Science.gov

Sample records for lande factor

  1. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  2. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2005-01-01

    Land snails are common invertebrates that fascinate children. Unfortunately, they are seldom used for activities in the science classroom. Snails are inexpensive, take up little space in the classroom, and require only low maintenance, and their learning dividends can be enormous. For example, students can use them in inquiry-based activities that…

  3. Land management versus natural factors in land instability: some examples in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Viola Maria; Bonachea, Jaime; Remondo, Juan; Gómez-Arozamena, Jose; Rivas, Victoria; Barbieri, Matteo; Capocchi, Stefano; Soldati, Mauro; Cendrero, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to test a hypothesis formulated on the basis of former results which considers that there might be a ‘‘global geomorphic change,’’ due to activities related to land management and not determined by climate change, which could be causing an acceleration of geomorphic processes. Possible relationships between some geomorphic processes related to land instability (landslides or sediment generation) and potential triggering factors are analyzed in study areas in northern Spain. The analysis is based on landslide inventories covering different periods, as well as the determination of sedimentation rates. Temporal landslide and sedimentation rate trends are compared with different indicators of human activities (land-use change, logging, forest fires) and with potential natural triggers (rainfall, seismicity). The possible influence of the road network in the distribution of landslides is also analyzed. Results obtained show that there is a general increase of both landslide and sedimentation rates with time that cannot be explained satisfactorily by observed rainfall trends and even less by seismicity. Land use change appears to be by far the main factor leading to land instability, with some changes producing up to a 12-fold increase of landslide rate. A relationship between road network and the spatial distribution of landslides has also been observed. These results do confirm the existence of an acceleration of geomorphic processes in the region, and also suggest that climate-related factors play a limited role in the changes observed.

  4. Comparison of Factorization-Based Filtering for Landing Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCabe, James S.; Brown, Aaron J.; DeMars, Kyle J.; Carson, John M., III

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops and analyzes methods for fusing inertial navigation data with external data, such as data obtained from an altimeter and a star camera. The particular filtering techniques are based upon factorized forms of the Kalman filter, specifically the UDU and Cholesky factorizations. The factorized Kalman filters are utilized to ensure numerical stability of the navigation solution. Simulations are carried out to compare the performance of the different approaches along a lunar descent trajectory using inertial and external data sources. It is found that the factorized forms improve upon conventional filtering techniques in terms of ensuring numerical stability for the investigated landing navigation scenario.

  5. The Landé-g factor in heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, J. L.; Pereyra, P.

    2005-05-01

    We have studied the behavior of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in magnetoresistance under applied magnetic fields with an arbitrary orientation. Different procedures to measure the Landé-g factor have been used in the literature. We propose four unambiguous methods and formulas for the evaluation of this quantity. The Landé-g factor obtained using these formulas compares within the 5% with the reported results of Brosig et al. [1] in InAs - AlSb quantum wells, Bompadre et al. [2] for Bismuth crystals, Kobayashi et al. [3] measuring magnetoresistance as a function of the gate Voltage and F. Fang et al. [4] for InAs - GaSb heterostructure.

  6. Two Empirical Models for Land-falling Hurricane Gust Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Franics J.

    2008-01-01

    Gaussian and lognormal models for gust factors as a function of height and mean windspeed in land-falling hurricanes are presented. The models were empirically derived using data from 2004 hurricanes Frances and Jeanne and independently verified using data from 2005 hurricane Wilma. The data were collected from three wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station with instrumentation at multiple levels from 12 to 500 feet above ground level. An additional 200-foot tower was available for the verification. Mean wind speeds from 15 to 60 knots were included in the data. The models provide formulas for the mean and standard deviation of the gust factor given the mean windspeed and height above ground. These statistics may then be used to assess the probability of exceeding a specified peak wind threshold of operational significance given a specified mean wind speed.

  7. Land use pattern at Alacam mountainous range land (submediterranean-Turkey) due to edaphic and physiographical factors.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Carus, Serdar; Kavgaci, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Soil degradation is perceived as a major threat in the Mediterranean region due to land use pattern and projected climate change. As the high altitudinal mountainous lands are sensitive lands, the land use patterns atAlaçam mountains were investigated in this study. The assessment of land use distribution is arranged with the altitude, exposure, slope and bedrock parameters. The spatial database of project was created using GRASS GIS open source software (GRASS Development Team, 2008). The scanned land use and main rock map of the project area rectified, digitized, and attributes of land use and bedrocks were entered into the database tables. Also raster SRTM3 data were imported into these databases for making physiographical factor (elevation, slope, aspect) maps. Our findings illustrated thatthe whole area of Alaçam mountains is 282 480 ha where most of the area of the mass is located between 700-1300 m asl with 200 585 ha corresponding to 71% of the whole area. We detected two kinds of mis-land use; (1) agricultural activities applied at the slopes above 17% (representing 35 220 ha) and agricultural activities applied on metamorphic rocks (representing 872 ha). Total misuse of lands reached 36 092 ha comprised 12.77% of the whole area.

  8. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    PubMed

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors.

  9. Assessment of land use factors associated with dengue cases in Malaysia using Boosted Regression Trees.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Yoon Ling; Leitão, Pedro J; Lakes, Tobia

    2014-07-01

    The transmission of dengue disease is influenced by complex interactions among vector, host and virus. Land use such as water bodies or certain agricultural practices have been identified as likely risk factors for dengue because of the provision of suitable habitats for the vector. Many studies have focused on the land use factors of dengue vector abundance in small areas but have not yet studied the relationship between land use factors and dengue cases for large regions. This study aims to clarify if land use factors other than human settlements, e.g. different types of agricultural land use, water bodies and forest are associated with reported dengue cases from 2008 to 2010 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. From the correlative relationship, we aim to generate a prediction risk map. We used Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) to account for nonlinearities and interactions between the factors with high predictive accuracies. Our model with a cross-validated performance score (Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve, ROC AUC) of 0.81 showed that the most important land use factors are human settlements (model importance of 39.2%), followed by water bodies (16.1%), mixed horticulture (8.7%), open land (7.5%) and neglected grassland (6.7%). A risk map after 100 model runs with a cross-validated ROC AUC mean of 0.81 (±0.001 s.d.) is presented. Our findings may be an important asset for improving surveillance and control interventions for dengue.

  10. Land cover as an important factor for landslide risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promper, C.; Glade, T.; Puissant, A.; Malet, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Landcover change is a crucial component of hazard and vulnerability in terms of quantification of possible future landslide risk, and the importance for spatial planners but also individuals is obvious. Damage of property, losses of agricultural land, loss of production but also damaged infrastructures and fatalities may be the result of landslide hazards. To avoid these economic damages as well as possible fatalities in the future, a method of assessing spatial but also temporal patterns of landslides is necessary. This study represents results of landcover modeling as a first step to the proposition of scenario of landslide risk for the future. The method used for future land cover analysis is the CLUE modeling framework combining past and actual observed landcover conditions. The model is based on a statistical relationship between the actual land cover and driving forces. The allocation of landcover pixel is modified by possible autonomous developments and competition between land use types. (Verburg et al. 1999) The study area is located in a district in the alpine foreland of Lower Austria: Waidhofen/Ybbs, of about 130km2. The topography is characterized by narrow valleys, flat plateau and steep slopes. The landcover is characterized by region of densely populated areas in the valley bottom along the Ybbs River, and a series of separated farm houses on the top of the plateau. Population density is about 90 persons / km2 which represent the observed population density of Austria. The initial landcover includes forest, grassland, culture, built-up areas and individual farms. Most of the observed developments are controlled by the topography (along the valleys) and the actual road network. The results of the landcover model show different scenarios of changes in the landslide prone landcover types. These maps will be implemented into hazard analysis but also into vulnerability assessment regarding elements at risk. Verburg, P.H., de Koning, G.H.J., Kok, K

  11. A study of some factors influencing military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Verbiest, E

    1985-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 201,977 jumps, carried out by male military parachutists, over a 10-year period, landing injury rates were calculated according to the time of jump (day or night), the type of parachute, and meteorological data. Also, the wind speed, temperature, and the relative humidity at ground level were taken into account. The two types of parachutes used were both static line deployed, non-steerable canopies. The landing injury rate was found to be influenced by the darkness, surface area of the parachute, wind speed, and possibly temperature when higher than 25 degrees C. The influence of surface wind was best described by two segments of line with a cut-off point. The wind speed at the cut-off point is 12.75 k (6.56 m X s-1) for day jumps and 6.75 k (3.47 m X s-1) for night jumps.

  12. Radar PAPIs: human factor issues of EVS landing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Bernd R.; Lorenz, Bernd; Toebben, Helmut H.; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Hecker, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Up to now most Enhanced Vision Systems have been based on IR-sensors. Although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum MMW sensors still have the disadvantage that radar data are often difficult to interpret. Therefore, it's not always possible for the pilot to obtain a reliable detection of runway structures within the radar images. However, prior field tests have shown that the installation of two different types of radar retro-reflectors along the runway can ease the image analysis task significantly and can provide the visual cues necessary to perform precision straight-in landings. A set of corner reflectors has proven suitable to mark the runway edges needed to adjust for lateral deviations and a set of diplane reflectors provided cues to maintain a 3-degree glide path descend. The present study obtains first objective human performance data to examine the question how efficient pilots are in utilizing these visual cues. The study tested seven VFR and seven IFR-rated pilots and used a low-fidelity human-in-the-loop visual tracking task to simulate a straight-in landing. Pilots were required to detect the lateral and vertical tracking error based on the intensity-coded visual cues provided by the simulated radar images. The study compares two display conditions derived from different spatial arrangements of the diplane reflectors that signal the glide path angles. The first, the so-called "Radar-PAPI", was a horizontal row arrangement of four diplanes, and the second, the "Radar VASI", was a two-over-two arrangement of four diplanes. A third condition simulated the existing visual color coded PAPI landing aid and served as a baseline reference. Performance evaluation was based on the calculation of the root-mean-square error for both axis and subjective preference statements of the pilots.

  13. Factors of land abandonment in mountainous Mediterranean areas: the case of Montenegrin settlements.

    PubMed

    Kerckhof, Annelies; Spalevic, Velibor; Van Eetvelde, Veerle; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes have been investigated in the surroundings of 14 rural Montenegrin settlements in order to get specific information about trends in land abandonment since around 1950. Permanently, seasonally and less inhabited settlements with different geographic conditions were studied. This was done by interviewing local inhabitants, which enabled a holistic approach to reveal the underlying processes of land abandonment. According to the observed patterns of land use change, the study sites can be categorized into intensified, urbanized, extensified, overgrown and forested cases. The category of extensified settlements is characterized by a highly reduced agricultural management intensity, resulting in an increase in grasslands and fruit trees at the expense of cropland. This land use change is mainly related to emigrating and aging inhabitants, having less livestock. Such extensive land use is found in both permanently inhabited and abandoned villages. Only some studied settlements became largely overgrown by bushes and forest. The steep average slope gradients and a large distance to the nearest city are explanatory factors of such land abandonment. Land use intensification takes place in low-lying areas located nearby towns.

  14. The Determinant Factors of Regional Development Toward Land Use Change in Deli Serdang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindarto, D.; Sirojuzilam; Badaruddin; Dwira

    2017-03-01

    The concept of regional development Mebidangro (Medan, Binjai, Deli Serdang, and Karo) creating neighboring region hinterland Medan city with Deli Serdang Regency especially in Tembung village, Percut Sei Tuan District. Population structure in Tembung shows occurrence condition of rural-urban change which seen from the sprawl land use change. The aim of the study is to reveal the genius locus as one of land use change factors. The study conducted with quantitative approach intended at obtaining variables which describing several factors forming land use change. Descriptive approach intended to give an idea, justification, and fact-finding with correct interpretation. Data collected through a purposive sampling of 300 respondents who have built the house between 2010 till 2014. With overlay figure/ground technique, scoring analysis, descriptive quantitative and SEM (Structural Equational Models) gained a result that place character/genius locus (p=0,007) potentially as one of the main land use change driving factors besides accessibility (p=0,039), infrastructure (p=0,005), social-economic p=0,038). Topographic (p=0,663) was inversely potentially. The implication of the findings is required intensive control in space utilization considering the rapid change in land use transformation that tend to have the negative impact of urban sprawl.

  15. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Evapotranspiration in Response to Multiple Environmental Factors Simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Thornton, P.; Huang, Maoyi

    2013-04-25

    Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period from 1982 to 2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates. We find that climate dominates the predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and replaces climate to function as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over the North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. The aerosol deposition contribution is the third most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.

  16. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  17. [N2O flux in winter and its affecting factors under different land use patterns].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Zheng; Zhang, Miao-Miao; Qin, Hong-Ling; Hou, Hai-Jun; Chen, Chun-Lan; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2013-08-01

    Due to the low temperature in winter, the emissions of greenhouse gas are often neglected. And the latest research results showed that there is continuous N2O emission in winter, therefore, research on understanding the No2O flux regulation is important for evaluating agricultural soil N2O emission. By using static chamber techniques, the N2O emission from soils under different land use patterns including fallow paddy field, rape cropping, honey pomelo orchard and abandon land in Taoyuan agricultural ecological experimental station of Chinese Academy of Sciences was measured. The results showed that fallow paddy field and rape cropping N2O emissions were obviously higher than those of the honey pomelo orchard and abandon land, and the total N2O flux in winter decreased in the order of rape cropping > fallow paddy field > honey pomelo orchard > abandon land. Cumulative N2O emission was 0.502, 0.392, 0.162 and 0.075 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Fallow paddy field and rape cropping N2O emissions accounted for large proportions of the annual N2O emissions, while honey pomelo orchard and abandon land had small contribution to the annual N2O emissions. The correlation analysis results showed that for different land use patterns, when the soil temperature > 5 degrees C, N2O emissions in winter and soil temperature had significant positive exponential correlation, and had little to do with moisture. This research showed that: when the soil temperature > 5 degrees C, the soil temperature was the leading factor in N2O emissions in winter under different land patterns; When the soil temperature < 5 degrees C, other environmental factors had comprehensive influences on the N2O emissions.

  18. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  19. Regional assessment on the influence of land use related factor on landslide occurrences in Kundasang, Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharir, Kamilia; Simon, Norbert; Roslee, Rodeano

    2016-11-01

    Landslides are caused by human activities for development purposes. This study assesses the influence of land use factors on landslide occurrences in Kundasang, Sabah. This area is a well-known area that is prone to natural geohazards such as landslides and earthquake. Interpretation of aerial photographs was conducted to identify landslide distributions in three assessment years; 1984, 2009, and 2012. From the interpretation, a total of 494 landslides were identified. The land use maps for each year were produced from the same aerial photographs used for the landslide identification. The land use maps were later classified into four classes, namely, forest, barren, built up and agriculture area. Landslide density in each of the land use class was calculated and the initial finding showed that majority of landslides occurred in built up and barren classes especially in the 1984 and 2009 with 53 km2 and 50 km2 respectively. These results indicate that land use activities influence landslide occurrences and some mitigation action must be taken to minimise the impact of landslide occurrences especially in the built up class where this area is mostly occupied by residential area.

  20. Improved land cover and emission factors for modeling biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, D. Y. C.; Wong, P.; Cheung, B. K. H.; Guenther, A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a study of local biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). An improved land cover and emission factor database was developed to estimate Hong Kong emissions using MEGAN, a BVOC emission model developed by Guenther et al. (2006). Field surveys of plant species composition and laboratory measurements of emission factors were combined with other data to improve existing land cover and emission factor data. The BVOC emissions from Hong Kong were calculated for 12 consecutive years from 1995 to 2006. For the year 2006, the total annual BVOC emissions were determined to be 12,400 metric tons or 9.82 × 10 9 g C (BVOC carbon). Isoprene emission accounts for 72%, monoterpene emissions account for 8%, and other VOCs emissions account for the remaining 20%. As expected, seasonal variation results in a higher emission in the summer and a lower emission in the winter, with emission predominantly in day time. A high emission of isoprene occurs for regions, such as Lowest Forest-NT North, dominated by broadleaf trees. The spatial variation of total BVOC is similar to the isoprene spatial variation due to its high contribution. The year to year variability in emissions due to weather was small over the twelve-year period (-1.4%, 2006 to 1995 trendline), but an increasing trend in the annual variation due to an increase in forest land cover can be observed (+7%, 2006 to 1995 trendline). The results of this study demonstrate the importance of accurate land cover inputs for biogenic emission models and indicate that land cover change should be considered for these models.

  1. Visual factors affecting pilots' judgments of the distance to the touchdown point during emergency landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Celeste Marie

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether identifiable visual factors contribute to misperceptions which may occur when a pilot judges the distance to a selected touchdown point during an emergency landing. The importance of two particular visual experiences, which most pilots do not encounter during routine flight operations, was evaluated: (1) the view of the world seen from the unusually steep bank angle in which the pilot may place the airplane while maneuvering at a low altitude, and (2) the added visual distraction of a "windmilling" propeller. The influence of environmental structure was also considered. Studies of these factors were conducted using a visually realistic cockpit mounted within a VisionDomeRTM virtual-reality environment. Behavioral responses were collected from both naive participants and experienced pilots under conditions which represented emergencies initiated at a variety of altitudes and positions with respect to the landing field. The findings indicated that judgments of the distance to the touchdown point made while the airplane is banked and turning are underestimated, whereas judgments made while the airplane is on an unbanked and straight approach to the touchdown point are overestimated. Additionally, pilot experience was associated with improved judgment accuracy during the banked flights, but decreased accuracy on the unbanked flights. In most cases, the windmilling propeller decreased touchdown point judgment accuracy. Consistent visual misperceptions do occur during simulated emergency landings. Incorporating exposure to these misperceptions into the required flight-training curriculum may decrease the accident rate associated with off-airport emergency landings.

  2. Land use and climatic factors structure regional patterns in soil microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Steenwerth, Kerri L.; Jackson, Louise E.; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Although patterns are emerging for macroorganisms, we have limited understanding of the factors determining soil microbial community composition and productivity at large spatial extents. The overall objective of this study was to discern the drivers of microbial community composition at the extent of biogeographical provinces and regions. We hypothesized that factors associated with land use and climate would drive soil microbial community composition and biomass. Location Great Basin Province, Desert Province and California Floristic Province, California, USA. Methods Using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, we compared microbial communities across eight land-use types sampled throughout the State of California, USA (n = 1117). Results The main factor driving composition and microbial biomass was land-use type, especially as related to water availability and disturbance. Dry soils were more enriched in Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, and wetter soils were more enriched in Gram-positive, anaerobic and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Microbial biomass was lowest in ecosystems with the wettest and driest soils. Disturbed soils had less fungal and more Gram-positive bacterial biomass than wildland soils. However, some factors known to influence microbial communities, such as soil pH and specific plant taxa, were not important here. Main conclusions Distinct microbial communities were associated with land-use types and disturbance at the regional extent. Overall, soil water availability was an important determinant of soil microbial community composition. However, because of the inclusion of managed and irrigated agricultural ecosystems, the effect of precipitation was not significant. Effects of environmental and management factors, such as flooding, tillage and irrigation, suggest that agricultural management can have larger effects on soil microbial communities than elevation and precipitation gradients. PMID:24443643

  3. Predicted Landé g-factors for open shell diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Yurchenko, Sergei. N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The program DUO (Yurchenko et al., 2016) provides direct solutions of the nuclear motion Schrödinger equation for the (coupled) potential energy curves of open shell diatomic molecules. Wavefunctions from DUO are used to compute Landé g-factors valid for weak magnetic fields; the results are compared with the idealized predictions of both Hund's case (a) and Hund's case (b) coupling schemes. Test calculations are performed for AlO, NO, CrH and C2. The computed gJ 's both provide a sensitive test of the underlying spectroscopic model used to represent the system and an indication of whether states of the molecule are well-represented by the either of the Hund's cases considered. The computation of Landé g-factors is implemented as a standard option in the latest release of DUO.

  4. Evaluations of land cover risk factors for canine leptospirosis: 94 cases (2002-2009).

    PubMed

    Raghavan, R; Brenner, K; Higgins, J; Van der Merwe, D; Harkin, K R

    2011-09-01

    Associations of land cover/land use variables and the presence of dogs in urban vs. rural address locations were evaluated retrospectively as potential risk factors for canine leptospirosis in Kansas and Nebraska using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The sample included 94 dogs positive for leptospirosis predominantly based on a positive polymerase chain reaction test for leptospires in urine, isolation of leptospires on urine culture, a single reciprocal serum titer of 12,800 or greater, or a four-fold rise in reciprocal serum titers over a 2-4 weeks period; and 185 dogs negative for leptospirosis based on a negative polymerase chain reaction test and reciprocal serum titers less than 400. Land cover features from 2001 National Land Cover Dataset and 2001 Kansas Gap Analysis Program datasets around geocoded addresses of case/control locations were extracted using 2500m buffers, and the presence of dogs' address locations within urban vs. rural areas were estimated in GIS. Multivariate logistic models were used to determine the risk of different land cover variables and address locations to dogs. Medium intensity urban areas (OR=1.805, 95% C.I.=1.396, 2.334), urban areas in general (OR=2.021, 95% C.I.=1.360, 3.003), and having urban address locations (OR=3.732, 95% C.I.=1.935, 7.196 entire study region), were significant risk factors for canine leptospirosis. Dogs regardless of age, sex and breed that live in urban areas are at higher risk of leptospirosis and vaccination should be considered.

  5. A Flight Evaluation of the Factors which Influence the Selection of Landing Approach Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Fred J., III; Cooper, George E.

    1958-01-01

    The factors which influence the selection of landing approach speeds are discussed from the pilot's point of view. Concepts were developed and data were obtained during a landing approach flight investigation of a large number of jet airplane configurations which included straight-wing, swept-wing, and delta-wing airplanes as well as several applications of boundary-layer control. Since the fundamental limitation to further reductions in approach speed on most configurations appeared to be associated with the reduction in the pilot's ability to control flight path angle and airspeed, this problem forms the basis of the report. A simplified equation is presented showing the basic parameters which govern the flight path angle and airspeed changes, and pilot control techniques are discussed in relation to this equation. Attention is given to several independent aerodynamic characteristics which do not affect the flight path angle or airspeed directly but which determine to a large extent the effort and attention required of the pilot in controlling these factors during the approach. These include stall characteristics, stability about all axes, and changes in trim due to thrust adjustments. The report considers the relationship between piloting technique and all of the factors previously mentioned. A piloting technique which was found to be highly desirable for control of high-performance airplanes is described and the pilot's attitudes toward low-speed flight which bear heavily on the selection of landing approach speeds under operational conditions are discussed.

  6. Land factors affecting soil erosion during snow melting: a case study from Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwich, Talal

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major problems facing the mountainous agricultural lands in Lebanon. In order to assess the land factors acting on soil erosion; a study was conducted in the upper watershed of Ibrahim River in the spring months of April, May and June. Water and bed load sediments from six locations alimented by six sub-basins were sampled. Four sub-basins (1, 2, 3 and 6) were dominated by agricultural lands while lands in sub-basins 4 and 7 were occupied by grassland and bare soils. The highest quantities of suspended sediments were found in waters originating from watersheds dominated by agricultural lands, such as Location 2 (713.72 mg L-1 in April 2012). Low clay content and the combination of land occupation (orchards = 71%) and slope (20.7 degrees) caused this ecosystem disturbance. Locations 1, 2, 3 and 6 were alimented by runoff water due to the melting of the snow. For this, the concentrations of sediments decreased by 4 fold between April and May in sub-basin 1 and by 11-14 fold in sub-basins 2, 3 and 6. Globally, some 1669.4 tons of sediments were delivered in the upper river during April. Bed load sediments were separated into 4 classes according to their size. The size of the particles found in the bed load reflected to a large extent the type of soils surrounding the watershed. The range of sand in the regions surrounding locations 6 and 7 was 64% and 82%, while the average in the bed load was 80.9% and 78.25% respectively. The silt content in locations 2, 3 and 5 was well reflected in the concentrations of silt in the bed load. In bed load samples, the exchangeable potassium ranged from 70-250 mg kg-1 in sub-basins dominated by agricultural lands against 20-50 mg kg-1 in sub-basins dominated by grassland and bare rocks. Further quantitative studies need to be conducted especially during the first rains to fully estimate the water load sediments after a prolonged dry season, characterizing the east Mediterranean. Action must be taken for

  7. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that effected the beginning of the Anthropogenic Era (human age) in Turkey and formation of biomes. Destruction of vegetation, soil erosion and land degradation are the most important factors in the formation of anthropogenic biomes in Turkey. For this reason, first of all, a literature review about land degradation, which has been going on for past 300 years in Turkey, and about its causes was made. Changes that have occurred over the last 70 years were studied with the help of aerial photos and satellite images. In addition, studies we have conducted in the last 35 years have contributed substantially to the determination of the extent of the destruction of vegetation and land degradation in Turkey. As a result of research based on literature reviews and fieldwork, the impact of humans on the natural habitat were identified, and the current situation was studied. The findings about the current situation that emerged due to human impact were then transferred to an electronic environment, and a map of anthropogenic biomes was produced with the help of ArcGIS Desktop software. Based on the results obtained, one can say that the natural habitat has considerably changed over the last 200 years; vegetation has been damaged, and land degradation has become faster because of human activities. These results indicate that 97% of natural biomes have become anthropogenic biomes, and this change has become more obvious during 20h century in Turkey. The results also show that the change has been more influential after 1950.

  8. Identifying relationships between baseflow geochemistry and land use with synoptic sampling and R-Mode factor analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wayland, Karen G.; Long, David T.; Hyndman, David W.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.; Woodhams, Sarah M.; Haak, Sheridan K.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between land use and stream chemistry is often explored through synoptic sampling rivers at baseflow condition. However, base flow chemistry is likely to vary temporally and spatially with land use. The purpose of our study is to examine the usefulness of the synoptic sampling approach for identifying the relationship between complex land use configurations and stream water quality. This study compares biogeochemical data from three synoptic sampling events representing the temporal variability of baseflow chemistry and land use using R-mode factor analysis. Separate R-mode factor analyses of the data from individual sampling events yielded only two consistent factors. Agricultural activity was associated with elevated levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, alkalinity, and frequently K+, SO42-, and NO3-. Urban areas were associated with higher concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl-. Other retained factors were not  consistent among sampling events, and some factors were difficult to interpret in the context of biogeochemical sources and processes. When all data were combined, further associations were revealed such as an inverse relationship between the proportion of wetlands and stream nitrate concentrations. We also found that barren lands were associated with elevated sulfate levels. This research suggests that an individual sampling event is unlikely to characterize adequately the complex processes controlling interactions between land uses and stream chemistry. Combining data collected over two years during three synoptic sampling events appears to enhance our ability to understand processes linking stream chemistry and land use.  

  9. The Stepwise Increase in the Number of Transcription Factor Families in the Precambrian Predated the Diversification of Plants On Land.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Bruno; Hetherington, Alexander J; Emms, David M; Kelly, Steven; Dolan, Liam

    2016-11-01

    The colonization of the land by streptophytes and their subsequent radiation is a major event in Earth history. We report a stepwise increase in the number of transcription factor (TF) families and subfamilies in Archaeplastida before the colonization of the land. The subsequent increase in TF number on land was through duplication within existing TF families and subfamilies. Almost all subfamilies of the Homeodomain (HD) and basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) had evolved before the radiation of extant land plant lineages from a common ancestor. We demonstrate that the evolution of these TF families independently followed similar trends in both plants and metazoans; almost all extant HD and bHLH subfamilies were present in the first land plants and in the last common ancestor of bilaterians. These findings reveal that the majority of innovation in plant and metazoan TF families occurred in the Precambrian before the Phanerozoic radiation of land plants and metazoans.

  10. Quantifying the influences of various ecological factors on land surface temperature of urban forests.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yin; Deng, Lu-Ying; Zuo, Shu-Di; Song, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Yi-Lan; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Chen, Qi; Hua, Li-Zhong; Li, Zheng-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Identifying factors that influence the land surface temperature (LST) of urban forests can help improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cool islands. This requires a quantitative analytical method that combines spatial statistical analysis with multi-source observational data. The purpose of this study was to reveal how human activities and ecological factors jointly influence LST in clustering regions (hot or cool spots) of urban forests. Using Xiamen City, China from 1996 to 2006 as a case study, we explored the interactions between human activities and ecological factors, as well as their influences on urban forest LST. Population density was selected as a proxy for human activity. We integrated multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) to develop a database on a unified urban scale. The driving mechanism of urban forest LST was revealed through a combination of multi-source spatial data and spatial statistical analysis of clustering regions. The results showed that the main factors contributing to urban forest LST were dominant tree species and elevation. The interactions between human activity and specific ecological factors linearly or nonlinearly increased LST in urban forests. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots areas in different years. In conclusion, quantitative studies based on spatial statistics and GeogDetector models should be conducted in urban areas to reveal interactions between human activities, ecological factors, and LST.

  11. Effects of environmental factors on genetic diversity of Caragana microphylla in Horqin Sandy Land, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenda; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yulin; Lian, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Caragana microphylla (Leguminosae) is a dominant climax semishrub species in northern China. We evaluated genetic variation within and among populations sampled from three different environmental gradients in Horqin Sandy Land in northern China using intersimple sequence repeats markers and investigated the possible existence of relationships between genetic diversity and environmental factors. The results showed that C. microphylla have high genetic diversity, and environmental gradients affected genetic diversity of C. microphylla populations. Genetic diversity of all populations was affected by many environmental factors and as well correlated with warm index and soil Olsen phosphorus (SOP) concentration. These results have important implications for restoration and management of these degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid areas.

  12. Projecting Future Land Use Changes in West Africa Driven by Climate and Socioeconomic Factors: Uncertainties and Implications for Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Ahmed, K. F.; You, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land use changes constitute an important regional climate change forcing in West Africa, a region of strong land-atmosphere coupling. At the same time, climate change can be an important driver for land use, although its importance relative to the impact of socio-economic factors may vary significant from region to region. This study compares the contributions of climate change and socioeconomic development to potential future changes of agricultural land use in West Africa and examines various sources of uncertainty using a land use projection model (LandPro) that accounts for the impact of socioeconomic drivers on the demand side and the impact of climate-induced crop yield changes on the supply side. Future crop yield changes were simulated by a process-based crop model driven with future climate projections from a regional climate model, and future changes of food demand is projected using a model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade. The impact of human decision-making on land use was explicitly considered through multiple "what-if" scenarios to examine the range of uncertainties in projecting future land use. Without agricultural intensification, the climate-induced decrease of crop yield together with increase of food demand are found to cause a significant increase in agricultural land use at the expense of forest and grassland by the mid-century, and the resulting land use land cover changes are found to feed back to the regional climate in a way that exacerbates the negative impact of climate on crop yield. Analysis of results from multiple decision-making scenarios suggests that human adaptation characterized by science-informed decision making to minimize land use could be very effective in many parts of the region.

  13. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21st century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change. PMID:26867481

  14. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-02-12

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21(st) century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change.

  15. Approach to the land-use change and its influential factors in Loess Plateau of Dingxi Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli; Fan, Zhenjun

    2004-11-01

    Based on land-use datum (at scale of 100,000) of the interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper in 1980, 1995 and 2000, which came from environmental database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the authors investigated land-use change and influential factors by the combined use of geographic information systems (GIS) method, Markov model and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) statistical method. The results showed that, in the periods 1980-2000, crop land increased by 0.58 percent (4278.86 hectares), of which 92.93 percent was transformed from grassland and 7.07 percent from forestland. Urban or built-up land increased by 26.23 percent (687.45 hectares), of which 77.35 percent was transformed from cropland. Rural residential land increased by 5.17 percent (1324.37 hectares). Forestland and water land decreased in area. Grassland decreased by 0.57 percent (5706.77 hectares). Secondly, transition rate of landscape spatial pattern among the landscape elements from 1995 to 2000 was slower than that from 1980 to 1995. Land use types as cropland, grassland, woodland and rural residential land were the primary change types from 1995 to 2000. Thirdly, both natural and social economic factors influenced land use pattern. The population and per capita grain yield were positively correlated to rural residential pattern. The spatial distribution of grassland and cropland showed strong positive correlation to annual rainfall and annual air temperature, and negative association to annual per capita net income of rural residents. The poor annual per capita net income of rural residents and investment in capital construction restricted the extended area of urban build-up land. Therefore, the drought is not proportional to pattern of urban build-up land. The study verified the analysis conclusion of influential factors by redundancy degree of CCA. The integration of remote sensing data, GIS, Markov process and CCA provided a comprehensive method to analyze land use pattern and

  16. Zeeman spectroscopy of NiH: Landé factors of three Ω = 3/2 excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, H.; Richard, C.; Tourasse, G.; Crozet, P.; Ross, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    We report molecular Landé factors for three Ω‧ = 3/2 vibronic levels of NiH: E[17.8], D[17.6], and I[17.2], lying 17 000-18 000 cm-1 above the ground electronic state. The molecular Landé factors of these three states exhibit unusual variations with J and with parity. Also, molecular Landé factors of the D[17.6] excited electronic state are unexpectedly sensitive to Ni isotope substitution at low J. These observations provide evidence for extensive mixing among electronic states, deviation from Hund's case (a) coupling, and the existence of a local perturbing state. We also report polarization-dependent discrepancies between experimental and theoretical spectral intensities [1] for transitions involving the I[17.2] excited electronic state.

  17. Post-disturbance dust emissions in dry lands: the role of anthropogenic and climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Zobeck, T. M.; Sankey, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Disturbances, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and subsequent dust emissions from desert grasslands and shrublands. These ecosystems worldwide are threatened by contemporary shifts in vegetation composition (e.g. encroachment by shrubs, invasion by exotic grasses) and climatic changes (e.g. increase in aridity, droughts), which alter the frequency and intensity of disturbances and dust emissions. Considering the deleterious impact of dust-borne contaminants on regional air quality and human health, accelerated post-disturbance aeolian transport is an increasingly serious concern for ecosystem management and risk assessment. Here, using extensive wind tunnel studies, field experiments (in grasslands and shrublands of North America) and modeling, we investigated the role of disturbances (fires, grazing) and changes in hydroclimatic factors (air humidity, soil moisture) in altering aeolian processes in desert grassland and shrublands. Our results indicate that the degree of post-disturbance aeolian transport and its attenuation with time was found to be strongly affected by the antecedent vegetation type and post-disturbance climatic conditions. The interactions among sediment transport processes, disturbances and hydroclimatic factors are explored from patch to landscape scales and their roles in dust emissions and land degradation are discussed.

  18. Ammonia emission factors from broiler litter in barns, in storage, and after land application.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip A; Miles, Dana; Burns, Robert; Pote, Dan; Berg, Kess; Choi, In Hag

    2011-01-01

    We measured NH₃ emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage, and after land application and conducted a mass balance of N in poultry houses. Four state-of-the-art tunnel-ventilated broiler houses in northwest Arkansas were equipped with NH₃ sensors, anemometers, and data loggers to continuously record NH₃ concentrations and ventilation for 1 yr. Gaseous fluxes of NH₃, N₂O, CH₄, and CO₂ from litter were measured. Nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs were quantified. Ammonia emissions during storage and after land application were measured. Ammonia emissions during the flock averaged approximately 15.2 kg per day-house (equivalent to 28.3 g NH₃per bird marketed). Emissions between flocks equaled 9.09 g NH₃ per bird. Hence, in-house NH₃ emissions were 37.5 g NH₃ per bird, or 14.5 g kg(-1) bird marketed (50-d-old birds). The mass balance study showed N inputs for the year to the four houses totaled 71,340 kg N, with inputs from bedding, chicks, and feed equal to 303, 602, and 70,435 kg, respectively (equivalent to 0.60, 1.19, and 139.56 g N per bird). Nitrogen outputs totaled 70,396 kg N. Annual N output from birds marketed, NH₃ emissions, litter or cake, mortality, and NO₂ emissions was 39,485, 15,571, 14,464, 635, and 241 kg N, respectively (equivalent to 78.2, 30.8, 28.7, 1.3, and 0.5 g N per bird). The percent N recovery for the N mass balance study was 98.8%. Ammonia emissions from stacked litter during a 16-d storage period were 172 g Mg(-1) litter, which is equivalent to 0.18 g NH₃ per bird. Ammonia losses from poultry litter broadcast to pastures were 34 kg N ha (equivalent to 15% of total N applied or 7.91 g NH₃ per bird). When the litter was incorporated into the pasture using a new knifing technique, NH₃ losses were virtually zero. The total NH₃ emission factor for broilers measured in this study, which includes losses in-house, during storage, and after land application, was 45.6 g NH₃ per bird marketed.

  19. Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

    1992-09-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect

  20. Geologic, hydrologic, and cultural factors in the selection of sites for the land disposal of wastes in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Alvord, R.C.; Olson, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a program to deal with the problems of waste disposal in Washington, the Department of Ecology (WDOE), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, completed a study designed to provide the geologic, hydrologic, and cultural data needed to evaluate the suitability of State land areas for the disposal of wastes. Data portraying the distribution of factors that could affect the suitability of areas in Washington for waste disposal were presented in a series of 18 maps (overlays). The factors selected include major geologic units; natural hazards from earthquakes, faulting, and volcanoes; climate; locations of major surface-water and groundwater bodies; population density; and land and water uses. Within each factor (map) the data were grouped into class intervals and the intervals for most factors ranked according to their relative suitability/unsuitability for land disposal of wastes following criteria supplied by WDOE. Areas of the State considered completely unsuitable (as determined by WDOE personnel) for waste disposal because of current or proposed land uses were excluded from ranking. (USGS)

  1. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; Schenkel, D.; de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study of global vegetation dynamics contributes to a better understanding of global change drivers and how these affect ecosystems and ecological diversity. Land-surface phenology (LSP) is a key response and feedback of vegetation to the climate system, and hence a parameter that needs to be accurately represented in terrestrial biosphere models [1]. However, the effects of climatic changes on LSP depend on the relative importance of climatic constraints in specific regions - which are not well understood at global scale. In this study, we analyzed a Phenology Reanalysis dataset [2] to evaluate shifts in three climatic drivers of phenology at global scale and over the last 30 years (1982-2012): incoming radiation, evaporative demand and minimum temperature. As a first step, we compared LAI as modeled from these three factors (LAIre) to remotely sensed observations of LSP (LAI3g, [3]) over the same time period. As a second step, we examined temporal trends in the climatic constraints at Start- and End- of the Growing Season. There was good agreement between phenology metrics as derived form LAI3g and LAIre over the last 30 years - thus providing confidence in the climatic constraints underlying the modeled data. Our analysis reveals inter-annual variation in the relative importance of the three climatic factors in limiting vegetation growth at Start- and End- of the Growing Season over the last 30 years. High northern latitudes, as well as northern Europe and central Asia, appear to have undergone significant changes in dominance between the three controls. We also find that evaporative demand has become increasingly limiting for growth in many parts of the world, in particular in South America and eastern Asia. [1] Richardson, A.D. et al. Global Change Biology 18, 566-584 (2012). [2] Stöckli, R. et al. J. Geophys. Res 116, G03020 (2011). [3] Zhu, Z. et al. Remote Sensing 5, 927-948 (2013).

  2. Effects of Endogenous Factors on Regional Land-Use Carbon Emissions Based on the Grossman Decomposition Model: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cifang; Li, Guan; Yue, Wenze; Lu, Rucheng; Lu, Zhangwei; You, Heyuan

    2015-02-01

    The impact of land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions has become a core issue in current studies on global change and carbon cycle. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of land-use changes on carbon emissions is very necessary. This paper attempted to apply the Grossman decomposition model to estimate the scale, structural, and management effects of land-use carbon emissions based on final energy consumption by establishing the relationship between the types of land use and carbon emissions in energy consumption. It was shown that land-use carbon emissions increase from 169.5624 million tons in 2000 to 637.0984 million tons in 2010, with an annual average growth rate of 14.15 %. Meanwhile, land-use carbon intensity increased from 17.59 t/ha in 2000 to 64.42 t/ha in 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 13.86 %. The results indicated that rapid industrialization and urbanization in Zhejiang Province promptly increased urban land and industrial land, which consequently affected land-use extensive emissions. The structural and management effects did not mitigate land-use carbon emissions. By contrast, both factors evidently affected the growth of carbon emissions because of the rigid demands of energy-intensive land-use types and the absence of land management. Results called for the policy implications of optimizing land-use structures and strengthening land-use management.

  3. Effects of endogenous factors on regional land-use carbon emissions based on the Grossman decomposition model: a case study of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Li, Guan; Yue, Wenze; Lu, Rucheng; Lu, Zhangwei; You, Heyuan

    2015-02-01

    The impact of land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions has become a core issue in current studies on global change and carbon cycle. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of land-use changes on carbon emissions is very necessary. This paper attempted to apply the Grossman decomposition model to estimate the scale, structural, and management effects of land-use carbon emissions based on final energy consumption by establishing the relationship between the types of land use and carbon emissions in energy consumption. It was shown that land-use carbon emissions increase from 169.5624 million tons in 2000 to 637.0984 million tons in 2010, with an annual average growth rate of 14.15%. Meanwhile, land-use carbon intensity increased from 17.59 t/ha in 2000 to 64.42 t/ha in 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 13.86%. The results indicated that rapid industrialization and urbanization in Zhejiang Province promptly increased urban land and industrial land, which consequently affected land-use extensive emissions. The structural and management effects did not mitigate land-use carbon emissions. By contrast, both factors evidently affected the growth of carbon emissions because of the rigid demands of energy-intensive land-use types and the absence of land management. Results called for the policy implications of optimizing land-use structures and strengthening land-use management.

  4. ACCOUNTING FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS IN NATIONAL LAND-BASED CARBON BUDGETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to quantify net greenhouse gas emissions at the national scale, as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, must include both industrial emissions and the net flux associated with the land base. In this study, data on current land use, rates ...

  5. Remote sensing-based characterization of land management and biophysical factors in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramspott, Matthew E.

    Land use and management are important factors influencing ecosystem functions, including the cycling of carbon (C) in plant/soil systems. Information about land use and management, needed to prioritize conservation efforts in managed grasslands of the Central Great Plains, can be obtained using remote sensing techniques, but this process is complex in grasslands because of the subtle class differences, large within-class variability, and complex seasonal changes in canopy spectral characteristics. In this study, time-series of remotely sensed data were used to derive vegetation index (VI) and image texture measures. The utility of these measures for classification of five managed grassland types was assessed using ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis methods. Image texture was found to improve the accuracy of classification by ˜13% over the use of VI alone. The optimal timing of data acquisition for classification with VI was found to be in April/May and in October; optimal timing for acquisition of texture was in June. Remotely sensed VI have been commonly used to model photosynthetic capacity and net primary production in ecosystems. Since VI theoretically assume canopy conditions of uniform geometry and greenness, seasonally variable management-induced changes in the grassland canopy can potentially influence the VI response and therefore the strength and stability of the model. This study examined the seasonal and inter-annual stability of the relationship between VI and photosynthetic capacity under both idealized and realized conditions. With regression analysis, the relationship between VI and field-measured estimates of photosynthetic capacity was established and evaluated. This work identified two types of management activity strongly influencing the stability of this relationship: (1) Conservation management, in which the vegetation is neither hayed nor grazed, results in accumulation of senescent canopy material and leads to lower than expected VI

  6. What drives accelerated land cover change in central Argentina? Synergistic consequences of climatic, socioeconomic, and technological factors.

    PubMed

    Zak, Marcelo R; Cabido, Marcelo; Cáceres, Daniel; Díaz, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Synergistic combinations of climatic and land use changes have the potential to produce the most dramatic impacts on land cover. Although this is widely accepted, empirical examples, particularly involving deforestation in Latin America, are still very few. The geographic extent and causes of deforestation in subtropical seasonally dry forests of the world have received very little attention. This is especially true for the Chaco forests in South America, which are being lost at an alarming rate, sometimes higher than those reported for tropical forests. On this basis, the aims of this study were to analyze the changes in land cover that have occurred during the last three decades of the 20th century in the Chaco forests of central Argentina, and to explain the factors that have driven those changes. Results show major land cover changes. Approximately 80% of the area that was originally undisturbed forest is now occupied by crops, pastures, and secondary scrub. The main proximate cause of deforestation has been agricultural expansion, soybean cultivation in particular. This appears as the result of the synergistic convergence of climatic, technological, and socioeconomic factors, supporting the hypothesis of a multiple-factor explanation for forest loss, while providing one of the very few existing analyses of changes in subtropical forests of the world.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis prevalence and morbidity based on environmental factors in Ilam, Iran: Spatial analysis and land use regression models.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Mehdi; Miri, Mohammad; Nikoonahad, Ali; Jalilian, Ali; Naserifar, Razi; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Kazembeigi, Farogh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the environmental factors on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) prevalence and morbidity in Ilam province, western Iran, as a known endemic area for this disease. Accurate locations of 3237 CL patients diagnosed from 2013 to 2015, their demographic information, and data of 17 potentially predictive environmental variables (PPEVs) were prepared to be used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and Land-Use Regression (LUR) analysis. The prevalence, risk, and predictive risk maps were provided using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) model in GIS software. Regression analysis was used to determine how environmental variables affect on CL prevalence. All maps and regression models were developed based on the annual and three-year average of the CL prevalence. The results showed that there was statistically significant relationship (P value≤0.05) between CL prevalence and 11 (64%) PPEVs which were elevation, population, rainfall, temperature, urban land use, poorland, dry farming, inceptisol and aridisol soils, and forest and irrigated lands. The highest probability of the CL prevalence was predicted in the west of the study area and frontier with Iraq. An inverse relationship was found between CL prevalence and environmental factors, including elevation, covering soil, rainfall, agricultural irrigation, and elevation while this relation was positive for temperature, urban land use, and population density. Environmental factors were found to be an important predictive variables for CL prevalence and should be considered in management strategies for CL control.

  8. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Máguas, C; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Branquinho, C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors.

  9. The impact of climatic and non-climatic factors on land surface temperature in southwestern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Herbel, Ioana; Imbroane, Alexandru Mircea; Burada, Doina Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Land surface temperature is one of the most important parameters related to global warming. It depends mainly on soil type, discontinuous vegetation cover, or lack of precipitation. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between high LST, synoptic conditions and air masses trajectories, vegetation cover, and soil type in one of the driest region in Romania. In order to calculate the land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index, five satellite images of LANDSAT missions 5 and 7, covering a period of 26 years (1986-2011), were selected, all of them collected in the month of June. The areas with low vegetation density were derived from normalized difference vegetation index, while soil types have been extracted from Corine Land Cover database. HYSPLIT application was employed to identify the air masses origin based on their backward trajectories for each of the five study cases. Pearson, logarithmic, and quadratic correlations were used to detect the relationships between land surface temperature and observed ground temperatures, as well as between land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index. The most important findings are: strong correlation between land surface temperature derived from satellite images and maximum ground temperature recorded in a weather station located in the area, as well as between areas with land surface temperature equal to or higher than 40.0 °C and those with lack of vegetation; the sandy soils are the most prone to high land surface temperature and lack of vegetation, followed by the chernozems and brown soils; extremely severe drought events may occur in the region.

  10. Revised Landé gJ-factors of some 141Pr II levels using collinear laser ion beam spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbowy, S.; Windholz, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Zeeman effect of singly ionized praseodymium spectral lines was studied at small magnetic fields up to 334 G, using the high-resolution spectroscopic method of collinear laser-ion-beam spectroscopy (CLIBS), where a collimated fast ion beam is superimposed with a counter propagating laser beam tuned to the desired transition. This nearly Doppler-effect-free technique enables to observe linewidths as low as 100 MHz and thus to record the Zeeman patterns of the hyperfine structure of the investigated spectral lines. From the Zeeman patterns of 21 lines of Pr II lines in the range 570.45-609.038 nm we have re-determined the Landé gJ-factors of 14 levels of the f3 dodd and 16 levels of the f3 p and f2d2even configurations. The obtained experimental Landé factors are compared with available earlier measurements as well as with theoretical calculations.

  11. Factors Related to Spatial Patterns of Rural Land Fragmentation in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjelland, Michael E.; Kreuter, Urs P.; Clendenin, George A.; Wilkins, R. Neal; Wu, X. Ben; Afanador, Edith Gonzalez; Grant, William E.

    2007-08-01

    Fragmentation of family-owned farms and ranches has been identified as the greatest single threat to wildlife habitat, water supply, and the long-term viability of agriculture in Texas. However, an integrative framework for insights into the pathways of land use change has been lacking. The specific objectives of the study are to test the hypotheses that the nonagricultural value (NAV) of rural land is a reliable indicator of trends in land fragmentation and that NAV in Texas is spatially correlated with population density, and to explore the idea that recent changes in property size patterns are better represented by a categorical model than by one that reflects incremental changes. We propose that the State-and-Transition model, developed to describe the dynamics of semi-arid ecosystems, provides an appropriate conceptual framework for characterizing categorical shifts in rural property patterns. Results suggest that changes in population density are spatially correlated with NAV and farm size, and that rural property size is spatially correlated with changes in NAV. With increasing NAV, the proportion of large properties tends to decrease while the area represented by small properties tends to increase. Although a correlation exists between NAV and population density, it is the trend in NAV that appears to be a stronger predictor of land fragmentation. The empirical relationships established herein, viewed within the conceptual framework of the State-and-Transition model, can provide a useful tool for evaluating land use policies for maintaining critical ecosystem services delivered from privately owned land in private land states, such as Texas.

  12. Factors related to spatial patterns of rural land fragmentation in Texas.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Michael E; Kreuter, Urs P; Clendenin, George A; Wilkins, R Neal; Wu, X Ben; Afanador, Edith Gonzalez; Grant, William E

    2007-08-01

    Fragmentation of family-owned farms and ranches has been identified as the greatest single threat to wildlife habitat, water supply, and the long-term viability of agriculture in Texas. However, an integrative framework for insights into the pathways of land use change has been lacking. The specific objectives of the study are to test the hypotheses that the nonagricultural value (NAV) of rural land is a reliable indicator of trends in land fragmentation and that NAV in Texas is spatially correlated with population density, and to explore the idea that recent changes in property size patterns are better represented by a categorical model than by one that reflects incremental changes. We propose that the State-and-Transition model, developed to describe the dynamics of semi-arid ecosystems, provides an appropriate conceptual framework for characterizing categorical shifts in rural property patterns. Results suggest that changes in population density are spatially correlated with NAV and farm size, and that rural property size is spatially correlated with changes in NAV. With increasing NAV, the proportion of large properties tends to decrease while the area represented by small properties tends to increase. Although a correlation exists between NAV and population density, it is the trend in NAV that appears to be a stronger predictor of land fragmentation. The empirical relationships established herein, viewed within the conceptual framework of the State-and-Transition model, can provide a useful tool for evaluating land use policies for maintaining critical ecosystem services delivered from privately owned land in private land states, such as Texas.

  13. Socioeconomic factors affecting farmers' perceptions of land degradation and stonewall terraces in central Palestine.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Ahmad Abu; Børresen, Trond

    2006-03-01

    Land degradation by soil erosion is a socioeconomic and environmental problem facing many developing countries. Application of stonewall terraces for soil moisture conservation is vital to reducing the environmental impacts of this phenomenon. To this end, a field plot experiment was conducted in the study area along with the use of a closed-ended questionnaire. The object of the experiment was to study the socioeconomic impacts of soil erosion on local farmers and their adoption of the stonewall terrace technique. The study showed a higher net profit in areas that had implemented terrace conservation practices than in areas that had not (i.e., 3.5 to 6 times higher net profit). Correlation analysis indicated that the farmers' perceptions, land ownership, and geomorphology were significantly related to the farmers' incentives and willingness to adopt terraces as soil conservation measures (P < 0.05), although the correlations were negative. Smallholder farmers (52% of the interviewed farmers) were involved in the sale of the agricultural land for urban uses, largely because of the high price and immediate returns offered. However, the associated land use changes warrant greater involvement of both the private and public sectors. This cooperation may be accomplished through the introduction of a long-term agricultural loan system and the development of proper legislation accompanied by a comprehensive and durable infrastructure and service system with the goal of reducing the negative impact of land use changes and encouraging sustainable use of resources.

  14. An assessment of land use and other factors affecting sediment loads in the Rio Puerco watershed, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phippen, Stephanie J.; Wohl, Ellen

    2003-06-01

    Rapid channel erosion in the Rio Puerco watershed of northwest New Mexico has been attributed to land use, climate changes, and internal channel adjustments. The objectives of this study were to assess (1) the impacts of land uses on sediment load, (2) the quantitative relationships between land use and sediment load, and (3) the effectiveness of different erosion control methods. The impacts of land uses on sediment load were assessed via hypotheses that, holding other erosion-related variables constant, sediment load correlates positively with grazing intensity and with density of unpaved roads, and correlates negatively with the number of erosion control treatments. We calculated the average annual sediment load for 17 subbasins of 0.67-17.97 km 2 by comparing sediment accumulation at two points in time (mid-1960s and 1999) behind intact sediment retention structures. We assessed land use via grazing records and measurements of unpaved roads generated from aerial photographs. Soil characteristics, vegetation, and physical factors were quantified for each subbasin. Using 18 variables for each subbasin, we employed Mallow's Cp as a selection criterion. We used six statistical models, including multiple regression and principal components analysis, to determine inherent mathematical relationships between significant independent variables and sediment load. The results indicate that sediment load does not correlate with grazing intensity except in small, relatively low-relief basins with fewer bedrock exposures. However, this interpretation may be compromised by the low quality of data available to quantify grazing. Sediment load is highly sensitive to the presence of unpaved roads, which serve as high gradient, channelized conduits of water and sediment during storms. Sediment load does not correlate with erosion control except in the subset of small, relatively low-relief subbasins that also proved sensitive to grazing intensity. Overall, the statistical analyses

  15. Landscape and land cover factors influence the presence of Aedes and Anopheles larvae.

    PubMed

    Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Somboon, Pradya; Harbach, Ralph E; Isenstadt, Mark; Lambin, Eric F; Walton, Catherine; Butlin, Roger K

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test for associations between land cover data and the presence of mosquito larvae of the genera Aedes Meigen and Anopheles Meigen in northern Thailand at the landscape scale. These associations were compared with associations between larval habitat variables and the presence of mosquito larvae at a finer spatial scale. Collection data for the larvae of one Aedes species and three species-groups of Anopheles, all of which are involved in pathogen transmission, were used. A variety of northern Thai landscapes were included, such as upland villages, lowland villages and peri-urban areas. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations. Generally, land cover and landscape variables explained the presence of larvae as well as did larval habitat variables. Results were best for species/species-groups with specific habitat requirements. Land cover variables act as proxies for the types of habitat available and their attributes. Good knowledge of the habitat requirements of the immature stages of mosquitoes is necessary for interpreting the effects of land cover.

  16. Ammonia emissions factors from broiler litter in barns, storage, and after land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from poultry litter can cause high levels of NH3 in poultry rearing facilities, as well as atmospheric pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure NH3 emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage and following land application, and (2) conduct a m...

  17. Stream fish occurrence in response to impervious cover, historic land use, and hydrogeomorphic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenger, Seth J.; Peterson, James T.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Homans, D. David

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated competing models explaining the occurrence of five stream fishes in an urbanizing watershed to determine the relative importance of (a) impervious surface and other indicators of current land use, (b) historic land use (e.g., agriculture, impoundments), and (c) hydrogeomorphic characteristics (e.g., stream size, elevation, geology). For four of five species, the best-supported models were those that included both current effective impervious cover and historic land use predictor variables, although models with only effective impervious cover were equally well supported for two of those species. For the best-supported models for three species, occurrence probability was predicted to approach zero at levels of development equivalent to about 2%–4% effective impervious cover in the surrounding region. Data were drawn from 357 fish collections made in the Etowah River basin, Georgia, USA, between 1998 and 2003 and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression accounting for imperfect species detection. This is the first study we know of to examine the response of individual fish species to both increasing impervious cover and historic land use. Such individual species assessments will be increasingly necessary to guide policies for managing urban effects and preventing extirpations of sensitive species.

  18. Considering the spatial-scale factor when modelling sustainable land management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Considering the spatial-scale factor when modelling sustainable land management. J.Bouma Em.prof. soil science, Wageningen University, Netherlands. Modelling soil-plant processes is a necessity when exploring future effects of climate change and innovative soil management on agricultural productivity. Soil data are needed to run models and traditional soil maps and the associated databases (based on various soil Taxonomies ), have widely been applied to provide such data obtained at "representative" points in the field. Pedotransferfunctions (PTF)are used to feed simulation models, statistically relating soil survey data ( obtained at a given point in the landscape) to physical parameters for simulation, thus providing a link with soil functionality. Soil science has a basic problem: their object of study is invisible. Only point data are obtained by augering or in pits. Only occasionally roadcuts provide a better view. Extrapolating point to area data is essential for all applications and presents a basic problem for soil science, because mapping units on soil maps, named for a given soil type,may also contain other soil types and quantitative information about the composition of soil map units is usually not available. For detailed work at farm level ( 1:5000-1:10000), an alternative procedure is proposed. Based on a geostatistical analysis, onsite soil observations are made in a grid pattern with spacings based on a geostatistical analysis. Multi-year simulations are made for each point of the functional properties that are relevant for the case being studied, such as the moisture supply capacity, nitrate leaching etc. under standardized boundary conditions to allow comparisons. Functional spatial units are derived next by aggregating functional point data. These units, which have successfully functioned as the basis for precision agriculture, do not necessarily correspond with Taxonomic units but when they do the Taxonomic names should be noted . At lower

  19. [Distribution of Formica cunicularia mound and related affecting factors on mobile dune in Horqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong

    2009-02-01

    Taking the typical mobile dune in Horqin sandy land as test object, the density, diameter, and coverage of Formica cunicularia mounds on different land forms were investigated by quadrate method, with the spatial distribution of F. cunicularia mounds and the effects of topography and soil property on F. cunicularia nest-building activities discussed. The results showed that the density of F. cunicularia mounds decreased in the order of ridge > leeward slope > windward slope, while the diameter and coverage of the mounds were in the order of ridge > windward slope > leeward slope and conditioned by mound density. The spatial distribution of F. cunicularia mounds was in random pattern. Topography and soil property co-affected the nest-building activities of F. cunicularia.

  20. Changes in land use as a possible factor in Mourning Dove population decline in Central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostrand, William D.; Meyers, P.M.; Bissonette, J.A.; Conover, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) population indices for the western United States have declined significantly since 1966. Based on data collected in 1951-1952, in Fillmore, Utah, we examined whether there had been a local decline in the dove population index since the original data were collected. We then determined whether habitat had been altered, identified which foraging habitats doves preferred, and assessed whether changes in land use could be responsible, in part, for a decline in the local population index. We found that dove population indices declined 72% and 82% from 1952-1992 and 1952-1993, respectively. The most dramatic change in habitat was an 82% decline in land devoted to dry land winter wheat production and a decline in livestock feed pens. Doves foraged primarily in harvested wheat fields, feed pens, and weedy patches. We hypothesize that a decrease in wheat availability during the spring and the consolidation of the livestock industry have contributed to a population decline of Mourning Doves in central Utah.

  1. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  2. Malaria entomological risk factors in relation to land cover in the Lower Caura River Basin, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Medina, Domingo Alberto; Moreno, Jorge Ernesto; Cárdenas, Lya; Sánchez, Víctor; Estrada, Yarys; Anaya, William; Martínez, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of deforestation and resulting differences in vegetation and land cover on entomological parameters, such as anopheline species composition, abundance, biting rate, parity and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), three villages were selected in the Lower Caura River Basin, state of Bolívar, Venezuela. All-night mosquito collections were conducted between March 2008-January 2009 using CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet(r) Liberty Plus. Human landing catches were performed between 06:00 pm-10:00 pm, when anophelines were most active. Four types of vegetation were identified. The Annual Parasite Index was not correlated with the type of vegetation. The least abundantly forested village had the highest anopheline abundance, biting rate and species diversity. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most abundant species and were collected in all three villages. Both species showed unique biting cycles. The more abundantly forested village of El Palmar reported the highest EIR. The results confirmed previous observations that the impacts of deforestation and resulting changes in vegetation cover on malaria transmission are complex and vary locally. PMID:23579803

  3. Simulation of soil erosion and deposition in a changing land use: A modelling approach to implement the support practice factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelacani, Samanta; Märker, Michael; Rodolfi, Giuliano

    2008-07-01

    Using the USPED (Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition) model, three land use scenarios were analysed for an Italian small catchment (15 km 2) of high landscape value. The upper Orme stream catchment, located in the Chianti area, 30 km south of Florence, has a long historical agriculture record. Information on land use and soil conservation practices date back to 1821, hence offering an opportunity to model impacts of land use change on erosion and deposition. For this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practices and potential sediment storage is proposed. The approach was to calculate and model the flow accumulation considering rural and logging roads, location of urban areas, drainage ditches, streams, gullies and permanent sediment sinks. This calculation attempts to assess the spatial variability, especially the impact of support practices ( P factor). Weather data from 1980-2003 were taken into account to calculate the R factor. However, to consider the intense pluviometric conditions in terms of the erosivity factor, the 0.75th quantile was used, while the lowest erosivity was modelled using the 0.25th quantile. Results of the USPED model simulation show that in 1821 the mean annual net erosion for the watershed was 2.8 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 ; in 1954 it was 4.2 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 ; and in 2004 it was 5.3 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 . Conservation practices can reduce erosion processes by ≥ 20 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 when the 1821 practices are introduced in the present management. On the other hand, if the support practices are not considered in the model, soil erosion risk is overestimated. Field observation for the present-day simulation confirmed that erosion and associated sediment deposition predicted by the model depend, as expected, on geomorphology and land use. The model shows limitations that are mainly due to the input data. A high resolution DEM is essential for the delineation of reliable topographic potential to predict erosion and deposition

  4. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity.

    PubMed

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B

    2009-06-01

    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  5. Characterization of Phytochrome Interacting Factors from the Moss Physcomitrella patens Illustrates Conservation of Phytochrome Signaling Modules in Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Possart, Anja; Xu, Tengfei; Paik, Inyup; Hanke, Sebastian; Keim, Sarah; Hermann, Helen-Maria; Wolf, Luise; Hiß, Manuel; Becker, Claude; Huq, Enamul; Rensing, Stefan A; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Across the plant kingdom, phytochrome (PHY) photoreceptors play an important role during adaptive and developmental responses to light. In Arabidopsis thaliana, light-activated PHYs accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate downstream signaling components, such as phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs). PIFs are transcription factors that act as repressors of photomorphogenesis; their inhibition by PHYs leads to substantial changes in gene expression. The nuclear function of PHYs, however, has so far been investigated in only a few non-seed plants. Here, we identified putative target genes of PHY signaling in the moss Physcomitrella patens and found light-regulated genes that are putative orthologs of PIF-controlled genes in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that an ancestral PIF-like gene was already present in streptophyte algae, i.e., before the water-to-land transition of plants. The PIF homologs in the genome of P. patens resemble Arabidopsis PIFs in their protein domain structure, molecular properties, and physiological effects, albeit with notable differences in the motif-dependent PHY interaction. Our results suggest that P. patens PIFs are involved in PHY signaling. The PHY-PIF signaling node that relays light signals to target genes has been largely conserved during land plant evolution, with evidence of lineage-specific diversification.

  6. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast. Forest Service Resource Bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J.J.; Gilbert, A.H.; Birch, T.W.

    1992-05-01

    The report describes the factors that affect the availability of fuelwood from NIPF lands in the Northeastern United States (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania). It is part of a comprehensive wood-for-energy study entitled 'The Production, Consumption, and Marketing of Wood for Energy in the Northeast (Northeast Regional Study 142).'' The study is designed to: (1) Estimate the demand for wood energy in the Northeast by consuming sectors, state, and region; (2) Analyze the managment and supply of wood for energy processing as well as marketing structures; (3) Identify goals and effectiveness of actual and alternative local, state, and Federal forest policies and contrast these with the objectives of forest owners with regard to the use of wood for energy. The objective of the study is to analyze the supply of wood energy, that is, to identify and describe the factors that influence NIPF owners to harvest, or permit the harvest, of fuelwood from their land.

  7. Stability and Control Harmony in Approach and Landing. [analysis of factors affecting flight characteristics at low airspeeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the factors which affect stability and control harmony in approach and landing is made to obtain a clearer understanding of the proper relationship, the trade-offs involved, and to show how limits in stability and control harmony are established for advanced aircraft. Factors which influence stability and control harmony include the longitudinal short period response of the aircraft and the level of several pitch control characteristics including control power, control sensitivity, and control feel. At low stability levels for advanced aircraft, less conventional control techniques such as DLC are needed to improve harmony and some form of stability augmentation must be provided to improve precession of flight path control and reduce pilot work load.

  8. Studies of Landé gJ-factors of singly ionized lanthanum by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbowy, S.; Güney, C.; Windholz, L.

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, using a cooled hollow cathode discharge lamp as source of ions, was used to observe the Zeeman splitting of 18 lines of La II in the wavelength range 629.6-680.9 nm, in external intermediate magnetic fields up to 800 G. The recorded hyperfine-Zeeman patterns were analyzed in detail using already known accurate hyperfine structure A- and B-constants. From the recordings the Landé gJ-factors for some levels belonging to the 5d2, 5d6s, 5d6p, 4f5d, 4f6s and 4f6p configurations of La II were determined. The obtained experimental gJ-factors are compared with earlier measurements and theoretical calculations.

  9. Factors controlling carbon isotopic composition of land snail shells estimated from lab culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Naizhong; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2014-05-01

    Carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate is widely applied in reconstructing the C3/C4 vegetation distribution of paleo-environment, which is considered to reflect variations of some environmental parameters [1][2][3]. Land snail shell carbon has three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested carbonate (limestone) [4]. However, their relative contributions to shell carbonate have not been understood well yet [4][5][6][7][8]. More researches are necessary before we could apply this tool in paleo-environment reconstruction, especially inter-lab culturing experiment. A kind of land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, was collected at Yokohama, Japan and cultured under suitable environment to lay eggs. The second generations were growing up from eggs to adults around 6-12 months at the temperature of 20°, 25° and 30°, respectively. All of the snails at 25° and 30° and most of those at 20° were fed by cabbage (C3 plant) during their life span while others were fed by corn (C4 plant). To investigate the effect of ingested carbonate, some of them were fed by Ca3(PO4)2 powder while others were fed by CaCO3 powder. δ13C of shells were analyzed by an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Thermo Finnigan MAT 253); δ13C of food and snail tissue were measured by a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (Picarro G1121-i). At the same time, δ13C of eggshell and new born snails were analyzed by a Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GasBench II). We confirmed that diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone could be important sources controlling shell δ13C values. And the temperature could affect shell carbonate δ13C values, too. A simple but credible frame was raised to discuss the mechanism of how each possible source and environmental parameter could affect shell carbonate δ13C values based on previous works [4][6][8] and this study. According to this frame and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the

  10. Factors Promoting a Cool Cambrian Climate: Role of Land Surface Conditions and Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellito, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    In light of recent work suggesting episodic cooling during the Late Cambrian (~500 Ma), an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity is utilized to evaluate the roles of Late Cambrian continental configuration, mountain height, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on Earth's climate. The Planetary Simulator (PLASIM), developed at the Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg, is utilized at T21 spectral resolution (5.6° latitude x 5.6° longitude) with a 50 m deep slab ocean in four experiments. The first three experiments are run with a Late Cambrian continental configuration. Two experiments are run with an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 10 x pre-industrial (2800 ppm). This is in the range estimated for the Late Cambrian by carbon cycle modeling studies. One of these experiments utilizes a flat topography (CAMB_FLAT), and the other, includes mountains (CAMB_MTN). A third experiment is identical to CAMB_MTN, but CO2 is set to 280 ppm (CAMB_COLD). All Cambrian experiments are integrated without any vegetation, and with solar luminosity reduced by 6%. The Cambrian experiments also utilize a uniform land surface boundary condition consisting of sand with an albedo of 0.37. A fourth scenario was run with pre-industrial boundary conditions (modern geography and vegetation and 280 ppm CO2) as a control experiment (CONTROL). Despite the high level of CO2, global average temperatures in CAMB_FLAT and CAMB_MTN are cooler than that of CONTROL. In CAMB_COLD, the oceans freeze over completely and 'snowball Earth' conditions are present. These results highlight the importance of vegetation, land surface albedo, and continental position in maintaining an equable climate in modern times. They also suggest that a drop in greenhouse gases during the Cambrian, whether due to reduced natural emissions from biologic or volcanic sources, or an increase in biologic activity in the oceans, could have been responsible for the initiation of cooler climatic conditions.

  11. Correlation of Spatio-Temporal Contaminant Distribution, Land Use, and Hydrogeological Factors in the Karst Aquifers of Northern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Torres, N. I.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Karst aquifers are characterized by caves, springs, and sinkholes, and typified by interconnected fissures, fractures and conduits. These characteristics make these aquifers highly productive, and vulnerable to contamination. Previous studies in the northern karst aquifers of Puerto Rico have shown significant distribution of contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, phthalates and other contaminants of emerging concern, beyond demarked sources of contamination. This study develops spatial-temporal distributions of phthalate contaminants in the karst system of northern Puerto Rico and assesses statistical correlations between hydrogeologic factors and groundwater contamination with phthalates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and technologies, and statistical models are applied to attain these objectives. Results show that there is an extensive contamination with phthalates that varies with time. Contamination is present in the confined and shallow aquifers. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most detected contaminant (20.6% of the sites). Diethyl phthalate and and dibutyl phthalate are also detected in 6.7% and 8.24% of the sites, respectively. Phthalates detected as mixtures components are significantly detected in areas of high urban and industrial development. They are also detected in areas within 5 miles of superfund sites and landfills. The results indicate that phthalate contamination is highly related to land use. Statistical models show that the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers, sinkholes density, and time are significantly related to the presence of phthalates in groundwater. The extensive spatio-temporal contamination suggests that contaminants can persist in the environment for long periods of time, and that land use and hydrogeological factors are important factors contributing to the presence of emerging contaminants in karst systems.

  12. Land-surface controls on afternoon precipitation diagnosed from observational data: uncertainties and confounding factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillod, B. P.; Orlowsky, B.; Miralles, D.; Teuling, A. J.; Blanken, P. D.; Buchmann, N.; Ciais, P.; Ek, M.; Findell, K. L.; Gentine, P.; Lintner, B. R.; Scott, R. L.; Van den Hurk, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2014-08-01

    The feedback between soil moisture and precipitation has long been a topic of interest due to its potential for improving weather and seasonal forecasts. The generally proposed mechanism assumes a control of soil moisture on precipitation via the partitioning of the surface turbulent heat fluxes, as assessed via the evaporative fraction (EF), i.e., the ratio of latent heat to the sum of latent and sensible heat, in particular under convective conditions. Our study investigates the poorly understood link between EF and precipitation by relating the before-noon EF to the frequency of afternoon precipitation over the contiguous US, through statistical analyses of multiple EF and precipitation data sets. We analyze remote-sensing data products (Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM) for EF, and radar precipitation from the NEXt generation weather RADar system (NEXRAD)), FLUXNET station data, and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). Data sets agree on a region of positive relationship between EF and precipitation occurrence in the southwestern US. However, a region of strong positive relationship over the eastern US in NARR cannot be confirmed with observation-derived estimates (GLEAM, NEXRAD and FLUXNET). The GLEAM-NEXRAD data set combination indicates a region of positive EF-precipitation relationship in the central US. These disagreements emphasize large uncertainties in the EF data. Further analyses highlight that much of these EF-precipitation relationships could be explained by precipitation persistence alone, and it is unclear whether EF has an additional role in triggering afternoon precipitation. This also highlights the difficulties in isolating a land impact on precipitation. Regional analyses point to contrasting mechanisms over different regions. Over the eastern US, our analyses suggest that the EF-precipitation relationship in NARR is either atmospherically controlled (from precipitation persistence and potential evaporation

  13. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages.

  14. Mercury, autoimmunity, and environmental factors on cheyenne river sioux tribal lands.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jennifer; Erdei, Esther; Rubin, Robert L; Miller, Curtis; Ducheneaux, Carlyle; O'Leary, Marcia; Pacheco, Bernadette; Mahler, Michael; Henderson, Patricia Nez; Pollard, K Michael; Lewis, Johnnye L

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodents, is a ubiquitous toxicant throughout Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe (CRST) lands. CRST members may be exposed to Hg through fish consumption (FC), an important component of native culture that may supplement household subsistence. Our goals were to ascertain whether total blood Hg levels (THg) reflect Hg exposure through FC and smoking, and determine whether THg is associated with the presence of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and specific autoantibodies (sAuAb). We recruited 75 participants who regularly consume fish from CRST waters. Hg exposure through FC and smoking were assessed via questionnaires. Whole blood samples were collected from participants, and THg was measured using ICP-MS. ANA and sAuAb in serum were modeled using demographic and exposure information as predictors. Female gender, age, and FC were significant predictors of THg and sAuAb; self-reported smoking was not. 31% of participants tested positive for ANA ≥ 2+. Although ANA was not significantly associated with Hg, the interactions of gender with Hg and proximity to arsenic deposits were statistically significant (P < 0.05). FC resulted in a detectable body burden of Hg, but THg alone did not correlate with the presence of ANA or sAuAb in this population.

  15. Mercury, Autoimmunity, and Environmental Factors on Cheyenne River Sioux Tribal Lands

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jennifer; Erdei, Esther; Rubin, Robert L.; Miller, Curtis; Ducheneaux, Carlyle; O'Leary, Marcia; Pacheco, Bernadette; Henderson, Patricia Nez; Pollard, K. Michael; Lewis, Johnnye L.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodents, is a ubiquitous toxicant throughout Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe (CRST) lands. CRST members may be exposed to Hg through fish consumption (FC), an important component of native culture that may supplement household subsistence. Our goals were to ascertain whether total blood Hg levels (THg) reflect Hg exposure through FC and smoking, and determine whether THg is associated with the presence of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and specific autoantibodies (sAuAb). We recruited 75 participants who regularly consume fish from CRST waters. Hg exposure through FC and smoking were assessed via questionnaires. Whole blood samples were collected from participants, and THg was measured using ICP-MS. ANA and sAuAb in serum were modeled using demographic and exposure information as predictors. Female gender, age, and FC were significant predictors of THg and sAuAb; self-reported smoking was not. 31% of participants tested positive for ANA ≥ 2+. Although ANA was not significantly associated with Hg, the interactions of gender with Hg and proximity to arsenic deposits were statistically significant (P < 0.05). FC resulted in a detectable body burden of Hg, but THg alone did not correlate with the presence of ANA or sAuAb in this population. PMID:24864198

  16. Factors associated with hunter success for ducks on state-owned lands in Illinios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Hine, Christopher S.; Yetter, Aaron P.; Horath, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Factors that influence hunter success for waterfowl are subject to varying levels of control by managers. The relative influence of these factors is poorly understood, but such information may be valuable to guide management actions intended to promote successful hunting and communicate management decisions to constituents. We used bag-check data to investigate factors influencing hunter success for mallards Anas platyrhynchos and other dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini) during the period 1981-2000 and 2002 at Illinois public waterfowl areas. Competing models of hunter success for mallards and other dabbling ducks included a negative association with average low temperature during the duck season (uncontrollable by managers) and positive associations with estimates of local and continental duck abundance, factors which we considered partially controllable by managers. Although a certain proportion of variation in hunter success for ducks cannot be directly influenced by managers, we suggest that programs and management efforts, which promote larger continental duck populations (e.g. Conservation Reserve Program) and local duck abundance (e.g. provide quality wetland foraging habitats), may positively influence hunter success.

  17. LAND USE AND CLIMATIC FACTORS STRUCTURE REGIONAL PATTERNS IN SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim Understanding the drivers of community composition across spatial scales is of keen interest to ecologists. Although patterns are emerging for macroorganisms, we only have a basic understanding of the factors determining soil microbial community composition, diversity, and productivity at larg...

  18. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  19. Land use as an explanatory factor for potential phosphorus loss risk, assessed by P indices and their governing parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Vogt, Rolf D; Lu, Xueqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lü, Changwei; Mohr, Christian W; Zhu, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The total level of phosphorus (P) and the distribution of P pools in the topsoil are significantly affected by the excessive application of mineral and organic fertilizers connected with intensive agriculture. This leads to an increased potential risk for P loss, and then contributes to freshwater eutrophication. Soil test P (STP), P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) are commonly applied as proxies for assessing the risk of P loss. Although conceptually based, the empirical relationships between these operationally defined proxies and the actual P flux exhibit large spatial variations. Herein, a comprehensive synoptic study and monitoring of soil has been conducted in a watershed in north-eastern China. A set of conventional indicators for soil P loss risk were measured along with the main P pools, P sorption indices, texture, organic matter, as well as Fe and Al oxides and other mineral compositions. Moreover, detailed soil P speciation was conducted using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, phosphatase activities in the soils were determined for each land use soil category. The results reflected that the soil content of total P, total inorganic P and STP increased significantly following the order of increasing management intensity. STP, being strongly coupled to the application of P fertilizers, was a strong explanatory factor for the spatial differences in DPS - both between and within different land uses. The dominant inorganic and organic P species in the soils were orthophosphate and monoester-P, respectively. Their contents were oppositely correlated with the degree of management influence, with the amount of orthophosphate positively related. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP) represented the highest activities among the four representative phosphatases, i.e. enzymes that hydrolyze organic P - releasing labile orthophosphate. Orchard soils were found to contain the highest levels of monoester P

  20. Hydrologic and land-use factors associated with herbicides and nitrate in near-surface aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, Michael R.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    1993-01-01

    , was associated with non-agricultural land use. Herbicide and excess NO−3 were more frequent in unconsolidated aquifers than in bedrock aquifers. Aquifer depth, as direct measurement of proximity to recharge sources, was inversely related to frequency of herbicide detection and excess NO−3.

  1. Land surface controls on afternoon precipitation diagnosed from observational data: Uncertainties, confounding factors and the possible role of interception storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillod, B. P.; Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    ://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ngeo1174. Guillod, B. P., et al.: 'Land surface controls on afternoon precipitation diagnosed from observational data: Uncertainties, confounding factors and the possible role of interception storage', manuscript in preparation. Miralles, D. G., et al., 2011: Global land-surface evaporation estimated from satellite-based observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15 (2), 453-469, doi:10.5194/hess-15-453-2011, URL http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/15/453/2011/. Acknowledgement: We thank a number of people for their comments and contributions: Diego Miralles, Kirsten Findell, Adriaan Teuling, Nina Buchmann, Philippe Ciais, Bart Van den Hurk, Pierre Gentine, Benjamin Lintner, Markus Reichstein, Han Dolman and PIs from the used Fluxnet sites as well as the FLUXNET community.

  2. Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions.

    PubMed

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagao, Seiya; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-08-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total (137)Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4±9.6 kBq m(-2)) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total (137)Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50-91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller (<35%) at the other sites. Another remarkable difference was found in vertical distribution of (137)Cs in mineral soil layers; (137)Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified (137)Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher (137)Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the (137)Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of (137)Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of (137)Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems.

  3. Influence of land use and meteorological factors on the spatial distribution of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs in soil in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Jianxin; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2017-01-15

    Soil which has been contaminated by Toxocara spp. eggs is considered as one of the main infection sources of Toxocariasis in animals and humans. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of Toxocara canis (T. canis) and Toxocara cati (T. cati) eggs in soil in urban area of northeastern Mainland China, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land use and the distribution of the Toxocara spp. eggs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the determination of T. canis and T. cati eggs contamination in soil samples. Between April 2014 and May 2015, 9420 soil samples were subjected to PCR examination and 7027 sheep (74.6%) were determined to be positive for T. canis and T. cati eggs. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of land use, and meteorological factors on the spatial distribution of T. canis and T. cati eggs based on a maximum entropy model. Jackknife analysis revealed that the area of residential land, wood and grass land and precipitation may influence the occurrence of T. canis and T. cati eggs in soil. Our findings indicate that land use and meteorological factors may be important variables affecting transmission of Toxocariasis and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance programmes for Toxocariasis.

  4. Perpetual factors involved in performance of air traffic controllers using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershzohn, G.

    1978-01-01

    The task involved the control of two simulated aircraft targets per trial, in a 37.0 -km radius terminal area, by means of conventional radar vectoring and/or speed control. The goal was to insure that the two targets crossed the Missed Approach Point (MAP) at the runway threshold exactly 60 sec apart. The effects on controller performance of the MLS configuration under wind and no-wind conditions were examined. The data for mean separation time between targets at the MAP and the range about that mean were analyzed by appropriate analyses of variance. Significant effects were found for mean separation times as a result of the configuration of the MLS and for interaction between the configuration and wind conditions. The analysis of variance for range indicated significantly poorer performance under the wind condition. These findings are believed to be a result of certain perceptual factors involved in radar air traffic control (ATC) using the MLS with separation of targets in time.

  5. Factors Influencing College Choice for Students in Agriculture Programs: A Comparative Study of Community College and Land-Grant University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Shannon Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influenced college choice of students who recently enrolled (current freshmen and sophomores) in agriculture programs at Oklahoma's land-grant university, as compared to recently enrolled students (current freshmen and sophomores) in selected agriculture programs at public community colleges…

  6. The influence of environmental factors on protistan microorganisms in grassland soils along a land-use gradient.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Karin; Kuppardt, Anke; Boenigk, Jens; Harms, Hauke; Fetzer, Ingo; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of land use intensity, soil parameters and vegetation on protistan communities in grassland soils. We performed qualitative (T-RFLP) and quantitative (qPCR) analyses using primers specifically targeting the 18S rRNA gene for all Eukarya and for two common flagellate groups, i.e. the Chrysophyceae and the Kinetoplastea. Both approaches were applied to extracted soil DNA and RNA, in order to distinguish between the potentially active protists (i.e. RNA pool) and the total protistan communities, including potentially inactive and encysted cells (i.e. DNA pool). Several environmental determinants such as site, soil parameters and vegetation had an impact on the T-RFLP community profiles and the abundance of the quantified 18S rRNA genes. Correlating factors often differed between quantitative (qPCR) and qualitative (T-RFLP) approaches. For instance the Chrysophyceae/Eukarya 18S rDNA ratio as determined by qPCR correlated with the C/N ratio, whereas the community composition based on T-RLFP analysis was not affected indicating that both methods taken together provide a more complete picture of the parameters driving protist diversity. Moreover, distinct T-RFs were obtained, which could serve as potential indicators for either active organisms or environmental conditions like water content. While site was the main determinant across all investigated exploratories, land use seemed to be of minor importance for structuring protist communities. The impact of other parameters differed between the target groups, e.g. Kinetoplastea reacted on changes to water content on all sites, whereas Chrysophyceae were only affected in the Schorfheide. Finally, in most cases different responses were observed on RNA- and DNA-level, respectively. Vegetation for instance influenced the two flagellate groups only at the DNA-level across all sites. Future studies should thus include different protistan groups and also distinguish between active and

  7. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic exposures and a variety of adverse health effects, but many of these studies relied on proximity measures rather than measured or modeled concentrations of specific air pollutants, complicating interpretability of the findings. An increasing number of studies have used land-use regression (LUR) or other techniques to model small-scale variability in concentrations of specific air pollutants. However, these studies have generally considered a limited number of pollutants, focused on outdoor concentrations (or indoor concentrations of ambient origin) when indoor concentrations are better proxies for personal exposures, and have not taken full advantage of statistical methods for source apportionment that may have provided insight about the structure of the LUR models and the interpretability of model results. Given these issues, the primary objective of our study was to determine predictors of indoor and outdoor residential concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within an urban area, based on a combination of central site monitoring data; geographic information system (GIS) covariates reflecting traffic and other outdoor sources; questionnaire data reflecting indoor sources and activities that affect ventilation rates; and factor-analytic methods to better infer source contributions. As part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and/or outdoor 3-to-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5) at 44 residences during multiple seasons of the year from 2003 through 2005. We performed reflectance analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on particle filters to estimate the concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), trace elements, and water-soluble metals, respectively. We derived

  8. [Effects of land use and environmental factors on the variability of soil quality indicators in hilly Loess Plateau region of China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Xiang; Liu, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Yun-Ge

    2011-02-01

    Classical statistics methods were adopted to analyze the soil quality variability, its affecting factors, and affecting degree at a regional scale (700 km2) in the central part of hilly Loess Plateau region of China. There existed great differences in the variability of test soil quality indicators. Soil pH, structural coefficient, silt content, specific gravity, bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, and catalase activity were the indicators with weak variability; soil nutrients (N, P, and K) contents, CaCO3 content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, micro-aggregate mean mass diameter, aggregate mean mass diameter, water-stable aggregates, respiration rate, microbial quotient, invertase and phosphatase activities, respiratory quotient, and microbial carbon and nitrogen showed medium variation; while soil labile organic carbon and phosphorus contents, erosion-resistance, permeability coefficient, and urease activity were the indicators with strong variability. The variability of soil CaCO3, total P and K, CEC, texture, and specific gravity, etc. was correlated with topography and other environmental factors, while the variability of dynamic soil quality indicators, including soil organic matter content, nitrogen content, water-stable aggregates, permeability, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activities, and respiration rate, was mainly correlated with land use type. Overall, land use pattern explained 97% of the variability of soil quality indicators in the region. It was suggested that in the evaluation of soil quality in hilly Loess Plateau region, land use type and environmental factors should be fully considered.

  9. Use of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry to Assess Land Deformation in the Nile Delta and its Controlling Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Emil, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2015-12-01

    We applied Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSInSAR) to assess land deformation (subsidence and uplift) across the entire Nile delta and its surroundings and to identify possible causes of the observed deformation. For the purpose of the present study, 100 Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR; level 0) scenes that were acquired along four tracks and covering a time span of seven years (2004 to 2010) were used. The scenes extend from the Mediterranean coast in the north to Cairo city in the south. These scenes were focused using Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage (ROI_PAC) software and the subsequent PSI processing was done using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) method. A low coherence threshold (0.2) was used to decrease the impact of vegetation-related poor coherence and decorrelation of the scenes over the investigated time span. Subsidence was observed over: (1) the Demietta Nile River branch (3 to 14 mm/yr) where it intersects the Mediterranean coastline, (2) thick (~ 40 m) Holocene sediments in lake Manzala (up to 9 mm/yr), (3) reclaimed desert areas (west of Nile Delta; up to 12 mm/yr) of high groundwater extraction, (4) along parts of a previously proposed flexure line (up to 10 mm/yr), and (5) along the eastern sections of the Mediterranean coastline (up to 15.7 mm/yr). The city of Alexandria (underlain by carbonate platform) and the terminus of the Rosetta branch of the Nile River seem to experience almost no ground movement (mean subsidence of 0.28 mm/yr and 0.74 mm/yr respectively) while the cities of Ras Elbar and Port Said (underlain by thick Holocene sediment) exhibit the highest subsidence values (up to 14 mm/yr and 8.5 mm/yr respectively). The city of Cairo has also experienced subsidence in limited areas of up to 7.8 mm/yr. High spatial correlation was also observed between the subsiding areas and the Abu Madi incised valley; the largest gas field in the Nile Delta. Most of the area undergoing subsidence in the

  10. Analyzing the spatio-temporal relationship between dengue vector larval density and land-use using factor analysis and spatial ring mapping

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne febrile viral disease, is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions and is now extending its range to temperate regions. The spread of the dengue viruses mainly depends on vector population (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), which is influenced by changing climatic conditions and various land-use/land-cover types. Spatial display of the relationship between dengue vector density and land-cover types is required to describe a near-future viral outbreak scenario. This study is aimed at exploring how land-cover types are linked to the behavior of dengue-transmitting mosquitoes. Methods Surveys were conducted in 92 villages of Phitsanulok Province Thailand. The sampling was conducted on three separate occasions in the months of March, May and July. Dengue indices, i.e. container index (C.I.), house index (H.I.) and Breteau index (B.I.) were used to map habitats conducible to dengue vector growth. Spatial epidemiological analysis using Bivariate Pearson’s correlation was conducted to evaluate the level of interdependence between larval density and land-use types. Factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was performed to ascertain the variance among land-use types. Furthermore, spatial ring method was used as to visualize spatially referenced, multivariate and temporal data in single information graphic. Results Results of dengue indices showed that the settlements around gasoline stations/workshops, in the vicinity of marsh/swamp and rice paddy appeared to be favorable habitat for dengue vector propagation at highly significant and positive correlation (p = 0.001) in the month of May. Settlements around the institutional areas were highly significant and positively correlated (p = 0.01) with H.I. in the month of March. Moreover, dengue indices in the month of March showed a significant and positive correlation (p <= 0.05) with deciduous forest. The H.I. of people living around horticulture

  11. Effects of land use and geological factors on the spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Clayton, M.

    2012-12-01

    factors and human activities on the spatial variability of soil properties, can inform development of landscape-scale soil sampling schemes for soil carbon and nitrogen accounting so that they are representative of soils at landscape scales in dryland environments. They suggest that in drylands, land management strategies to increase carbon stocks in soils differ based on soil type. Further, they will contribute understanding to what processes varying across spatial scales may be driving soil heterogeneity.

  12. On the Main Factors Controlling Anthropogenic Land Subsidence in the Northern Plain of the Chaobai River, North Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Teatini, P.; Gong, H.; Ke, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic land subsidence is a widespread phenomenon threatening several cities in China. One major area of land subsidence is the Beijing city. The city continues to grow and unofficial estimates put the population at around 21-22 million in 2013, with an increase by 40% from 2000 to 2010. Along with the increasing urbanization, demands for water resources become larger. Approximately 2/3 of the water need is supplied by groundwater. To cope with the pressure for water supply, a first "over-sized emergency groundwater resource region (EGRR)" was built in 2003 at the Huairou district, where is the upper and middle plain of the Chaobai River, few tens km to the north of the metropolitan center. Other four EGRRwell-fields have been established in different districts surrounding the city in the next years. The long-time over-exploitation of groundwater resulted in water level fall and land subsidence. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) on ENVISAT images has been used to detect land subsidence in the northern Beijing plain from 2003 to 2010. The PSI outcome, which was calibrated using ground-based measurements including levelling and extensometers, reveals that the largest subsidence rate reached 52 mm/yr, with a cumulative maximum sinking equal to 342 mm, in the Houshayu city at the southwestern part of the study area where the capital international airport is situated. Land subsidence in the northern zones, where the main well-fields are located, was much smaller in the order of 60 mm. Hydro-geologic investigations have showed that the distribution of groundwater depression cones only partially resembles the land subsidence pattern. The subsidence rates are strongly correlated with the distribution of compressible clay units. In the south-westernmost zone, at the bound of the metropolitan area, the cumulative thickness of cohesive soils amounts to 250 m in the upper 390 m sedimentary sequence. Conversely, sands and gravels prevail in the northern portion

  13. Origin of Stream Bed Sediments in Northwest New Jersey: Factors of Land Use and Source Determined by Trace Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, G. A.; Starks, L. M.; Torres, A. J.; Galster, J. C.; Feng, H.; Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Streams in northern New Jersey span a broad range of environments and land covers, including urban, agriculture, wetlands, and forest. Stream sediments receive input from these environments, and indicate pulses or stages of land use change, or stability. In this project, we use trace elements, including rare earth elements, to fingerprint sediment sources and differentiate between land use as well as immediate sources of sediment, such as stream banks, floodplains, uplands, or urban inputs. Samples of stream bed, stream bank, floodplain sediments, and urban and upland soils were obtained from eight locations in the Flat Brook, Rockaway River, and Wallkill River watersheds in Sussex and Morris counties in New Jersey. Samples were prepared for trace element analysis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Element content was compared to land use, sediment source, and a stream stability index (the Rapid Geomorphic Assessment, RGA). Several elements (V, Cr, Ni, Sr, Pb) were statistically significant at distinguishing between land use. Zr and W were able to distinguish sediment source (i.e. floodplain, bank, upland, etc.) with statistical confidence. Related to stream and bank stability, the RGA showed significant positive correlation with Cr and Co content (increasing Cr and Co with increasing instability), indicating these elements as good proxy indicators for bank erosion. Ongoing studies of element ratios, combined with Cs-136 and Pb-210 activity levels by gamma detector, will further refine the sediment characterization, with an eventual goal of approximating a sediment budget across different land uses and identifying hot spots that deliver disproportionately high amounts of sediment.; Increase in Co content corresponds to an increase in channel and bank instability, indicated by increasing RGA value.

  14. Energy-based land use predictors of proximal factors and benthic diatom composition in Florida freshwater marshes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Charles R; Brown, Mark T

    2006-06-01

    The Landscape Development Intensity index (LDI), which is based on non-renewable energy use and integrates diverse land use activities, was compared to other measures of LU (e.g., %agriculture, %urban) to determine its ability for predicting benthic diatom composition in freshwater marshes of peninsular Florida. In this study, 70 small, isolated herbaceous marshes located along a human disturbance gradient (generally agricultural) throughout peninsular Florida were sampled for benthic diatoms and soil and water physical/chemical parameters (i.e., TP, TKN, pH, specific conductance, etc.). Landscape measures of percent agriculture, percent urban, percent natural, and LDI index values were calculated for a 100 m buffer around each site. The strongest relationships using Mantel's r statistic, which ranges from -1 to 1, were found between benthic diatom composition, the combined soil and water variables, and LDI scores (r=0.51, P<0.0001). Although similar, soil and water variables alone (r=0.45, P<0.0001) or with percent agriculture or percent natural were not as strongly correlated (both Mantel's r=0.46, P<0.0001). Little urban land use was found in the areas surrounding the study wetlands. Diatom data were clustered using flexible beta into 2 groups, and stepwise discriminant analysis identified specific conductance, followed by LDI score, soil pH, water total phosphorus, and ammonia, as cluster-separating variables. The LDI explained slightly more of the variation in species composition than either percent agriculture or percent natural, perhaps because the LDI can combine disparate land uses into a single quantitative value. However, the ecological significance of the difference between land use metrics and diatom composition is controvertible, and additional tests including more varied land uses appear warranted.

  15. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  16. Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency in degenerate two level systems of metastable Kr atoms and measurement of Landé g-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Y. B.; Tiwari, V. B.; Mishra, S. R.; Singh, S.; Rawat, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    We report electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) and transparency (EIT) resonances of sub-natural linewidth in degenerate two level systems (DTLSs) of metastable 84Kr (84Kr*) and 83Kr (83Kr*) atoms. Using the spectrally narrow EIA signals obtained corresponding to the closed hyperfine transition 4p55s[3/2]2(F=13/2) to 4p55p[5/2]3(F‧ = 15 / 2) in 83Kr* atom, we have measured the Landé g-factor (gF) for the lower hyperfine level involved in this transition by application of small values of magnetic field of few Gauss.

  17. Analysis of the Vertical Ground Reaction Forces and Temporal Factors in the Landing Phase of a Countermovement Jump

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Daniel Rojano; Rodríguez Bíes, Elisabeth C.; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2) in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively) and the length of the impact absorption phase (T). Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v.1.0.9.0., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH) and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01) but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p < 0.05) and a significant negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p < 0.05) were also found. There is a significant negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p < 0.05). T1 has a little effect in the impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster. Key points In the landing phase of a jump there are always sev-eral peak forces. The combination of these peaks forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produces a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. In the most common two

  18. [Nitrogen and phosphorus loss in different land use types and its response to environmental factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li-Xiong; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tian, Yao-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The control of agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) is an urgent problem to be solved for the ecological environment construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We analyzed the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss and its response to environmental factors through monitoring the nutrient loss in different land use types after returning farmland to forest. The results showed that: 1) The variability of nutrient concentration loss was strong in different land use types under different rainfall conditions, and the variability in the concentration of available nutrient was much higher than that of total nutrient; 2) Compared to farmland, the annual phosphorus loss of different land use types was reduced by 84.53% - 91.61% after returning farmland to forest; the reduction of annual nitrogen loss was not significant except Chinese chestnut forest (Castanea mollissima) and arbor forest, and the nitrogen loss was much higher than the phosphorus loss in all land use types; 3) The particle phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) were the main forms of the phosphorus and nitrogen loss, respectively; 4) The nutrient loss of tea garden (Camellia sinensis) and bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens) showed a good correlation with precipitation, and the correlation of phosphorus was better than that of nitrogen, but there was no significant relation with the rainfall intensity; 5) The coverage of vegetation, tree layer and litter had a great influence on the loss of total nitrogen (TN). NO3(-)-N loss was highly influenced by the ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) content in the surface soil, and P loss mainly by the total phosphorus (TP) and sand content in the soil.

  19. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  20. Distribution of phytobenthos in the Yakima River basin, Washington, in relation to geology, land use and other environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, Harry V.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic-algal distributions in the Yakima River, Washington, basin were, examined in relation to geology, land use, water chemistry, and stream habitat using indicator-species classification (TWINSPAN) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Algal assemblages identified byTWINSPAN were each associated with a narrow range of water-quality conditions. In the Cascade geologic province, where timber harvest and grazing are the dominant land uses, differences in community structure (CCA site scores) and concentrations of major ions (Ca and Mg) and nutrients (solute P, SiO2 and inorganic N) varied with dominant rock type of the basin. In agricultural areas of the Columbia Plateau province, differences in phytobenthos structure were based primarily on the degree of enrichment of dissolved solids, inorganic N, and solute P from irrigation-return flows and subsurface drainage. Habitat characteristics strongly correlated with community structure included reach altitude, turbidity, substratum embeddedness (Columbia Plateau), large woody-debris density (Cascade Range), and composition and density of the riparian vegetation. Algal biomass (AFDM) correlated with composition and density of the riparian vegetation but not with measured chemical-constituent concentrations. Nitrogen limitation in streams of the Cascade Range favored nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae and diatoms with endosymbiotic blue-greens, whereas nitrogen heterotrophs were abundant in agricultural areas of the Columbia Plateau.

  1. Distribution of phytobenthos in the Yakima River basin, Washington, in relation to geology, land use, and other environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, Harry V.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic-algal distributions in the Yakima River, Washington, basin were, examined in relation to geology, land use, water chemistry, and stream habitat using indicator-species classification (TWINSPAN) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Algal assemblages identified byTWINSPAN were each associated with a narrow range of water-quality conditions. In the Cascade geologic province, where timber harvest and grazing are the dominant land uses, differences in community structure (CCA site scores) and concentrations of major ions (Ca and Mg) and nutrients (solute P, SiO2 and inorganic N) varied with dominant rock type of the basin. In agricultural areas of the Columbia Plateau province, differences in phytobenthos structure were based primarily on the degree of enrichment of dissolved solids, inorganic N, and solute P from irrigation-return flows and subsurface drainage. Habitat characteristics strongly correlated with community structure included reach altitude, turbidity, substratum embeddedness (Columbia Plateau), large woody-debris density (Cascade Range), and composition and density of the riparian vegetation. Algal biomass (AFDM) correlated with composition and density of the riparian vegetation but not with measured chemical-constituent concentrations. Nitrogen limitation in streams of the Cascade Range favored nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae and diatoms with endosymbiotic blue-greens, whereas nitrogen heterotrophs were abundant in agricultural areas of the Columbia Plateau.

  2. Investigation of connections among physical, social and economic factors in case of optimal Land Use System Planning in the Egri-Bükkalja Foothill Area of North Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Anna; Utasi, Zoltán; Tóth, Antal; Csabai Kitti, Edina; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Hegyi, Balázs; Tamás Hegyi, Péter; Pásztor, László; Mika, János

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, detailed knowledge of landscape elements and their capabilties, furthermore the probable tendency of climate change play important role in spatial planning of optimal land use system and solving agricultural and social challeges. During our research work, we have investigated three settlements (Cserépfalu, Egerszólát, Kerecsend) based on different landscape factors in the Egri-Bükkalja Fothill Areas of North Hungary. Our aim was to point out the landscape differences along north - south direction inside this microlandscape unit and their effects on land use system, economic developments, social challenges and their changeable tendency in the future We have investigated quantitative and qualitative connections among different landscape factors in suitable GIS environment. Based on the identified relationships thematic maps were compiled. The elaborated GIS integrates digitally processed legacy data, properly selected spatial data infrastructure elements and recently collected field data originating from our geomopholgical and pedological investigations carried out in last three years. We discribed soil features in soil profiles using methods according to FAO (2006) and Novák (2013). Soils were featured by soil type, the thickness of A horizon and the rate of soil erosion. Projected climate changes have also been considered for the region. Besides collection of the available recent OAGCM outputs and outputs by four RCM run in Hungary, an empirical approach has been also included. This is based on empirical regression relationship between relevant grid-point values of the CarpatClim data base and the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Land use maps were created based on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Military Survey Maps and aerial photographs covering a relatively long period from the 18th century till nowadays. Main social and economic factors and processes were characterized using data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, population census and

  3. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from laboratory culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-10-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail subspecies, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on results obtained from previous works and this study, a simple but credible framework is presented to illustrate how each source and environmental parameter affects shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage-fed (C3 plant) groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested limestone vary in the ranges of 66-80, 16-24, and 0-13%, respectively. For corn-fed (C4 plant) groups, because of the possible food stress (less ability to consume C4 plants), the values vary in the ranges of 56-64, 18-20, and 16-26%, respectively. Moreover, according to the literature and our observations, the subspecies we cultured in this study show preferences towards different plant species for food. Therefore, we suggest that the potential food preference should be considered adequately for some species in paleoenvironment studies. Finally, we inferred that only the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails controls carbon isotope fractionation.

  4. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from lab culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-05-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on previous works and on results obtained in this study, a simple but credible framework is presented for discussion of how each source and environmental parameter can affect shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage (C3 plant) fed groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone respectively vary as 66-80%, 16-24%, and 0-13%. For corn (C4 plant) fed groups, because of the possible food stress (lower consumption ability of C4 plant), the values vary respectively as 56-64%, 18-20%, and 16-26%. Moreover, we present new evidence that snails have discrimination to choose C3 and C4 plants as food. Therefore, we suggest that food preferences must be considered adequately when applying δ13C in paleo-environment studies. Finally, we inferred that, during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails, carbon isotope fractionation is controlled only by the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium.

  5. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  6. Limiting factors for carbon-mineral complexation: Responses to land use types and the implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The cycles of carbon (C) and minerals are largely considered independently. However, there is a growing consensus that C complexation onto mineral surface is critical in protecting C from decomposition and thus lengthening C turnover time. To create C-mineral complexes, physical contact must occur between organic matter and minerals, yet production of C is spatially separated from mineral surface production. We hypothesized that (1) C-mineral complexation is typically limited by either availability of C or mineral surface, (2) land use type and depth strongly affect which one of the two limits the complexation, and (3) accelerated erosion and fluvial sedimentation, by mixing C with minerals, results in creating additional C-mineral complexes within watersheds. We targeted a mixed-land use watershed in the Piedmont region of southeast Pennsylvania. In the uplands, plowed agricultural soils, compared to the neighboring forest soils, had low C contents. Accelerated soil erosion from uplands and subsequent sedimentation behind mill dams during the colonial time has been suggested as responsible for the fluvial deposits within the watershed. In the uplands, soil samples were collected to the depth of soil-saprolite boundary in a second-growth forest (~100 years old) and an adjacent agricultural field. A soil at the floodplain was also sampled to the depth of a first buried A horizon. In the forest A-horizon soil, as C contents increased, mineral-complexed C pool was saturated and C-mineral complexation was limited by the availability of mineral surface. In contrast, in the agricultural A horizon, C availability limited the complexation. In the A horizon of floodplain soil, as in the forest soil, further C-mineral complexation requires greater availability of mineral surface. Therefore, while minerals eroded from the forest may not complex further C, agricultural erosion may contribute to creating C-mineral complexes during the sediment transit through fluvial networks

  7. Environmental factors and public health policy associated with human and rodent infection by leptospirosis: a land cover-based study in Nan province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Della Rossa, P; Tantrakarnapa, K; Sutdan, D; Kasetsinsombat, K; Cosson, J-F; Supputamongkol, Y; Chaisiri, K; Tran, A; Supputamongkol, S; Binot, A; Lajaunie, C; Morand, S

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis incidence has increased markedly since 1995 in Thailand, with the eastern and northern parts being the most affected regions, particularly during flooding events. Here, we attempt to overview the evolution of human prevalence during the past decade and identify the environmental factors that correlate with the incidence of leptospirosis and the clinical incidence in humans. We used an extensive survey of Leptospira infection in rodents conducted in 2008 and 2009 and the human incidence of the disease from 2003 to 2012 in 168 villages of two districts of Nan province in Northern Thailand. Using an ad-hoc developed land-use cover implemented in a geographical information system we showed that humans and rodents were not infected in the same environment/habitat in the land-use cover. High village prevalence was observed in open habitat near rivers for the whole decade, or in 2008-2009 mostly in rice fields prone to flooding, whereas infected rodents (2008-2009) were observed in patchy habitat with high forest cover, mostly situated on sloping ground areas. We also investigated the potential effects of public health campaigns conducted after the dramatic flood event of 2006. We showed that, before 2006, human incidence in villages was explained by the population size of the village according to the environmental source of infection of this disease, while as a result of the campaigns, human incidence in villages after 2006 appeared independent of their population size. This study confirms the role of the environment and particularly land use, in the transmission of bacteria, emphasized by the effects of the provincial public health campaigns on the epidemiological pattern of incidence, and questions the role of rodents as reservoirs.

  8. Regulatory, Land Ownership, and Water Availability Factors for a Magma Well: Long Valley Caldera and Coso Hot Springs, California

    SciTech Connect

    Blackett, Robert

    1985-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently engaged in a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy from high-level molten magma bodies. The program is being carried out under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories where a number of individual projects support the overall program. The existing program elements include (1) high-temperature materials compatibility testing; (2) studies of properties of melts of various compositions; and (3) the investigation of the economics of a magma energy extraction system. Another element of the program is being conducted with the cooperation of the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves locating and outlining magma bodies at selected sites using various geophysical techniques. The ultimate goal here will be to define the limits of a magma body as a drilling target. During an earlier phase of the program, more than twenty candidate study sites considered were evaluated based upon: (1) the likelihood of the presence of a shallow magma chamber, (2) the accessibility of the site, and (3) physical and institutional constraints associated with each site with respect to performing long-term experiments. From these early phase activities, the number of candidate sites were eventually narrowed to just 2. The sites currently under consideration are Coso Hot Springs and the Long Valley caldera (Figure 1). This report describes certain attributes of these sites in order to help identify potential problems related to: (1) state and federal regulations pertaining to geothermal development; (2) land ownership; and (3) water resource availability. The information sources used in this study were mainly maps, publications, and informative documents gathered from the California Division of Oil and Gas and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Environmental studies completed for the entire Long Valley caldera study area, and for portions of the Coso Hot Springs study area were also used for reference.

  9. Factors influencing storm-generated suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in four basins of contrasting land use, humid-tropical Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.

    2013-01-01

    The significant characteristics controlling the variability in storm-generated suspended-sediment loads and concentrations were analyzed for four basins of differing land use (forest, pasture, cropland, and urbanizing) in humid-tropical Puerto Rico. Statistical analysis involved stepwise regression on factor scores. The explanatory variables were attributes of flow, hydrograph peaks, and rainfall, categorized into 5 flow periods: (1) the current storm hydrograph, (2) the flow and rainfall since the previous storm event, (3) the previous storm event, (4) 2nd previous storm event, and (5) the 3rd previous storm event. The response variables (storm generated sediment loads and concentrations) were analyzed for three portions of the storm hydrograph: (1) the entire storm, (2) the rising limb, and (3) the recessional limb. Hysteresis differences in sediment concentration between the rising and falling limb were also analyzed using these explanatory variables.

  10. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    mortality due to coyote predation was documented and disease was a major mortality source for foxes. The declining relative abundance of gray fox in Illinois is likely a result of a combination of factors. Assessment of habitat associations indicated that urban mesopredators, particularly coyotes and foxes, perceived the landscape as relatively homogeneous and that urban mesopredators interacted with the environment at scales larger than that accommodated by remnant habitat patches. Coyote and fox presence was found to be associated with a high degree of urban development at large and intermediate spatial scales. However, at a small spatial scale fox presence was associated with high density urban land cover whereas coyote presence was associated with urban development with increased forest cover. Urban habitats can offer a diversity of prey items and anthropogenic resources and natural land cover could offer coyotes daytime resting opportunities in urban areas where they may not be as tolerated as smaller foxes. Raccoons and opossums were found to utilize moderately developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers at a large spatial scale, which may facilitate dispersal movements. At intermediate and small spatial scales, both species were found to utilize areas that were moderately developed and included forested land cover. These results indicated that raccoons and opossums used natural areas in proximity to anthropogenic resources. At a large spatial scale, skunk presence was associated with highly developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers. This may indicate that skunks perceived the urban matrix as more homogeneous than raccoons or opossums. At an intermediate spatial scale skunks were associated with moderate levels of development and increased forest cover, which indicated that they might utilize natural land cover in proximity to human-dominated land cover. At the smallest spatial scale skunk presence was

  11. Site Selection for Mars Surveyor Landing Sites: Some Key Factors for 2001 and Relation to Long-Term Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The Site Selection Process: Site selection as a process can be subdivided into several main elements and these can be represented as the corners of a tetrahedron. Successful site selection outcome requires the interactions between these elements or corners, and should also take into account several other external factors or considerations. In principle, elements should be defined in approximately the following order: (1) major scientific and programmatic goals and objectives: What are the major questions that are being asked, goals that should be achieved, and objectives that must be accomplished. Do programmatic goals (e.g., sample return) differ from mission goals (e.g., precursor to sample return)? It is most helpful if these questions can be placed in the context of site characterization and hypothesis testing (e.g., Was Mars warm and wet in the Noachian? Land at a Noachian-aged site that shows evidence of surface water and characterize it specifically to address this question). Goals and objectives, then, help define important engineering factors such as type of payload, landing regions of interest (highlands, lowlands, smooth, rough, etc.), mobility, mission duration, etc. Goals and objectives then lead to: (2) spacecraft design and engineering landing site constraints: the spacecraft is designed to optimize the areas that will meet the goals and objectives, but this in turn introduces constraints that must be met in the selection of a landing site. Scientific and programmatic goals and objectives also help to define (3), the specific lander scientific payload requirements and capabilities. For example, what observations and experiments are required to address the major questions? How do we characterize the site in reference to the specific questions? Is mobility required and if so, how much? Which experiments are on the spacecraft, which on the rover? The results of these deliberations should lead to a surface exploration strategy, in which the goals and

  12. Characterization factors for land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment based on direct measures of plant species richness in European farmland in the 'Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest' biome.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John E; Cederberg, Christel; Herzog, Felix; Vale, Jim; Jeanneret, Philippe; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre; Friedel, Jürgen K; Balázs, Katalin; Fjellstad, Wendy; Kainz, Max; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Dennis, Peter

    2017-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used tool to assess environmental sustainability of products. The LCA should optimally cover the most important environmental impact categories such as climate change, eutrophication and biodiversity. However, impacts on biodiversity are seldom included in LCAs due to methodological limitations and lack of appropriate characterization factors. When assessing organic agricultural products the omission of biodiversity in LCA is problematic, because organic systems are characterized by higher species richness at field level compared to the conventional systems. Thus, there is a need for characterization factors to estimate land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment that are able to distinguish between organic and conventional agricultural land use that can be used to supplement and validate the few currently suggested characterization factors. Based on a unique dataset derived from field recording of plant species diversity in farmland across six European countries, the present study provides new midpoint occupation Characterization Factors (CF) expressing the Potentially Disappeared Fraction (PDF) to estimate land use impacts on biodiversity in the 'Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest' biome in Europe. The method is based on calculation of plant species on randomly selected test sites in the biome and enables the calculation of characterization factors that are sensitive to particular types of management. While species richness differs between countries, the calculated CFs are able to distinguish between different land use types (pastures (monocotyledons or mixed), arable land and hedges) and management practices (organic or conventional production systems) across countries. The new occupation CFs can be used to supplement or validate the few current CF's and can be applied in LCAs of agricultural products to assess land use impacts on species richness in the 'Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest' biome.

  13. The USGS Land Cover Institute

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Institute (LCI) is located at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides a focal point for advancing USGS land cover studies and applications. Satellite images and other remotely sensed data play an important role in this research. Land Cover scientists investigate new ways to use satellite images and other data to map land cover. They assess national and global land cover characteristics and monitor how - and how rapidly - land cover changes. They also study the economic impacts of land cover as well as its effects on water quality, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, climate variability, and other environmental factors.

  14. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  15. Calculations with spectroscopic accuracy for energies, transition rates, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors in nitrogen-like Kr XXX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, S.; Jönsson, P.; Fu, N.; Dang, W.; Guo, X. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.; Chen, Z. B.; Si, R.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive self-consistent multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations and second-order many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are performed for the lowest 272 states belonging to the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, 2p5, 2s22p23l, and 2s2p33l (l=s, p, d) configurations of N-like Kr XXX. Complete and consistent data sets of level energies, wavelengths, line strengths, oscillator strengths, lifetimes, AJ, BJ hyperfine interaction constants, Landé gJ-factors, and electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic quadrupole (M2) transition rates among all these levels are given. The present MCDF and MBPT results are compared with each other and with other available experimental and theoretical results. The mean relative difference between our two sets of level energies is only about 0.003% for these 272 levels. The accuracy of the present calculations are high enough to facilitate identification of many observed spectral lines. These accurate data can be served as benchmark for other calculations and can be useful for fusion plasma research and astrophysical applications.

  16. Calculations with spectroscopic accuracy: energies, transition rates, and Landé gJ-factors in the carbon isoelectronic sequence from Ar XIII to Zn XXV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, J.; Jönsson, P.; Gustafsson, S.; Hartman, H.; Gaigalas, G.; Godefroid, M. R.; Froese Fischer, C.

    2014-04-01

    Extensive self-consistent multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations and subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations are performed for 262 states belonging to the 15 configurations 2s22p2, 2s2p3, 2p4, 2s22p3l, 2s2p23l, 2p33l and 2s22p4l(l = 0,1,2) in selected carbon-like ions from Ar XIII to Zn XXV. Electron correlation effects are accounted for through large configuration state function expansions. Calculated energy levels are compared with existing theoretical calculations and data from the Chianti and NIST databases. In addition, Landé gJ-factors and radiative electric dipole transition rates are given for all ions. The accuracy of the calculations are high enough to facilitate the identification of observed spectral lines. Research supported in part by the Swedish Research council, Swedish Institute and by the IUAP-Belgian State Science Policy (BriX network P7/12).Tables of energy levels and transition rates (Tables 3-22) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A24

  17. Developing Street-Level PM2.5 and PM10 Land Use Regression Models in High-Density Hong Kong with Urban Morphological Factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2016-08-02

    Monitoring street-level particulates is essential to air quality management but challenging in high-density Hong Kong due to limitations in local monitoring network and the complexities of street environment. By employing vehicle-based mobile measurements, land use regression (LUR) models were developed to estimate the spatial variation of PM2.5 and PM10 in the downtown area of Hong Kong. Sampling runs were conducted along routes measuring a total of 30 km during a selected measurement period of total 14 days. In total, 321 independent variables were examined to develop LUR models by using stepwise regression with PM2.5 and PM10 as dependent variables. Approximately, 10% increases in the model adjusted R(2) were achieved by integrating urban/building morphology as independent variables into the LUR models. Resultant LUR models show that the most decisive factors on street-level air quality in Hong Kong are frontal area index, an urban/building morphological parameter, and road network line density and traffic volume, two parameters of road traffic. The adjusted R(2) of the final LUR models of PM2.5 and PM10 are 0.633 and 0.707, respectively. These results indicate that urban morphology is more decisive to the street-level air quality in high-density cities than other cities. Air pollution hotspots were also identified based on the LUR mapping.

  18. Relation of fish community composition to environmental factors and land use in part of the upper Mississippi River basin, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; Lee, K.E.; Talmage, P.J.; Stauffer, J.C.; Anderson, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fish communities in the Upper Mississippi River Basin have been affected by changing environmental and land-use factors. Fish communities in small streams in agricultural and urban basins were compared to the fish community in a relatively undisturbed forested basin. In small streams, nutrient inputs from fertilizer, habitat modification from channelization, hydrologic modification from dams and tile drains, and increased water temperatures from loss of riparian shading have contributed to producing a change in fish community composition. In the large rivers, some of the changes that have occurred from sites upstream to downstream of the Twin Cities metropolitan area are primarily caused by the environmental effects of dams constructed as part of the lock and dam commercial navigation system. Although some of the differences upstream and downstream of the Twin Cities metropolitan area are due to zoogeographic variability, the major changes in the downstream community are shifts to more lentic species, species with higher thermal tolerance, and more planktivorous species. These changes are an extension of the changes observed in the small streams due to increased nutrients, increased water temperatures, and habitat alteration.

  19. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sandip

    2016-06-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features.

  20. Land Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  1. Trends in the Global Net Land Sink and Their Sensitivity to Environmental Forcing Factors: Results From the Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Cook, R. B.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Arain, M. A.; Ciais, P.; Fisher, J. B.; Hayes, D. J.; Huang, M.; Huang, S.; Ito, A.; Jain, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Maignan, F.; Mao, J.; Parazoo, N.; Peng, S.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Predictions of future climate depend strongly on trends in net uptake or release of carbon by the land biosphere. However, model estimates of the strength of the net global land sink during the Industrial Era vary widely. Here we evaluate results from an ensemble of uncoupled models taken from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) and forced by the same input fields. When compared to estimates inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations (i.e., fossil fuel emission + net land use change - atmospheric increase - ocean uptake), MsTMIP models estimate, on average, a stronger global net land uptake of carbon (e.g., -0.3 to 8.7 Pg C/yr from 2000 to 2010, where a negative flux represents a net release to the atmosphere). Some models consistently show the land surface as a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, which is inconsistent with the other terms in the global anthropogenic CO2 budget. In addition, regional differences in land carbon exchange are compared across models and to estimates derived from atmospheric inversions and inventory based approaches. Using the semi-factorial simulations of the MsTMIP activity, we examine how model estimates of the cumulative global net land sink diverge over the period 1900 to 2010, and the degree to which model sensitivity to forcing factors contribute to this divergence. We link differences in estimates of the cumulative land sink back to each model's sensitivity to climate variability, CO2 fertilization, nitrogen limitation, and net land-use change. Throughout the 110-year time period, the strength of carbon uptake in most models appears to be strongly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CO2 fertilization effect). The strength of this relationship, however, varies across models depending on model structure (e.g., stronger CO2 fertilization effect in models without an interactive nitrogen cycle with N limitations) and across decades (e.g., strong sensitivity of net flux to

  2. Measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factor in a pure-phase InAs nanowire double quantum dot in the Pauli spin-blockade regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun; Lei, Zijin; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO2 substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of ΔST ˜ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of ΔSO ˜ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ˜12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.

  3. Hyperfine structures and Landé g{sub J}-factors for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Verdebout, S.; Nazé, C.; Rynkun, P.; Godefroid, M.

    2014-09-15

    Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé g{sub J}-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core–valence, and core–core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

  4. [Main affecting factors of soil wind erosion under different land use patterns--a case study in Wuchuan County, Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    He, Wenqing; Zhao, Caixia; Gao, Wangsheng; Chen, Yuanquan; Qin, Hongling; Fan, Xiurong

    2005-11-01

    Field investigation, laboratory analysis and wind tunnel simulation showed that in Wuchuan County of Inner Mongolia, low precipitation, frequent and high wind velocity, coarse soil texture, and thawing and freezing were the main causes of soil wind erosion happened very easily in spring. In late winter and early spring, the vegetation coverage was in order of shrub-land>natural grassland>rainfed farmland, and thus, increasing the surface cover of rainfed farmland should be an urgent need to control the wind erosion in Wuchuan County. The soil wind erosion rate decreased exponentially with increasing soil moisture content, and 6% soil moisture content was a turning point from severe to light. The topsoil moisture content under different land use patterns was in order of natural grassland> rainfed farmland >shrub-land. With increasing wind velocity, soil wind erosion rate increased by power function, and 18 m x s(-1) wind velocity was a switching point to aggravate the wind erosion.

  5. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  6. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  7. An Analysis of Factors which Led to the Dominance of Scholarship as Compared with Teaching and Outreach Activities in Land Grant Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoll, Charles E.

    According to the author, service or outreach activities by faculty members at research oriented institutions, including land-grant ones, typically go unregarded, with the most highly esteemed effort being productive scholarship (through such endeavors as journal articles, papers, and research grants), teaching being of secondary importance. In…

  8. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  9. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    site to a PSR was chosen and used to do an automatic calculation for a rover traverse where the slope was assumed to be the limiting factor. Between the landing site and PSR a site of interest was chosen where temperature differences (Tmax-Tmin) is higher than 150K to study volatile migration processes. Eventually it is concluded that Amundsen is preferred above Rozhdestvesnkiy West because its flatter crater ground makes it easier to select landing sites. It contains more areas where volatile migration processes can studied and it is easier to rove.

  10. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.; Loureiro, F.

    1992-07-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  11. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. ); Loureiro, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  12. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  13. Relation of periphyton and benthic invertebrate communities to environmental factors and land use at selected sites in part of the upper Mississippi River basin, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ZumBerge, Jeremy Ryan; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Biological communities in the Mississippi River reflected changes in water quality and physical habitat as the Minnesota and St. Croix Rivers join the Mississippi River. Periphyton density and biovolume, and the relative abundance of blue-green algae density increased in the Mississippi River at the confluence compared to the Minnesota and St. Croix Rivers. Relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa richness and diversity generally decreased downstream in the large rivers as urban and agricultural land use become more prevalent. Impoundments and dredging of the Mississippi River in and downstream from the TCMA exacerbate effects of increasing river size to produce a more lake-like system.

  14. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  15. Analytical display design for flight tasks conducted under instrument meteorological conditions. [human factors engineering of pilot performance for display device design in instrument landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Paramount to proper utilization of electronic displays is a method for determining pilot-centered display requirements. Display design should be viewed fundamentally as a guidance and control problem which has interactions with the designer's knowledge of human psychomotor activity. From this standpoint, reliable analytical models of human pilots as information processors and controllers can provide valuable insight into the display design process. A relatively straightforward, nearly algorithmic procedure for deriving model-based, pilot-centered display requirements was developed and is presented. The optimal or control theoretic pilot model serves as the backbone of the design methodology, which is specifically directed toward the synthesis of head-down, electronic, cockpit display formats. Some novel applications of the optimal pilot model are discussed. An analytical design example is offered which defines a format for the electronic display to be used in a UH-1H helicopter in a landing approach task involving longitudinal and lateral degrees of freedom.

  16. Waterborne Viruses and F-Specific Coliphages in Mixed-Use Watersheds: Microbial Associations, Host Specificities, and Affinities with Environmental/Land Use Factors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tineke H; Brassard, Julie; Topp, Edward; Wilkes, Graham; Lapen, David R

    2017-02-01

    From the years 2008 to 2014, a total of 1,155 water samples were collected (spring to fall) from 24 surface water sampling sites located in a mixed-used but predominantly agricultural (i.e., dairy livestock production) river basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. Water was analyzed for viable F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-specific RNA (F-RNA) (genogroup I [GI] to GIV) coliphage and a suite of molecularly detected viruses (norovirus [GI to GIV], torque teno virus [TTV], rotavirus, kobuvirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, hepatitis A, and hepatitis E). F-DNA and F-RNA coliphage were detected in 33 and 28% of the samples at maximum concentrations of 2,000 and 16,300 PFU · 100 ml(-1), respectively. Animal TTV, human TTV, kobuvirus, astrovirus, and norovirus GIII were the most prevalent viruses, found in 23, 20, 13, 12, and 11% of samples, respectively. Viable F-DNA coliphage was found to be a modest positive indicator of molecularly detected TTV. F-RNA coliphage, unlike F-DNA coliphage, was a modest positive predictor of norovirus and rotavirus. There were, however, a number of significant negative associations among F-specific coliphage and viruses. F-DNA coliphage densities of >142 PFU · 100 ml(-1) delineated conditions when ∼95% of water samples contained some type of virus. Kobuvirus was the virus most strongly related to detection of any other virus. Land use had some associations with virus/F-specific coliphage detection, but season and surface water flow were the variables that were most important for broadly delineating detection. Higher relative levels of detection of human viruses and human F-RNA coliphage were associated with higher relative degrees of upstream human land development in a catchment.

  17. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  18. An Evaluation of Personality Testing and the Five-Factor Model in the Selection of Landing Craft Air Cushion Vehicle Crew Members.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-30

    These results are not surprising; several authors have acknowledged the importance of personality and motivation in traliing success in a variety of...conducted to determine the underlying structure of the Adult Personality Inventory with 168 LCAC crew candidates. The resulting factor scores were then...criterion. The results indicated that one personality factor, openness, significantly improved predictions of the criterion (p < 0.05). Based on these

  19. Primary Production and C Flow in the Chukchi Sea Land-Fast Ice-Ocean Ecosystem and Sensitivity to Environmental Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, C. J.; Jin, M.; Wang, J.; Whitledge, T. E.; Lee, S. H.

    2005-12-01

    The recent downward trend in Arctic sea ice extent and thickness is a compelling indicator of climate change. These changes in sea ice affect the arctic marine ecosystem, which may depend on sea ice algal primary production for over 50% of the fixed C in the permanently ice-covered Arctic (Gosselin et al., 1997) and up to 25% in the surrounding marginal seas (Kirst and Wiencke, 1995). Since land-fast ice is generally the most accessible of the four sea ice regimes (perennial pack ice, coastal zone - including fast ice, seasonal pack ice and marginal ice zone), and in its own right is important in terms of aereal extent, on-going environmental changes along the coast and a platform for significant biological activity, our research group has focused on time series observations in the land-fast ice near Barrow, Alaska over the last several years. We have utilized the resultant data and those available from other research groups to develop a 1-D marine ecosystem model from which we have constructed an organic C budget based on observations including ice algal biomass (chl a), phytoplankton biomass (chl a), POC, PON, indicators of zooplankton and ice meiofaunal grazing, nutrients, in situ carbon and nutrient uptake, temperature, salinity, ice thickness and snow cover. Through model sensitivity studies, we found that doubling of the initial nutrient concentrations has a significant impact on sea ice primary production, being roughly proportional. Also, a doubling of light (PAR) shifts the exponential accumulation of sea ice algal biomass ahead approximately one week. These model results provide evidence that changes in river discharge that alter nutrient concentrations, and changes in the light regime linked to ongoing environmental changes such as sediment loading, lessening sea ice thickness, and interannual variations in snow cover significantly impact the marine ecosystem. These influences may cascade through the marine ecosystem to affect the food web and hence

  20. Influence of ecological factors and of land use on mercury levels in fish in the Tapajós River basin, Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sampaio da Silva, D; Lucotte, M; Paquet, S; Davidson, R

    2009-05-01

    , and during low waters in lentic environments. Data from this study demonstrated that simple models based on watershed use and on easily obtained variables such as the suspended particulate matter (SPM) load and SPM Hg concentrations, number of inhabitants, habitat types, and the stage in the hydrological cycle enable very good prediction of Hg levels in fish. Our cartographical data clearly showed that the watershed site with the highest aquatic vegetation cover (6% of the open water body) and with the lowest forest cover (62% of the land) corresponded to the highest Hg concentrations in fish. Conversely, the watershed site with 94% forest cover and 1% aquatic vegetation corresponded to the lowest levels Hg concentrations in fish. These results suggest that land uses of watersheds play a key role in the level of Hg contamination of local ichthyofauna.

  1. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  2. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  3. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  4. Studies of Landé gJ-factors of singly ionized neodymium isotopes (142, 143 and 145) at relatively small magnetic fields up to 334 G by collinear laser ion beam spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbowy, Slawomir; Windholz, Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The Zeeman splitting at moderate magnetic fields (up to 334 G) of 20 lines of Nd II, covering the part 569.89 nm to 617.05 nm of the visible spectral range were investigated. We used a Doppler-free collinear laser ion beam spectroscopy technique supported by a precise computer analysis. From the Zeeman effect studies we re-investigated the Landé g J factors for 20 odd levels between 22 850 and 30 002 cm-1 and 11 even levels lying between 6005 and 12 460 cm-1. We compared our data with other available experimental and theoretical values. We achieved an accuracy better than that of other authors, making our data valuable for future theoretical parametric studies.

  5. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-05-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth

  6. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget

  7. Land and its uses - actual and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Last, F.T.; Bell, B.G.; Holz, M.C.B.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses information on the following topics: identification of ecological factors characterizing the range of terrestrial habitats (urban, rural); land classifications; water resources; conservation and landscape; remote sensing; and case studies.

  8. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J.; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP. PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (−)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (−)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  9. The critical land in Komering watershed as a result of land use changes from 2000-2016 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusratmoko, E.; Dayanti, S. T.; Supriatna

    2017-01-01

    Land use changes in a watershed could affect the ecological system, hydrological system and water quality, meanwhile land use changes study is needed to conduct especially in Komering watershed. Land use is the main factor that determines level of critical land, so the land use changes should correspond with the capability through which degraded land can be controlled. This study aimed to calculate land use/ land cover changes from 2000 to 2016 and generate critical land criterions. The objective of the study was to determine the physical and social factors that influence the degree of criticality land in watershed. Physical and social characteristics were measured including land use changes, solum, slopes, outcrop, and land productivity. This study applied supervised classification-maximum likelihood algorithm in ENVI 5.1 imagine to detect land use changes observed in Komering watershed, South Sumatera province, using multispectral satellite data obtained from Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 for the years 2000 to 2016 respectively. Determination of the level of critical land and land use conditions are executed through a spatial approach by utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical analysis.

  10. The use of Alpert-Stein Factor Separation Methodology for climate variable interaction studies in hydrological land surface models and crop yield models. In:Factor Separation in the Atmosphere:Application and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Factor Separation Method (FacSep) is a modeling application that has been utilized in the study of biophysical responses to changes in the environment to assess the relative contribution of different atmospheric factors on a biological system. In this chapter we will discuss crop simulation and...

  11. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  12. Investigations on Landé factor in a strained Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As/GaAs quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N. R. Senthil; Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    The effective excitonic g-factor as functions of dot radius and the Ga alloy content, in a strained Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As/GaAs quantum dot, is numerically measured. The heavy hole excitonic states are studied for various Ga alloy content taking into account the anisotropy, non-parabolicity of the conduction band and the geometrical confinement effects. The quantum dot is considered as spherical dot of InAs surrounded by a GaAs barrier material.

  13. Effective Landé factor in a GaMnAs quantum dot; with the effects of sp-d exchange on a bound polaron

    SciTech Connect

    Lalitha, D. Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    The effective g-factor of conduction (valence) band electron (hole) is obtained in the GaMnAs quantum dot. Magneto bound polaron in a GaMnAs/Ga{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4}As quantum dot is investigated with the inclusion of exchange interaction effects due to Mn alloy content and the geometrical confinement. The spin polaronic energy of the heavy hole exciton is studied with the spatial confinement using a mean field theory in the presence of magnetic field strength.

  14. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  15. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  16. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  17. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  18. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  19. Assessment of Physical, Chemical, and Hydrologic Factors Affecting the Infiltration of Treated Wastewater in theNew Jersey Coastal Plain, with Emphasis on theHammonton Land Application Facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Tessler, Steven; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A hydrogeologic and water-quality investigation of the Hammonton Land Application Facility (Hammonton LAF) in Hammonton, New Jersey, was conducted to determine the factors that impede the infiltration of treated wastewater and to assess the potential for similar conditions to exist elsewhere in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey (particularly within the Pinelands National Reserve). Gamma logs, sediment cores, and hydraulic-profile testing indicate that extensive fine-grained strata and iron-cemented sands underlying the Hammonton LAF may impede infiltration and lead to the perching of diluted treated wastewater. Perched water was observed in augured holes adjacent to infiltration trenches, and analysis of wastewater loading and infiltration data indicates that infiltration trenches may receive lateral flow from multiple perched-water sources. Analysis of water-quality properties characteristic of treated wastewater show that although infiltrated wastewater is reaching the underlying aquifer, lengthy holding times and a long recharge pathway greatly reduce the concentrations of nitrate, boron, and many organic compounds typical of wastewater. Conditions at two currently operating facilities and one potential future facility in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were compared to those at the Hammonton Land Application Facility (LAF). Facilities operating as designed are not underlain by the restrictive strata that exist at the Hammonton LAF. Careful characterization of the geology and hydrology of the unsaturated zone underlying infiltration structures of future facilities in the New Jersey Coastal Plain and similar hydrogeologic settings will help to avoid constructing infiltration structures over or within low-hydraulic-conductivity strata that will decrease infiltration rates.

  20. Land Revitalization Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA created the Land Revitalization Initiative to promote cross-program coordination on land reuse and revitalization projects to ensure that contaminated property is appropriately put back into productive use.

  1. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  2. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  3. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  4. Perpendicular ferromagnetic resonance measurements of damping and Landég- factor in sputtered (Co2Mn)1-xGex thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nembach, H. T.; Silva, T. J.; Shaw, J. M.; Schneider, M. L.; Carey, M. J.; Maat, S.; Childress, J. R.

    2011-08-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetometry, and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements were performed on sputtered thin films of the nominal Heusler alloy (Co2Mn)1-xGex with varying Ge content and annealing temperatures. XRD indicates some degree of B2 alloy formation, with strong (110) texturing. FMR measurements were performed in a perpendicular geometry that minimized the contribution of two-magnon scattering to the linewidth. The FMR data indicate a significant increase in linewidth for samples that lack a well-defined (220) peak, presumably as a result of inhomogeneous line broadening. Samples annealed at 200 °C exhibit decreasing Landau-Lifshitz damping with increasing Ge content, while samples annealed at 245 and 300 °C have a nonlinear dependence of linewidth on frequency. The nonlinear component of the linewidth data was successfully fit with a generalized theory of slowly relaxing impurities, originally proposed by Van Vleck and Orbach. The modified theory includes the possibility of transverse coherence during the relaxation process. Magnetometry and FMR spectroscopy results were analyzed in the context of Malozemoff's generalized Slater-Pauling (GSP) theory, with the conclusion that the Ge sites support a significant negative-polarized spin density of several tens of percent. The GSP analysis results were consistent with a more conventional analysis of the spectroscopic g-factor that is appropriate for alloys. The proportionality of the strength of the slow-relaxer contribution to the damping suggests that the negatively polarized Ge atoms are acting as the slowly relaxing impurities in question.

  5. Perpendicular ferromagnetic resonance measurements of damping and the Landé g-factor in sputtered (Co 2Mn)(1 - x) Ge xthin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nembach, Hans

    2011-03-01

    We analyzed vector network analyzer-ferromagnetic resonance data for sputtered polycrystalline (Co 2 Mn)(1 - x) Ge x thin films measured in a perpendicular configuration to minimize two magnon scattering. The films were grown with varying Ge content and subjected to post-deposition annealing at 200, 245, and 300circ; C. We can adequately fit the data with the slow relaxing impurity model for damping, similar to what was successfully used to explain enhanced damping in RE- doped Permalloy films. However, it was required to generalize the theory to include coherence effects that modify the original fluctuating field correlation function from a damped exponential to an exponentially damping cosine. We find that the spectroscopic splitting factor g is a clearly decreasing function of Ge content for 245 and 300circ; C anneal samples. Analysis of the content dependence for g provides strong evidence of a significant negative spin polarization between -0.15 and -0.35 spins at the Ge sites. This is consistent with our analysis of magnetometry data in the context of generalized Slater Pauling (GSP) theory, which presumes that the minority band density of states has a deep minimum at the Fermi energy. GSP analysis yields a spin polarization of -0.25 at the Ge sites. The substantial antiferromagnetic spin polarization of the Ge sites, in addition to the correlation of the slow relaxing damping strength with Ge content, suggests that Ge atoms, perhaps in the form of point defects in the Co sub-lattice, are acting as the slow relaxing impurities. Finally, successful fitting of linewidth data with a model that includes coherence during the relaxation process indicates slight transverse as well as longitudinal exchange coupling between the Ge ``impurities'' and the magnetization, giving rise to mixing of the electronic energy levels responsible for the relaxation process.

  6. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  7. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  8. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  9. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  10. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta

    PubMed Central

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat

  11. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.

    PubMed

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat

  12. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  13. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  14. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  15. Implication of Agricultural Land Use Change on Regional Climate Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Ahmed, K. F.; You, L.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land use plays an important role in land-atmosphere interaction. Agricultural activity is one of the most important processes driving human-induced land use land cover change (LULCC) in a region. In addition to future socioeconomic changes, climate-induced changes in crop yield represent another important factor shaping agricultural land use. In feedback, the resulting LULCC influences the direction and magnitude of global, regional and local climate change by altering Earth's radiative equilibrium. Therefore, assessment of climate change impact on future agricultural land use and its feedback is of great importance in climate change study. In this study, to evaluate the feedback of projected land use changes to the regional climate in West Africa, we employed an asynchronous coupling between a regional climate model (RegCM) and a prototype land use projection model (LandPro). The LandPro model, which was developed to project the future change in agricultural land use and the resulting shift in natural vegetation in West Africa, is a spatially explicit model that can account for both climate and socioeconomic changes in projecting future land use changes. In the asynchronously coupled modeling framework, LandPro was run for every five years during the period of 2005-2050 accounting for climate-induced change in crop yield and socioeconomic changes to project the land use pattern by the mid-21st century. Climate data at 0.5˚ was derived from RegCM to drive the crop model DSSAT for each of the five-year periods to simulate crop yields, which was then provided as input data to LandPro. Subsequently, the land use land cover map required to run RegCM was updated every five years using the outputs from the LandPro simulations. Results from the coupled model simulations improve the understanding of climate change impact on future land use and the resulting feedback to regional climate.

  16. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  17. Land-use and land-cover change in montane mainland southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes land-cover and land-use change at eight sites in Thailand, Yunnan (China), Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos over the last 50 years. Project methodology included incorporating information collected from a combination of semiformal, key informant, and formal household interviews with the development of spatial databases based on aerial photographs, satellite images, topographic maps, and GPS data. Results suggest that land use (e.g. swidden cultivation) and land cover (e.g. secondary vegetation) have remained stable and the minor amount of land-use change that has occurred has been a change from swidden to monocultural cash crops. Results suggest that two forces will increasingly determine land-use systems in this region. First, national land tenure policies-the nationalization of forest lands and efforts to increase control over upland resources by central governments-will provide a push factor making it increasingly difficult for farmers to maintain their traditional swidden land-use practices. Second, market pressures-the commercialization of subsistence resources and the substitution of commercial crops for subsistence crops-will provide a pull factor encouraging farmers to engage in new and different forms of commercial agriculture. These results appear to be robust as they come from eight studies conducted over the last decade. But important questions remain in terms of what research protocols are needed, if any, when linking social science data with remotely sensed data for understanding human-environment interactions.

  18. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  19. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products.

    PubMed

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2015-10-01

    Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to "telecoupling" between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass-based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor-based and environmentally extended input-output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass-based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints.

  20. Hillslope stability and land use (1985). Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Sidle, R.C.; Pearce, A.J.; O'Loughlin, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the natural factors affecting slope stability, including soils and geomorphic, hydrologic, vegetative, and seismic factors and provides information on landslide classification, global damage, and analytical methods. The effects of various extensive and intensive land management practices on slope stability are discussed together with methods for prediction, avoidance, and control. Examples of terrain evaluation procedures and land management practices are presented.

  1. An Impulse-Momentum Method for Calculating Landing-Gear Contact Conditions in Eccentric Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yntema, Robert T; Milwitzky, Benjamin

    1952-01-01

    An impulse-momentum method for determining impact conditions for landing gears in eccentric landings is presented. The analysis is primarily concerned with the determination of contact velocities for impacts subsequent to initial touchdown in eccentric landings and with the determination of the effective mass acting on each landing gear. These parameters determine the energy-absorption requirements for the landing gear and, in conjunction with the particular characteristics of the landing gear, govern the magnitude of the ground loads. Changes in airplane angular and linear velocities and the magnitude of landing-gear vertical, drag, and side impulses resulting from a landing impact are determined by means of impulse-momentum relationships without the necessity for considering detailed force-time variations. The effective mass acting on each gear is also determined from the calculated landing-gear impulses. General equations applicable to any type of eccentric landing are written and solutions are obtained for the particular cases of an impact on one gear, a simultaneous impact on any two gears, and a symmetrical impact. In addition a solution is presented for a simplified two-degree-of-freedom system which allows rapid qualitative evaluation of the effects of certain principal parameters. The general analysis permits evaluation of the importance of such initial conditions at ground contact as vertical, horizontal, and side drift velocities, wing lift, roll and pitch angles, and rolling and pitching velocities, as well as the effects of such factors as landing gear location, airplane inertia, landing-gear length, energy-absorption efficiency, and wheel angular inertia on the severity of landing impacts. -A brief supplementary study which permits a limited evaluation of variable aerodynamic effects neglected in the analysis is presented in the appendix. Application of the analysis indicates that landing-gear impacts in eccentric landings can be appreciably more

  2. Pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.

  3. 14 CFR 23.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 23.527. In addition— (1) For symmetrical step landings, the resultant water load must be.... Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading...

  4. 14 CFR 23.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 23.527. In addition— (1) For symmetrical step landings, the resultant water load must be.... Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading...

  5. 14 CFR 23.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 23.527. In addition— (1) For symmetrical step landings, the resultant water load must be.... Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading...

  6. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  7. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  8. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  9. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  10. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  11. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  12. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  13. 78 FR 32214 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... of regulations governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land...'s decision to take the land into trust. The Supreme Court has since held that the Quiet Title...

  14. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  15. A review and evaluation of alternatives for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey has been engaged in a nationwide program of baseline mapping of land use and land cover and associated data at a scale of 1:250,000. As l:100,000-scale bases have become available, they have been used for mapping certain areas and for special applications. These two scales are appropriate for mapping land use and land cover data on a nationwide basis within a practical time frame, and with an acceptable degree of standardization, accuracy, and level of detail. An essential requisite to better use of the land is current information on land use and land cover conditions and on the rates and trends of changes with time. Thus, plans are underway to update these maps and data. The major considerations in planning a nationwide program for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps are as follows: (1) How often should maps be updated? (2) What remotely sensed source materials should be used for detecting and compiling changes in land use and land cover? (3) What base maps should be used for presenting data on land use and land cover changes? (4) What maps or portions of a map should be updated? (5) What methods should be used for identifying and mapping changes? (6) What procedures should be followed for updating maps and what formats should be used? These factors must be considered in developing a map update program that portrays an appropriate level of information, relates to and builds upon the existing U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover digital and statistical data base, is timely, cost-effective and standardized, and meets the varying needs of land use and land cover data users.

  16. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  17. [Complexity of land ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Chen, Meiqiu

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, complexity studies has become a new research region and been widely applied in engineering, biology, economy, management, military, police and sociology. In this paper, from the view of complex science, the main complexity characteristics of land ecosystem were described, furthermore, the application of fractal, chaos, and artificial neural network on the complexity of land ecosystem were also discussed.

  18. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  19. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  20. Land Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    LAND COMBAT SYSTEMS It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. — Charles ... Darwin ABSTRACT: The Land Combat Systems (LCS) industry has significantly changed over the last decade. The days when production lines and factories

  1. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  2. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  3. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  4. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  5. Yankee Lands: A Land Use Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, NH.

    In response to issues surrounding the acquisition and planning of Pisgah State Park, New Hampshire, the Antioch/New England Graduate School has produced this set of activities related to land use decisions. Contained are learning experiences designed to help students appreciate New England's natural and cultural history in order to encourage a…

  6. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegeas, Robin G.; Claire, Robert W.; Guptill, Stephen C.; Anderson, K. Eric; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changesthat center on the emerging influence ofdigital manipulation and analysis ofdata for the preparation of cartographic materials and for use in geographic information systems. Operational requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been edited and assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced. This chapter 895-E, describes the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System that is used in conjunction with the USGS land use and land cover classification system to encode, edit, manipuate, and analyze land use and land cover digital data.

  7. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  8. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... applications to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. This document makes corrections to the...

  9. Land Use and land cover and associated maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    The Geological Survey is compiling land use and land cover and associated maps for the entire United States. Land use refers to man's activities which are directly related to the land. Land cover describes the vegetation, water, natural surface, and artificial constructions at the land surface. These maps will help satisfy a longstanding need for a consistent level of detail, standardization of categories, and appropriate use of scales of compilation for a type of data frequently used by land use planners, land managers, resource management planners, and others.

  10. Analytic study of orbiter landing profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A broad survey of possible orbiter landing configurations was made with specific goals of defining boundaries for the landing task. The results suggest that the center of the corridors between marginal and routine represents a more or less optimal preflare condition for regular operations. Various constraints used to define the boundaries are based largely on qualitative judgements from earlier flight experience with the X-15 and lifting body research aircraft. The results should serve as useful background for expanding and validating landing simulation programs. The analytic approach offers a particular advantage in identifying trends due to the systematic variation of factors such as vehicle weight, load factor, approach speed, and aim point. Limitations such as a constant load factor during the flare and using a fixed gear deployment time interval, can be removed by increasing the flexibility of the computer program. This analytic definition of landing profiles of the orbiter may suggest additional studies, includin more configurations or more comparisons of landing profiles within and beyond the corridor boundaries.

  11. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  12. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  13. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  14. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  15. Reframing the land-sparing/land-sharing debate for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Kremen, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Conservation biologists are devoting an increasing amount of energy to debating whether land sparing (high-yielding agriculture on a small land footprint) or land sharing (low-yielding, wildlife-friendly agriculture on a larger land footprint) will promote better outcomes for local and global biodiversity. In turn, concerns are mounting about how to feed the world, given increasing demands for food. In this review, I evaluate the land-sparing/land-sharing framework--does the framework stimulate research and policy that can reconcile agricultural land use with biodiversity conservation, or is a revised framing needed? I review (1) the ecological evidence in favor of sparing versus sharing; (2) the evidence from land-use change studies that assesses whether a relationship exists between agricultural intensification and land sparing; and (3) how that relationship may be affected by socioeconomic and political factors. To address the trade-off between biodiversity conservation and food production, I then ask which forms of agricultural intensification can best feed the world now and in the future. On the basis of my review, I suggest that the dichotomy of the land-sparing/land-sharing framework limits the realm of future possibilities to two, largely undesirable, options for conservation. Both large, protected regions and favorable surrounding matrices are needed to promote biodiversity conservation; they work synergistically and are not mutually exclusive. A "both-and" framing of large protected areas surrounded by a wildlife-friendly matrix suggests different research priorities from the "either-or" framing of sparing versus sharing. Furthermore, wildlife-friendly farming methods such as agroecology may be best adapted to provide food for the world's hungry people.

  16. Using an ecoregion framework to analyze land-cover and land-use dynamics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, A.L.; Loveland, T.R.; Sohl, T.L.; Napton, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    The United States has a highly varied landscape because of wide-ranging differences in combinations of climatic, geologic, edaphic, hydrologic, vegetative, and human management (land use) factors. Land uses are dynamic, with the types and rates of change dependent on a host of variables, including land accessibility, economic considerations, and the internal increase and movement of the human population. There is a convergence of evidence that ecoregions are very useful for organizing, interpreting, and reporting information about land-use dynamics. Ecoregion boundaries correspond well with patterns of land cover, urban settlement, agricultural variables, and resource-based industries. We implemented an ecoregion framework to document trends in contemporary land-cover and land-use dynamics over the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000. Examples of results from six eastern ecoregions show that the relative abundance, grain of pattern, and human alteration of land-cover types organize well by ecoregion and that these characteristics of change, themselves, change through time.

  17. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 25.527. In addition— (1... landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading for each condition consists of...

  19. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 25.527. In addition— (1... landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading for each condition consists of...

  20. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 25.527. In addition— (1... landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading for each condition consists of...

  1. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  2. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  3. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  4. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  5. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  6. Land Reuse Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rebekah Buckles

    1997-09-22

    The intent of this cooperative agreement was to establish a conduit and infrastructure that would allow for the transfer of DOE developed environmental technologies within land restoration activities first in the State of California and ultimately nationwide.

  7. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  8. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  9. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land in trust. The public... articulating the process for issuing decisions to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. The...

  10. The University as a Land Developer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1983-01-01

    To assist universities in developing or redeveloping surplus campus or endowment property, these factors in the process are outlined and discussed: development decisions, working with a developer, ground leasing, unrelated taxable income issues, creating a university land management office, some recent experiences, and research and development…

  11. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  12. Snowboard Jumping, Newton's Second Law and the Force on Landing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    An application of Newton's second law to a snowboarder dropping off a vertical ledge shows that the average normal force during landing (force exerted by the ground on the snowboarder) is determined by four factors. It is shown that the flexing of the legs, the softness of the snow, the angle of the landing surface and the forward motion of the…

  13. Using Field Experiences to Study the Land-Use Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Joseph K.; Brady, Jody C.

    2009-01-01

    The current rapid decline of Earth's biodiversity represents an enormous crisis for humanity. Among the factors producing declines in biodiversity, changes in land use may have the greatest effect in the near term. It is well known that land-use history produces strong, lingering effects on biodiversity. This phenomenon has become known as the…

  14. 78 FR 5256 - Annual Charges for Use of Government Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... survey of market values by county for the various types of land the agencies had allowed to be occupied..., industrial parks, farms or orchards, recreation properties or other such types of land. The agencies tried to...\\ The encumbrance factor reflects the degree that a particular type of facility encumbers the...

  15. Clug; Community Land Use Game. Player's Manual with Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Allan G.

    CLUG (Community Land Use Game) is designed to provide players with an understanding of several underlying factors affecting the growth of an urban region. It has been used with players from junior high to graduate school and also with non-students. It unites concepts from sociology, economics, and geography. Players invest in land, construct…

  16. Incorporating JULES into NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Investigations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  17. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  18. Lunar base launch and landing facilities conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Paul G.; Simonds, Charles H.; Stump, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a first look at the requirements for launch and landing facilities for early lunar bases and to prepared conceptual designs for some of these facilities. The emphasis of the study is on the facilities needed from the first manned landing until permanent occupancy, the Phase 2 lunar base. Factors including surface characteristics, navigation system, engine blast effects, and expected surface operations are used to develop landing pad designs, and definitions fo various other elements of the launch and landing facilities. Finally, the dependence of the use of these elements and the evolution of the facilities are established.

  19. [Evaluation of land resources carrying capacity of development zone based on planning environment impact assessment].

    PubMed

    Fu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jin-Long

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of land resources carrying capacity is the key point of planning environment impact assessment and the main foundation to determine whether the planning could be implemented or not. With the help of the space analysis function of Geographic Information System, and selecting altitude, slope, land use type, distance from resident land, distance from main traffic roads, and distance from environmentally sensitive area as the sensitive factors, a comprehensive assessment on the ecological sensitivity and its spatial distribution in Zhangzhou Merchants Economic and Technological Development Zone, Fujian Province of East China was conducted, and the assessment results were combined with the planning land layout diagram for the ecological suitability analysis. In the Development Zone, 84.0% of resident land, 93.1% of industrial land, 86.0% of traffic land, and 76. 0% of other constructive lands in planning were located in insensitive and gently sensitive areas, and thus, the implement of the land use planning generally had little impact on the ecological environment, and the land resources in the planning area was able to meet the land use demand. The assessment of the population carrying capacity with ecological land as the limiting factor indicated that in considering the highly sensitive area and 60% of the moderately sensitive area as ecological land, the population within the Zone in the planning could reach 240000, and the available land area per capita could be 134.0 m2. Such a planned population scale is appropriate, according to the related standards of constructive land.

  20. Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity

    PubMed Central

    Lambin, Eric F.; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A central challenge for sustainability is how to preserve forest ecosystems and the services that they provide us while enhancing food production. This challenge for developing countries confronts the force of economic globalization, which seeks cropland that is shrinking in availability and triggers deforestation. Four mechanisms—the displacement, rebound, cascade, and remittance effects—that are amplified by economic globalization accelerate land conversion. A few developing countries have managed a land use transition over the recent decades that simultaneously increased their forest cover and agricultural production. These countries have relied on various mixes of agricultural intensification, land use zoning, forest protection, increased reliance on imported food and wood products, the creation of off-farm jobs, foreign capital investments, and remittances. Sound policies and innovations can therefore reconcile forest preservation with food production. Globalization can be harnessed to increase land use efficiency rather than leading to uncontrolled land use expansion. To do so, land systems should be understood and modeled as open systems with large flows of goods, people, and capital that connect local land use with global-scale factors. PMID:21321211

  1. Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity.

    PubMed

    Lambin, Eric F; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    A central challenge for sustainability is how to preserve forest ecosystems and the services that they provide us while enhancing food production. This challenge for developing countries confronts the force of economic globalization, which seeks cropland that is shrinking in availability and triggers deforestation. Four mechanisms-the displacement, rebound, cascade, and remittance effects-that are amplified by economic globalization accelerate land conversion. A few developing countries have managed a land use transition over the recent decades that simultaneously increased their forest cover and agricultural production. These countries have relied on various mixes of agricultural intensification, land use zoning, forest protection, increased reliance on imported food and wood products, the creation of off-farm jobs, foreign capital investments, and remittances. Sound policies and innovations can therefore reconcile forest preservation with food production. Globalization can be harnessed to increase land use efficiency rather than leading to uncontrolled land use expansion. To do so, land systems should be understood and modeled as open systems with large flows of goods, people, and capital that connect local land use with global-scale factors.

  2. Land Use and Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, D. T.; Simpson, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    From the standpoint of technology, the most encouraging thing about ERTS has been the level of land-use identification. Land-use detail has exceeded the expectations of the Interagency Steering Committee and the requirements of land-use classification proposed by the Department of Interior. Whereas in the latter instance it was anticipated that only nine classes of land use would probably be identifiable, in fact some 14 to 18 classes have been identified. The success in the level of land-use identification results primarily from the various attributes of the ERTS system. These include the ability to provide repetitive coverage, and in particular seasonal coverage; the ability to image in four bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (green, red, and two near-infrared), which allows for manipulation of various combinations of bands; and the provision by the ERTS system of computer-compatible tapes for machine processing of data. Furthermore, the resolution of ERTS imagery has been better than expected. Although there is some question as to its exact resolving power, it is safe to say objects as small as 100 meters (300 feet) in diameter have been identified. Linear features as narrow as 16 meters (50 feet) can be detected (Figure 1).

  3. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  4. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  5. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  6. Anticipating land surface change.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J

    2013-04-09

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify "near misses," close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management.

  7. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  8. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  9. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  10. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  11. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  12. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  13. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  14. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  15. Global Land Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

  16. Results from KamLAND-Zen

    DOE PAGES

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; ...

    2015-07-15

    KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with 136Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic 110mAg background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0νββ decay half-life of T0ν1/2 > 2.6×1025 yr at 90% C.L. The search sensitivity will be enhanced with additional low background data after the purification. As a result, prospects for further improvements with future KamLAND-Zen upgrades are alsomore » presented.« less

  17. Results from KamLAND-Zen

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshido, S.; Fushimi, K.; Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Winslow, L. A.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2015-07-15

    KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with 136Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic 110mAg background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0νββ decay half-life of T1/2 > 2.6×1025 yr at 90% C.L. The search sensitivity will be enhanced with additional low background data after the purification. As a result, prospects for further improvements with future KamLAND-Zen upgrades are also presented.

  18. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  19. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  20. Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Robert T.; Noble, Ian R.; Bolin, Bert; Ravindranath, N. H.; Verardo, David J.; Dokken, David J.

    2000-07-01

    The exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere is an important factor in controlling global warming and climate change. Consequently, it is important to examine how carbon flows between different pools and how carbon stocks change in response to afforestation, reforestation, and deforestation, and other land-use activities. This IPCC Special Report is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art examination of the scientific and technical implications of carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. It also examines environmental and socioeconomic issues, conservation, sustainable resource management, and development issues in relation to carbon sequestration. The volume will be invaluable for government policymakers, business/industry analysts and officials, environmental groups, and researchers in global change, atmospheric chemistry, soil science, and economics.

  1. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Before scientists can transform raw satellite image data into land cover maps, they must decide on what categories of land cover they would like to use. Categories are simply the types of landscape that the scientists are trying to map and can vary greatly from map to map. For flood maps, there may be only two categories-dry land and wet land-while a standard global land cover map may have seventeen categories including closed shrub lands, savannas, evergreen needle leaf forest, urban areas, and ice/snow. The only requirement for any land cover category is that it have a distinct spectral signature that a satellite can record. As can be seen through a prism, many different colors (wavelengths) make up the spectra of sunlight. When sunlight strikes objects, certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected or emitted. The unique way in which a given type of land cover reflects and absorbs light is known as its spectral signature. Anyone who has flown over the midwestern United States has seen evidence of this phenomenon. From an airplane window, the ground appears as a patchwork of different colors formed by the fields of crops planted there. The varying pigments of the leaves, the amount of foliage per square foot, the age of the plants, and many other factors create this tapestry. Most imaging satellites are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light, including infrared wavelengths that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Passive satellite remote sensors-such as those flown on Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Terra-have a number of light detectors (photoreceptors) on board that measure the energy reflected or emitted by the Earth. One light detector records only the blue part of the spectrum coming off the Earth. Another observes all the yellow-green light and still another picks up on all the near-infrared light. The detectors scan the Earth's surface as the satellite travels in a circular orbit very nearly from pole-to-pole. To differentiate between types of

  2. The Mayflower Landed Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

    This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

  3. Land Combat Systems Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    communication equipment, and maintains power train components, starters , alternators , and generators. MCLB Barstow, Barstow, CA is the Marine Corps...protectionism became dominant themes. Other heavy industries, such as locomotive and food machinery companies, also were converted to production of land...implications for national defense. Domestic LCS companies’ market share may decrease as foreign companies with cheaper alternatives become more competitive and

  4. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  5. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  6. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  7. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  8. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  9. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  10. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Living off the Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  12. An Overview of Landing Gear Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.

    1999-01-01

    One of the problems facing the aircraft community is landing gear dynamics, especially shimmy and brake-induced vibration. Although neither shimmy nor brake-induced vibrations are usually catastrophic, they can lead to accidents due to excessive wear and shortened life of gear parts and contribute to pilot and passenger discomfort. Recently, NASA has initiated an effort to increase the safety of air travel by reducing the number of accidents by a factor of five in ten years. This safety initiative has spurred an increased interest in improving landing gear design to minimize shimmy and brake-induced vibration that are still largely misunderstood phenomena. In order to increase the understanding of these problems, a literature survey was performed. The major focus of the paper is to summarize work documented from the last ten years to highlight the latest efforts in solving these vibration problems. Older publications are included to understand the longevity of the problem and the findings from earlier researchers. The literature survey revealed a variety of analyses, testing, modeling, and simulation of aircraft landing gear. Experimental validation and characterization of shimmy and brake-induced vibration of aircraft landing gear are also reported. This paper presents an overview of the problem documented in the references together with a history of landing gear dynamic problems and solutions. Based on the assessment of this survey, recommendations of the most critically needed enhancements to the state of the art are given.

  13. Map Analysis and Spatial Statistic: Assessment of Spatial Variability of Agriculture Land Conversion at Urban Fringe Area of Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, Bowo

    2016-11-01

    Urban development has brought various effects, one of which was the marginalization of the agricultural sector. Agricultural land is gradually converted to other type of land uses which considered more profitable. Conversion of agricultural land cannot be avoided but it should be controlled. Early identification on spatial distribution and intensity of agricultural land conversion as well as its related factor is necessary. Objective of the research were (1) to assess the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion, (2) to identify factors that affecting the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion. Research was conducted at urban fringe area of Yogyakarta. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion was analysed using an index called Relative Conversion Index (RCI). Combined of map analysis and spatial statistical were used to determine the center of agricultural land conversion. Simple regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the conversion of agricultural land. The result shows that intensity of agricultural land conversion in the study area varies spatially as well as temporally. Intensity of agricultural land conversion in the period 1993-2000, involves three categories which are high, moderate and low. In the period of 2000-2007, the intensity of agricultural land conversion involves two categories which are high and low. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion in the study area has a significant correlation with three factors: population growth, fragmentation of agricultural land and distance of agricultural land to the city

  14. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  15. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  16. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  17. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  18. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  19. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  20. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  1. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  2. The land use climate change energy nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L

    2011-01-01

    Landscape ecology focuses on the spatial patterns and processes of ecological and human interactions. These patterns and processes are being altered both by changing human resource-management practices and changing climate conditions associated, in part, with increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Dominant resource extraction and land management activities involve energy, and the use of fossil energy is one of the key drivers behind increasing greenhouse gas emissions as well as land-use changes. Alternative energy sources (such as wind, solar, nuclear, and bioenergy) are being explored to reduce greenhouse gas emission rates. Yet, energy production, including alternative-energy options, can have a wide range of effects on land productivity, surface cover, albedo, and other factors that affect carbon, water and energy fluxes and, in turn, climate. Meanwhile, climate influences the potential output, relative efficiencies and sustainability of alternative energy sources. Thus climate change, energy choices, and land-use change are linked, and any analysis in landscape ecology that considers one of these factors should consider them all. This analysis explores the implications of those linkages and points out ecological patterns and processes that may be affected by these interactions.

  3. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  4. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  5. Stormwater runoff quality in correlation to land use and land cover development in Yongin, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Paule, M A; Memon, S A; Lee, B-Y; Umer, S R; Lee, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff quality is sensitive to land use and land cover (LULC) change. It is difficult to understand their relationship in predicting the pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce the pollution risk. In this study, the relationship between LULC change and stormwater runoff quality in two separate monitoring sites comprising a construction area (Site 1) and mixed land use (Site 2) was analyzed using geographic information system (GIS), event mean concentration (EMC), and correlation analysis. It was detected that bare land area increased, while other land use areas such as agriculture, commercial, forest, grassland, parking lot, residential, and road reduced. Based on the analyses performed, high maximum range and average EMCs were found in Site 2 for most of the water pollutants. Also, urban areas and increased conversion of LULC into bare land corresponded to degradation of stormwater quality. Correlation analysis between LULC and stormwater quality showed the influence of different factors such as farming practices, geographical location, and amount of precipitation, vegetation loss, and anthropogenic activities in monitoring sites. This research found that GIS application was an efficient tool for monthly monitoring, validation and statistical analysis of LULC change in the study area.

  6. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  7. The Land-Grant Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862, 1890 and 1994. The original…

  8. Agriculture in Gloria Land.

    PubMed

    Pal, M

    1993-01-01

    A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable.

  9. OPAL Land Condition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    occur under specified weather conditions and land uses typical for grassland military installations (train- ing, controlled burn, and mowing/haying...CENTURY is a computer model of plant-soil ecosystems that simulates the dynamics of grasslands , forest, crops, and savannas with a focus on nutri...Army Regulation 350-19. Washington DC: HQDA. Knapp, A. K., J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett, and S. L. Collins. 1998. Grassland dynamics: Long- term

  10. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, with a crew of six NASA Astronauts aboard, touches down on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, completing a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  11. Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

  12. STS-95 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Orbiter Discovery is riding on its main landing gear as it lowers its nose wheel after touching down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown was at 12:04 p.m. EST, landing on orbit 135. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The crew includes mission commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; pilot Steven W. Lindsey, mission specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, with the European Space Agency (ESA); payload specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); and payload specialist John H. Glenn, Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  13. Land Use Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

  14. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.; Auch, R.F.; Karstensen, K.A.; Sayler, K.L.; Taylor, J.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km ?? 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human-environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors. ?? 2011.

  15. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Taylor, Janis L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km × 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human–environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors.

  16. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Taylor, Janis L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km x 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human–environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors.

  17. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  18. Cost, drivers and action against land degradation through land use and cover change in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Alexey; Strokov, Anton; Johnson, Timothy; Mirzabaev, Alisher

    2016-04-01

    The natural conditions and socio-economic factors determine the structure and the principles of land use in Russia. The increasing degradation of land resources in many parts of Russia manifested in numerous forms such as desertification, soil erosion, secondary salinization, water-logging and overgrazing. The major drivers of degradation include: climatic change, unsustainable agricultural practices, industrial and mining activities, expansion of crop production to fragile and marginal areas, inadequate maintenance of irrigation and drainage networks. Several methods for estimating Total Economic Value of land-use and land-cover change were used: 1) the cost of production per hectare (only provisional services were included); 2) the value of ecosystem services provided by Costanza et al, 1997; 3) coefficients of basic transfer and contingent approaches based on Tianhong et al, 2008 and Xie et al, 2003, who interviewed 200 ecologists to give a value of ecosystem services of different land types in China; 4) coefficients on a basic transfer and contingent approaches based on author's interview of 20 experts in Lomonosov Moscow State University. In general, the estimation of the prices for action and inaction in addressing the degradation and improvement of the land resources on a national scale (the Federal districts) with an emphasis on the period of economic reforms from 1990-2009 in Russia, where the area of arable lands decreased by 25% showed that the total land use/cover dynamic changes are about 130 mln ha, and the total annual costs of land degradation due to land-use change only, are about 189 bln USD in 2009 as compared with 2001, e.g. about 23.6 bln USD annually, or about 2% of Russia's Gross Domestic Product in 2010. The costs of action against land degradation are lower than the costs of inaction in Russia by 5-6 times over the 30 year horizon. Almost 92% of the costs of action are made up of the opportunity costs of action. The study was performed with

  19. Modeling land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

  20. Evaluating Policy Options for Biofuel Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.; Msangi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The use of biofuels leads to global land use change (LUC) through increased land competition. LUC poses risks such as increased greenhouse gas emissions and food prices, that policymakers must balance against biofuel objectives. This paper examines policy approaches to lower LUC risk from biofuels. We propose a three-pronged policy approach: (1) promoting feedstocks that rely less on land; (2) reducing LUC risk for land-using feedstocks; and (3) stimulating investments that increase land productivity and environmental protection. We illustrate possibilities for model-based evaluation of LUC policy design options using two linked partial economic equilibrium simulation models (BEPAM/IMPACT). While the modeling addresses only a subset of mitigation options presented (including an 'iLUC factor'), it illustrates how this approach can shed light on the geographical distribution and magnitude of LUC resulting from specific policy designs.

  1. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  2. Specifications for updating USGS land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1983-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for up-to-date land use and land cover information, a primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national land use and land cover mapping program is to provide for periodic updating of maps and data in a timely and uniform manner. The technical specifications for updating existing USGS land use and land cover maps that are presented here cover both the interpretive aspects of detecting and identifying land use and land cover changes and the cartographic aspects of mapping and presenting the change data in conventional map format. They provide the map compiler with the procedures and techniques necessary to then use these change data to update existing land use and land cover maps in a manner that is both standardized and repeatable. Included are specifications for the acquisition of remotely sensed source materials, selection of compilation map bases, handling of data base corrections, editing and quality control operations, generation of map update products for USGS open file, and the reproduction and distribution of open file materials. These specifications are planned to become part of the National Mapping Division's Technical Instructions.

  3. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  4. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Global Urban Land Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Karen C.; Fragkias, Michail; Güneralp, Burak; Reilly, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase in urban land area of 58,000 km2 from 1970 to 2000. India, China, and Africa have experienced the highest rates of urban land expansion, and the largest change in total urban extent has occurred in North America. Across all regions and for all three decades, urban land expansion rates are higher than or equal to urban population growth rates, suggesting that urban growth is becoming more expansive than compact. Annual growth in GDP per capita drives approximately half of the observed urban land expansion in China but only moderately affects urban expansion in India and Africa, where urban land expansion is driven more by urban population growth. In high income countries, rates of urban land expansion are slower and increasingly related to GDP growth. However, in North America, population growth contributes more to urban expansion than it does in Europe. Much of the observed variation in urban expansion was not captured by either population, GDP, or other variables in the model. This suggests that contemporary urban expansion is related to a variety of factors difficult to observe comprehensively at the global level, including international capital flows, the informal economy, land use policy, and generalized transport costs. Using the results from the global model, we develop forecasts for new urban land cover using SRES Scenarios. Our results show that by 2030, global urban land cover will increase between 430,000 km2 and 12,568,000 km2, with an estimate of 1,527,000 km2 more likely. PMID:21876770

  6. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  7. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  8. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions...

  9. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  10. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  11. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  12. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  13. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  14. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions...

  15. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and...

  16. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  17. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions...

  18. Improving land resource evaluation using fuzzy neural network ensembles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    XUE, Y.-J.; HU, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-G.; YANG, J.-F.; CHEN, Q.-C.; BAO, S.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Land evaluation factors often contain continuous-, discrete- and nominal-valued attributes. In traditional land evaluation, these different attributes are usually graded into categorical indexes by land resource experts, and the evaluation results rely heavily on experts' experiences. In order to overcome the shortcoming, we presented a fuzzy neural network ensemble method that did not require grading the evaluation factors into categorical indexes and could evaluate land resources by using the three kinds of attribute values directly. A fuzzy back propagation neural network (BPNN), a fuzzy radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), a fuzzy BPNN ensemble, and a fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were used to evaluate the land resources in Guangdong Province. The evaluation results by using the fuzzy BPNN ensemble and the fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were much better than those by using the single fuzzy BPNN and the single fuzzy RBFNN, and the error rate of the single fuzzy RBFNN or fuzzy RBFNN ensemble was lower than that of the single fuzzy BPNN or fuzzy BPNN ensemble, respectively. By using the fuzzy neural network ensembles, the validity of land resource evaluation was improved and reliance on land evaluators' experiences was considerably reduced. ?? 2007 Soil Science Society of China.

  19. To Land on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

    2005-01-01

    The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

  20. Landing impact of seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, Wilhelm

    1931-01-01

    The theory of landing impact is briefly stated and the applicability of a previously suggested formula is extended. Theoretical considerations regarding impact measurements on models and actual seaplanes are followed by a brief description of the instruments used in actual flight tests. The report contains a description of the strength conditions and deals exhaustively with force measurements on the float gear of an "HE 9a" with flat-bottom and with V-bottom floats. The experimental data are given and compared with the theoretical results.

  1. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  2. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  3. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The drag chute for the Space Shuttle Discovery is deployed as NASA's most-heavily flown spacecraft completes a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Discovery, with a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, fired its de-orbit engine at 1:14 p.m. (PDT), September 21, 1994. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  4. Arid Lands Biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  5. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater - all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a) the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b) the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c) the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  6. Land degradation causes and sustainable land management practices in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2014-05-01

    Jordan is one of the world's most water-deficit countries with only about 4% of the total land area considered arable. As a consequence agricultural production is greatly constrained by limited natural resources. Therefore, a major challenge for the country is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources for agricultural purposes. This challenge is being made harder by the ongoing processes of degradation due to increased population pressure, which undermine any social and economic development gains. In the southern plains of Jordan, sustainability of farming practices has worsened in the past three decades, exacerbating pressure on land and increasing land degradation processes. Non-sustainable land use practices include improper ploughing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, random urbanization, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. The root cause is the high population growth which exerts excessive pressure on the natural resources to meet increased food and income demand. The poorest farmers who are increasingly growing cereals on marginal areas. Wheat and barley are now grown with little to no rotation, with no nutrient replenishment, and at places avoiding even fallow. Small landholding sizes and topographic features of the area tend to oblige longitudinal mechanized tillage operations along the slopes. Overall, the constraints facing the deprived land users such as, poor access to technology, capital and organization are the factors that lead into unsustainable practices. The main bottlenecks and barriers that hinder mainstreaming of sustainable land management in Jordan can be grouped into three main categories: (i) Knowledge, (ii) Institutional and Governance, and (iii) Economic and Financial. In this case study, the key challenge was to create a knowledge base among local stakeholders - including planners, extension officers, NGO/community leaders, teachers

  7. Linking trajectories of land change, land degradation processes and ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Salvati, L; Perini, L

    2016-05-01

    Land Degradation (LD) is a complex phenomenon resulting in a progressive reduction in the capacity of providing ecosystem services (ES). Landscape transformations promoting an unsustainable use of land often reveal latent processes of LD. An evaluation carried out in respect to the different ecosystem services is nowadays regarded as the most appropriate approach for assessing the effects of LD. The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation framework for identifying the linkages between land changes, LD processes and ES and suggesting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options suited to reverse (or mitigate) LD impact. A SWOT analysis was carried out with the aim to identify internal and external factors that are favorable (or unfavorable) to achieve the proposed SLM actions. The study areas are the Fortore valley and the Valpadana, in Italy. The main trajectory identified for the Fortore valley is related to land abandonment due to population aging and the progressive emigration started in the 1950s. The most relevant LD processes are soil erosion and geomorphological instability, affecting regulating services such as natural hazard and erosion control. SLM options should consider interventions to contrast geomorphological instability, the promotion of climate smart agriculture and of typical products, and an efficient water resources management. The main trajectories identified for Valpadana are related to urban expansion and farmland abandonment and, as a consequence, land take due to anthropogenic pressure and woodland expansion as the main LD process. The reduction of food production was identified as the most relevant provisioning service affected. SLM should envisage best practices finalized to water saving and soil consumption reduction: efficient irrigation solutions, climate smart agriculture and zero sealing practices. This study highlights the diagnostic value of the suggested approach where LD processes are elicited from land change trajectories

  8. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  9. Integration of Multiple Data Sources to Simulate the Dynamics of Land Systems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangzheng; Su, Hongbo; Zhan, Jinyan

    2008-02-04

    In this paper we present and develop a new model, which we have calledDynamics of Land Systems (DLS). The DLS model is capable of integrating multiple datasources to simulate the dynamics of a land system. Three main modules are incorporatedin DLS: a spatial regression module, to explore the relationship between land uses andinfluencing factors, a scenario analysis module of the land uses of a region during thesimulation period and a spatial disaggregation module, to allocate land use changes froma regional level to disaggregated grid cells. A case study on Taips County in North Chinais incorporated in this paper to test the functionality of DLS. The simulation results underthe baseline, economic priority and environmental scenarios help to understand the landsystem dynamics and project near future land-use trajectories of a region, in order tofocus management decisions on land uses and land use planning.

  10. Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James

    A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel

  11. Arizona land use experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Schumann, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Utilization of new sources of statewide remote sensing data, taken from high-altitude aircraft and from spacecraft is discussed along with incorporation of information extracted from these sources into on-going land and resources management programs in Arizona. Statewide cartographic applications of remote sensor data taken by NASA high-altitude aircraft include the development of a statewide semi-analytic control network, the production of nearly 1900 orthophotoquads (image maps) that are coincident in scale and area with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7. 5 minute topographic quadrangle map series, and satellite image maps of Arizona produced from LANDSAt multispectral scanner imagery. These cartographic products are utilized for a wide variety of experimental and operational earth resources applications. Applications of the imagery, image maps, and derived information discussed include: soils and geologic mapping projects, water resources investigations, land use inventories, environmental impact studies, highway route locations and mapping, vegetation cover mapping, wildlife habitat studies, power plant siting studies, statewide delineation of irrigation cropland, position determination of drilling sites, pictorial geographic bases for thematic mapping, and court exhibits.

  12. Land subsidence session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers were presented on topics that ranged from evaluations of the suitability of the new satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to theoretical analyses of land subsidence.T. N. Narasimhan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.) introduced the general subject of subsidence with a review of relevant physical processes. Compaction, although conceptually simple, involves several complexities, including plastic deformation and translation of deep-seated deformation through the overburden. Sashi Mathur (Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex.), in a paper coauthored with M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York, New York), analyzed deformation in the unsaturated zone above a falling water table. Their theoretical formulation was able to reproduce results from laboratory studies of sand columns.

  13. Rosetta Lander - Philae: Landing preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Sierks, Holger; Witte, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Rosetta and Philae have been in hibernation until January 20, 2014. After the successful wakeup they underwent a post-hibernation commissioning. The orbiter instruments (like e.g. the OSIRIS cameras, VIRTIS, MIRO, Alice and ROSINA) characterized the target comet and its environment to allow landing site selection and the definition of a separation, descent and landing (SDL) strategy for the Lander. By September 2014 our previously poor knowledge of the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet has increased drastically and the nominal and backup landing could be selected. The nominal site, as well as the corresponding descent strategy have been confirmed in mid-October, one month before the landing. The paper summarizes the selection process for a landing site and the planning for Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL).

  14. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  15. Decomposing the Drivers of Past, Present, and Future Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 500 years, global agricultural area has grown from 2 million km2 (1500) to 15 million km2 (2005), displacing forests and other natural ecosystems in the process (Hurtt et al., 2011). This expansion in area has been driven by changes in population, income, diet, and agricultural productivity. These factors will continue to evolve in the future; however, the effect of these changes on future land use, land cover, and emissions remains uncertain (e.g., Calvin et al., In Press). Additionally, future changes in land depend critically on the implementation of land-based mitigation options, such as bioenergy and afforestation (Wise et al., 2009; Reilly et al., 2012; Popp et al., 2013; Calvin et al., 2014). As all of these factors are uncertain in the future, the future evolution of land use and land cover is also uncertain. This presentation decomposes the drivers of past, present, and future land use change, characterizing the contribution of factors such as population, income, diet, agricultural productivity, and mitigation. In the historical period, we rely on a variety of land-based datasets (e.g., FAO, HYDE). For the future period, we analyze the integrated assessment modeling community's implementation of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs; O'Neill et al., In Press). The SSPs describe five different evolutions of socioeconomic development, varying several factors relevant to land use and land use change.

  16. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  17. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  18. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  19. International land deals, local people's livelihood, and environment nexus (How to create win-win land deals in Ethiopia?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Following the global raise in demand for food and biofuel production, transnational companies are acquiring large scale agricultural land in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Considering land as one of the factors to be outsourced for development, the government of Ethiopia is supplying millions of hectares of land to transnational companies in the form of longterm lease. Many of the companies which engage in large scale land acquisition are of Indian, Chinese, Ethiopian diaspora, German, Malaysian, Italian, British, Dutch, Turkish, and Saudi-Arabian origin. The boom in the acquisition of farm land in the country has sparked an all-rounded debate among civil society groups, international institutions, nongovernmental organizations and independent development experts. The common reflections concerning the land deals in Ethiopia and elsewhere contain much rhetoric and hype which lack analysis of the real situation "on the ground" giving different connotations such as 'land grabbing', 'agricultural outsourcing', 'neo-colonialism', 'agrarian colonialism', and 'land underdevelopment'. However, deforestation, soil degradation, marginalization of local indigenous communities, and minimally unfair gains from investment by the host country are among the real points of concern arising out of the long term land lease contracts. Scientific evidence is lacking concerning the pragmatic impacts of large scale agricultural land acquisitions by transnational companies upon the natural environment (forest and land), local peoples' livelihood, and the contacting parties (the host country and the companies). The major objective of this study is to investigate the impacts in the context of Ethiopia, orienting to reinvent win-win land use models which constitute sustainable land use, local peoples' livelihood and the company-host country interests. To achieve this overall objective, the study employs a number of methods and methodologies constituting both qualitative and

  20. 76 FR 18244 - Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6839, which modified Public Land Order No. 2344, as amended,...

  1. 76 FR 61737 - Public Land Order No. 7782; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6880; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7782; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6880; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6880, as corrected by Public Land Order...

  2. 78 FR 22281 - Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY. AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6960, as corrected by Public Land Order No....

  3. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  4. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  5. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  6. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  7. Geothermal energy and the land resource: conflicts and constraints in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Banion, K.; Hall, C.

    1980-07-14

    This study of potential land-related impacts of geothermal power development in The Geysers region focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. First, the land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems. Based on those factors, the potential land-use conflicts and constraints that geothermal development may encounter in the region are identified and the availability and relative suitability of land for such development is determined. A brief review of laws and powers germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  8. Selection and Characterization of Landing Sites for Chandrayaan-2 Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Amitabh, Amitabh; Srinivasan, T. P.; Karidhal, Ritu; Nagesh, G.; Manjusha, N.

    2016-07-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation has planned the second mission to moon known as Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. This will be the first soft landing mission of India on lunar surface. The Orbiter, Lander and Rover individually will carry scientific payloads that enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. The Lander soft lands on the lunar surface and subsequently Lander & Rover will carry on with the payload activities on the moon surface. Landing Site identification based on the scientific and engineering constrains of lander plays an important role in success of a mission. The Lander poses some constraints because of its engineering design for the selection of the landing site and on the other hand the landing site / region imparts some constrain on the Lander. The various constraints that have to be considered for the study of the landing site are Local slope, Sun illumination during mission life, Radio communication with the Earth, Global slope towards equator, Boulders size, Crater density and boulder distribution. This paper describes the characterization activities of the different landing locations which have been studied for Chandrayaan-2 Lander. The sites have been studied both in the South Polar and North Polar regions of the moon on the near side. The Engineering Constraints at the sites due to the Lander, Factors that affect mission life (i.e. illumination at the location), Factors influencing communication to earth (i.e. RF visibility) & Shadow movements have been studied at these locations and zones that are favourable for landing have been short listed. This paper gives methodology of these studies along with the results of the characteristics of all the sites and the recommendations for further action in finalizing the landing area.

  9. Modeling land use interaction using linguistic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi

    2012-06-01

    One of the main factors of land use change (LUC) modeling is the land use intersection (LUI) or neighborhood effect, which is normally modeled using cellular automata (CA) concept. The effects of LUI over distance are represented in terms of CA transition rules. In this paper, a new model for LUI process is developed that makes use of expert knowledge to define the transition rules. In this model, the region of influence is defined using a new radial structure; the transition rules are described by expert knowledge and spatial metrics in the form of linguistic variables; and finally, the neighborhood effect is classified into three groups of compactness, dependency and incompatibility. The model is implemented and evaluated using the data of Borkhar and Meymeh township, in Esfahan, Iran, for the two periods of 1986-1998 and 1998-2005. The results show that the model and its related concept are performing rather well.

  10. Changes in Carbon Emissions in Colombian Savannas Derived From Recent Land use and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, A.; Sarmiento, A.

    2007-12-01

    The global contribution of carbon emissions from land use dynamics and change to the global carbon (C) cycle is still uncertain, a major concern in global change modeling. Carbon emission from fires in the tropics is significant and represents 9% of the net primary production, and 50% of worldwide C emissions from fires are attributable to savanna fires. Such emissions may vary significantly due to differences in ecosystem types. Most savanna areas are devoted to grazing land uses making methane emissions also important in savanna ecosystems. Land use change driven by intensification of grazing and cropping has become a major factor affecting C emission dynamics from savanna regions. Colombia has some 17 MHa of mesic savannas which have been historically burned. Due to changes in market demands and improved accessibility during the last 20 years, important areas of savannas changed land use from predominantly extensive grazing to crops and intensive grazing systems. This research models and evaluates the impacts of such land use changes on the spatial and temporal burning patterns and C emissions in the Orinoco savannas of Colombia. We address the effects of land use change patterns using remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat, ecosystem mapping products, and spatial GIS analysis. First we map the expansion of the agricultural frontier from the 1980s-2000s. We then model the changes in land use from the 1980s using a statistical modeling approach to analyze and quantify the impact of accessibility, ecosystem type and land tenure. We calculate the effects on C emissions from fire regimes and other sources of C based on patterns and extent of burned areas in the 2000s for different savanna ecosystem types and land uses. In the Llanos the fire regime exhibits a marked seasonal variability with most fire events occurring during the dry season between December-March. Our analysis shows that fire frequencies vary consistently between 0.6 and 2.8 fires.yr-1 per 2

  11. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report

    SciTech Connect

    No name listed on publication

    2011-08-01

    Land and facility use planning and decisions at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site are guided by a comprehensive site planning process in accordance with Department of Energy Policy 430.1, 'Land and Facility Use Policy,' that integrates mission, economic, ecologic, social, and cultural factors. The INL Ten-Year Site Plan, prepared in accordance with Department of Energy Order 430.1B, 'Real Property Asset Management,' outlines the vision and strategy to transform INL to deliver world-leading capabilities that will enable the Department of Energy to accomplish its mission. Land use planning is the overarching function within real property asset management that integrates the other functions of acquisition, recapitalization, maintenance, disposition, real property utilization, and long-term stewardship into a coordinated effort to ensure current and future mission needs are met. All land and facility use projects planned at the INL Site are considered through a formal planning process that supports the Ten-Year Site Plan. This Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report describes that process. The land use planning process identifies the current condition of existing land and facility assets and the scope of constraints across INL and in the surrounding region. Current land use conditions are included in the Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report and facility assets and scope of constraints are discussed in the Ten-Year Site Plan. This report also presents the past, present, and future uses of land at the INL Site that are considered during the planning process, as well as outlining the future of the INL Site for the 10, 30, and 100-year timeframes.

  13. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  14. Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  15. The Potential Radiative Forcing of Global Land Use and Land Cover Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Given the expected increase in pressure on land resources over the next century, there is a need to understand the total impacts of activities associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify these impacts using the radiative forcing metric, including forcings from changes in long-lived greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We estimate radiative forcings from the different agents for historical LULCC and for six future projections using simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. When all forcing agents are considered together we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day (2010) anthropogenic radiative forcing can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC radiative forcing by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the forcing from CO2 alone. In contrast, the non-CO2 forcings from fossil fuel burning are roughly neutral, due largely to the negative (cooling) impact of aerosols from these sources. We partition the global LULCC radiative forcing into three major sources: direct modification of land cover (e.g. deforestation), agricultural activities, and fire regime changes. Contributions from deforestation and agriculture are roughly equal in the present day, while changes to wildfire activity impose a small negative forcing globally. In 2100, deforestation activities comprise the majority of the LULCC radiative forcing for all projections except one (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5). This suggests that realistic scenarios of future forest area change are essential for projecting the contribution of LULCC to climate change. However, the commonly used RCP land cover change projections all include decreases in global deforestation rates over the next 85 years. To place an upper bound on the potential

  16. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  17. Energies, E1, M1, and E2 transition rates, hyperfine structures, and Lande g{sub J} factors for states of the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}, 2s2p{sup 3}, and 2p{sup 4} configurations in carbon-like ions between F IV and Ni XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, P.; Rynkun, P.; Gaigalas, G.

    2011-11-15

    Energies, electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole transition rates, hyperfine structures, and Lande g{sub J} factors from relativistic configuration interaction calculations are reported for the states of the (1s{sup 2})2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}, 2s2p{sup 3}, and 2p{sup 4} configurations in all carbon-like ions between F IV and Ni XXIII. Valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects were accounted for through single/double-excitation-multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The calculated energy levels generally agree within a few hundred cm{sup -1} with the experimentally compiled results, and the Babushkin (length), and Coulomb (velocity) forms of transition rates agree within less than 1% for a majority of the allowed transitions.

  18. Coupled hydrologic and land use change models for decision making on land and water resources in the Upper Blue Nile basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalew, Seleshi; van der Zaag, Pieter; Mul, Marloes; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Teferi, Ermias; van Griensven, Ann; van der Kwast, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Hydrology of a basin, alongside climate change, is well documented to impact and to be impacted by land use/land cover change processes. The need to understand the impacts of hydrology on land use change and vice- versa cannot be overstated especially in basins such as the Upper Blue Nile in Ethiopia, where the vast majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture. A slight fluctuation in rainy seasons or an increase or decrease in magnitude of precipitation can easily trigger drought or flooding. On the other hand, ever growing population and emerging economic development, among others, is likely to continually alter land use/land cover change, thereby affecting hydrological processes. With the intention of identifying and analyzing interactions and future scenarios of the hydrology and land use/land cover, we carried out a case study on a meso-scale catchment, in the Upper Blue Nile basin. A land use model using SITE (SImulation of Terrestrial Environments) was built for analyzing land use trends from aerial land cover photographs of 1957 and simulate until 2009 based on socio-economic as well as biophysical factors. Major land use drivers in the catchment were identified and used as input to the land use model. Separate land use maps were produced using Landsat images of 1972, 1986, 1994 and 2009 for historical calibration of the land use model. By the same token, a hydrological model for the same catchment was built using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. After calibration of the two independent models, they were loosely coupled for analyzing the changes in either of the models and impacts on the other. Among other details, the coupled model performed better in identifying limiting factors from both the hydrology as well as from the land use perspectives. For instance, the simulation of the uncoupled land use model alone (without inputs from SWAT on the water budget of each land use parcel) continually considered a land use type such as a wet

  19. The Implications of Future Food Demand on Global Land Use, Land-Use Change Emissions, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Luckow, P.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.; Eom, J.; Kim, S.; Moss, R.; Patel, P.

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, cropland accounted for approximately 10% of global land area. The amount of cropland needed in the future depends on a number of factors including global population, dietary preferences, and agricultural crop yields. In this paper, we explore the effect of various assumptions about global food demand and agricultural productivity between now and 2100 on global land use, land-use change emissions, and climate using the GCAM model. GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated, global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. For this analysis, we look at the effect of alternative socioeconomic pathways, crop yield improvement assumptions, and future meat demand scenarios on the demand for agricultural land. The three socioeconomic pathways explore worlds where global population in 2100 ranges from 6 billion people to 14 billion people. The crop yield improvement assumptions range from a world where yields do not improve beyond today's levels to a world with significantly higher crop productivity. The meat demand scenarios range from a vegetarian world to a world where meat is a dominant source of calories in the global diet. For each of these scenarios, we find that sufficient land exists to feed the global economy. However, rates of deforestation, bioenergy potential, land-use change emissions, and climate change differ across the scenarios. Under less favorable scenarios, deforestation rates, land-use change emissions, and the rate of climate change can be adversely affected.

  20. Land use/land cover change and implications for ecosystems services in the Likangala River Catchment, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanikkatil, Deepa; Palamuleni, Lobina G.; Ruhiiga, Tabukeli M.

    2016-06-01

    Likangala River catchment in Zomba District of Southern Malawi is important for water resources, agriculture and provides many ecosystem services. Provisioning ecosystem services accrued by the populations within the catchment include water, fish, medicinal plants and timber among others. In spite of its importance, the River catchment is under threat from anthropogenic activities and land use change. This paper studies land uses and land cover change in the catchment and how the changes have impacted on the ecosystem services. Landsat 5 and 8 images (1984, 1994, 2005 and 2013) were used to map land cover change and subsequent inventorying of provisioning ecosystem services. Participatory Geographic Information Systems and Focus group discussions were conducted to identify provisioning ecosystems services that communities benefit from the catchment and indicate these on the map. Post classification comparisons indicate that since 1984, there has been a decline in woodlands from 135.3 km2 in 1984 to 15.5 km2 in 2013 while urban areas increased from 9.8 km2 to 23.8 km2 in 2013. Communities indicated that provisioning ecosystems services such as forest products, wild animals and fruits and medicinal plants have been declining over the years. In addition, evidence of catchment degradation through waste disposal, illegal sand mining, deforestation and farming on marginal lands were observed. Population growth, urbanization and demand for agricultural lands have contributed to this land use and land cover change. The study suggests addressing catchment degradation through integrated method where an ecosystems approach is used. Thus, both the proximate and underlying driving factors of land-use and land cover change need to be addressed in order to sustainably reduce ecosystem degradation.

  1. Global land and water grabbing

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  2. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  3. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  4. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  5. Global land and water grabbing.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land).

  6. Sustainable land application: an overview.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, G A; Elliott, H A; Basta, N T; Bastian, R K; Pierzynski, G M; Sims, R C; Smith, J E

    2005-01-01

    Man has land-applied societal nonhazardous wastes for centuries as a means of disposal and to improve the soil via the recycling of nutrients and the addition of organic matter. Nonhazardous wastes include a vast array of materials, including manures, biosolids, composts, wastewater effluents, food-processing wastes, industrial by-products; these are collectively referred to herein as residuals. Because of economic restraints and environmental concerns about land-filling and incineration, interest in land application continues to grow. A major lesson that has been learned, however, is that the traditional definition of land application that emphasizes applying residuals to land in a manner that protects human and animal health, safeguards soil and water resources, and maintains long-term ecosystem quality is incomplete unless the earning of public trust in the practices is included. This overview provides an introduction to a subset of papers and posters presented at the conference, "Sustainable Land Application," held in Orlando, FL, in January 2004. The USEPA, USDA, and multiple national and state organizations with interest in, and/or responsibilities for, ensuring the sustainability of the practice sponsored the conference. The overriding conference objectives were to highlight significant developments in land treatment theory and practice, and to identify future research needs to address critical gaps in the knowledge base that must be addressed to ensure sustainable land application of residuals.

  7. Humanitarian Consequences of Land Mines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Ken

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the human and economic consequences of the continuing use and abandonment of land mines. Discusses the reasons for the worldwide proliferation (over 85 million uncleared mines in at least 62 countries) and the legal complexities in curtailing their use. Includes a brief account by a land-mine victim. (MJP)

  8. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  9. Land use change and its driving forces in alluvial-plain oasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Luxiang; Zhang, Zengxiang; Chen, Xi; Luo, Geping; Wen, Qingke

    2007-11-01

    Land use change and its driving factors are hot topics of global change research, and also important topics of sustainable development. This paper selected a small area in alluvial plain oasis in Xinjiang Autonomous region of China as the study area. Using Landsat TM data of 1987, 1998 and 2004, the dynamic process of the spatial-temporal characteristics of land use changes were analyzed to improve understanding and to find the driving forces of land use changes so that sustainable land utilization could be practiced. During the 17 years salt-alkali tolerant cropland, cereal cropland, vegetable-fruit land, and shrubbery, had decreased remarkably by 78.59%, 85.95%, 92.13%, 68.43%, respectively. Cotton-liquorice land, grape-hop land, planted forest, residential area in town, residential area in village, and saline-alkaline field had increased dramatically. The increased percentage received the value of 2432.11%, 10103.18%, 889.91%, 222.45%, 96.00%, 44.18%, respectively. By the logistic regression, the main driving factors were derived for each land use type. The advance of technology (fertilizer input, irrigation quota, and animal labor et al.) and market (unit are yield net) were the main driving factors. Policy, in a higher level, influenced the land use dynamics for all the land use changes.

  10. Assessing Ecological Impacts According to Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Jeong, S. G.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Land use patterns have changed by human activities, and it has affected the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. In particular, the conversion of forests into other land use has caused environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. The evaluation of species and their habitat can be preferentially considered to prevent or minimize the adverse effects of land use change. The objective of study is identifying the impacts of environmental conditions on forest ecosystems by comparing ecological changes with time series spatial data. Species distribution models were developed for diverse species with presence data and time-series environmental variables, which allowed comparison of the habitat suitability and connectivity. Habitat suitability and connectivity were used to estimate impacts of forest ecosystems due to land use change. Our result suggested that the size and degree of ecological impacts are were different depending on the properties of land use change. The elements and species were greatly affected by the land use change according to the results. This study suggested that a methodology for measuring the interference of land use change in species habitat and connectivity. Furthermore, it will help to conserve and manage forest by identifying priority conservation areas with influence factor and scale.

  11. [Study on the land use optimization based on PPI].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Ting

    2012-03-01

    Land use type and managing method which is greatly influenced by human activities, is one of the most important factors of non-point pollution. Based on the collection and analysis of non-point pollution control methods and the concept of the three ecological fronts, 9 land use optimized scenarios were designed according to rationality analysis of the current land use situation in the 3 typed small watersheds in Miyun reservoir basin. Take Caojialu watershed for example to analyze and compare the influence to environment of different scenarios based on potential pollution index (PPI) and river section potential pollution index (R-PPI) and the best combination scenario was found. Land use scenario designing and comparison on basis of PPI and R-PPI could help to find the best combination scenario of land use type and managing method, to optimize space distribution and managing methods of land use in basin, to reduce soil erosion and to provide powerful support to formulation of land use planning and pollution control project.

  12. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  13. Landing characteristics of an autogiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, William C

    1934-01-01

    An investigation to determine the rate of descent, the horizontal velocity, and the attitude at contact of an autogiro in landings was made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Bureau of Air Commerce, Department of Commerce. The investigation covered various types of landings. The results of the investigation disclosed that the maximum rate of descent at contact with the ground (10.6 feet per second) was less than the minimum rate of descent attainable in a steady glide (15.8 feet per second); that the rates of descent at contact were of the same order of magnitude as those experienced by conventional airplanes in landings; that flared landings resulted in very low horizontal velocities at contact. Also that unexpectedly high lift and drag force coefficients were developed in the latter stages of the flared landings.

  14. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  15. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  16. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  17. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  18. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  19. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  20. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  1. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  2. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  3. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  4. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  5. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  7. [Effects of different land use types on soil nutrients in karst region of Northwest Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lian-Fang; Wang, Ke-Lin; Zhu, Han-Hua; Hou, Ya; Zhang, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Selecting the main land use types (shrub land, secondary forest land, orchard, pasture land, and upland) at the peak-cluster depression in karst region of Northwest Guangxi as test objects, this paper studied the effects of different land use types on soil nutrients. The results showed that, the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), total N, and available N were 86%-155%, 62% -119%, and 66%-215% higher in shrub land and secondary forest land than in orchard, pasture land, and upland, respectively, i. e., increased with the decrease of land use intensity. The contents of soil total P and K were mainly controlled by their origins, but less affected by land use type. Soil available P content was mainly affected by fertilization, while soil available K content was controlled by vegetation cover and water- and soil loss. Land use type was the dominant factor affecting the contents of soil SOM, total N, and available N, P and K. Extensive cultivation could decrease soil nutrient contents and lead to the degradation of cropland soil, while ecological restoration could improve soil fertility. Therefore, in karst region, the measures as changing extensive cultivation into intensive farming, applying organic fertilizers, balance fertilization, and "Grain for Green Project" for > or = 25 degrees slope should be taken to recover and rebuild the eco-environment, and keep the sustainable utilization of land resources.

  8. 43 CFR 3191.5 - Delegation for Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation for Indian lands. 3191.5 Section 3191.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... lands....

  9. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  10. An econometric analysis of changes in arable land utilization using multinomial logit model in Pinggu district, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yueqing; McNamara, Paul; Wu, Yanfang; Dong, Yue

    2013-10-15

    Arable land in China has been decreasing as a result of rapid population growth and economic development as well as urban expansion, especially in developed regions around cities where quality farmland quickly disappears. This paper analyzed changes in arable land utilization during 1993-2008 in the Pinggu district, Beijing, China, developed a multinomial logit (MNL) model to determine spatial driving factors influencing arable land-use change, and simulated arable land transition probabilities. Land-use maps, as well as social-economic and geographical data were used in the study. The results indicated that arable land decreased significantly between 1993 and 2008. Lost arable land shifted into orchard, forestland, settlement, and transportation land. Significant differences existed for arable land transitions among different landform areas. Slope, elevation, population density, urbanization rate, distance to settlements, and distance to roadways were strong drivers influencing arable land transition to other uses. The MNL model was proved effective for predicting transition probabilities in land use from arable land to other land-use types, thus can be used for scenario analysis to develop land-use policies and land-management measures in this metropolitan area.

  11. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  12. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  13. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  14. Land reclamation research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy has assigned its Office of Environment the task of developing methods that will prevent or reduce damages caused by surface mining. Before that task can be accomplished, more must be learned about the functioning of organisms and their surroundings-the ecosystems threatened by disruptions from surface mining. While new federal and state laws require the full reclamation of mine sites, there is no assurance now that reclaimed areas can be self-sustaining, especially in the arid and semiarid West. To these ends, the Ecological Research Division within the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department's Office of Environment has begun a number of related programs aimed at understanding more clearly soils, plants, animals, and other components of the ecosystem so that ways may be found to improve environmental quality or to prevent damage from mining. Another aim is to produce efficient and cost-effective techniques for returning to productive use land that has been scarred by mining. Two national laboratories and six universities carry out these research programs. The work extends from broadly based studies, such as the effects of mining on the hydrologic balance, to very specific studies, such as evaluation of the reproductive cycle of a native grass.

  15. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land).

  16. Seasonal variation of land surface fluxes in regional scale by using a remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Nakamichi, T.; Miura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Land surface fluxes influence the coupling between the surface and the lower atmosphere, and are also important factors for forming a regional climate.In recent years, it became possible to observe the land surface states in the regional area by the development of the remote sensing technology, and some studies for estimating the land surface energy fluxes at regional scale using the remote sensing data have been carried out. In this study, the surface energy fluxes in the Kanto Plain in Japan where various land uses were mixed were estimated using a remote sensing data (Landsat 7 ETM+), and tried the analysis of the seasonal changes in the land surface energy fluxes. The energy balance and the bulk equations were used in order to estimate the land surface energy fluxes. The parameters in those models were identified using the micro-meteorological data observed above the land surface.

  17. Propagation considerations in land mobile satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, W. J.; Smith, E. K.

    1985-01-01

    It appears likely that the Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) will be authorized by the FCC for operation in the 800 to 900 MHz (UHF) and possibly near 1500 MHz (L-band). Propagation problems are clearly an important factor in the effectiveness of this service, but useful measurements are few, and produced contradictory interpretations. A first order overview of existing measurements is presented with particular attention to the first two NASA balloon to mobile vehicle propagation experiments. Some physical insight into the interpretation of propagation effects in LMSS transmissions is provided.

  18. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The benefits of changes in management organization and facilities for the Center for Remote Sensing and Cartography in Utah are reported as well as interactions with and outreach to state and local agencies. Completed projects are described which studied (1) Unita Basin wetland/land use; (2) Davis County foothill development; (3) Farmington Bay shoreline fluctuation; (4) irrigation detection; and (5) satellite investigation of snow cover/mule deer relationships. Techniques developed for composite computer mapping, contrast enhancement, U-2 CIR/LANDSAT digital interface; factor analysis, and multivariate statistical analysis are described.

  19. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  20. Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Pedlowski, M.A.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce.

  1. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  2. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  3. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  4. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  5. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  6. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  7. Effect of land use land cover change on soil erosion potential in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arabinda; Tiwari, Kamlesh N; Bhadoria, P B S

    2011-02-01

    Universal soil loss equation (USLE) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system to determine the influence of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on soil erosion potential of a reservoir catchment during the period 1989 to 2004. Results showed that the mean soil erosion potential of the watershed was increased slightly from 12.11 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 1989 to 13.21 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 2004. Spatial analysis revealed that the disappearance of forest patches from relatively flat areas, increased in wasteland in steep slope, and intensification of cultivation practice in relatively more erosion-prone soil were the main factors contributing toward the increased soil erosion potential of the watershed during the study period. Results indicated that transition of other land use land cover (LUC) categories to cropland was the most detrimental to watershed in terms of soil loss while forest acted as the most effective barrier to soil loss. A p value of 0.5503 obtained for two-tailed paired t test between the mean erosion potential of microwatersheds in 1989 and 2004 also indicated towards a moderate change in soil erosion potential of the watershed over the studied period. This study revealed that the spatial location of LUC parcels with respect to terrain and associated soil properties should be an important consideration in soil erosion assessment process.

  8. Exploring Land Developer Perspectives on Conservation Subdivision Design and Environmentally Sustainable Land Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göçmen, Z. Aslıgül

    2014-11-01

    Insight into land developers' perspectives on alternative residential developments and the barriers they experience in trying to develop them can be crucial in efforts to change environmentally damaging low-density, large-lot, and automobile-dependent residential patterns. Using a semi-structured interview instrument followed by short surveys, I examined the views of 16 developers in Waukesha County, WI, USA, a county that has experienced significant development pressures and widespread implementation of conservation subdivision design. The land developer investigation focused on conservation subdivision design familiarity and implementation, and identified a number of barriers that developers experienced in implementing the design. While the majority of the developers appeared familiar with the design and had experience developing conservation subdivisions, their motivations for developing them varied, as did their on-site conservation practices. The barriers included the lack of land use regulations supporting the design, economic factors, community opposition, and a lack of knowledge about sustainable residential development practices. Strategies to promote more environmentally sustainable residential land development patterns include providing a more supportive institutional environment, enacting different regulations and guidelines for natural resources protection, and offering education on ecologically sound development and planning practices.

  9. Exploring land developer perspectives on conservation subdivision design and environmentally sustainable land development.

    PubMed

    Göçmen, Z Aslıgül

    2014-11-01

    Insight into land developers' perspectives on alternative residential developments and the barriers they experience in trying to develop them can be crucial in efforts to change environmentally damaging low-density, large-lot, and automobile-dependent residential patterns. Using a semi-structured interview instrument followed by short surveys, I examined the views of 16 developers in Waukesha County, WI, USA, a county that has experienced significant development pressures and widespread implementation of conservation subdivision design. The land developer investigation focused on conservation subdivision design familiarity and implementation, and identified a number of barriers that developers experienced in implementing the design. While the majority of the developers appeared familiar with the design and had experience developing conservation subdivisions, their motivations for developing them varied, as did their on-site conservation practices. The barriers included the lack of land use regulations supporting the design, economic factors, community opposition, and a lack of knowledge about sustainable residential development practices. Strategies to promote more environmentally sustainable residential land development patterns include providing a more supportive institutional environment, enacting different regulations and guidelines for natural resources protection, and offering education on ecologically sound development and planning practices.

  10. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  11. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  12. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  13. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  14. 76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6865 for an additional 20-year period....

  15. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6856 for an additional 20-year period....

  16. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6947 for an additional 20-year period....

  17. 76 FR 76179 - Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6912 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  18. 76 FR 61738 - Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6881 for an additional 20-year period....

  19. 77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This Order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6928 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  20. 76 FR 62831 - Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6886 for an additional 20-year period....

  1. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6861 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  2. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6857 for an additional 20-year period....

  3. 78 FR 22281 - Public Land Order No. 7810; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6963; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7810; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6963; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6963, as amended, for an additional...

  4. 77 FR 66479 - Public Land Order No. 7805; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6952; WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7805; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6952; WA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6952 as corrected by Public Land Order No. 6962, for...

  5. 77 FR 47665 - Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6941 for an additional 20-year period....

  6. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order (PLO) No. 6965 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  7. 76 FR 12131 - Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6833 for an additional 20-year period....

  8. 75 FR 57061 - Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6797 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  9. 76 FR 59736 - Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6876 for an additional 20-year period....

  10. 78 FR 40498 - Public Land Order No. 7817; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6986; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7817; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6986; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6986, which was issued effective July 1,...

  11. 75 FR 63856 - Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order further extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 7464 for an additional...

  12. 75 FR 77658 - Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6818 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  13. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-8 Land subject to disposition. (a) Land that may be entered as desert land. (1) As the desert-land law requires the artificial irrigation of any land entered thereunder, lands...

  14. Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  15. Effectiveness and sustainability of remedial actions for land restoration in Abeokuta urban communities, Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawal-Adebowale, Okanlade

    2016-04-01

    Land as a major collective human property faces a great deal of threats and eventual degradation from both natural and human causal factors across the globe. But for the central role of land in human's sustenance and quality living, man cannot afford to lose its natural asset and as such takes mitigating or remedial actions to save and restore his land for sustainable use. In view of this, the study assessed the causal factors of land degradation in urban areas of Abeokuta and effectiveness and sustainability of the taken remedial actions to stem the tide of land degradation in the study area. The selected communities were purposively selected based on the observed prevalence of degraded lands in the areas. A qualitative research approach which encompasses observational techniques - participant/field observation, interactive discussion and photographic capturing, was used for collection of data on land degradation in the study area. A combination of phenomenological, inductive thematic analysis and conversation/discourse analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed land gradients/slopes, rainfall, run-offs/erosion, land-entrenched foot impacts, sand scraping/mining, poor/absence of drainage system and land covers as causal factors of land degradation in the study area. The employed remedial actions for restoration of degraded land included filling of drenches with sand bags, wood logs, bricks and stones, and sand filling. The study though observed that filling of drenches caused by erosion with rubles/stones and construction of drainage were effective remedial actions, good drainage system was presumed to be the most appropriate and sustainable remedial action for land restoration in the study area.

  16. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  17. X-15 landing on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    In this 17-second video clip, the X-15 is shown in flight and then landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. It is followed by an F-104A chase aircraft, whose pilot provided a second set of eyes to the X-15 pilot on landing in case of any problems. The video shows the skids on the back of the X-15 contacting the lakebed, with the aircraft's nose then rotating downward until the nose landing gear was on the lakebed.

  18. The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2008-05-01

    When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

  19. Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.; Tritton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

  20. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  1. Geo-information Based Spatio-temporal Modeling of Urban Land Use and Land Cover Change in Butwal Municipality, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, U. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unscientific utilization of land use and land cover due to rapid growth of urban population deteriorates urban condition. Urban growth, land use change and future urban land demand are key concerns of urban planners. This paper is aimed to model urban land use change essential for sustainable urban development. GI science technology was employed to study the urban change dynamics using Markov Chain and CA-Markov and predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern. It was performed using the probability transition matrix from the Markov chain process, the suitability map of each land use/cover types and the contiguity filter. Suitability maps were generated from the MCE process where weight was derived from the pair wise comparison in the AHP process considering slope, land capability, distance to road, and settlement and water bodies as criterion of factor maps. Thematic land use land cover types of 1999, 2006, and 2013 of Landsat sensors were classified using MLC algorithm. The spatial extent increase from 1999 to 2013 in built up , bush and forest was observed to be 48.30 percent,79.48 percent and 7.79 percent, respectively, while decrease in agriculture and water bodies were 30.26 percent and 28.22 percent. The predicted urban LULC for 2020 and 2027 would provide useful inputs to the decision makers. Built up and bush expansion are explored as the main driving force for loss of agriculture and river areas and has the potential to continue in future also. The abandoned area of river bed has been converted to built- up areas.

  2. Biofuel on contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  3. Christmas in Physics Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage

  4. Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.

    PubMed

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  5. Adaptive management of ecosystem services across different land use regimes.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, J B

    2016-12-01

    Using adaptive management to manage desired flows of ecosystem services may seem on the surface to be a good fit, but many social, economic, environmental, legal, and political factors influence how good a fit. One strongly influential factor is the land use regime within which the profile of ecosystem services is being managed. Shaped largely by legal mandates, market forces, and social and cultural practices, different land use regimes present different opportunities for and constraints on goals for ecosystem services and pose different decision making environments. Even where all other conditions appear amenable to using adaptive management, therefore, it is essential to consider the constraining (or liberating) effects of different land use regimes when deciding whether to adopt adaptive management to achieve those goals and, if so, how to implement it.

  6. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  7. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  8. Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands.

  9. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  10. RE-Powering America's Land

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes how contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites can be reused as renewable energy installations. Also supplies best practices, tools and resources for screening properties for renewable energy potential.

  11. Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy

    NASA Video Gallery

    A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

  12. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

  13. Expedition 28 Crew Lands Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan land their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft in Kazakhstan. Russian recovery teams were on hand to help the c...

  14. STS-135 Landing: Runway Remarks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-135 astronauts get a close-up look at space shuttle Atlantis, hear from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and speak to assembled employees, guests and media after landing at Kennedy Space C...

  15. Deafy Glade Land Exchange Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2009-08-04

    04/28/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Global Land Information System (GLIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for scientists seeking sources of information about the Earth's land surfaces. GLIS contains "metadata," that is, descriptive information about data sets. Through GLIS, scientists can evaluate data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for products. GLIS is more, however, than a mere list of products. It offers online samples of earth science data that may be ordered through the system.

  17. Groundwater exploitation management under land subsidence constraint: empirical evidence from the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Moser, Jessa

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence caused by extensive groundwater pumping has become a factor which cannot be ignored in the sustainable exploitation of groundwater resources. The Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou Plain is one of the locations with China's most severe land subsidence problems; the region has experienced dramatic land subsidence since the 1960s. Historical records of groundwater extraction, hydraulic head, and land subsidence show the latter to be the result of continual and excessive extraction of groundwater from deep confined aquifers. This study reconstructs land subsidence using an integrated regional groundwater flow and land subsidence model. The model is calibrated using land subsidence and groundwater level measurements from 1996 to 2007. Simulation results reproduce the cones of depression for groundwater heads and nadirs of land subsidence reasonably well. The calibrated model is used to evaluate the efficacy of land subsidence prevention plans from 2008 to 2010, and to predict future land subsidence over the next decade considering several groundwater exploitation scenarios. The results show the main cause of land subsidence to be inelastic compaction of the aquifer system resulting from continuously declining water levels. The model reveals that while the area of land subsidence will continue to extend, the rate of this extension may be significantly decreased by reduction of groundwater extraction. If the current land subsidence prevention and reclamation plans are continued and surface water diversion projects implemented, though land subsidence cannot be halted, the rate at which it is occurring can be effectively reduced.

  18. [Using a modified remote sensing imagery for interpreting changes in cultivated saline-alkali land].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Hui-tao; Liu, Hong-juan; Liu, Jin-tong

    2015-04-01

    This paper developed a new interpretation symbol system for grading and classifying saline-alkali land, using Huanghua, a cosatal city in Hebei Province as a case. The system was developed by inverting remote sensing images from 1992 to 2011 based on site investigation, plant cover characteristics and features of remote sensing images. Combining this interpretation symbol system with supervising classification method, the information on arable land was obtained for the coastal saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City, and the saline-alkali land area, changes in intensity of salinity-alkalinity and spatial distribution from 1992 to 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that salinization of arable land in Huanghua City alleviated from 1992 to 2011. The severely and moderately saline-alkali land area decreased in 2011 compared with 1992, while the non/slightly saline land area increased. The moderately saline-alkali land in southeast transformed to non/slightly saline-alkaline, while the severely saline-alkali land in west of the city far from the coastal zone became moderately saline-alkaline. The center of gravity (CG) of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in arable land within the saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City were climate, hydrology and human activities.

  19. Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique.

  20. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  1. A Land-Water Environment for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes and details the construction of a land-water environment using an aquarium and variety of terrestrial and aquatic materials and organisms. Suggests activities such as identification of organisms, observation of predator-prey interactions, construction of food webs, and recognition of interdependence of biotic and abiotic factors. (CS)

  2. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Pathogens - Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module is intended to help engineers evaluate the relative health risks from pathogens at land treatment sites versus conventional waste treatment systems. Among the topics considered are the following: (1) the relationship between survival time of pathogens and the chance of disease transmission to humans; (2) the factors that favor survival…

  3. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 land cover and impervious surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James D.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Gass, Leila; Dewitz, Jon; Fry, Joyce A.; Wade, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Release of NLCD 2006 provides the first wall-to-wall land-cover change database for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 focused on four primary products: 2001 land cover, 2006 land cover, land-cover change between 2001 and 2006, and impervious surface change between 2001 and 2006. The accuracy assessment was conducted by selecting a stratified random sample of pixels with the reference classification interpreted from multi-temporal high resolution digital imagery. The NLCD Level II (16 classes) overall accuracies for the 2001 and 2006 land cover were 79% and 78%, respectively, with Level II user's accuracies exceeding 80% for water, high density urban, all upland forest classes, shrubland, and cropland for both dates. Level I (8 classes) accuracies were 85% for NLCD 2001 and 84% for NLCD 2006. The high overall and user's accuracies for the individual dates translated into high user's accuracies for the 2001–2006 change reporting themes water gain and loss, forest loss, urban gain, and the no-change reporting themes for water, urban, forest, and agriculture. The main factor limiting higher accuracies for the change reporting themes appeared to be difficulty in distinguishing the context of grass. We discuss the need for more research on land-cover change accuracy assessment.

  4. Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2014-12-01

    Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing.

  5. Land surface processes and Sahel climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Sharon

    2000-02-01

    This paper examines the question of land surface-atmosphere interactions in the West African Sahel and their role in the interannual variability of rainfall. In the Sahel, mean rainfall decreased by 25-40% between 1931-1960 and 1968-1997; every year in the 1950s was wet, and nearly every year since 1970 has been anomalously dry. Thus the intensity and multiyear persistence of drought conditions are unusual and perhaps unique features of Sahel climate. This article presents arguments for the role of land surface feedback in producing these features and reviews research relevant to land surface processes in the region, such as results from the 1992 Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment (HAPEX)-Sahel experiment and recent studies on aerosols and on the issue of desertification in the region, a factor implicated by some as a cause of the changes in rainfall. Included also is a summary of evidence of feedback on meteorological processes, presented from both model results and observations. The reviewed studies demonstrate numerous ways in which the state of the land surface can influence interactions with the atmosphere. Surface hydrology essentially acts to delay and prolong the effects of meteorological drought. Each evaporative component of the surface water balance has its own timescale, with the presence of vegetation affecting the process both by delaying and prolonging the return of soil moisture to the atmosphere but at the same time accelerating the process through the evaporation of canopy-intercepted water. Hence the vegetation structure, including rooting depth, can modulate the land-atmosphere interaction. Such processes take on particular significance in the Sahel, where there is a high degree of recycling of atmospheric moisture and where the meteorological processes from the scale of boundary layer development to mesoscale disturbance generation are strongly influenced by moisture. Simple models of these feedback processes and their various timescales

  6. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General... mechanism and its supporting structure must be designed for maximum flight load factors with the gear retracted and must be designed for the combination of friction, inertia, brake torque, and air...

  7. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General... mechanism and its supporting structure must be designed for maximum flight load factors with the gear retracted and must be designed for the combination of friction, inertia, brake torque, and air...

  8. Making Sustainable Energy Choices: Insights on the Energy/Water/Land Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    This periodic publication summarizes insights from the body of NREL analysis work. In this issue of Analysis Insights, we examine the implications of our energy choices on water, land use, climate, developmental goals, and other factors. Collectively, NREL's work helps policymakers and investors understand and evaluate energy choices within the complex web of connections, or nexus, between energy, water, and land.

  9. Cross comparisons of land surface process descriptions in land surface models using multiple sources of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gi Hyeon

    2006-12-01

    Land surface-atmospheric interactions influence climate and weather varying spatial scales from local to mesoscale, and even to global. This dissertation deals with several topics: (1) evaluation of various sources of incoming solar radiations, (2) evaluation of land surface process descriptions in the land surface models in both basin-scale and point scale offline model simulations, and (3) inverse estimation of radiation components using net radiation and other meteorological variables. Incoming solar radiations from various sources were evaluated. This study identified the two sources of errors in the North American Data Assimilation system (NLDAS) solar radiation: One is related to bias inherited from the ETA Data Assimilation System (EDAS) during 2001 and 2003, and the other is software error at NESDIS operational system during 2002. Land surface processes are treated quite differently in the land surface models used in this study. Over the state of Oklahoma, Common Land Model 2.1 (CLM2.1) estimates more evaporation but less transpiration than the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC3L) model. This is due to the difference in the runoff algorithm, which results in more infiltration down to the soil layer and then providing more available water to plant roots in VIC3L. CLM2.1 overestimates ground heat flux in Point scale simulation. CoLM, which employs two stream radiative transfer scheme, shows better agreements to adjusted ground observations (using Bowen-ration closure method) in offline simulations than CLM2.1. CoLM, in addition, shows various model behaviors depending on vegetation cover types. Inverse radiation estimation methods were developed and evaluated at four AmeriFlux sites. Analysis of observed radiations showed a triangle shape relationship among net radiation, net solar radiation and cloud factor (defined in this study). Clear-sky downward longwave radiation is needed to be calibrated for each site. SCE-UA method was used to calibrate an

  10. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William; Boone, Arron; Mechoso, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Yongkang Xue, F. De Sales, B. Lau, A. Boone, C. R. Mechoso Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass there. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. The LSP affects the monsoon evolution through different mechanisms at different scales. It affects the surface energy balance and energy partitioning in latent and sensible heat, the atmospheric heating rate, and general circulation. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation

  11. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. It has also been suggested that LSP contribute to the abrupt jump in latitude of the East Asian monsoon as well as general circulation turning in some monsoon regions in its early stages. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. More comprehensive studies with multi-models are imperatively necessary.

  12. STS-113 landing guests after landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Mrs. Daniel R. Mulville shakes hands with Kent V. Rominger, Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations, on the runway of the Shuttle Landing Facility following the landing of Endeavour. Mrs. Mulville is the wife of Dr. Daniel R. Mulville, NASA Associate Deputy Administrator. In the group, from left are KSC Director Roy D. Bridges; Mrs. Mulville; Dr. Mulville (back to camera); James D. Halsell Jr., Manager of Launch Integration at KSC, Space Shuttle Program; Rominger; and STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee. Commander Wetherbee earlier guided Space Shuttle Endeavour to a flawless touchdown on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility after completing the 13-day, 18-hour, 48-minute, 5.74-million mile STS-113 mission to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown was at 2:37:12 p.m. EST, nose gear touchdown was at 2:37:23 p.m., and wheel stop was at 2:38:25 p.m. Poor weather conditions thwarted landing opportunities until a fourth day, the first time in Shuttle program history that a landing has been waved off for three consecutive days. The orbiter also carried the other members of the STS-113 crew, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, as well as the returning Expedition Five crew, Commander Valeri Korzun, ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The installation of the P1 truss on the International Space Station was accomplished during the mission.

  13. Sustainable Land Use For Lakes Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, A.; Porto, A. Lo; Benigni, G.; Ripa, M. N.

    Since some years, diffuse sources of agrochemicals have become a high relevance issue for environment safety. Lake Vico basin (Central Italy, about 60 km northern to Rome) is an optimal site to investigate this problem. In fact, it is clear the increasing of lake trophic state, due to agricultural diffuse nutrient sources, above all phosphorus. This territory needs a plan for Best Management Practices (BMPs) and model approach is fundamental to assess them. In particular, it is necessary to evaluate phosphorus export zones that more contribute to environmental concerns, to plan related BMPs and to evaluate their effectiveness. P export from a lake basin can be considered the impact (load) of land use on the water body and it is the starting point for the evaluation of lake trophic state (Vollenweider, 1976) and water quality status, also in recent European regulations (the 152/1999 Italian law and connected CE/60/2000). Methods to evaluate P load are various: - consider simple export coefficients only depending on land use (Reckhow et al., 1980) or also on some synthetic indices of hydrological characteristics (Frink, 1991). This approach has the advantage of easy application, but, necessarily, cannot interpret specific reality and environment -anthropogenic complexity, typical of diffuse sources problems. In consequence, it is not sufficiently detailed to evaluate BMPs incidence. - Apply field scale, simulation models, such as GLEAMS, which has the advantage to be enough detailed to interpret environment -anthropogenic complexity, but it involves a small area (it is a field scale model). - Apply basin scale models, such as SWAT, which has the advantage of wide area involvement, joined to a good detail. But it is necessary a high quantity of data and parameters in awide area (often not available in real cases), that means to introduce new uncertainty factors. In this paper, the three approaches are compared and discussed from the point of view of the P load from

  14. Land-Grant University-Industry Relationships in Biotechnology: A Comparison with the Non-Land-Grant Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, James; Kenney, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Presents study of industrial involvement in biotechnology research, comparing faculty surveys from land-grant colleges of agriculture and nonagricultural research universities. Agricultural biotechnologists report higher industrial involvement and more optimism about it. Industrial funding levels shown as significant factor in activities and…

  15. Modeling the Driving Forces of the Land Use and Land Cover Changes Along the Upper Yangtze River of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Run Sheng; Xiang, Qing; Xu, Jin Tao; Deng, Xiang Zheng

    2010-03-01

    Induced by high population density, rapid but uneven economic growth, and historic resource exploitation, China’s upper Yangtze basin has witnessed remarkable changes in land use and cover, which have resulted in severe environmental consequences, such as flooding, soil erosion, and habitat loss. This article examines the causes of land use and land cover change (LUCC) along the Jinsha River, one primary section of the upper Yangtze, aiming to better understand the human impact on the dynamic LUCC process and to support necessary policy actions for more sustainable land use and environmental protection. Using a repeated cross-sectional dataset covering 31 counties over four time periods from 1975 to 2000, we develop a fractional logit model to empirically determine the effects of socioeconomic and institutional factors on changes for cropland, forestland, and grassland. It is shown that population expansion, food self-sufficiency, and better market access drove cropland expansion, while industrial development contributed significantly to the increase of forestland and the decrease of other land uses. Similarly, stable tenure had a positive effect on forest protection. Moreover, past land use decisions were less significantly influenced by distorted market signals. We believe that these and other findings carry important policy implications.

  16. Effects of Land Use on Lake Nutrients: The Importance of Scale, Hydrologic Connectivity, and Region

    PubMed Central

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales. PMID:26267813

  17. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  18. X-31 landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. The X-31 aircraft shown on approach with a high angle of attack, touches down with its speed brakes, which can be seen extended just above and behind the wing. The aircraft then begins to rotate the nosegear down to runway contact and deploys a braking parachute that assists in slowing the aircraft after landing.

  19. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  9. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position, except... wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23.73(b). (c...; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in §...

  10. You Can Accurately Predict Land Acquisition Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigan, Richard

    1967-01-01

    Land acquisition costs were tested for predictability based upon the 1962 assessed valuations of privately held land acquired for campus expansion by the University of Wisconsin from 1963-1965. By correlating the land acquisition costs of 108 properties acquired during the 3 year period with--(1) the assessed value of the land, (2) the assessed…

  11. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  12. 12 CFR 161.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land loan. 161.26 Section 161.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State lands. 13.1406 Section....1406 State lands. The National Park Service administers certain state-owned lands and waters within the... chapter does not apply to the lawful taking of wildlife on these State-owned lands and waters....

  14. 7 CFR 634.20 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible land. 634.20 Section 634.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.20 Eligible land. RCWP is only applicable to privately owned land. Land owned by corporations whose ownership is...

  15. 7 CFR 634.20 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible land. 634.20 Section 634.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.20 Eligible land. RCWP is only applicable to privately owned land. Land owned by corporations whose ownership is...

  16. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State lands. 13.1406 Section....1406 State lands. The National Park Service administers certain state-owned lands and waters within the... chapter does not apply to the lawful taking of wildlife on these State-owned lands and waters....

  18. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include the original cost of all land held in fee and of easements, and similar rights in land having a...

  19. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  20. 77 FR 72813 - Information Collection; Land Exchanges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Land Exchanges AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... with no revision of a currently approved information collection, OMB 0596-0105, Land Exchanges. DATES... notice should be addressed to Vicky Wessling, National Land Adjustment Program Manager, Lands, 1601...