salbutamol needed for a response was significantly lower than that required in normal controls (PC(20) = 237.68 and PC(35) = 88.72 mg/L, P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FEV(1) and PC(20) salbutamol (r = 0.815, P < 0.001). These results showed increased airway responsiveness to salbutamol in most subjects exposed to chemical warfare; this was correlated with airway calibre.

  17. Final MTI Data Report: Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.

    2003-03-17

    During the period from February 2001 to August 2002, paved-surface (tarmac) temperatures were collected at the Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center. This effort was led by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), with the assistance of base personnel, as part of SRTC's ground truth mission for the U.S. Department of Energy's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite.

  18. The changing face of posttraumatic stress disorder in modern warfare.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duncan; Heffernan, Kristi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined aspects of modern warfare and determined whether they have changed the clinical presentation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The relationship between PTSD, mild traumatic brain injury, unmanned aerial vehicle operations and women in combat examined. It was concluded that there are significant changes in how contemporary combat veterans may present with PTSD.

  19. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  20. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  1. Modifying Intratheater Airlift for Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    Pilatus PC-12, a single-engine turboprop with several configuration options. The U-28A 12 is certified to land on dirt and grass strips and is equipped...experience that can match the requirements of a host nation whether they are ready for C-17s or a Pilatus PC-6. The key in BPC is “providing the right tech

  2. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of public domain and acquired lands of the United States for the protection of all species of...

  3. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of public domain and acquired lands of the United States for the protection of all species of...

  4. 43 CFR 3101.2-2 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3101.2-2 Section 3101.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. An acreage limitation separate from, but equal to the acreage limitation for public domain...

  5. 43 CFR 3101.2-2 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3101.2-2 Section 3101.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. An acreage limitation separate from, but equal to the acreage limitation for public domain...

  6. 43 CFR 3101.2-2 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3101.2-2 Section 3101.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. An acreage limitation separate from, but equal to the acreage limitation for public domain...

  7. 43 CFR 3101.2-2 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3101.2-2 Section 3101.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. An acreage limitation separate from, but equal to the acreage limitation for public domain...

  8. Warfare-related Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction Using a Bioprosthetic Regenerate Template and Negative Pressure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Jacob J.; Sheppard, Forest R.; Gage, Fred A.; Kumar, Anand R.; Liston, William A.; Elster, Eric A.; Dunne, James R.; Blankenship, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government. We are military service members (or employees of the US Government). This work was prepared as part of our official duties. Title 17 U.S.C. 105 provides that “Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government.” Title 17 U.S.C. 101 defines a US Government work as a work prepared by a military service member or employee of the US Government as part of that person's official duties. Warfare-related torso/abdominal wounds are often unique and complex and can pose a significant reconstructive challenge. The objective of this manuscript is to report the unique and successful management of a complex warfare-related abdominal wound. A dermal regenerate template in combination with negative pressure wound therapy was used to reconstitute lateral abdominal wall integrity after radical debridement and control of a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the torso. Adjunctive continuous negative pressure (vacuum assisted closure) therapy was used to provide external coverage and encourage the formation of granulation tissue. With this combination therapy, torso wound size decreased in surface area by 82% and the underlying musculofascial defect decreased by 64%. Neovascularization of a 55-cm2 acellular dermal graft was achieved as evidenced by surface granulation and complete survival of a partial-thickness skin graft. In our patient with a complex war injury, advanced tissue replacement techniques and negative pressure wound therapy resulted in a decreased abdominal wall defect, a restoration of abdominal wall integrity/domain, and allowed for concurrent surgical treatment of complex intra-abdominal injuries. PMID:19529754

  9. Mine/Countermine Problems During Winter Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    INFORMATION ON THE MINE/COUNTERMINE WORKSHOP USACRREL, hANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 21-23 OCTOBER 1980 Registration list Aubin, Maj. Thomas , U.S. Army Engineer...703) 664-4895. Romanko, Thomas , U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005. Tarlow, Irving, U.S. Army Natick...speed and offensive action, estab- lish the need for U.S. forces to field flexible and versatile tacics, cech - niques, and weapons systems. Land mines are

  10. 2008 13th Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-23

    O, HQMC 2:45-3: 15 PM Break 3: 15 -5: 15 PM Industry Panel Moderator: Mr. Terry O’Brien Corporate Director, Navy Amphibious Programs...30-9: 15 AM Marine Corps Aviation in Support of the Long War Brigadier General Jon Davis, USMC Deputy Assistant Commandant Aviation, HQMC 9: 15 -9:45... 15 AM Ground Equipment Requirements PEO, Land Systems, Marine Corps Systems Command (Invited) 11: 15 -11:45 AM Enhanced Company Operations Concept

  11. 2007 Expeditionary Warfare Conference (12th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-25

    NORTHCOM requirements (1 per year) • MIREM funding restored by CPF for FY08 – Provide timely unit, system and TTP assessment and analysis that is useful to...the Battle in the Littorals Personal Exoskeleton : Integrated Power, Armor, Comms, and Combat Systems Unmanned Land Transport, Sensor, and Combat...Work The Problem Thus, We Were Lucky….. And…. We Focused On Exploiting Our Good Fortune “TACAMO” OUR STRATEGY Restore The Fleet- “The 600 Ship Navy

  12. The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare, Spring 2008 - Project 08-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Global Innovation and Strategy Center The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare Spring 2008 – Project 08-01 May 2008...and Measurement of Cyber Warfare N/A N/A N/A 08-01Dobitz, Kyle Haas, Brad Holtje, Michael Jokerst, Amanda Ochsner, Geoff Silva, Stephanie...research team as critical for purposes of cyber act characterization: Motivation, Intent, Target, Effects, and Actors. cyberspace, cyber warfare , targets

  13. Tests of Level B Suits - Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Tests of Level B Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary Robert S. Lindsay April...Final; Jan 98 – Jun 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tests of Level B Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants...Occupational Safety and Health Level B∗ suit designs were tested to assess their capability to protect in a chemical warfare agent

  14. Cognitive depth and hybrid warfare: exploring the nature of unique time, space, and logic frames.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    Cognitive Depth and Hybrid Warfare: Exploring the Nature of Unique Time, Space , and Logic Frames A Monograph by MAJ Jerrid K. Allen US...Depth and Hybrid Warfare: Exploring the Nature of Unique Time, Space , and Logic Frames 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...strategy informed by unique time, space , and logic frames. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Threats, Hybrid Warfare, Gray Zones, Hezbollah, Israel, Second

  15. Seeking Shadows in the Sky: The Strategy of Air Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    feasibility of the concept of air guerilla warfare, and the final chapter explores the implications of air guerrilla warfare for the current and future...called this form of fighting guerrilla—“little war”—and with these harassment tactics, the guerrilleros sapped the strength of the French and thus...and to enhance surprise attacks.34 In the Napoleonic Wars, the French faced irregular warfare not only from the guerrilleros in Spain, but also from

  16. Seeking Shadows in the Sky: The Strategy of Air Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    weighs the evidence to determine the feasibility of the concept of air guerilla warfare and also explores the implications of air guerrilla warfare for...the guerrilleros sapped the strength of the French and thus set the stage for their eventual expulsion from the Iber- ian Peninsula by the Duke of...irregular warfare not only from the guerrilleros in Spain but also from partisans in Russia. Lt Col Denis Davydov led a small regular unit operating in

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de’ Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de’ Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event. PMID:12194776

  4. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  5. Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa.

    PubMed

    Wheelis, Mark

    2002-09-01

    On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de' Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de' Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event.

  6. Mustard: a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Saladi, R N; Smith, E; Persaud, A N

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most important vesicant agents, the destructive properties of mustards on the skin, eyes and respiratory system, combined with a lack of antidote, makes them effective weapons. Such weapons are inexpensive, easily obtainable and frequently stockpiled. Sulphur mustard (mustard gas) has been used as a chemical warfare agent in at least 10 conflicts. In this article, the use of mustard as a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism is outlined. The dose-dependent effects of acute sulphur mustard exposure on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system are described, as well as the possible extents of injuries, the mechanisms of action and the long-term complications. Prevention and management of mustard exposure are briefly discussed. The need for awareness and preparedness in the dermatological community regarding mustard exposure is emphasized.

  7. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  8. Smart Climatology Applications for Undersea Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    project specifications. Green shading indicates resolution finer than 1 degree, global domain, and at least a 30- year period. Table from World...climatologies. 1. Generalized Digital Environmental Model Ocean Climatology Over 100 years worth of ocean observations are available in the form of various...R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40- year re-analysis project . Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437-471. Kistler, R., and Co

  9. Portable ClO2 for Biological Warfare Decon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    electrochemical ClO2 generation technology reported previously provides an effective decon system for mustard, VX and biological agents it is...current ClO2 system to produce a decon system for use against all chemical and biological warfare agents. Summary of previous work Several...many of them proved to be reactive with ClO2 itself and so could not be incorporated into the system. Some of the lead nucleophiles are shown in

  10. Badges of Immobilized Enzymes: Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    integrity of the cross-linked polymer. In contrast, the model of laccase based on the crystal structure depicts a lysine in the active site...enzymes that differentially hydrolyze chemical warfare agents c Enzyme Type Distinguishing Characteristics AChE, BChE Inhibited by OPs Laccase ...the solution is first exposed to OPAA and then ChE is not inhibited, then the likely OP is soman while if the solution if first exposed to laccase , and

  11. Transforming the Czech Armed Forces to Information Age Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-09

    concepts; organizational changes in ACR and changes for SFNEC implementation. TRANSFOMING THE CZECH ARMED FORCES TO INFORMATION AGE WARFARE...any company -level formation serving as part of a NATO-led multinational operation must be “capable of operating integrated in an NATO NEC environment...subordinates can use robustly shared information for better interaction, which enhances effectiveness and agility . Lack of Empowerment. ACR Pub-53-01-1

  12. Realistic and Affordable Cyberware Opponents for the Information Warfare Battlespace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    red team capability. This red team will enable standardized evaluation of defenses and allow command...cyber red team and a methodology for the development of the cyber red team . We motivate and highlight the need for the cyber red team for defense...training and defensive systems evaluation, discuss the requirements for the information warfare cyber red team , and elaborate our vision for its

  13. USMC Electronic Warfare 2025: Trading Expertise for Advanced Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-15

    airborne electronic warlare during the transition period away from legacy equipment. EA-6B pilots and Electroilic Countermeasures Officers ( ECMOs ...Electronic Warfare (EW) capability. As an EA-6B Electronic Countenneasures Officer ( ECMO ), I anticipate that both the United States Marine Corps and all... ECMOs . An increased workload for Radio Battalion will have the same effect that the assumption of an additional function of Marine aviation will have on

  14. Electronic warfare in the year 2000 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Herskovitz, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    The advantages of a design philosophy emphasizing integrated EW and integrated avionics are detailed. The discussion covers the hierarchy of EW system architecture, evolution of integrated systems, federated architecture, and transition to integrated systems. The performance of the joint surveillance target attack radar system during the operation Desert Storm is examined as an example of the integration approach. Finally, the future directions of electronic warfare systems are outlined. 6 refs.

  15. Proximal detection of chemical warfare agents using PMIRRAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Michael W. P.; Marenco, Armando J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-contact chemical warfare agent detection has been demonstrated on military painted surfaces using polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS). Notably, VX has been detected on chemical agent resistance coating (CARC) paint at a distance of approximately 10 cm. PMIRRAS does not rely on the presence of chemical vapors and is not affected by many common battlefield interferants such as aerosolized dust, water and diesel vapors, etc., making it highly suitable for use in operational environments.

  16. Molecular Rotors for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Maity, Shubhra Bikash; Bouffard, Jean; Kim, Youngmi

    2016-09-20

    The fluorogenic probe o-OH is able to detect and quantify organophosphorus nerve agent mimics in solution and in the vapor phase following immobilization on a solid substrate, making the system a suitable candidate for the field detection of chemical warfare agents. Detection is achieved by the suppression of internal rotation upon phosphorylation of a reactive phenolate, resulting in a large fluorescence "turn-on" response.

  17. New Catalysts for the Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-15

    are the main carbon-containing products that desorb from TiO2 . On the Ni surfaces, approximately the same amount of methane is produced from DMMP...to methyl radicals, methane and H2, the Ni clusters and films are more active for DMMP decomposition at room temperature. Small Ni clusters on TiO2 ...of Cu and Ni nanoparticles supported on titania as model catalysts for the decomposition of chemical warfare agents. Specifically, dimethyl

  18. Next-Generation Undersea Warfare and Undersea Distributed Networked Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-31

    ACRONYMS AlP Air-independent propulsion AOU Area of uncertainty ASCM Antiship cruise missile ASDS Advanced Swimmer Delivery System ASUW Antisurface warfare... maritime commons who may or may not have weapons of mass destruction .4, The 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review6 lays out the force planning construct for...Joint maritime forces, including the Coast Guard, will conduct highly distributed operations with a networked fleet that is more capable of projecting

  19. Interagency Cooperation for Irregular Warfare at the Combatant Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    and more complex forms of warfare.89 Washington Post global security expert and columnist David Ignatius advanced the argument and suggested the...long overdue. Ignatius recently reported that: Gates is right about the imbalance between civilian and military power. A new report by Refugees...www.foreignaffairs.org/20090101faessay88103/robert-m-gates/a­ balanced-strategy.html?mode=print (accessed 17 December 2008). 90David Ignatius

  20. Constitution aims to bring an end to health economy warfare.

    PubMed

    Harding, Mary-Louise; Martin, Daniel

    2005-02-10

    A rough new constitution is being drawn up for the NHS in a bid to prevent health economies sliding into bitter 'Bradford-style' warfare in the era of foundations trusts and payment by results. The rules of engagement are part of a package of measures designed to rescue some of the government's flagship reforms amid warnings from audit chiefs on the impact of PbR.

  1. Improved Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Effectiveness MSSE Capstone Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ...9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER NPS-SE-08-002 11...Aircraft M& S – Modeling and Simulation MOE – Measure of Effectiveness MSSE – Master of Science System Engineering NETWARCOM – Naval Network Warfare

  2. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  3. Towards a Semiotic Information Position Framework for Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Centric Warfare Topics Information and Knowledge Exploration Information and Knowledge Exploitation Concepts, Theory , and Policy Saša...Transformation Roadmaps are based on the NCW theory [45], and NEC is at the core of 16th ICCRTS: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations...situational awareness, has long been a key aspect of military theory . For instance, Clausewitz talked about the “fog of war” [12, p. 104] and Sun Tzu wrote

  4. Azimuthal filter to attenuate ground roll noise in the F-kx-ky domain for land 3D-3C seismic data with uneven acquisition geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo-Lopez, H. S.; Levin, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical component of seismic wave reflections is contaminated by surface noise such as ground roll and secondary scattering from near surface inhomogeneities. A common method for attenuating these, unfortunately often aliased, arrivals is via velocity filtering and/or multichannel stacking. 3D-3C acquisition technology provides two additional sources of information about the surface wave noise that we exploit here: (1) areal receiver coverage, and (2) a pair of horizontal components recorded at the same location as the vertical component. Areal coverage allows us to segregate arrivals at each individual receiver or group of receivers by direction. The horizontal components, having much less compressional reflection body wave energy than the vertical component, provide a template of where to focus our energies on attenuating the surface wave arrivals. (In the simplest setting, the vertical component is a scaled 90 degree phase rotated version of the radial horizontal arrival, a potential third possible lever we have not yet tried to integrate.) The key to our approach is to use the magnitude of the horizontal components to outline a data-adaptive "velocity" filter region in the w-Kx-Ky domain. The big advantage for us is that even in the presence of uneven receiver geometries, the filter automatically tracks through aliasing without manual sculpting and a priori velocity and dispersion estimation. The method was applied to an aliased synthetic dataset based on a five layer earth model which also included shallow scatterers to simulate near-surface inhomogeneities and successfully removed both the ground roll and scatterers from the vertical component (Figure 1).

  5. Echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Rune; Steen-Johnsen, Kari; Wollebæk, Dag; Enjolras, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we take issue with the claim by Sunstein and others that online discussion takes place in echo chambers, and suggest that the dynamics of online debates could be more aptly described by the logic of 'trench warfare', in which opinions are reinforced through contradiction as well as confirmation. We use a unique online survey and an experimental approach to investigate and test echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates. The results show that people do indeed claim to discuss with those who hold opposite views from themselves. Furthermore, our survey experiments suggest that both confirming and contradicting arguments have similar effects on attitude reinforcement. Together, this indicates that both echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics - a situation where attitudes are reinforced through both confirmation and disconfirmation biases - characterize online debates. However, we also find that two-sided neutral arguments have weaker effects on reinforcement than one-sided confirming and contradicting arguments, suggesting that online debates could contribute to collective learning and qualification of arguments.

  6. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. Results: The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P < 0.001, r = − 0.33). So that the patients who had more than three organs involved had lower quality of life. 95.4% of our participants experienced another complication with respiratory complication and the ophthalmologic complications were the most frequent accompanying condition. Conclusions: The results imply that chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life. PMID:25031863

  7. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-05-01

    Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P < 0.001, r = - 0.33). So that the patients who had more than three organs involved had lower quality of life. 95.4% of our participants experienced another complication with respiratory complication and the ophthalmologic complications were the most frequent accompanying condition. The results imply that chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life.

  8. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Bolscher, Jan G M; Bikker, Floris J

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF. Furthermore we aimed to increase the antimicrobial potency of the bLF derived peptides by cationic amino acid substitutions. Overall, the bactericidal activity of the peptides could be related to membrane disturbing effects, i.e. membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Those effects were most prominent for the LFchimera. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for displaying antimicrobial activity, as lysine to arginine substitutions resulted in an increased antimicrobial activity, affecting mostly LFampin265-284 whereas arginine to lysine substitutions resulted in a decreased bactericidal activity, predominantly in case of LFcin17-30.

  9. 33 CFR 165.1103 - Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1103 Section 165.1103 Navigation and Navigable... Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San... the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, bound by the following coordinates: 32°43′40.9″ N,...

  10. U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare: Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment...U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority...Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority The character of

  11. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  12. Fighting With the Air: Airpower, Violence, and Public Sentiment in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and...within irregular warfare. In response , this thesis uses new geospatial measurements to map civilian sentiment in Yemen. Then, spatiotemporal windows...irregular warfare. In response , this thesis uses new geospatial measurements to map civilian sentiment in Yemen. Then, spatiotemporal windows are

  13. Missed Opportunity? Was Iran s Green Movement an Unconventional Warfare Option?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    MISSED OPPORTUNITY? WAS IRAN’S GREEN MOVEMENT AN UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE OPTION? A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...Missed Opportunity? Was Iran’s Green Movement an Unconventional Warfare Option? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...disputed 2009 Iranian Presidential elections, the Green Movement demonstrated reformist insurgency potential. Capable movement leadership mobilized

  14. China’s Development of Asymmetric Warfare and the Security of Taiwan, Republic of China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or...DETERRENCE AND LIMITED DETERRENCE ................48 D. BALLISTIC MISSILE’S THREAT TO THE ROC...................................49 1. Psycological and...Electronic Warfare GPS Global Positioning System ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile IO Information Operations IW Information Warfare

  15. Tests of Level A Suits - Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Tests of Level A Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary Richard B. Belmonte...AND SUBTITLE Test Results of Level A Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary 5. FUNDING...words) Twelve Level A protective suits were tested for GB and HD permeation swatch testing using modified procedures of TOP

  16. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    DOEpatents

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-04-18

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  17. Information Operations: A Research Aid Includes Coverage of: Information Warfare, Information Assurance, and Infrastructure Protection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    Response Team, Defense Information Systems Agency, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, escrowed encryption standard, multilevel information...systems security initiative (MISSI), and Fortezza encryption card. Characteristics of Information Warfare, Information Warfare Panel 1 Fred Giessler, Ph.D...Directive 42 July 5, 1990 NSD 42 addresses U.S. Government capabilities for securing national security systems against technical exploitation and

  18. 78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center..., lying within the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center and the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest...

  19. Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.

    PubMed

    Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

    2003-08-01

    It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans.

  20. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Non-Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division (EPHD) is currently engaged in research aimed at developing a measure that estimates overall environmental quality at the county level for the United States. This work is being conducted as an effort to learn more about how various environmental factors simultaneously contribute to health disparities in low-income and minority populations, and to better estimate the total environmental and social context to which humans are exposed. This dataset contains the finalized non-transformed variables chosen to represent the Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains of the total environment. This does not represent the final variables for the EQI. The Transformed dataset was used to create the EQI. This dataset is for information purposes only for those who want to see the original non-transformed variables. Six criteria air pollutants and 81 hazardous air pollutants are included in this dataset. Data sources are the EPA's Air Quality system (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/) and the National-scale Air Toxics Assessment (http://www.epa.gov/nata/). Variables are average pollutant concentrations or emissions for 2000-2005 at the county level for all counties in the United States. Data on water impairment, waste permits, beach closures, domestic water source, deposition for 9 pollutants, drought st

  1. Al Qaeda and Fourth Generation Warfare as its Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    thatthose who use Fourth Generation Warfare will not fight just a conventional military battIe , but will use the political, economic, and social...34OmCEOFM.UfAGEMENT’NID BtJDO£T, PAPERWORK:REl)UCllONPROJEC’T(0104-01S8) WASHINGTON,DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (LEAVE BLANK) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE...as a terrorist organization, based upon the early tactics it used , primarily bombings against U.S. interests overseas. However, since the U.S. led

  2. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  3. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.

  4. Block-Periodized Training Improves Physiological and Tactically Relevant Performance in Naval Special Warfare Operators.

    PubMed

    Abt, John P; Oliver, Jonathan M; Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Lovalekar, Mita T; Beals, Kim; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Human performance training and prevention strategies are necessary to promote physical readiness and mitigate musculoskeletal injuries of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operator. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of 2 training programs when performed during a training evolution of Operators. A total of 85 Operators (experimental: n = 46, age: 29.4 ± 5.5 years, height: 176.7 ± 6.4 cm, mass: 86.7 ± 11.6 kg; control: n = 39, age: 29.0 ± 6.0 years, height: 177.1 ± 6.3 cm, mass: 85.7 ± 12.5 kg) participated in a trial to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve physical, physiological, and performance characteristics. Operators in the experimental group performed a 12-week block-periodized program, whereas those in the control group performed a nonlinear periodized program. Pretesting/posttesting was performed to assess body composition, aerobic capacity/lactate threshold, muscular strength, flexibility, landing biomechanics, postural stability, and tactically relevant performance. The experimental group demonstrated a significant loss in body fat, fat mass, and body mass compared with the control group, whereas aerobic capacity increased for the both groups. The experimental group demonstrated a significant increase in posterior shoulder flexibility and ankle dorsiflexion, whereas the control group had a significant reduction in shoulder, knee, and ankle flexibility. The experimental group also improved landing strategies and balance. Both groups improved upper and lower muscular power and upper-body muscular endurance, whereas only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in agility and total body muscular strength. Implementation of a population-specific training program provides structured and progressive training effectively and promotes physical readiness concurrently with tactical training without overload.

  5. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-11-01

    for Biological TTarfare Agents... 18° £ c tSf. F c Chapter Page IV TACTICS AND TECHNIQUES ’. 194 General 194 Factors in the Tactical...Page Shipment Clearance ]££ Laboratory Techniques 267 r Insect and Rodent Control l£S Laboratory Accidents and Infections I69 Safety Control at...Historical Reports in the üilitary DevelooB-sat of Biological Warfare " 5^1 War Department and Service Manuals 5£2 APPENDICES PHOTOGRAPHS c G I

  6. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  7. Echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Rune; Steen-Johnsen, Kari; Wollebæk, Dag; Enjolras, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we take issue with the claim by Sunstein and others that online discussion takes place in echo chambers, and suggest that the dynamics of online debates could be more aptly described by the logic of ‘trench warfare’, in which opinions are reinforced through contradiction as well as confirmation. We use a unique online survey and an experimental approach to investigate and test echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates. The results show that people do indeed claim to discuss with those who hold opposite views from themselves. Furthermore, our survey experiments suggest that both confirming and contradicting arguments have similar effects on attitude reinforcement. Together, this indicates that both echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics – a situation where attitudes are reinforced through both confirmation and disconfirmation biases – characterize online debates. However, we also find that two-sided neutral arguments have weaker effects on reinforcement than one-sided confirming and contradicting arguments, suggesting that online debates could contribute to collective learning and qualification of arguments. PMID:28690351

  8. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  9. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Della A; Hulst, Albert G; de Reuver, Leo P J; van Krimpen, Simon H; van Baar, Ben M L

    2007-11-01

    Forensic laboratories do not have the infrastructure to process or store contaminated DNA samples that have been recovered from a crime scene contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents. Previous research has shown that DNA profiles can be recovered from blood exposed to several chemical warfare agents after the agent has been removed. The fate of four toxic agents, sulfur mustard, sodium 2-fluoroacetate, sarin, and diazinon, in a lysis buffer used in Promega DNA IQ extraction protocol was studied to determine if extraction would render the samples safe. Two independent analytical methods were used per agent, selected from GC-MS, 1H NMR, 19F NMR, (31)P NMR, or LC-ES MS. The methods were validated before use. Determinations were carried out in a semi-quantitative way, by direct comparison to standards. Agent levels in the elution buffer were found to be below the detectable limits for mustard, sarin, sodium 2-fluoroacetate or low (<0.02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory.

  10. Considering the Consequences of Space Warfare in the Geosynchronous Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Caroline

    2008-04-01

    Today in the United States there is a rejuvenated push for space weapons and the restraint that was exercised regarding the military use of space during the Cold War is notably absent. This talk aims to demonstrate that space is an unacceptable arena for warfare based on the notion that fragment-generating attacks in space could cause irreparable damage to the hundreds of satellites orbiting the Earth, particularly in the invaluable geosynchronous region. In an effort to highlight the drawbacks of space weapons, a simulation entitled GeoPell modelled the consequences of a kinetic energy ``pellet cluster'' attack initiated at the geostationary altitude. The worst-case estimate predicted by GeoPell indicated that within two years of placing the cluster of one million pellets into a retrograde geostationary orbit and subsequently dispersing the pellets with a bursting charge, almost every geosynchronous satellite would be destroyed. Thus, the technical consequences of this hypothetical space attack suggest space weapons and warfare should be avoided due to the detrimental effects such weapons would have on the orbital environment. Cooperative restraint-based measures, possibly in the form of a ban on space weapons testing and deployment, are necessary to salvage the final frontier.

  11. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  12. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species.

  13. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  14. Chemical warfare agent detectors probe the fogs of war

    SciTech Connect

    Ember, L.R. )

    1994-08-01

    The air-power-dominated Persian Gulf War was the largest massing of coalition forces since World War II. This short conflict left its own intriguing legacy of unanswered questions. Were chemical weapons used in the theater of war Some US Allies, many US service members, and a US Senator believe they were. Yet both US and U.K. defense establishments offer emphatic denials. If Saddam Hussein didn't use chemical weapons, how can the multitude of warning alarms that sounded, alarms indicating the presence of these warfare agents, be explained Did the chemical warfare (CW) agent monitors and detectors the US deployed operate properly And were they sensitive enough to detect not just militarily significant levels, for which troops would have had to don full protective gear, but also very low concentrations of these weapons, levels that Sen. Richard C. Shelby (D.-Ala.) believes may be responsible for the illnesses many Gulf War veterans are now experiencing In this paper, the author addressed these questions.

  15. Performance analysis for standoff biological warfare agent detection lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Jonsson, Per; Kullander, Fredrik

    2007-10-01

    Lidar has been identified as a promising sensor for remote detection of biological warfare agents. Elastic lidar can be used for cloud detection at long ranges and UV laser induced fluorescence can be used for discrimination of bioaerosols against naturally occurring aerosols. This paper analyzes the performance of elastic lidar such as sensitivity, range and angular coverage rate vs. atmospheric visibility, laser and receiver parameters. The analysis of the UV fluorescence lidar is concentrated on estimating the signal strength as a function of range, concentration and optical background level. The performance analysis supports the goal for a practical lidar system to detect 1000 particles/liter at 2-3 km using elastic backscatter and to verify the bioaerosol using fluorescence characterization at 1 km. Some examples of test results with an elastic lidar and a range gated imaging system both at 1.5 μm wavelength are presented together with fluorescence spectra of biological warfare agent simulants measured at an excitation wavelength of 355 nm.

  16. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each.

  17. Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

    1991-02-11

    This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

  18. Landmine Warfare in Support of Multi-domain Battle: Balancing Discrimination and Military Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    minefield marking decreased discrimination in space, especially at the middle and deep ranges. However, elevating the level of authority for landmine...within and between the services and the rapid pace of US ground advances.34 Lack of Joint training on the employment of landmines as part of deep ...systems’ ranges are inferior to GATOR, leading to a loss of deep -strike mine capability against enemy air bases or transportation hubs, as anticipated

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Templer Death Anxiety Scale-Extended in Veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Ebadi, Abbas; Lehto, Rebecca H; Mousavi, Batool; Peyrovi, Hamid; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Templer Death Anxiety Scale-Extended (DAS-E) in veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 211 male veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare completed the 51 item DAS-E. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation was used to assess domain structure of the DAS-E. Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Test–retest reliability was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients for absolute agreement for the individual items and domains. Results: The construct validity of the scale was obtained using exploratory factor analysis that showed four factors with Eigen values of greater than 1 (1, 11 items, α = 0.83; 2, 7 items; α = 0.87; 3, 5 items, α = 0.73; and 4, 4 items, α = 0.75). Test–retest and internal consistency (total alpha) was 0.91 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion: The DAS-E demonstrated suitable validity and reliability among the veterans under study. The factor analysis demonstrated that the DAS-E has a multi-dimensional structure. With consideration of the proper psychometric characteristics, this scale can be used to further research about death anxiety in this population. PMID:25798171

  20. "No practical capabilities": American biological and chemical warfare programs during the Korean war.

    PubMed

    Crane, Conrad C

    2002-01-01

    Much controversy still surrounds accusations that American forces in the Far East during the Korean War used biological warfare against North Korea and China. An analysis of recently declassified documents reveals that, although the United States attempted to accelerate its development and acquisition of such weapons during that period, its efforts to create a viable biological warfare capability were unsuccessful. Plans to similarly expand chemical warfare stocks and capabilities were also frustrated. Technological difficulties, personnel shortages, bureaucratic battles between the armed services, and policy limitations combined to hold back advances in American chemical and biological warfare. In light of the recent fears of terrorist attacks with such weapons, this analysis highlights the great difficulties involved in developing, acquiring, and delivering such capabilities.

  1. Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Investigations of Alleged Use of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Robert W.

    Chemical warfare agents were used extensively throughout the twentieth century. Many such uses are well documented; however some allegations of use of chemical warfare agents were not easily confirmed. During the early 1980s interest developed into investigation of alleged use by analytical techniques, particularly mass spectrometry. Since that time, many combined chromatographic - mass spectrometric methods have been developed, both for application to the analysis of environmental and biomedical samples and for investigation of physiological interactions of chemical warfare agents. Examples are given of some of the investigations in which the author has been involved, including those into Yellow Rain and uses of chemical warfare agents in Iraq and Iran. These examples illustrate the use of combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods and emphasise the importance of controls in analytical investigations.

  2. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in Iranian survivors of chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Farnoosh; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Desai, Mayur M; Falahati, Farahnaz; Kasl, Stanislav; Southwick, Steven

    2006-08-02

    In the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, extensive use of chemical weapons resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. While much is known about the physical consequences of chemical warfare, there is a paucity of information about the long-term effects of chemical attacks on mental health. To assess the long-term psychological impact of chemical warfare on a civilian population. Cross-sectional randomized survey conducted in July 2004 of 153 civilians in 3 towns exposed to warfare in northwestern Iran: Oshnaviyeh (low-intensity conventional warfare), Rabat (high-intensity conventional warfare), and Sardasht (both high-intensity conventional warfare and chemical weapons). Full or partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms were assessed using Farsi versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Hamilton Scale for Anxiety, and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall participation rate was 93%. Respondents had a mean age of 45 years and were all of Kurdish ethnicity. Among individuals exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons, prevalence rates for lifetime PTSD, current PTSD, major anxiety symptoms, and severe depressive symptoms were 59%, 33%, 65%, and 41%, respectively. Among the low-intensity warfare group, the corresponding rates were 8%, 2%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while intermediate rates were found among those exposed to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons (31%, 8%, 26%, and 12%, respectively). Compared with individuals exposed to low-intensity warfare, those exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-59.4), current PTSD (OR, 27.4; 95% CI, 3.4-218.2), increased anxiety symptoms (OR, 14.6; 95% CI, 6.0-35.6), and increased depressive symptoms (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.3-15.9). Exposure to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons was also

  3. [Status and trends of development of chemical warfare agents of imperialist countries].

    PubMed

    Bleyer, H; Stremmel, D

    1985-01-15

    At present the dangerous experiment is made by the USA and their NATO-partners to force the armament also in the field of military chemistry. On the basis of the structural warfare agents of the NATO, which are produced and stored in large quantities and are immediately applicable, with high intensity is worked at the further development of chemical warfare agents. Here the development of new action means for the realisation of an equivalence of the effect between warfare agent and action means is the central point. The principles of action for chemical warfare agents incorporate into the strategy of the imperialistic army commands in a possible war, which is based on the cooperation of mass extermination and conventional arms.

  4. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dolislager, Frederick; Bansleben, Dr. Donald; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  5. A Review of Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasures Against Chemical Warfare and Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    tering. The present challenge of defending against the myriad of expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as threat chemicals and toxins ...in chemical warfare agents, hazardous chemicals, toxins , and even oa ta sithe 1980 to 1988 terroristattacksirJaq-Iran.confli nd ir infectious agents...and Inflammatory Response chemical warfare agents, toxins , and a broader menu of toxic The fact that inflammation causes or contributes to numer

  6. Analysis of Human-Computer Interaction in the Expeditionary Warfare Decision Support System (EDSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Interaction in the Expeditionary Warfare Decision Support System ( EDSS ) Technical Report APL-UW TR 0402 September 2004 by David W. Jones1, Max H. Miller2...benefited from Mr. Glenn Palmer’s extensive EDSS documentation and the research of Elizabeth Kreamer of the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C...UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON • APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY_________________ TR 0402 ii Abstract The Expeditionary Warfare Decision Support System ( EDSS

  7. Evaluation of Littoral Combat Ships for Open-Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    distribution is unlimited EVALUATION OF LITTORAL COMBAT SHIPS FOR OPEN- OCEAN ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE by Team LCS Cohort 311-143O March 2016...March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Capstone project report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF LITTORAL COMBAT SHIPS FOR OPEN- OCEAN ...200 words) This report evaluates the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and its potential to fulfill the open- ocean anti- submarine warfare (ASW) mission

  8. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project. Volume 3. Reference Documentation (Part 2), B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    NUJMBERS Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project, C OPM-91-2964 Volume IIl, Reference Documentation (Part 2).,18 PR 02T02K 6...NAMEIS) AND ADORESSIES 10. SPONSORINGIMONITORINO AGENCY REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command Intelligence Material Management Center...study was to recommend improvements in logistics support for Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) equipment. Report analyzes existing

  9. Anti-Guerilla Warfare in Aceh, Indonesia from 1980-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Anti-Guerilla Warfare In Aceh, Indonesia From 1980-2005 CSC 2005 Subject Area Warfighting ANTI-GUERILLA WARFARE IN ACEH, INDONESIA FROM... Indonesia From 1980-2005 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK... Indonesia . This paper will also examine possible solutions to this conflict. I have focused on recent articles that show that the use of military

  10. Next-generation Expeditionary Warfare Intelligent Training (NEW-IT) Program Summary Booklet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-07

    algorithms for intelligent training capabilities, and it is designed to facilitate the progression of capabilities from TRL 3-4; this effort will...Distribution is Unlimited Next-generation Expeditionary Warfare Intelligent Training (NEW-IT) 3 What’s the Gap? NEW-IT efforts are designed to...Public Release — Distribution is Unlimited Next-generation Expeditionary Warfare Intelligent Training (NEW-IT) 7 Figure 4. High-level design of

  11. The Role of Airpower in Irregular Warfare for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    You have been an awesome mother to our three children and hold the family together through everything. For all of the proofreading papers and... paper focuses on the role that airpower will play in irregular warfare during the 21st century. Recommendations include developing a robust aviation IW...Unconventional Warfare (UW) and Counterinsurgency (COIN), are the heart of IW and are currently the most prevalent forms of IW. Thus, this paper will focus

  12. Evolution of Unmanned Aerial Warfare: A Historical Look at Remote Airpower - A Case Study in Innovation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    EVOLUTION OF UNMANNED AERIAL WARFARE: A HISTORICAL LOOK AT REMOTE AIRPOWER—A CASE STUDY IN INNOVATION A thesis presented to...JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evolution of Unmanned Aerial Warfare: A Historical Look at Remote Airpower—A Case Study in Innovation 5a...MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: Maj Bishane A. Whitmore Thesis Title: Evolution of Unmanned Aerial

  13. Detachment 101 and North Burma: Historical Conditions for Future Unconventional Warfare Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    risks associated with this type of warfare. Historically, UW success or failure has often been contingent upon conditions in the operational...campaign’s success is determined by how well UW operations exploit favorable conditions in the operational environment. North Burma, Detachment 101...on studying past unconventional warfare and special operations to lead the way to future success .9 As the predecessor of both the Central Intelligence

  14. On Pecuniary Resiliency, Early Warning, and Market Imitation under Unrestricted Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    ON PECUNIARY RESILIENCY, EARLY WARNING, AND MARKET IMITATION UNDER UNRESTRICTED WARFARE DISSERTATION David M. Smalenberger, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENS-DS...be used to imply or infer actual mission capability or limitations. AFIT-ENS-DS-15-S-034 ON PECUNIARY RESILIENCY, EARLY WARNING, AND MARKET IMITATION...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS-DS-15-S-034 ON PECUNIARY RESILIENCY, EARLY WARNING, AND MARKET IMITATION UNDER UNRESTRICTED WARFARE David M

  15. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: the case of Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Hoseinzade, Abolfath; Zamani, Elham; Araghizade, Habib Allah

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the dental health of victims of chemical warfare in Iran. Therefore, in this study, we examined the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and saliva secretion rate of chemical warfare victims living in the province of Isfahan in Iran. This case-control study was conducted with 300 chemical warfare victims as the treatment group and 300 age-matched individuals without exposure to chemical warfare as the control group. DMFT and CPITN indices and saliva secretion rate were measured and compared between the two groups. Chemical warfare victims had significantly higher scores than the control group for decayed teeth (4.25 ± 3.88 vs 3.52 ± 2.81; P=0.009), missing teeth (8.79 ± 9.3 vs 6.15 ± 8.43; P<0.001), total DMFT index (17.00 ± 6.72 vs 13.20 ± 6.89; P<0.001), and CPTIN (2.81 ± 0.81 vs 1.71 ± 1.04; P<0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in filled teeth (4.00 ± 4.2 vs 3.59 ± 2.48; P=0.148). The level of saliva secretion in warfare victims was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.71 ± 0.05 vs 3.85 ± 1.95 cc/5 min; P<0.001). Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  16. Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents by GC-MS: First Chemical Cluster CRTI Training Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    GC-FID chromatograms of three munitions- grade mustard samples; HT (top), HS (middle) and HQ (bottom). Identified compounds include: 1. 1,4-thioxane...chemical warfare agents. DRDC Suffield TM 2003-051 Historical background Chemical warfare agents are a group of toxic chemicals that have been defined in...chromatographic separations obtained for three different munitions-grade mustard formulations, HT, HS and HQ, each of which contain 6 DRDC Suffield TM 2003-051

  17. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DOD for computer network defense and computer network attack. As such, it is the trigger-puller for this new branch of warfare. It is the pathfinder ...Forces CNA Capabilit ies CINC & Unif ied Command Support JTF-CNO is the pathfinder organization for new warfare area Tailored CINC Support Teams... Lisa Hoffman, “A Surprise: Fewer Cyber-Attacks after 9-11,” Scripps Howard News Service available at URL: <www.knowstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk

  18. New Bottom Roughness Calculation from Multibeam Echo Sounders for Mine Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    ROUGHNESS CALCULATION FROM MULTIBEAM ECHO SOUNDERS FOR MINE WARFARE by Patrick J. Earls September 2012 Thesis Advisor: Peter Chu Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Bottom Roughness Calculation from Multibeam Echo Sounders for Mine Warfare 5. FUNDING...around these objects to make detection more difficult. High resolution (1 m × 1 m) seafloor data collected by the Navy using multibeam echo sounder (EM710

  19. Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    gap between the dynamic 21st - century environment and our 20th- century bureaucracy. Their initiative and perse- verance allow us to succeed in our...September–October 2015 | 85 Views Twenty-First- Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War Strategic Agility Maj Michael W. Benitez, USAF America’s...SUBTITLE Twenty-First- Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  20. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side. PMID:21240320

  1. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  2. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  3. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  4. Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

  5. Three-dimensional visualization of buildings for urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoennessen, Ulrich; Gross, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    Future conflicts will probably lead the armed forces also into regions, for which topographical data are missing as well as out of date. Here IMINT must support the planning and transaction of military operations through improved target recognition in combination with topographical information. High-resolution LIDAR data, multi-spectral image data and GIS with orthorectified elevation data, combined with 3Dimage maps with high geometrical and spatial precision integrated in a network (Smart Sensor Web, SSW), open new additional possibilities of the reconnaissance. To improve reconnaissance, we investigate the 3D-modeling of built up areas including texturing and visualization for the observer. In a future joint-sensor system the information of several sensors should be used in common and should also be combined with non-imaging knowledge (Rapid Terrain Visualization, RTV). By this, the technology is a key technology for military applications in urban warfare and in the battle against terrorism.

  6. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  7. The impact of warfare on the soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

  8. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  9. [Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare].

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Vidal-Asensi, S

    2010-01-01

    Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, the high absorption of the liquid form through the skin or the vapor form on inhalation may cause substantial systemic effects. Here we analyze these effects, treatment of intoxication, and long-term sequelae, drawing on our experience and a review of the literature.

  10. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  11. RNA 'Information Warfare' in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, Thomas; van Kan, Jan A L; Grant-Downton, Robert T

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory non-coding RNAs are emerging as key players in host-pathogen interactions. Small RNAs such as microRNAs are implicated in regulating plant transcripts involved in immunity and defence. Surprisingly, RNAs with silencing properties can be translocated from plant hosts to various invading pathogens and pests. Small RNAs are now confirmed virulence factors, with the first report of fungal RNAs that travel to host cells and hijack post-transcriptional regulatory machinery to suppress host defence. Here, we argue that trans-organism movement of RNAs represents a common mechanism of control in diverse interactions between plants and other eukaryotes. We suggest that extracellular vesicles are the key to such RNA movement events. Plant pathosystems serve as excellent experimental models to dissect RNA 'information warfare' and other RNA-mediated interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dermatological aspects in the risk of biological warfare].

    PubMed

    Carsuzaa, F; Boyé, T; Debord, T; Guennoc, B; Fournier, B; Cavallo, J-D

    2005-01-29

    The possible cutaneous manifestations of infectious biological warfare are multiple and vary depending on the agent used. An ulcerous and/or necrotic syndrome and/or regional lymphadenitis syndrome are possible with anthrax, tularaemia, bubonic plague and emission of trichotecene mycotoxins. A vesiculo-pustular syndrome with fever is provoked by smallpox, melioidosis and glanders. A purpural and/or haemorrhagic syndrome is seen during haemorrhagic fever viruses and septicaemic plague. These cutaneous manifestations are excellent markers that orient and alert when they occur in a context of a situation at risk, when several cases are observed in a usually non-exposed population and with extra-dermatological syndromes. They permit the early initiation of treatment.

  13. Old dogs or new tricks: chemical warfare at the millennium.

    PubMed

    Hay, A

    2000-01-01

    There were about 50,000 deaths from chemical agents in the First World War and 7,000 deaths in the Kurdish population of Iraq from mustard gas and nerve agents. Signatories to the 1925 Geneva Protocol forswore first use of chemical warfare, but were allowed to maintain stockpiles, and there were no sanctions against use. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which entered into force in 1997, establishes timetables for declaration of current and past CW activity and destruction of stocks. The Convention allows inspection of suspect sites. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons has been established to give effect to the CWC, which, as of June 1999, has 125 States Parties. Progress in reporting and destroying CW agents is described. It is essential that participation in the CWC becomes universal, but until this is the case monitoring by other agencies will be needed.

  14. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  15. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Noort, D; Benschop, H P; Black, R M

    2002-10-15

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, confirmation of nonexposure, verification of nonadherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention, health surveillance, and forensic purposes. The methods are either based on mass spectrometric or immunochemical analysis of CWA adducts with DNA or proteins or based on mass spectrometric analysis of urine or plasma metabolites that result from hydrolysis and/or glutathione conjugation. Several of the methods have been successfully applied to actual cases.

  16. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

  17. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

  18. The DTIC Review. Volume 2, Number 1: Land Mine Warfare: Detection and Clearance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    center and is about I 1 degrees displaced from the earth’s axis of rotation. A magnetometer is a sensor which is designed to measure this field. There are...two main variations among magnetometers . These are total field magnetometers and vector magnetometers . The first is a non-directional device which...magnetic field which lies parallel to their sensitive axis. Total field magnetometers include proton precession and optically pumped magnetometers . Vector

  19. From Gettysburg to the Gulf and Beyond: Coping With Revolutionary Technological Change in Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    sixteenth century revolution in astronomy. Until then, astronomers shared the Ptolemaic view of the universe--that all other heavenly bodies orbited the...earth. However, astronomical observations increasingly conflicted with Ptolemaic predictions. To eliminate the conflict, Coperni- cus developed his...Doctrine, strategy, tactics, techniques, defense pro- grams, and weapon systems --all are developed from this set of fundamental "truths." Some

  20. U. S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory. Volume II Appendix B. Task Sheets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    screwdrivers , sized for screws in the galvanometer, centimeter scale for measuring fuze and charges, demolition cap crimper, wire and fuze cutter...HelI i copte rsI 10-M-71 Liquid Projector, Feasibility 2’ Q I-A -72 Portable Pumping System �- N-72 High Performance Helicopter Utility Hoist 11e_...71 AN/PPS-14 RVN Refurbishment 05-P-71 Polycarbonate Lens Caps B-454 06-P-71 IPL Operational Evaluations B-455 07-P-7l Detection of Submerged Targets

  1. An Australian Land Force for Conflict in a World Without Precedent (Future Warfare Concept Paper)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    chaos of future conflict. Discussion: In order to gain the best effect from the greater lethality of its weapon systems , and ensure its own...have and will continue to greatly enhance the lethality of weapon systems ; this will also change tactics and organizations as it has in the past... chaos of future conflict. Intended to 5 replace Industrial Age infantry brigades, the smaller ETF possesses greater combat weight. While possessing

  2. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  3. Challenges in Global Land Use/Land Cover Change Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    For the purposes of projecting and anticipating human-induced land use change at the global scale, much work remains in the systematic mapping and modeling of world-wide land uses and their related dynamics. In particular, research has focused on tropical deforestation, loss of prime agricultural land, loss of wild land and open space, and the spread of urbanization. Fifteen years of experience in modeling land use and land cover change at the regional and city level with the cellular automata model SLEUTH, including cross city and regional comparisons, has led to an ability to comment on the challenges and constraints that apply to global level land use change modeling. Some issues are common to other modeling domains, such as scaling, earth geometry, and model coupling. Others relate to geographical scaling of human activity, while some are issues of data fusion and international interoperability. Grid computing now offers the prospect of global land use change simulation. This presentation summarizes what barriers face global scale land use modeling, but also highlights the benefits of such modeling activity on global change research. An approach to converting land use maps and forecasts into environmental impact measurements is proposed. Using such an approach means that multitemporal mapping, often using remotely sensed sources, and forecasting can also yield results showing the overall and disaggregated status of the environment.

  4. Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-09

    Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation Prepared for The US-China Economic and...the People?s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation 2 US-China Economic and Security Review

  5. USAF Cyber Capability Development: A Vision for Future Cyber Warfare & a Concept for Education of Cyberspace Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Significant and interrelated problems are hindering the Air Force’s development of cyber warfare capabilities. The first is a lack of awareness about...why the AF has chosen to take cyber warfare on as a core capability on par with air and space. The second stems from the lack of a commonly...the cyber capabilities needed in the future? The contributions of this research include a strategic vision for future cyber warfare capabilities that

  6. Emerging Roles of Combat Communication Squadrons in Cyber Warfare as Related to Computer Network Attack, Defense and Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    EMERGING ROLES OF COMBAT COMMUNICATION SQUADRONS IN CYBER WARFARE AS RELATED TO COMPUTER NETWORK ATTACK, DEFENSE AND EXPLOITATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...Communication Squadrons in Cyber Warfare as Related to Computer Network Attack, Defense and Exploitation GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty...Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Cyber Warfare Michael J. Myers Major, USAF June 2011

  7. A Square Peg in a Round Hole: A Case Study of Center Gravity Application in Counter Insurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    D.C.: Potomac Books, 2010. Griffith, Samuel B. The Illustrated Art of War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Guevara , Ernesto Che, Brian... Guevara provided another approach to insurgency, encapsulated in the concept of the foco, which he described in his 1960 work Guerrilla Warfare. The... Guevara , Guerrilla Warfare, edited by Brian Loveman and Thomas Davies, (Oxford: SR Books, 1997), 7. 21 Guevara , Guerrilla Warfare, 256. 22 Guevara

  8. Land grants and the U.S. Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (Forest Service) has a long, shared history with the land grants of northern New Mexico. During the land grant adjudication process after U.S. conquest, much common land from both Spanish and Mexican land grants was declared public domain, eventually becoming part of the northern and central New Mexico National Forests. These forests were...

  9. Modern warfare as a significant form of zoogeomorphic disturbance upon the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupy, Joseph P.; Koehler, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The damage exerted by warfare on the physical landscape is one, of many, anthropogenic impacts upon the environment. Bombturbation is a term that describes the impacts of explosive munitions upon the landscape. Bombturbation, like many other forms of zoogeomorphology, is a disruptive force, capable of moving large amounts of sediments, and denuding landscapes to the point where changes in micro and mesotopography have long-term implications. The long term implication of bombturbative actions depends on the type and duration of explosive device that rendered the disturbance, and the geographic context of the landscape disturbed; i.e. cultural and physical factors. Recovery from bombturbative activity, in the context of this research, is measured by vegetative regrowth and soil development in cratered disturbances. A comparison and contrast between the two battlefields of Verdun, France and Khe Sanh, Vietnam show that bombturbative actions have significantly altered the topography at each location, thus influencing surface runoff and processes of soil development. Principals of the Runge pedogenic model, or the energy of water moving through the soil profile, best explain how the varying climate and parent material at each location influence post disturbance soil development rates. Whereas the data collected at Verdun suggest that explosive munitions have put that landscape on diverging path of development, thus rendering it much different post-disturbance landscape, Khe Sanh displays much different recovery patterns. Preliminary research at Khe Sanh indicates that reforestation and soil development following disturbance are not so much influenced by bombturbative patterns as land use activities in the area of study.

  10. Land Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater land application, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as the history, development, philosophy, design, models, and case studies of land application. A list of 41 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Land Use.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use in the Narragansett Bay Watershed (NBW) is subject to conversion, and these changes influence the Watershed’s hydrologic functions. Changes of natural habitat such as wetlands and forests to urban lands have impacted how water is delivered to rivers and lakes, to g...

  12. The Abbott and Costello Effect: Who’s on What, and What’s Where When? A Human-Centered Method to Investigate Network Centric Warfare Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    1 B . NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE...7 B . TEAM PERFORMANCE ...................................................................... 7 C. VIRTUAL...19 A. OVERVIEW ........................................................................................ 19 B . VENUE

  13. Anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin and their ecological significance: the Verdun Forest, NE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Matos Machado, Rémi; Amat, Jean-Paul; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Bétard, François; Bilodeau, Clélia; Jacquemot, Stéphanie; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    By its unprecedented industrial character, the First World War marked landscapes like no other conflict in the world. As a result of artillery bombardment and building facilities, the relief suffered major disturbances giving rise to millions anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin on the Western front: shell craters, trenches, shelters and gun sites. This landscape made of bumps and holes that dominated the lands of West Flanders and North-eastern France during the four years of war took chaotic aspects on the great battle sites. In some areas, substrate crushing by repeated bombings resulted in a field lowering of several metres. Although these geomorphological legacies of war are still present on these scarred lands, their effects on local environment and on present-day biodiversity patterns are not fully understood. On the battlefield of Verdun, where a huge number and range of conflict-induced landforms may be observed, special attention is being paid to the ecological significance of these anthropogenic landforms in a current landscape matrix dominated by forest. In 2013, an airborne LiDAR mission conducted over the battlefield has brought to light the relief inherited from the fighting that was until now concealed by the Verdun forest planted in the 1930's. Through a digital terrain model (DTM) with centimetre level accuracy, it is now possible to observe the smallest traces of the fighting. A first programmatic mapping work allowed to inventory and to locate these reliefs on the whole 10,000 hectares covered by the DTM. Also, the calculation of their geometry enabled us to quantify the erosion rate due to the military activities on the battlefield. On the basis of these morphometric measurements, a typology was developed to better appreciate the morphological diversity of conflict-induced landforms. The results show that these anthropogenic landforms are generally hollow. Because of this particular morphology, the conflict-induced landforms provide

  14. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  15. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhanshan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic

  16. Gender Differences in the Impact of Warfare Exposure on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joyce M.; Lee, Lewina O.; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. METHODS Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. FINDINGS Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. In men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared to those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. In women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women, but in men, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared to those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. PMID:25442366

  17. Gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joyce M; Lee, Lewina O; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. Among men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared with those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. Among women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women; in men, however, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared with those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  19. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek... danger zone in the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County,...

  20. Swatch Test Results of Phase 2 Commercial Chemical Protective Gloves to Challenge by Chemical Warfare Agents: Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    TEST RESULTS OF PHASE 2 COMMERCIAL CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE GLOVES TO CHALLENGE BY CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS : SUMMARY REPORT Robert S...Swatch testing Permeation testing GB Chemical protective gloves 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 53 16. PRICE CODE 17... warfare (CW) agent environment. Swatches of material from each glove design were tested for resistance to

  1. Effectiveness of Unmanned Surface Vehicles in Anti-submarine Warfare with the Goal of Protecting a High Value Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    200 words) Littoral anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations generally focus on deterring and eliminating enemy diesel -electric submarines from...submarine warfare (ASW) operations generally focus on deterring and eliminating enemy diesel -electric submarines from transit routes and protecting...2  Figure 2.  A diesel -electric submarine (image from Jane’s Fighting Ships, https

  2. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime.

  3. Microbiological, biological, and chemical weapons of warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ronald A; Brown, Brent R; Hutchins, James B; Iandolo, John J; Jackson, Rhett; Slater, Leonard N; Bronze, Michael S

    2002-06-01

    Microbiological, biological, and chemical toxins have been employed in warfare and in terrorist attacks. In this era, it is imperative that health care providers are familiar with illnesses caused by these agents. Botulinum toxin produces a descending flaccid paralysis. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B produces a syndrome of fever, nausea, and diarrhea and may produce a pulmonary syndrome if aerosolized. Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin could possibly be aerosolized to produce acute pulmonary edema. Ricin intoxication can manifest as gastrointestinal hemorrhage after ingestion, severe muscle necrosis after intramuscular injection, and acute pulmonary disease after inhalation. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase and thus produce symptoms of increased cholinergic activity. Ammonia, chlorine, vinyl chloride, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, tear gas, and zinc chloride primarily injure the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. Sulfur mustard (and nitrogen mustard) are vesicant and alkylating agents. Cyanide poisoning ranges from sudden-onset headache and drowsiness to severe hypoxemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Health care providers should be familiar with the medical consequences of toxin exposure, and understand the pathophysiology and management of resulting illness.

  4. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  5. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to ‘morally disengage’ from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top ‘looking down’, or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521) and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354) during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a) community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable) levels of blatant dehumanization, (b) blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c) the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict. PMID:28746412

  6. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

    2011-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX.

  7. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  8. BACTERIAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE-The Current Status.

    PubMed

    Coggins, C H

    1960-08-01

    For fourteen years public attention has been focused so sharply on atomic weapons as to lose sight of other, less spectacular but equally significant advances in the art of warfare. In the shadows cast by brilliant research in nuclear physics are hidden startling advances in the field of chemical and biological weapons. These weapons, as now developed, are not only capable of producing mass casualties quite comparable with those of atomic bombs, but they also possess certain advantages which may make them the weapons of choice for an unscrupulous enemy. If war should come, it is the medical profession which will have the sole responsibility for protecting the citizens of California against these weapons, and we can therefore delay no longer in acquainting ourselves with their potentialities and characteristics. In this task, we are working under two serious handicaps. The first is that our classical medical training affords little appreciation of the real danger, and the second is the cloak of secrecy surrounding the entire subject.

  9. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  10. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    PubMed Central

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  11. Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

    1999-07-01

    The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

  12. Polyoxometalate oxidation of chemical warfare agent simulants in fluorinated media.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P; Hill, C L

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this research is to determine if appropriate polyoxometalates (POMs) could be added to perfluoropolyether topical skin protectants (TSPs) currently available or under development to give these TSPs the additional capability of detecting and in some cases catalytically decontaminating sulfur mustard (HD) and perhaps other chemical warfare agents (CWAs) at ambient temperatures. Detection would be based on significant color changes in the POM upon reduction by the CWA whereas catalytic decontamination would be based on the ability of some families of POMs to catalyze O(2)-based oxidations by more than one mechanism. Five POMs (10-25% by weight) were each suspended in ca. 5 g of the perfluoropolyether (PFPE, CF(3)O[-CF(CF(3))CF(2)O-](x)(-CF(2)O-)(y)CF(3)) 'barrier' cream. A stoichiometric amount of HD sulfide simulant was layered on top of each POM-cream mixture. The short reaction times were recorded for each system. Mechanistic studies were conducted using an PFPE oil analog of the barrier cream in a microemulsion with the sulfide simulant, POM, PFPE surfactant and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol co-surfactant. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  14. Land Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  15. Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Land logistics, the reader is invited to consider the broad applicability of similar frameworks to other military domains. 2. Conceptual ...UNCLASSIFIED 2 Figure 1: Conceptual breakdown that underpins the Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land logistics The first question...several judgement- based elements. In particular, refinement, verification and validation of many of the framework elements were conducted in a

  16. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  17. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon.

  18. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  19. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  20. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  1. 32 CFR 644.380 - Restoration of lands made available by other Government agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restoration of lands made available by other... Lands Obtained on A Temporary Basis from Another Federal Agency § 644.380 Restoration of lands made.... Restoration of public domain land will not be initiated until the determination is made that the land is...

  2. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control.

  3. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  5. Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

  6. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  7. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  8. Anaerobic toxicity and biodegradability of hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sklyar, V I; Mosolova, T P; Kucherenko, I A; Degtyarova, N N; Varfolomeyev, S D; Kalyuzhnyi, S V

    1999-08-01

    The toxicity and biodegradability of the main hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents were investigated under methanogenic conditions. Among the tested substances, only MPhA does not have any toxic effect with regard to the aceticlastic methanogenic activity. The toxicity of other compounds varied between moderate (TDG, mercaptoethanol) to strong (ethanolamine, diisobutyl ester of MPhA). Biodegradability tests showed that all the products of chemical detoxification of mustard gas (ethanolamine, ethylene glycol, TDG, mercaptoethanol) can be biomineralized under methanogenic conditions. On the contrary, phosphorus-containing compounds from the chemical detoxification of nerve warfare agents (Sarin, Soman, Vx-gases) are quite persistent under these conditions.

  9. The history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Noah, Donald L; Huebner, Kermit D; Darling, Robert G; Waeckerle, Joseph F

    2002-05-01

    The inevitable conclusion is that the availability of biological warfare agents and supporting technologic infrastructure, coupled with the fact that there are many people motivated to do harm to the United States, means that America must be prepared to defend her homeland against biological agents. Some have argued to the contrary, that the threat and risks from a biological weapon attack are not to be considered serious, because [39]: They've not been used yet on a large scale so they probably won't be in the near future. Their use is so morally repugnant that they probably won't be used at all. The technologic hurdles associated with isolating, growing, purifying, weaponizing, and disseminating adequate quantities of pathologic agents are so high that only the most advanced laboratories could attempt the process. Similar to a 'nuclear winter,' the aftermath of a biological attack is so unthinkable that none would attempt it. Unfortunately, the trends associated with biotechnology globalization, terrorist group dynamics, and global/regional politics render these beliefs untenable and inappropriate, as recent events have underscored. To that end, the United States has accelerated its program of defense against biological weapons, as it must. Biological weapons are such dreadful weapons of uniqueness and complexity that a specific defense strategy is paramount. Elements of this program include pharmaceutical stockpiles, heightened surveillance systems, energized vaccine development programs, and comprehensive training initiatives. Although the depth and breadth of these efforts are unprecedented, above all these efforts is the absolute necessity for medical and public health care professionals to be educated and actively involved. These professionals are the sine qua non of future defensive readiness. This is just the start; unfortunately, there is no end yet in sight.

  10. Chemical Warfare and the Gulf War: A Review of the Impact on Gulf Veterans’ Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    revriew by several expert panels pretreatment for chemical agent esre 7 Further re- have deterriniied: that no evidence exists that chemical warfare... tpo gophosphousneitveak .:J emiimiscienit:i evidence concernming associations between -agents to l&ý 393-401- which Gulf Warveteran-snmay have been

  11. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  12. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  13. DESI-MS/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Paul A.

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A "dip and shoot" method was also developed for the rapid sampling and DESI-MS analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by simply dipping fused silica, stainless steel or SPME tips into the organic or aqueous samples. Replicate analyses were completed within several minutes under ambient conditions with no sample pre-treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput. The developed sample handling and analysis method was applied to the determination of chemical warfare agent content in samples containing unknown chemical and/or biological warfare agents. Ottawa sand was spiked with sulfur mustard, extracted with water and autoclaved to ensure sterility. Sulfur mustard was completely hydrolysed during the extraction/autoclave step and thiodiglycol was identified by DESI-MS, with analyses generally being completed within 1 min using the "dip and shoot" method.

  14. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Albert T. . E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  15. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Albert T

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10(-21)), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  16. Biological Warfare Agents, Toxins, Vectors and Pests as Biological Terrorism Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    cholera virus) 5. Classical swine fever virus (Hog cholera virus) 6. Newcastle disease virus 7. Rinderpest virus 8. Pest des petits ruminants virus...BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, TOXINS, VECTORS AND PESTS AS BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM AGENTS Slavko Bokan MOD of the Republic of Croatia... pests that include the invertebrates such as insects and arthropods with potential terrorism and military use are presented. INTRODUCTION Many

  17. Novel Photocatalysts and Processes for the Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    1 NOVEL PHOTOCATALYSTS AND PROCESSES FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS (CWA) Panagiotis G. Smirniotis Department of Chemical...Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0171 ABSTRACT The present research project aims at developing novel photocatalysts ...reactors including "closed cycle" systems, photocatalysts , which operate with visible/solar radiation and finally use of novel processes such as

  18. Initial Training of Surface Warfare Officers: A Historical Perspective from World War II to 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-12

    Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair John T. Kuehn, Ph.D. , Member Thomas G. Bradbeer, MMAS, M.A. , Member CDR Peter J...Warfare Officers. 3 seamanship to weapons employment. Reportedly Captain John Paul Jones, Continental...of a fine tradition of effective and gallant naval battles, which stretches back to Captain John Paul Jones in the American Revolution. Surface

  19. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  20. Instructional Development and Classroom Technology: Prototype Classrooms at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; And Others

    The first phase of the process of developing a plan to promote increased use of educational technology by the instructors and students of the U.S. Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS) in Newport, Rhode Island, began with a needs assessment which focused on the mission and organization of the school; the SWOS curriculum and the teaching…

  1. Community, identity, and conflict: Iron Age warfare in the Iberian Northwest.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Inés

    2008-12-01

    This paper proposes a new view of conflict in European Iron Age societies: considering isolationism as an alternative to warfare. Study of the castros (fortified settlements) of the Iberian Northwest suggests the organization of production as a main explanatory element in the emergence of identities based on exclusion and the imposition of communal structures of power. The relationship between these communities must have been one of conflict, and the unequal productive success of domestic units and the requirement of external marriage interchanges created realms of interaction in which internal conflict surely arose. These tendencies were kept in check by controlling settlement growth. Although a conflict-prone situation is documented in the archaeological record, there is no evidence that warfare as an endemic reality created groups of warriors. Warfare-related activity in these Iron Age societies was neither heroic nor hierarchical. Warfare did not determine the form of society but rather was related to the productive and reproductive organization of the societies that engaged in it.

  2. An Evaluation of Bioregulators/Modulators as Terrorism and Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    peptide bioregulators in offensive biological weapons programmes. They are new class of weapons that can damage nervous system, alter moods, trigger...incapacitation. Peptide bioregulators are interesting regulatory molecules for many reasons. Their range of activity covers the entire living system, from...AN EVALUATION OF BIOREGULATORS /MODULATORS AS TERRORISM AND WARFARE AGENTS Slavko Bokan, Zvonko Orehovec MOD of the Republic of

  3. A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    5 2.1.2.2 Arsenicals ...CAs) have been used against military personnel during conventional warfare, however, due to the increasing threat of terrorist activities , the focus...action, lethality or by their persistence (the time they remain active in the environment)5, 9. Potential agents range from the classical CWAs, to DSTO

  4. A Theoretical Exploration of Lawrence of Arabia’s Inner Meanings on Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-05

    Asprey, Robert . War in the shadows: The Guerrilla in history, ( Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2002), 4 2 T.E. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. A...the Solow growth model and the Ricardian model of economic rent, with two classic studies of guerrilla warfare by T.E Lawrence and Mao Zedong. Four

  5. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  6. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  7. Ion mobility spectrometry and its applications in detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Marko A; Anttalainen, Osmo A; Sillanpää, Mika E T

    2010-12-01

    When fast detection of chemical warfare agents in the field is required, the ion mobility spectrometer may be the only suitable option. This article provides an essential survey of the different ion mobility spectrometry detection technologies. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  8. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  9. Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hight Walker, Angela R.; Suenram, Richard D.; Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Woolard, Dwight L.; Wiebach, W.

    1999-01-01

    Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy is an established is an established technique for observing the rotational spectra of molecules and complexes in molecular beams. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are adapting this measurement technology for applications in analytical chemistry. Presently, FTMW spectroscopy is being used to investigate chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors. A FTMW spectroscopy facility has been established at a surety laboratory at the Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, where the capabilities exist for handling these deadly warfare agents. Here, the rotational spectra of Sarin, Soman and DF have been observed and assigned. Also, microwave spectroscopic studies of less toxic precursors such as pinacolyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and thiodiglycol have been carried out at NIST. Tests will be undertaken to assess the potential of using FTMW spectroscopy for detecting trace amounts of chemical-warfare agents and precursors in air. A database of rotational transition frequencies is being compiled for use in conjunction with a FTMW spectrometer to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical weapons. The sensitivity and resolution of FTMW spectroscopy of FTMW spectroscopy suggest that the technique may offer real-time, unequivocal identification of chemical-warfare agents at trace vapor concentrations in air.

  10. Acute Toxicity Estimation and Operational Risk Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    December 2001 Deputy Assistant to The Secretary of Defense Chemical and Biological (Warfare Agent) Defense ((DATSD- CBD ) interim-certified acute...avoidance (detection), protection, decontamination, and medical intervention. d. Compares the DATSD- CBD interim-certified acute toxicity values...defense. 2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. a. Translating Toxicity Information into ORM Terminology. The 2001 DATSD- CBD toxicity

  11. Network Centric Warfare and Its Effect on Unit of Employmentx (UEx) Use of Mission Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-26

    8-9. To understand how the dynamics of the General Staff Channel promoted trust see: Herbert Rosinski , The German Army (New York: Paraeger, 1966... Rosinski , Herbert. The German Army. New York: Paraeger, 1966. Simpkin, Richard E. Race to the Swift: Thoughts on Twenty-First Century Warfare

  12. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  13. The NATO Response Force: Facilitating Coalition Warfare through Technology Transfer and Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    information concerning network architectures, interfaces, protocols, and file structures needed to allow the seamless transfer of information between...planning and agreement on the sharing of network and database architectural and structural information. Network-centric warfare, which is in...gained steam in Europe to move toward a separate “European” security identify, defense capability, and supporting industrial structure . The

  14. Navy Role in Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-04

    1 Edmund Sanders, “U.S. Missile Strike in Somalia Kills 6,” Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2008; Stephanie McCrummen and...Southeast Asia. The Arleigh Burke - class destroyers have also been used in recent irregular warfare capacities, such as the Bainbridge (DDG-96), which

  15. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  16. Laser-based instrumentation for detection of chemical-warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Sander, R.K.; Hartford, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being developed for remote, point, and surface contamination detection of chemical warfare agents. These techniques include optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. Detection limits in the part-per-million to part-per-billion regime have been demonstrated.

  17. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  18. Network Centric Warfare: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    see CRS Report RS21294, Unmanned Vehicles for U.S. Naval Forces: Background and Issues for Congress. 15 Edward A. Smith , “Network Centric Warfare...excess of non- defense-related agencies. While outsourcing may have been initially motivated by CRS-12 42 Patrick Theobald and Sumner Lemon, “R&D

  19. An outbreak of chickenpox in a military field hospital--the implications for biological warfare.

    PubMed Central

    Hepburn, N C; Brooks, T J

    1991-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox with spread to patients and staff on the isolation ward of a British field hospital during the Gulf war is described. The implications for the design and operation of field hospital isolation units should transmissible biological warfare agents be encountered in any future conflict are discussed. PMID:1774746

  20. Russian Perspectives on Network-Centric Warfare: The Key Aim of Serdyukov’s Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    creat- ing the online intelligence library , Intellipedia, a classified version of Wikipedia.36 Indeed, his coverage of these issues was extensive and...Whitehead “Battle Command: Toppling the Tower of Babel ,” Military Review, September-October 2005; Greg Grant, “Network- Centric Warfare Experts Look to

  1. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    PubMed

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  2. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and Overall Navy Needs to Improve Management of Waiver and Deferral Requests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-08

    B E R 8 , 2 0 1 5 Report No. DODIG-2016-003 Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and Overall Navy Needs to Improve Management of Waiver and...2016-003 (Project No. D2015-D000AE-0157.000) │ i Results in Brief Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and Overall Navy Needs to Improve...Management of Waiver and Deferral Requests Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our objective for this audit was to evaluate the Space and Naval Warfare

  3. Estimating areas threatened by contamination from leaking chemical warfare agents dumped into the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 60,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped into the Baltic Sea after World War II (the exact amount is unknown and some sources estimate it as more than 200,000 tons). Dumped munitions still pose a risk of leakage caused by erosion and corrosion, and it is important to know the danger areas. Because of wide dispersion of the dumped munitions, modelling is only one tool that could provide wide image of physical state of the sea at all locations and which could also be used for analysing contamination during a potential leakage. Obviously, it is possible to take samples at each dumpsite, but modelling also allows to develop possible scenarios of leakages under specific physical conditions. For the purpose of analysis of potential leakage a high-resolution model (HRM) of the contamination will be embedded in the hydrodynamic model (HM) of the Baltic Sea. The HRM will use data from general circulation model results of estimated resolution of nearly 2 km. The Parallel Ocean Program will be implemented as the HM for the whole Baltic Sea. Atmospheric data from regional implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) have been used as the top boundary conditions of the HM, and sea level data from Gothenburg had been included into model barotropic equation as lateral boundary conditions. Passive tracer will represent the contamination in the HRM and horizontal resolution of the HRM will be close to 50 meters. Passive tracers will also be implemented in the HM - for comparison of the results. For proper representation of potential leakage of chemical warfare agents the HRM will have included diffusion and advection processes. The results from the HM are going to be interpolated into the HRM domain and then integration will be performed. Based on the implemented simulations, estimated contaminated area and its comparison from the HRM as well as from the HM will be presented. The research work was fund by the European Union (European

  4. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 5. Executive Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-23

    tlel, WI,-I/TT H2100 B .1700 .0850 .2150 I( awout laqv net C4󈨁 F .3321 .16E .157 ,I . support system C426 F .3321 . 1660 1857 rI.n, ,iasolne, 5 K4128...0034 AAFS. M69HC 80685 B .0082 .0037 .0925 . 0046 Generator, 3KW60, NEP-0I6A 80730 8 .0504 .0261 .0620 .0052 Generator, IOKW60, NEP-003A 808 1 8 .0226...1600 .0800 .1600 .0074 Landing veh, FT, LVTP7 E0845 K .1600 .0800 .1620 . 0046 Landing veh, FT, LVTR? E0855 K .1600 .0800 .2231 .0176 Launcher. rkt

  5. Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared

    PubMed Central

    Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Background A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. Methods The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. Results and discussion The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3 – 6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. Conclusion The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent

  6. Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared.

    PubMed

    Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry

    2008-09-08

    A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3-6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent medication contributed to diminishing the reservoir of malaria

  7. Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-26

    Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq A Monograph by Major...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions. searching existing data...Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  8. "Beyond-the-Box" Thinking on Future War: The Art and Science of Unrestricted Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    URW framework : “The anti-Japanese riots that swept China in April? That would be psychological warfare against a major Asian rival. The stage- managed ...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Command And...warfare against the overwhelming conventional power of American military forces. 1 AU/ACSC/1172/AY09 Such a framework unveils a fundamental

  9. Boyd and the Past: A Look at the Utility of Ancient History in the Development of Modern Theories of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    foes. Born Temuchin100 in Mongolia in 1162, Genghis Khan had a genius for organization, administration and planning which he developed into an...BOYD AND THE PAST: A LOOK AT THE UTILITY OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THEORIES OF WARFARE A Monograph by Major Richard M...PAST: A LOOK AT THE UTILITY OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THEORIES OF WARFARE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. The Further Integration of the Intelligence and Surface Warfare Communities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    The establishment of the Information Dominance Corps and the subsequent adjustment of naval resources to accommodate this newly formed cadre provide a ripe opportunity to close the gap between the Surface and Intelligence communities, and in doing so, enhance United States Navy s ability to dominate the global maritime domain.

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in soil and synthetic samples.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Paul A; Hancock, James R; Chenier, Claude L

    2003-01-01

    A packed capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method was developed for the identification of chemical warfare agents, their degradation products and related compounds in synthetic tabun samples and in soil samples collected from a former mustard storage site. A number of organophosphorus and organosulfur compounds that had not been previously characterized were identified, based on acquired high-resolution ESI-MS data. At lower sampling cone voltages, the ESI mass spectra were dominated by protonated, sodiated and protonated acetonitrile adducts and/or their dimers that could be used to confirm the molecular mass of each compound. Structural information was obtained by inducing product ion formation in the ESI interface at higher sampling cone voltages. Representative ESI-MS mass spectra for previously uncharacterized compounds were incorporated into a database as part of an on-going effort in chemical warfare agent detection and identification. The same samples were also analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography (GC)-MS in order to compare an established method with LC-ESI-MS for chemical warfare agent identification. Analysis times and full-scanning sensitivities were similar for both methods, with differences being associated with sample matrix, ease of ionization and compound volatility. GC-MS would be preferred for organic extracts and must be used for the determination of mustard and relatively non-polar organosulfur degradation products, including 1,4- thioxane and 1,4-dithiane, as these compounds do not ionize during ESI-MS. Diols, formed following hydrolysis of mustard and longer-chain sulfur vesicants, may be analyzed using both methods with LC-ESI-MS providing improved chromatographic peak shape. Aqueous samples and extracts would, typically, be analyzed by LC-ESI-MS, since these analyses may be conducted directly without the need for additional sample handling and/or derivatization associated with

  12. Irregular Warfare: Counterterrorism Forces in Support of Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS On October 19th, 2001, a joint special operations task force parachuted onto Objective Rhino , a remote desert landing...the CT force was not decisive in the Afghanistan COIN environment but what the CT force did was create white space for the BSOs to conduct COIN...Operating Concept Version 2.0 (Washington: DC: The Pentagon, May 17, 2010), 4-5. 12Barack H. Obama, National Security Strategy (Washington, DC: The White

  13. Effects-Based Operations: Change in the Nature of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    was so dark the night vision gog- gles and low light TV system didn’t help. Iraqi early warning radars forced Biscone to drop his huge, old bomber...Tomahawk land attack missiles (TLAMs) followed, striking critical electric systems and government decision-making and communications centers. F-15Es...figure 3 depicts simul- taneous attack against the same set of targets. Hitting all elements of an air defense system simultaneously facilitates attacks

  14. Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare for Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-26

    which are designed directly to meet challenges from barriers , obstacles , land mines, and other explosive hazards. These three are breaching operations...Provide Security . Barriers , obstacles , and minefields can be used in critical areas along the flanks of advancing forces to restrict enemy attacks. At...flank security . Shallows, reefs, and other maritime hazards can be used at sea. Existing barriers and obstacles can be strengthened with reinforcing

  15. Bridging the Gap in the Realm of Information Dominance: A Concept of Operations for the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    THE REALM OF INFORMATION DOMINANCE : A CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS FOR THE NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL CENTER FOR CYBER WARFARE by Cynthia R. Duke...Bridging the Gap in the Realm of Information Dominance : A Concept of Operations for the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Cyber Warfare 6...of importance to the U.S. Military service and its allies. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 102 14. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Warfare, Information Dominance 16

  16. Land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Joria, Peter C.; Douglas, David C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documenting the distribution of land-cover types on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain is the foundation for impact assessment and mitigation of potential oil exploration and development. Vegetation maps facilitate wildlife studies by allowing biologists to quantify the availability of important wildlife habitats, investigate the relationships between animal locations and the distribution or juxtaposition of habitat types, and assess or extrapolate habitat characteristics across regional areas.To meet the needs of refuge managers and biologists, satellite imagery was chosen as the most cost-effective method for mapping the large, remote landscape of the 1002 Area.Objectives of our study were the following: 1) evaluate a vegetation classification scheme for use in mapping. 2) determine optimal methods for producing a satellite-based vegetation map that adequately met the needs of the wildlife research and management objectives; 3) produce a digital vegetation map for the Arctic Refuge coastal plain using Lands at-Thematic Mapper(TM) satellite imagery, existing geobotanical classifications, ground data, and aerial photographs, and 4) perform an accuracy assessment of the map.

  17. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  18. An overview of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Black, Robin M

    2008-01-01

    An overview is given of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents. Metabolites, protein, and/or DNA adducts have been identified for most nerve agents and vesicants and validated in experimental animals or in a small number of human exposures. For several agents, metabolites derived from hydrolysis are unsatisfactory biomarkers of exposure because of background levels in the human population. These are assumed to result from environmental exposure to commercial products that contain these hydrolysis products or chemicals that are metabolized to them. In these cases, metabolites derived from glutathione pathways, or covalent adducts with proteins or DNA, provide more definitive biomarkers. Biomarkers for cyanide and phosgene are unsatisfactory as indicators of chemical warfare exposure because of other sources of these chemicals or their metabolites.

  19. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments.

  20. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  1. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Graffelman, J; Hoekstra, R F

    2000-06-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and shortly after periods of war the human secondary sex ratio is higher has received little statistical treatment. In this paper we evaluate the war hypothesis using 3 statistical methods: linear regression, randomization, and time-series analysis. Live birth data from 10 different countries were included. Although we cannot speak of a general phenomenon, statistical evidence for an association between warfare and live birth sex ratio was found for several countries. Regression and randomization test results were in agreement. Time-series analysis showed that most human sex-ratio time series can be described by a common model. The results obtained using intervention models differed somewhat from results obtained by regression methods.

  2. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  3. Experimental examination of ultraviolet Raman cross sections of chemical warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, F.; Landström, L.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, Pär.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering from the commonly used chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl sulfoxide, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphonoacetate was measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 210 to 410 nm using a pulsed laser based spectrometer system with a probing distance of 1.4 m and with a field of view on the target of less than 1mm. For the purpose of comparison with well explored reference liquids the Raman scattering from simulants was measured in the form of an extended liquid surface layer on top of a silicon wafer. This way of measuring enabled direct comparison to the Raman scattering strength from cyclohexane. The reference Raman spectra were used to validate the signal strength of the simulants and the calibration of the experimental set up. Measured UV absorbance functions were used to calculate Raman cross sections. Established Raman cross sections of the simulants make it possible to use them as reference samples when measuring on chemical warfare agents in droplet form.

  4. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  5. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

  6. Training Israeli medical personnel to treat casualties of nuclear, biologic and chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Rubinshtein, Ronen; Robenshtok, Eyal; Eisenkraft, Arik; Vidan, Aviv; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2002-07-01

    Recent events have significantly increased concern about the use of biologic and chemical weapons by terrorists and other countries. Since weapons of mass destruction could result in a huge number of casualties, optimizing our diagnostic and therapeutic skills may help to minimize the morbidity and mortality. The national demands for training in medical aspects of nuclear, biologic and chemical warfare have increased dramatically. While Israeli medical preparedness for non-conventional warfare has improved substantially in recent years especially due to extensive training programs, a standardized course and course materials were not available until recently. We have developed a core curriculum and teaching materials for a 1 or 2 day modular course, including printed materials.

  7. Metal-organic frameworks for the removal of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bobbitt, N Scott; Mendonca, Matthew L; Howarth, Ashlee J; Islamoglu, Timur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-06-06

    Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH3, SO2, NO2, H2S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water. We also examine recent research on the capture and catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and sulfur mustard using metal-organic frameworks.

  8. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. New studies disputing allegations of bacteriological warfare during the Korean War.

    PubMed

    Rolicka, M

    1995-03-01

    In the television series Korea the Unknown War produced jointly by Thames Television (London) and WGBH (Boston) in 1990, General Matthew Ridgway, Commander in Chief of United Nations forces during the Korean War, called the accusations that the United States waged bacteriological warfare "black propaganda." The charges discredited the United States and, despite denials and many international discussions, have not been completely refuted until new. Following studies in archives previously not available for research and after uncovering new sources, many specific examples of black propaganda were discovered that contained false information and lies discrediting the United States. The mechanism of lies, which convinced the Korean population that bacteriological warfare was going on and that the only way not to become victims of the United States' inhuman cruelty was to fight, are shown in this paper.

  10. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System.

  11. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-30

    and explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution. • riverine warfare operations to secure...partnership. Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC) The Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek ...sailors. The Navy established Riverine Group 1 (which oversees the three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006. The three

  12. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-14

    explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution; • riverine warfare operations to secure waterways...Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, was established informally in October 2005 and formally on...Riverine Group 1 (which oversees the three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006. The three current riverine squadrons

  13. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    destroying captured weapon and explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution. • riverine warfare operations...Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, was established informally in October 2005 and formally on...three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006. The three current riverine squadrons were established in 2006-2007. As

  14. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-11

    explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution; • riverine warfare operations to secure waterways...headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, was established informally in October 2005 and formally on January 13, 2006. The creation...900 sailors. The Navy established Riverine Group 1 (which oversees the three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006

  15. Beyond Hearts and Minds: Evaluating U.S. Unconventional Warfare Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    aspects of warfare will either be immediately destroyed or be slowly drained of power until it becomes irrelevant in the international arena . While...one in which the government possesses a monopoly on violence, has sovereignty in a given territory, and is recognized in the international arena ...openly oppose the U.S in the international arena . According to Luttwak, the natural choice becomes a relational-maneuver force that targets the gaps

  16. Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    military and security forces . . . however, training that falls under the rubric of special activities but which requires the support of the Agency’s...2001, senior Special Forces leadership attempted to ensure continued Special Forces viability by placing all Special Forces missions under a broad...unconventional warfare concepts was Major Lawrence Grand assigned under Admiral “Quex” Sinclair, the head of the British Secret or Special

  17. Comparison of Career Perceptions of Female and Male Surface Warfare Officers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    than men when enlisting (18 as compared to 17 for men) and had to have written parental consent if under 21 (as compared to 18 for men). 4. Children of...warfare careers. Achievement Motivation. Achievement motivation may be affected by factors such as parental upbringing (Kagan and Moss, 1962; Stein and...different location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I . 18. 1 definitely fIel that l am in the wrong carer . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .. ....... 19

  18. Forgeting Lessons Learned: The United States Army’s Inability To Embrace Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Counterinsurgency developed during the Iraq War. It will examine the peacekeeping and stability operations that the United States conducted in El...Army’s tendency to under develop stability and counterinsurgency doctrine in favor of conventional warfare doctrine and the effect that has had on...interests of the United States around the world, Soldiers, Sailors, Marines and Airmen well trained in stability operations and counterinsurgency

  19. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2015-02-16

    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR.

  20. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    electronic warfare threats to its ground communication systems, disciplined electronic protection has deteriorated since the end of the Cold War due to...disciplined electronic protection has deteriorated since the end of the Cold War due to waning threats and to an apparent technological superiority. This...CTC Combat training center D/F Direction finder DCGS Distributed Common Ground System DIA Defense Intelligence Agency DOA Direction of arrival