Science.gov

Sample records for landfill cell construction

  1. Mixed waste landfill cell construction at energy solutions LLC: a regulator's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lukes, G.C.; Willoughby, O.H.

    2007-07-01

    A small percentage of the property that EnergySolutions' (formerly Envirocare) operates at Clive, Utah is permitted by the State of Utah as a treatment, storage and disposal facility for mixed waste. Mixed Waste is defined as a hazardous waste (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261.3) that also has a radioactive component. Typically, the waste EnergySolutions receives at its mixed waste facility is contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds while also contaminated with radioactivity. For EnergySolutions, the largest generator of mixed waste is the United States Department of Energy. However, EnergySolutions also accepts a wide variety of mixed waste from other generators. For many wastes, EnergySolutions goes through the process of characterization and acceptance (if appropriate) of the waste, treating the waste (if necessary), confirmation that the waste meets Land Disposal Restriction, and disposal of the waste in its mixed waste landfill cell (MWLC). EnergySolutions originally received its State-issued Part B (RCRA) permit in 1990. The Permit allows a mixed waste landfill cell footprint that covers roughly 10 hectares and includes 20 individual 'sumps'. EnergySolutions chose to build small segments of the landfill cell as waste receipts dictated. Nearly 16 years later, EnergySolutions has just completed its Phase V construction project. 18 of the 20 sumps in the original design have been constructed. The last two sumps are anticipated to be its Phase VI construction project. Further expansion of its mixed waste disposal landfill capacity beyond the current design would require a permit modification request and approval by the Executive Secretary of the Utah Solid and Hazardous Waste Control Board. Construction of the landfill cell is governed by the Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control manual of its State-issued Permit. The construction of each sump is made up of (from the bottom up): a foundation; three feet of engineered clay

  2. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  3. Landfills

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide information on landfills, including laws/regulations, and technical guidance on municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, industrial, PCBs, and construction and debris landfills. To provide resources for owners and operators of landfills.

  4. A Study of Leachate Generated from Construction and Demolition Landfills,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    solid waste (MSW) landfills and hazardous waste landfills. Regulators felt that since C&D landfills did not accept large quantities of hazardous waste...Construction and demolition (C&D) waste landfills have largely been ignored because they have been viewed as innocuous in comparison to municipal

  5. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  6. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    SciTech Connect

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E.; Fahrney, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  7. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL-CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test results from a demonstration of fuel-cell (FC) energy recovery and control of landfill gas emissions are presented. The project addressed two major issues: (i) the design, construction, and testing of a landfill-gas cleanup system; and (ii) a field test of a commercial phos...

  8. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL-CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test results from a demonstration of fuel-cell (FC) energy recovery and control of landfill gas emissions are presented. The project addressed two major issues: (i) the design, construction, and testing of a landfill-gas cleanup system; and (ii) a field test of a commercial phos...

  9. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  10. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  11. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  12. REQUIREMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication contains edited versions of the material presented at ten Technology Transfer seminars conducted in 1988 on this subject. Sections are included on design of clay and flexible membrane liners, leachate collector systems, and landfill covers. Construction quality a...

  13. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  14. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L.; Trocciola, J.C.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses operating a 200-kW phosphoric acid fuel cell using landfill gas (LFG) in Groton, Connecticut. The project is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating, and maintaining a fuel cell operating on LFG at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit (GPU) operation, test modifications to simplify the design, and demonstrate the reliability of the system. The operation of the fuel cell on LFG presents an opportunity to use a waste gas that is harmful to the environment to generate electricity more cleanly and efficiently than other methods currently used.

  15. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  16. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  17. Guide to implementing reclamation processes at Department of Defense municipal solid waste and construction debris landfills. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tures, G.L.

    1993-09-21

    This thesis serves as a guide for implementing landfill reclamation techniques on municipal solid waste or construction debris landfills owned, operated, or used by the DoD. The research describes historical and current methods for disposing of solid waste including open dumping, sanitary landfilling, and the development of state-of-the-art sanitary landfill cell technology. The thesis also identifies the factors which have led to the need for new methods of managing municipal solid waste. The vast majority of the study is devoted to identifying actions which should be taken before, during, and after implementation of a landfill reclamation project. These actions include the development of health, safety, and contingency planning documents, the establishment of systems for characterizing and monitoring site conditions, and the identification of other procedures and processes necessary for performing successful operations. Finally, this study contains a model for analyzing under which conditions reclamation is economically feasible. The model examines economic feasibility in four separate conditions and shows that reclamation is economically feasible in a wide variety of markets. However, the model also shows that feasibility is directly associated with a continuance of normal landfilling operations. Landfill, Landfill reclamation, Landfill mining, Municipal solid waste, Recycling, Construction debris.

  18. Failures during construction of a landfill lining: a case analysis.

    PubMed

    Blight, Geoffrey E

    2007-08-01

    Two tension failures occurred during the construction of the protection and leachate drainage layers for a geomembrane landfill liner on a slope of 24 degrees to the horizontal. The paper describes and analyses the design and shows that the failures occurred largely because the sequence of construction was altered without due consideration of the consequences. The designers also appeared unaware that there is a difference between the nominal strength of a structural element and its actual in-service strength. This misconception also played a major part in the failures.

  19. Manholes within MSW landfills - design, construction and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Paruvakat, N.; Marman, S.; Thompson, S.

    1995-12-31

    Two interior manholes (located within the waste) were required for an efficient, workable improvement and expansion of a solid waste landfill in southeastern Wisconsin. Due to the less than satisfactory performance of some interior manholes in the past, the project received close scrutiny and required attention to be paid to every minute detail. Geotechnical and structural analyses conducted to evaluate the loads on, and settlement of, the manhole are described. Since the improvements at the site included leachate management from the existing and future waste fill areas, plumbing considerations were very important. These are detailed. Construction and monitoring of settlement of the manholes are discussed.

  20. Leaky Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  1. Leaky Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  2. Nitrogen dynamics in a constructed wetland system treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, C B; Crolla, A M; Kuyucak, N; Zimmer, M; Laflèche, A

    2007-01-01

    A pilot scale treatment system was established in 2002 at the Laflèche Landfill in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The system consists of a series of treatment steps: a stabilisation basin (10,000 m3), a woodland peat trickling filter (5,200 m2), a subsurface flow constructed wetland planted in Phragmites sp. (2,600 m2), a surface flow constructed wetland planted in Typha sp. (3,600 m2) and a polishing pond (3,600 m2). The system operates from May to December with leachate being recycled within the landfill during the winter months. Hydraulic loading was increased three-fold over four operating seasons with nitrogen and organic mass loading increasing six-fold. Excellent removal efficiencies were observed with 93% BOD5, 90% TKN and 97% NH4-N removed under the highest loading conditions. Almost complete denitrification was observed throughout the treatment system with NO3-N concentrations never exceeding 5mg L(-1). The peat filter reached treatment capacity at a hydraulic loading of 4cm d(-1) and organic loading rate of 42 kg BOD ha(-1) d(-1), which is consistent with design criteria for vertical flow wetland systems and intermittent sand filters, The first order plug flow kinetic model was effective at describing TKN and ammonium removal in the SSF and FWS wetlands when background concentrations were taken into account. Ammonium removal k-values were consistent with the literature at 52.6 and 57.7 yr(-1) for the SSF and FWS wetlands, respectively, while TKN k-values at 6.9 and 7.7 yr(-1) were almost an order of magnitude lower than literature values, suggesting that leachate TKN could contain refractory organics not found in domestic wastewater.

  3. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  4. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  5. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, S.; Andreas, L.; Herrmann, I.; Ecke, H.; Lagerkvist, A.

    2010-01-15

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  6. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-04

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p < 0.05). At downgradient wells where sulfate concentrations were greater than 150 mg/L (approximately 10% of the maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in water, which suggests the presence of leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 μg/L and 11 μg/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass.

  7. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT THE GROTON, CT, LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the results from a seminal assessment conducted on a fuel cell technology which generates electrical power from waste landfill gas. This assessment/ demonstration was the second such project conducted by the EPA, the first being conducted at the Penrose Power...

  8. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT THE GROTON, CT, LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the results from a seminal assessment conducted on a fuel cell technology which generates electrical power from waste landfill gas. This assessment/ demonstration was the second such project conducted by the EPA, the first being conducted at the Penrose Power...

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS: PHASE II. PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impu...

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS: PHASE II. PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impu...

  11. Reevaluating the role of soil layers in landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.; Larky, A.

    1996-05-01

    While most Subtitle D landfills are required to use a clay soil layer to protect the bottom liner or leachate collection system, many have begun experimenting- and succeeding-with use of ground tires, wood chips, sewage sludge, compost and other materials in place of the soil.

  12. Reduced sulfur compounds in gas from construction and demolition debris landfills.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue; Xu, Qiyong; Booth, Matthew; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The biological conversion of sulfate from disposed gypsum drywall to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the anaerobic environment of a landfill results in odor problems and possible health concerns at many disposal facilities. To examine the extent and magnitude of such emissions, landfill gas samples from wells, soil vapor samples from the interface of the waste and cover soil, and ambient air samples, were collected from 10 construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida and analyzed for H(2)S and other reduced sulfur compounds (RSC). H(2)S was detected in the well gas and soil vapor at all 10 sites. The concentrations in the ambient air above the surface of the landfill were much lower than those observed in the soil vapor, and no direct correlation was observed between the two sampling locations. Methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide were the most frequently observed other RSC, though they occurred at smaller concentrations than H(2)S. This research confirmed the presence of H(2)S at C&D debris landfills. High concentrations of H(2)S may be a concern for employees working on the landfill site. These results indicate that workers should use proper personal protection at C&D debris landfills when involved in excavation, landfill gas collection, or confined spaces. The results indicate that H(2)S is sufficiently diluted in the atmosphere to not commonly pose acute health impacts for these landfill workers in normal working conditions. H(2)S concentrations were extremely variable with measurements occurring over a very large range (from less than 3 ppbv to 12,000 ppmv in the soil vapor and from less than 3 ppbv to 50 ppmv in ambient air). Possible reasons for the large intra- and inter-site variability observed include waste and soil heterogeneities, impact of weather conditions, and different site management practices.

  13. Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction.

    PubMed

    Travar, I; Lidelöw, S; Andreas, L; Tham, G; Lagerkvist, A

    2009-04-01

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl(-), nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, <3-30l (m(2)yr)(-1). Geochemical modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  14. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  15. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  16. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  17. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  18. The effectiveness of resistivity surveying in cell characterization within a municipal solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Janette Elizabeth

    Electrical resistivity methods were used to characterize features within the Nacogdoches Landfill in Nacogdoches, Texas. The Geometrics OhmMapper System, a noninvasive capacitively coupled resistivity instrument, was used to collect resistivity data over three landfill cells. Through data processing, 2D images were produced to characterize cell features such as unsaturated versus saturated zones, gas accumulation in void space, low permeability horizons, cell cover system, and contact with cell boundary and bedrock. Information gathered was useful in determining relative rates of compaction with time, evolution of cell characteristics, and the effects different construction regulations have had on cell development. Although successful in surveying shallow subsurface features, depth of investigation was limited to approximately 6 m; therefore lower portions of cells were not imaged. The results provided gain better insight into stability of cell structure. This method of geophysical surveying can be useful in the 30 year post closure monitoring of cells required by the USEPA by offering a relative low cost and time saving method for landfill characterization.

  19. Application of inert wastes in the construction, operation and closure of landfills: Calculation tool.

    PubMed

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J; Esteban Altabella, Joan; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Waste from construction and demolition activities represents one of the highest volumes of waste in Europe. 500 million tonnes are produced throughout the whole EU every year. In some EU members like Spain, approximately 83 per cent of such waste is disposed in landfills. The remaining part is classified and processed in treatment facilities so that it can later be used as recycled aggregates in the construction sector (sand, gravel, aggregates, etc.) but without much commercial success. The aim of this study is to use recycled aggregates from inert wastes (IW) in the different phases of a landfill (construction, operation and closure) with the aid of a new computer tool called LABWASTE.14. This tool incorporates the mathematical relationship among the activities of the landfill and provides as a result the economic viability of using recycled aggregates compared to aggregates from quarries. Therefore, knowing the needs of aggregates in landfills (dams, drainage layers, covering layers, collection wells, etc.) may determine the amount of IW that could be recovered. These calculations can be obtained from some of the data that is introduced (population, land physiography, etc.). Furthermore, the use of LABWASTE.14 makes it possible to reduce the demand for aggregates from quarries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing of fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas: Groton landfill. Final report, July 1995--July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, J.L.; Trocciola, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    The report summarizes the results of follow-on tests, following a four-phase EPA program. The environmental impact of widespread use of this concept would be a significant reduction of global warming gas emissions (methane and carbon dioxide). The follow-on testing, conducted by Northeast Utilities at the Groton, CT, landfill, indicated the suitability of the landfill-gas-to-energy conversion equipment to operate on a wide range of landfill gas compositions. Significant test results include successful transportability of the landfill-gas-to-energy equipment, and operation of the gas pretreatment unit (GPU) for an additional 4168 hours (total of 6413 hours) while continuing to remove halides and sulfur compounds to much less than the specified <3 ppmV. The fuel cell operated for an additional 3313 hours (total of 4020 hours), and reflected 38.1% efficiency at 140 kW with a maximum output of 165 kW. Fuel cell adjusted availability was 96.5%, with one forced outage in the entire 4020 hours of operation on landfill gas.

  1. Methodology of environmental diagnosis for construction and demolition waste landfills: a tool for planning and making decisions.

    PubMed

    Garrido, E; Calvo, F; Ramos, A F; Zamorano, M

    2005-11-01

    Current legislation in the European Union regarding landfills provides measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce, insofar as possible, negative effects on the environment. This means that Member States must take measures so that landfills cannot operate unless the operator first presents a plan for the site, which includes the implementation of improvements considered necessary by the engineer for compliance with regulations. Researchers at the University of Granada have developed a method to ascertain the degree of environmental impact that a construction and demolition waste landfill may produce on its immediate surroundings. This methodology is based on environmental indexes; its objective is to give crucial information concerning possible environmental problems produced by a landfill. The data thus obtained will permit the elaboration of guidelines for improvements in the location, design, and operation of landfills, or in extreme cases, their dosing, sealing, and rehabilitation.

  2. Using landfill gas in fuel cells - a step closer to commercial reality

    SciTech Connect

    Trocciola, J.C.; Preston, J.L.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1995-11-01

    A recent demonstration project using methane from landfill gas in a phosphoric acid fuel cell may encourage more use of landfill gas in fuel cells, the cleanest energy conversion technology available today. Of the approximately 180 land-fill gas-to-energy projects operating in North American, roughly 2/3 use internal combustion engines to generate electricity. However, because of the expense to develope projects and concerns about emissions from ICEs, the search continues for technologies that can reduce air emissions, lower capital cost, and still make beneficial energy use of the methane. Fuel cells have emerged as one technology that could use landfill gases efficiently.

  3. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  4. Construction of low permeability soil-bentonite barrier caps and liners for landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, T.; Williams, M.

    1995-12-31

    A low permeability soil barrier layer is the usual regulatory requirement for both caps and liner systems on modern municipal, industrial, and hazardous waste landfills. This soil layer is either used as the sole barrier or as the soil component of a composite liner system. This paper presents construction experience for blending on site soils with sodium bentonite to produce a thick, low permeability soil barrier layer. The paper begins with a description of the components and construction of the barrier layer and discusses how soil-bentonite barrier layers meet or exceed the regulatory performance criteria for both State and Federal agencies.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were < 1 ppmv in those columns containing concrete. Concrete plays a role in decreasing H2S by increasing pH out of the range for SRB growth and by reacting with H2S. This study also showed that wood lowered H2S concentrations initially by decreasing leachate pH values. Based on the results, two possible control mechanisms to mitigate H2S generation in C&D debris landfills are suggested.

  6. Water reduction by constructed wetlands treating waste landfill leachate in a tropical region.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yuka; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Ebie, Yoshitaka; Sutthasil, Noppharit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Yamada, Masato

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges in landfill leachate management is the prevention of environmental pollution by the overflow of untreated leachate. To evaluate the feasibility of constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of waste landfill leachate in tropical regions, water reduction and pollutant removal by a CW subjected to different flow patterns (i.e., horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) and free water surface (FWS)) were examined in both rainy and dry seasons in Thailand. A pilot-scale CW planted with cattail was installed at a landfill site in Thailand. With HSSF, the CW substantially removed pollutants from the landfill leachate without the need to harvest plants, whereas with FWS, it only slightly removed pollutants. Under both flow patterns, the CW significantly reduced the leachate volume to a greater extent than surface evaporation, which is regarded as an effect of the storage pond. Additionally, water reduction occurred regardless of season and precipitation, within the range 0-9 mm d(-1). In the case of low feeding frequency, water reduction by the CW with HSSF was lower than that with FWS. However, high feeding frequency improved water reduction by the CW with HSSF and resulted in a similar reduction to that observed with FWS, which exhibited maximum evapotranspiration. In terms of water reduction, with both HSSF in conjunction with high frequency feeding and FWS, the CW provided a high degree of evapotranspiration. However, pollutant removal efficiencies with HSSF were higher than for FWS. The present study suggested that CWs with HSSF and high frequency feeding could be useful for the prevention of uncontrollable dispersion of polluted leachate in the tropical climate zone.

  7. Adopted technologies and basis for selection at municipal solid waste landfill facilities constructed in recent years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Inoue, Yuzo

    2010-08-01

    In Japan, as the construction of new landfill facilities has become extremely difficult and the number of sites procured for landfill construction has decreased due to the 'not in my back yard' (NIMBY) syndrome, it has been assumed that the adoption of new technologies has increased. As the performance of new technologies exceeds that of conventional technologies, it is also assumed that residents would prefer the use of these new technologies and therefore any construction plans should be devised to ensure their use to ensure residents' satisfaction. In the present study, the technologies adopted for municipal solid waste landfill facilities constructed in recent years (2000 to 2004) in Japan and the bases for their adoption were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey. One of the main bases for the adoption of new technologies was the request by residents for new technology for roofing, rather than the other for new technologies for barrier systems, leachate treatment, and monitoring. In addition, it is possible that the municipalities did not recognize the difference between conventional and new technologies as defined in this study. The roof-type landfill that isolates waste from the surrounding environment was one of the requirements for the construction of new landfill facilities identified in the present investigation, and in this regard waste isolation should be required in all circumstances.

  8. Treatment of landfill leachate-impacted groundwater using cascade aeration and constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Loer, J.; O`Flanagan, B.; Fellows, W.

    1995-12-31

    At an unlined municipal solid waste landfill, heavy metal and toxic organic compounds present in leachate have impacted groundwater, necessitating extraction and treatment of the contaminated groundwater. A remedial design relying on a natural systems engineering approach will take advantage of existing contours (gravity flow) and surroundings (wetlands), and will limit energy inputs and eliminate chemical inputs. Impacted groundwater will be extracted, and aerated via a cascade constructed of polypropylene sheets fabricated into {open_quotes}step{close_quotes} sections and set into a side slope of the landfill. Volatilization of organics and oxidation of iron and heavy metals to insoluble compounds will occur during cascading and will continue within a sedimentation basin where settling of iron precipitates will induce co-settling of heavy metal precipitates. Following the sedimentation basin, a constructed wetland containing both aerobic zones and anaerobic zones will provide additional treatment of remaining solids and heavy metals, before surface discharge. Use of a natural systems approach significantly reduces operating costs compared to a mechanical-aeration, chemical-precipitation system, and is more aesthetically pleasing and suited to the remote locale. The system is under construction and seasonal operation will begin in spring 1996.

  9. Construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill VII (CDL VII), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, P.M.

    1994-11-01

    This Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Bid Option 2 of the Y-12 Plant Construction Demolition Landfill 7 (CDL-7) was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. CDL-7 is located in Anderson County on the south side of Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report applies specifically to the limits of excavation for Area No. 1 portions of the perimeter maintenance road and drainage channel and Sedimentation Pond No. 3. A partial ``As-Built`` survey was performed and is included.

  10. Evaluation of alternative landfill cover soils for attenuating hydrogen sulfide from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Cristine; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) generated from C&D debris landfills has emerged as a major environmental concern due to odor problems and possible health impacts to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Research was performed to evaluate the performance of various cover materials as control measures for H(2)S emissions from C&D debris landfills. Twelve laboratory-scale simulated landfill columns containing gypsum drywall were operated under anaerobic conditions to promote H(2)S production. Five different cover materials were placed on top of the waste inside duplicate columns: (1) sandy soil, (2) sandy soil amended with lime, (3) clayey soil, (4) fine concrete (particle size less than 2.5 cm), and (5) coarse concrete (particle size greater than 2.5 cm). No cover was placed on two of the columns, which were used as controls. H(2)S concentrations measured from the middle of the waste layer ranged from 50,000 to 150,000 ppm. The different cover materials demonstrated varying H(2)S removal efficiencies. The sandy soil amended with lime and the fine concrete were the most effective for the control of H(2)S emissions. Both materials exhibited reduction efficiencies greater than 99%. The clayey and sandy soils exhibited lower reduction efficiencies, with average removal efficiencies of 65% and 30%, respectively. The coarse concrete was found to be the least efficient material as a result of its large particle size.

  11. Landfill gas pretreatment for fuel cell applications. Report for January 1991-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sandelli, G.J.; Trocciola, J.C.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA program underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation to demonstrate landfill methane control, and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues needed to be addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would remove contaminants from the gas sufficient for fuel cell operation, and (2) successful operation of a commercial fuel cell power plant on that lower-heating value waste methane gas.

  12. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  14. Urban construction and demolition waste and landfill failure in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Xia, Junqiang; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2017-01-30

    On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China's most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China's rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities. In total, China produces some 30% of the world's municipal solid waste and of this about 40% is CDW. To prevent landslides associated with CDW, the volume of waste dumped in landfills should be regulated. More specifically 4-Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) policies should be implemented more widely and efficiently. Although landfill will continue to be an important disposal option, proper management and careful monitoring of CDW are urgently needed to satisfy pressing safety issues. International collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and use of the latest technologies are needed so that the similar landslides can be prevented in China and elsewhere.

  15. Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate with Colocasia esculenta, Gynerum sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorum in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Salamanca, E J; Peña, M R; Rousseau, D P L; Lens, P N L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulation of Cd (II), Hg (II), Cr (VI) and Pb (II) in Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) planted in constructed wetlands treating synthetic landfill leachate. Sixteen bioreactors were operated in two experimental blocks. Metal concentrations in the influent and effluent; root, stem, branch and leaves of plants were analysed, as well as COD, N-NH4+, TKN, T, pH, ORP, DO, and EC. Average removal efficiencies of COD, TKN and NH4+-N were 66, 67 and 72%, respectively and heavy metal removal ranged from 92 to 98% in all units. Cr (VI) was not detected in any effluent sample. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 10(0) -10(2). The BCF of Cr (VI) was the lowest: 0.59 and 2.5 (L kg(-1)) for Gs and He respectively; whilst Cd (II) had the highest (130-135 L kg(-1)) for Gs. Roots showed a higher metal content than shoots. Translocation factors (TF) were lower, He was the plant exhibiting TFs>1 for Pb (II), Cr (T) and Hg (II) and 0.4-0.9 for Cd (II) and Cr (VI). The evaluated plants demonstrate their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate and all of them can be categorized as metals accumulators.

  16. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

    2011-05-01

    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration of fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. Phase 2. Pretreatment system performance measurement. Final report, September 1991-February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Trocciola, J.C.; Preston, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recovery energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impurities from landfill gas which are detrimental to the fuel cell. The GPU successfully removed the sulfur and halogen compounds contained in the landfill gas to a level significantly below that specified for use with the phosphoric acid fuel cell. During a challenge test in which dichlorodifluoro-methane (Refrigerant 12) was intentionally injected into the process stream during an 8-hour period, the exit concentration of the Refrigerant 12 was below the limit of detection and below the specified value for the fuel cell.

  18. A Guide to Implementing Reclamation Processes at Department of Defense Municipal Solid Waste and Construction Debris Landfills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-21

    E THESIS T41 GreOr’"- ’!’,re-. Carta&:.. USA- AF IT/GEEE/ENV/93 S- - - "DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...AND CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS LANFILLS THESIS Gregory L. Tures, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/93S-17 93-23821 Approved for public release; distribution...GUIDE TO IMPLEMENTING RECLAMATION PROCESSES AT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS LANDFILLS THESIS Presented to the

  19. Cr(VI) and COD removal from landfill leachate by polyculture constructed wetland at a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña, M R; Peña, E J; Lens, P N L

    2015-09-01

    Four subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) at a pilot scale planted with a polyculture of the tropical plants Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) were evaluated for 7 months. The CW cells with an area of 17.94 m(2) and 0.60 m (h) each and 0.5 m of gravel were operated at continuous gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m(3) day(-1)) and a theoretical HRT of 7 days each and treating landfill leachate for the removal of filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf), BOD5, TKN, NH4 (+), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-)-P and Cr(VI). Three CWs were divided into three sections, and each section (5.98 m(2)) was seeded with 36 cuttings of each species (plant density of six cuttings per square metre). The other unit was planted randomly. The final distributions of plants in the bioreactors were as follows: CW I (He-Ce-Gs), CW II (randomly), CW III (Ce-Gs-He) and CW IV (Gs-He-Ce). The units received effluent from a high-rate anaerobic pond (BLAAT®). The results show a slightly alkaline and anoxic environment in the solid-liquid matrix (pH = 8.0; 0.5-2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO)). CODf removal was 67 %, BOD5 80 %, and TKN and NH4 (+) 50-57 %; NO3 (-) effluents were slightly higher than the influent, PO4 (3-)-P (38 %) and Cr(VI) between 50 and 58 %. CW IV gave the best performance, indicating that plant distribution may affect the removal capacity of the bioreactors. He and Gs were the plants exhibiting a translocation factor (TF) of Cr(VI) >1. The evaluated plants demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate, and all of them can be categorized as Cr(VI) accumulators. The CWs also showed that they could be a low-cost operation as a secondary system for treatment of intermediated landfill leachate (LL).

  20. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xinzhu; Tran, Ngoc Han; Yin, Tingru; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-15

    Landfill leachate could be a significant source of emerging contaminants (ECs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. This study provides the first information on the occurrence of selected ECs and ARGs in raw leachate from 16-year old closed landfill site in Singapore. Among the investigated ECs, acetaminophen (ACT), bisphenol A (BPA), clofibric acid (CA), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diclofenac (DCF), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil (GFZ), lincomycin (LIN), salicylic acid (SA), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were the most frequently detected compounds in raw landfill leachate. The concentrations of detected ECs in raw landfill leachate varied significantly, from below quantification limit to 473,977 ng/L, depending on the compound. In this study, Class I integron (intl1) gene and ten ARGs were detected in raw landfill leachate. Sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2, and dfrA), aminoglycoside resistance (aac6), tetracycline resistance (tetO), quinolone resistance (qnrA), and intl1 were ubiquitously present in raw landfill leachate. Other resistance genes, such as beta-lactam resistance (blaNMD1, blaKPC, and blaCTX) and macrolide-lincosamide resistance (ermB) were also detected, detection frequency of <50%. The removal of target ECs and ARGs by a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland (CW) was also evaluated. The vast majority of ECs exhibited excellent removal efficiencies (>90%) in the investigated hybrid CW system. This hybrid CW system was also found to be effective in the reduction of several ARGs (intl1, sul1, sul2, and qnrA). Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of horizontal and vertical constructed wetland systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Yalcuk, Arda; Ugurlu, Aysenur

    2009-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to treat organic pollution, ammonia and heavy metals present in landfill leachate by the use of constructed wetland systems and to quantify the effect of feeding mode. The effect of different bedding material (gravel and zeolite surface) was also investigated. A pilot-scale study was conducted on subsurface flow constructed wetland systems operated in vertical and horizontal mode. Two vertical systems differed from each other with their bedding material. The systems were planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and operated identically at a flow rate of 10 l/day and hydraulic retention times of 11.8 and 12.5 day in vertical 1, vertical 2 and horizontal systems, respectively. Concentration based average removal efficiencies for VF1, VF2 and HF were NH(4)-N, 62.3%, 48.9% and 38.3%; COD, 27.3%, 30.6% and 35.7%; PO(4)-P, 52.6%, 51.9% and 46.7%; Fe(III), 21%, 40% and 17%, respectively. Better NH(4)-N removal performance was observed in the vertical system with zeolite layer than that of the vertical 2 and horizontal system. In contrast, horizontal system was more effective in COD removal.

  2. Landfill leachate treatment using sub-surface flow constructed wetland by Cyperus haspan.

    PubMed

    Akinbile, Christopher O; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ahmad Zuki, A Z

    2012-07-01

    Performance evaluation of pilot scale sub-surface constructed wetlands was carried out in treating leachate from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL). The constructed wetland was planted with Cyperus haspan with sand and gravel used as substrate media. The experiment was operated for three weeks retention time and during the experimentation, the influent and effluent samples were tested for its pH, turbidity, color, total suspended solid (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), Total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and also for heavy metals such as iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The results showed that the constructed wetlands with C. haspan were capable of removing 7.2-12.4% of pH, 39.3-86.6% of turbidity, 63.5-86.6% of color, 59.7-98.8% of TSS, 39.2-91.8% of COD, 60.8-78.7% of BOD(5), 29.8-53.8% of NH(3)-N, 59.8-99.7% of TP, 33.8-67.0% of TN, 34.9-59.0% of Fe, 29.0-75.0% of Mg, 51.2-70.5% of Mn, and 75.9-89.4% of Zn. The significance of removal was manifested in the quality of the effluent obtained at the end of the study. High removal efficiencies in the study proved that leachate could be treated effectively using subsurface constructed wetlands with C. haspan plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-02-01

    Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems.

  4. USING LANDFILL GAS IN FUEL CELLS - A STEP CLOSER TO COMMERICAL REALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses Phase II and Phase III results of a U.S. EPA program underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation. The program involves controlling methane emissions from landfills using a fuel cell. The fuel cell would reduce air emissions affecting global warming, aci...

  5. EPA project in California looks at using landfill gas in fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1994-12-31

    Fuel cell powerplants cleanly and efficiently convert hydrogen gas to electricity, offering a potentially cost-effective means of using biomass-derived fuel. This article discusses the potential application of fuel cells and the potential of landfill gas to be converted into fuel cells.

  6. USING LANDFILL GAS IN FUEL CELLS - A STEP CLOSER TO COMMERICAL REALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses Phase II and Phase III results of a U.S. EPA program underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation. The program involves controlling methane emissions from landfills using a fuel cell. The fuel cell would reduce air emissions affecting global warming, aci...

  7. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  8. Mobilization of iron and arsenic from soil by construction and demolition debris landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sikora, Saraya; Kim, Hwidong; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2012-05-01

    Column experiments were performed to examine (a) the potential for leachate from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills to mobilize naturally-occurring iron and arsenic from soils underlying such facilities and (b) the ability of crushed limestone to remove these aqueous phase pollutants. In duplicate columns, water was added to a 30-cm layer of synthetic C&D debris, with the resulting leachate serially passed through a 30-cm soil layer containing iron and arsenic and a 30-cm crushed limestone layer. This experiment was conducted for two different soil types (one high in iron (10,400mg/kg) and the second high in iron (5400mg/kg) and arsenic (70mg/kg)); also monitored were control columns for both soil types with water infiltration alone. Despite low iron concentrations in the simulated C&D debris leachate, elevated iron concentrations were observed when leachate passed through the soils; reductive dissolution was concluded to be the cause of iron mobilization. In the soil containing elevated arsenic, increased iron mobilization from the soil was accompanied by a similar but delayed arsenic mobilization. Since arsenic sorbs to oxidized iron soil minerals, reductive dissolution of these minerals results in arsenic mobilization. Crushed limestone significantly reduced iron (to values below the detection limit of 0.01mg/L in most cases); however, arsenic was not removed to any significant extent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of season, substrate composition, and plant growth on landfill leachate treatment in a constructed wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Surface, J.M.; Peverly, J.H.; Steenhuis, T.S.; Sanford, W.E.

    1991-12-31

    In 1989 the US, Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Tompkins County, New York Departments of Planning and Solid Waste, began a 3-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, N.Y., to test the efficiency of leachate treatment by constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: (1) Treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; (2) effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and (3) chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. This report addresses the first two of these objectives and briefly discusses the third. It (1) describes the substrate plots, leachate-distribution system, sampling methods, and analytical procedures; and (2) presents results in terms of (a) percent removal rates of selected constituents between inflow- and outflow-sampling points, (b) seasonal effects on constituent-removal rates, and (c) effect of substrate composition on constituent removal and plant growth.

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  12. Management and treatment of landfill leachate by a system of constructed wetlands and ponds in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sim, C H; Quek, B S; Shutes, R B E; Goh, K H

    2013-01-01

    Lorong Halus, Singapore's first landfill leachate treatment system, consists of a pre-treatment system (8,000 m(2)), five constructed reed beds (38,000 m(2)), five polishing ponds (13,000 m(2)), an education centre and a learning trail for visitors. Eight species of wetland plants (total 160,000 plants) were selected for their ability to uptake nutrients, tolerance to low phosphorus concentrations and resistance to pest infestations. The wetland was launched in March 2011 and water quality monitoring started in April 2011. The removal efficiencies of the pre-treatment system from April 2011 to August 2012 are biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 57.4%; chemical oxygen demand (COD) 23.6%; total suspended solids (TSS) 55.1%; ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) 76.8%; total phosphorus (TP) 33.3% and total nitrogen (TN) 60.2%. Removal efficiencies of the reed beds are BOD5 47.0%; COD 42.2%; TSS 57.0%; NH4-N 82.5%; TP 29.3% and TN 83.9%. Plant growth is generally satisfactory, but the lower than designed volume of leachate has adversely affected some sections of plants and resulted in uneven flow distribution in reed beds. The plant management programme includes improving plant regrowth by harvesting of alternate strips of plants and replanting. The treated effluent meets water quality limits for discharge to the public sewer and is subsequently treated by the NEWater treatment system, which recycles water for industrial and indirect potable use.

  13. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic landfill leachate in lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    A, Dan; Oka, Masao; Fujii, Yuta; Soda, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Machimura, Takashi; Ike, Michihiko

    2017-04-15

    Synthetic landfill leachate was treated using lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (CWs) in sequencing batch modes to assess heavy metal removal efficiencies. The CWs filled with loamy soil and pumice stone were unplanted or planted with common reed (Phragmites australis) (Reed-CW) or common rush (Juncus effusus) (Rush-CW). Synthetic leachate contained acetate, propionate, humate, ammonium, and heavy metals. Common reed grew almost vigorously but common rush partly withered during the 8-month experiment. The CWs reduced the leachate volume effectively by evapotranspiration and removed easily degradable organic matter, color, and ammonium. Furthermore, the CWs demonstrated high removal amounts for heavy metals such as Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, Fe, and Pb, but not Mn from leachate. The metal removal amounts in the CWs were low for high-strength leachate (influent concentration increased from one time to three times) or under short retention time (batch cycle shortened from 3days to 1day). The Rush-CW showed slightly lower removal amounts for Cr, Ni, Mn, and Cd, although the Reed-CW showed lower Mn removal amounts than the unplanted CW did. However, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn were highly accumulated in the upper soil layer in the planted CW by rhizofiltration with adsorption compared with unplanted CW, indicating that the emergent plants would be helpful for decreasing the dredging soil depth for the final removal of heavy metals. Although the emergent plants were minor sinks in comparison with soil, common rush had higher bioconcentration factors and translocation factors for heavy metals than common reed had. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  15. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  16. Liquid balance monitoring inside conventional, Retrofit, and bio-reactor landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Barlaz, Morton A; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary

    2013-10-01

    The Outer Loop landfill bioreactor (OLLB) in Louisville, KY, USA has been the site of a study to evaluate long-term bioreactor performance at a full-scale operational landfill. Three types of landfill units were studied including a conventional landfill (Control cell), a new landfill area that had an air addition and recirculation piping network installed as waste was being placed (As-Built cell), and a conventional landfill that was modified to allow for liquids recirculation (Retrofit cell). During the monitoring period, the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213LMg(-1) (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste), respectively. The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198LMg(-1) from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells, respectively. The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. In the Control and As-Built cells, leachate head on liner decreased once waste placement stopped. The measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from the estimate of accumulated liquid by the liquid balance. Additionally, measurements on excavated solid waste samples revealed large spatial variability in waste moisture content. The degree of saturation in the Control cells decreased from 85% to 75%. The degree of saturation increased from 82% to 83% due to liquids addition in the Retrofit cells and decreased back to 80% once liquid addition stopped. In the As-Built cells, the degree of saturation increased from 87% to 97% during filling activities and then started to decrease soon after filling activities stopped to reach 92% at the end of the monitoring period. The measured leachate generation rates were used to estimate an in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW in the range of 10(-8) to 10(-7)ms(-1) which is lower than previous reports. In the Control and Retrofit cells, the net loss in liquids, 43 and 12LMg(-1), respectively, was similar to the measured settlement of 15% and 5

  17. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but

  18. Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bessom, W.H.

    1996-11-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ``As-Built`` survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover.

  19. Release and fate of fluorocarbons in a shredder residue landfill cell: 1. Laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders M; Nedenskov, Jonas; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The shredder residues from automobiles, home appliances and other metal-containing products are often disposed in landfills, as recycling technologies for these materials are not common in many countries. Shredder waste contains rigid and soft foams from cushions and insulation panels blown with fluorocarbons. The objective of this study was to use laboratory experiments to estimate fluorocarbon release and attenuation processes in a monofill shredder residue (SR) landfill cell. Waste from the open SR landfill cell at the AV Miljø landfill in Denmark was sampled at three locations. The waste contained 1-3% metal and a relatively low fraction of rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam particles. The PUR waste contained less blowing agent (CFC-11) than predicted from a release model. However, CFC-11 was steadily released in an aerobic bench scale experiment. Anaerobic waste incubation bench tests showed that SRSR produced significant methane (CH(4)), but at rates that were in the low end of the range observed for municipal solid waste. Aerobic and anaerobic batch experiments showed that processes in SRSR potentially can attenuate the fluorocarbons released from the SRSR itself: CFC-11 is degraded under anaerobic conditions with the formation of degradation products, which are being degraded under CH(4) oxidation conditions prevailing in the upper layers of the SR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  1. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  2. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances removal in a full-scale tropical constructed wetland system treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tingru; Chen, Huiting; Reinhard, Martin; Yi, Xinzhu; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-01

    Landfill leachate is often an important source of emerging organic contaminants including perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) requiring proper treatment to protect surface water and groundwater resources. This study investigated the occurrence of PFASs in the leachate of a capped landfill site in Singapore and the efficacy of PFASs removal during flow through a constructed wetland (CW) treatment system. The CW treatment system consists of equalization tank, aeration lagoons, sedimentation tank, reed beds and polishing ponds. Target compounds included 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) (7 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs)) and 7 PFAA precursors. Although total PFASs concentrations in the leachate varied widely (1269 to 7661 ng/L) over the one-year sampling period, the PFASs composition remained relatively stable with PFCAs consistently being predominant (64.0 ± 3.8%). Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) concentrations were highly correlated with total PFASs concentrations and could be an indicator for the release of PFASs from this landfill. The release of short-chain PFAAs strongly depended on precipitation whereas concentrations of the other PFASs appeared to be controlled by partitioning. Overall, the CW treatment system removed 61% of total PFASs and 50-96% of individual PFASs. PFAAs were removed most efficiently in the reed bed (42-49%), likely due to the combination of sorption to soils and sediments and plant uptake, whereas most of the PFAA precursors (i.e. 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate (5:3 acid), N-substituted perfluorooctane sulfonamides (N-MeFOSAA and N-EtFOSAA)) were removed in the aeration lagoon (>55%) by biodegradation. The sedimentation tank and polishing ponds were relatively inefficient, with only 7% PFASs removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The removal efficiency of constructed wetlands filled with the zeolite-slag hybrid substrate for the rural landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    He, Hailing; Duan, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenqing; Yue, Bo

    2017-07-01

    The removal efficiencies of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs, down-flow (F1) and up-flow (F2)) filled with the zeolite-slag hybrid substrate for the rural landfill leachate treatment were investigated. The adsorption experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of zeolite and slag as the wetland substrate. The effects of distance variations along the longitudinal profile of wetland bed on pollutant removal were assessed by sampling at four locations (inlet, outlet, 0.55 m, and 1.10 m from the inlet). During the operation time, the influent and effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were measured. The results showed that the constructed wetlands were capable of removing COD, 20.5-48.2% (F1) and 18.6-61.2% (F2); NH3-N, 84.0-99.9% (F1) and 93.5-99.2% (F2); TN, 80.3-92.1% (F1) and 80.3-91.2% (F2); and heavy metals, about 90% (F1 and F2). The zeolite-slag hybrid substrate performed excellent removal efficiency for the nitrogen and heavy metals. The inlet area was the most active region of leachate removal. The up-flow constructed wetland (F2) has a higher removal efficiency for the PAH compounds. The significant removal efficiency illustrated that the rural landfill leachate can be treated using the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland filled with the zeolite-slag hybrid substrate.

  4. Catalytically upgraded landfill gas as a cost-effective alternative for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, W.; Lohmann, H.; Gómez, J. I. Salazar

    The potential use of landfill gas as feeding fuel for the so-called molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) imposes the need for new upgrading technologies in order to meet the much tougher feed gas specifications of this type of fuel cells in comparison to gas engines. Nevertheless, MCFC has slightly lower purity demands than low temperature fuel cells. This paper outlines the idea of a new catalytic purification process for landfill gas conditioning, which may be supposed to be more competitive than state-of-the-art technologies and summarises some lab-scale results. This catalytic process transforms harmful landfill gas minor compounds into products that can be easily removed from the gas stream by a subsequent adsorption step. The optimal process temperature was found to be in the range 250-400 °C. After a catalyst screening, two materials were identified, which have the ability to remove all harmful minor compounds from landfill gas. The first material was a commercial alumina that showed a high activity towards the removal of organic silicon compounds. The alumina protects both a subsequent catalyst for the removal of other organic minor compounds and the fuel cell. Due to gradual deactivation caused by silica deposition, the activated alumina needs to be periodically replaced. The second material was a commercial V 2O 5/TiO 2-based catalyst that exhibited a high activity for the total oxidation of a broad spectrum of other harmful organic minor compounds into a simpler compound class "acid gases (HCl, HF and SO 2)", which can be easily removed by absorption with, e.g. alkalised alumina. The encouraging results obtained allow the scale-up of this LFG conditioning process to test it under real LFG conditions.

  5. Cannock landfill gas powering a small tubular solid oxide fuel cell — a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, J.; Kendall, K.

    Cannock landfill gas — mainly a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide — can successfully power a small tubular solid oxide fuel cell. Initial experiments showed a relatively rapid falling off in power due to poisoning with hydrogen sulphide. A simple de-sulphurisation system alleviated this problem. Even greater performance was achieved by the pre-addition of air to help in the reforming of the gas, giving little loss of power over the lifetime of the experiment.

  6. Application of constructed wetlands to the treatment of leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, M K C

    2005-06-01

    Leachates are wastewater generated principally from landfills and solid waste disposal sites. Leachates emanating from municipal wastes are a major source of surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. Globally, leachates have been implicated in low yield of farm produce, developmental anomalies, low birth weights, leukemia incidence, and other cancers in communities around the site. They have also been implicated in hazards to the environment, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of water sources. At Aba-Eku in Nigeria, leachates are being discharged into the Omi Stream without treatment. A study was conducted on a method of leachate treatment that passes the leachate through constructed wetlands using Ipomoea aquatica (Forsk), a locally available plant found close to the landfill site. The aim of the study was to evolve a sustainable and cost-effective method of treatment whose effluents can be discharged into the Omi Stream with no or minimal impact. The study was descriptive and analytical in design. Samples were collected and analyzed with standard methods for pH, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, nitrate, and trace metals. Raw leachates were turbid and amber in color and contained suspended solids (197.5 mg/L), ammonia (610.9 mg/L), lead (1.64 mg/L), iron (198.10 mg/L), and manganese (23.20 mg/L). When the leachates were passed through the constructed wetland with eight hours' detention time, effluents showed significant reductions in suspended solids (81.01 percent), BOD (86.03 percent), and ammonia (97.77 percent). The study shows that a constructed wetland is a feasible tool for the treatment of leachates before their disposal into the environment in Nigeria and can help safeguard environmental quality.

  7. Liquid balance monitoring inside conventional, Retrofit, and bio-reactor landfill cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abichou, Tarek; Barlaz, Morton A.; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup −1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste). • The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup −1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells. • The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. • Measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from accumulated liquid by balance. • The in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW was calculated to be in the range of 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −7} m s{sup −1}. - Abstract: The Outer Loop landfill bioreactor (OLLB) in Louisville, KY, USA has been the site of a study to evaluate long-term bioreactor performance at a full-scale operational landfill. Three types of landfill units were studied including a conventional landfill (Control cell), a new landfill area that had an air addition and recirculation piping network installed as waste was being placed (As-Built cell), and a conventional landfill that was modified to allow for liquids recirculation (Retrofit cell). During the monitoring period, the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup −1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste), respectively. The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup −1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells, respectively. The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. In the Control and As-Built cells, leachate head on liner decreased once waste placement stopped. The measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from the estimate of accumulated liquid by the liquid balance. Additionally, measurements on excavated solid waste samples revealed large spatial variability in waste moisture content. The degree of saturation in the Control cells decreased from 85% to 75%. The degree of saturation increased from 82% to 83% due to liquids addition in the Retrofit

  8. Municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment and electricity production using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Lisa; Jambeck, Jenna R; Ringelberg, David B

    2014-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells were designed and operated to treat landfill leachate while simultaneously producing electricity. Two designs were tested in batch cycles using landfill leachate as a substrate without inoculation (908 to 3,200 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)): Circle (934 mL) and large-scale microbial fuel cells (MFC) (18.3 L). A total of seven cycles were completed for the Circle MFC and two cycles for the larger-scale MFC. Maximum power densities of 24 to 31 mW/m(2) (653 to 824 mW/m(3)) were achieved using the Circle MFC, and a maximum voltage of 635 mV was produced using the larger-scale MFC. In the Circle MFC, COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), and ammonia were removed at an average of 16%, 62%, 23%, and 20%, respectively. The larger-scale MFC achieved an average of 74% BOD removal, 27% TOC removal, and 25% ammonia reduction while operating over 52 days. Analysis of the microbial characteristics of the leachate indicates that there might be both supportive and inhibiting bacteria in landfill leachate for operation of an MFC. Issues related to scale-up and heterogeneity of a mixed substrate remain.

  9. Lancaster Landfill Solar Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Orlando

    2014-06-12

    The Town of Lancaster constructed a 500KWH Solar Array on our landfill parcel, that using other financial mechanisms in the deregulated Massachusetts Electric Market would allow the Town to obtain free electricity.

  10. Attenuation of hydrogen sulfide at construction and demolition debris landfills using alternative cover materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The attenuation of H(2)S emissions by various landfill cover materials was evaluated using both laboratory and field experiments. The results demonstrated that cover materials consisting of selected waste products (compost and yard trash) and soils amended with quicklime and calcium carbonate effectively attenuated H(2)S emissions and detectable H(2)S emissions were only encountered in a testing plot using a sandy soil cover (average emission rate was 4.67x10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1)). H(2)S concentration profiles in the cover materials indicated that H(2)S was removed as it migrated through the cover materials. At the same depth in the testing area, the H(2)S concentration in the sandy soil field plot was always higher than that of other testing plots because the sand (a) demonstrated less ability to remove H(2)S and (b) exhibited a higher H(2)S concentration at the base of the cover. Laboratory experiments confirmed these observations, with a combination of physical adsorption, chemical reactions, and biological oxidation, accounting for the enhanced removal. In addition to removal, the results suggest that some of the cover materials reduced H(2)S generation by creating less favorable conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., high pH and temperature).

  11. Cubic Unit Cell Construction Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Presents instructions for building a simple interactive unit-cell construction kit that allows for the construction of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic lattices. The lit is built from inexpensive and readily available materials and can be built in any number of sizes. (WRM)

  12. Landfill Methane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  13. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using the ZELIAC/zeolite constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Mojiri, Amin; Ziyang, Lou; Tajuddin, Ramlah Mohd; Farraji, Hossein; Alifar, Nafiseh

    2016-01-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a low-cost alternative technology to treat wastewater. This study was conducted to co-treat landfill leachate and municipal wastewater by using a CW system. Typha domingensis was transplanted to CW, which contains two substrate layers of adsorbents, namely, ZELIAC and zeolite. Response surface methodology and central composite design have been utilized to analyze experimental data. Contact time (h) and leachate-to-wastewater mixing ratio (%; v/v) were considered as independent variables. Colour, COD, ammonia, nickel, and cadmium contents were used as dependent variables. At optimum contact time (50.2 h) and leachate-to-wastewater mixing ratio (20.0%), removal efficiencies of colour, COD, ammonia, nickel, and cadmium contents were 90.3%, 86.7%, 99.2%, 86.0%, and 87.1%, respectively. The accumulation of Ni and Cd in the roots and shoots of T. domingensis was also monitored. Translocation factor (TF) was >1 in several runs; thus, Typha is classified as a hyper-accumulator plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Australia-wide assessment of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Gallen, C; Drage, D; Eaglesham, G; Grant, S; Bowman, M; Mueller, J F

    2017-06-05

    Leachate from 27 landfills was analysed for nine perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Five PFASs were detected ubiquitously, with perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) the predominant PFAS (mean 1700ng/L; range 73-25,000ng/L). Despite the complexity of landfill-specific factors, some general trends in PFAS concentrations were observed. Mean concentrations of eight PFASs were higher in operating landfills (or landfill cells) accepting primarily municipal waste, compared to closed municipal landfills. Landfills accepting primarily construction and demolition wastes produced leachate that had higher mean PFAS concentrations than municipal landfills. Younger landfills appeared to have a higher burden of waste containing PFASs (or their precursors), as significant relationships (p<0.05) were observed between selected PFAS concentrations and landfill age. Increasing pH and total organic carbon (TOC) in leachate were associated with increased concentrations of several PFASs. Eight landfills discharged leachate to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Estimated masses of PFASs discharged reached a maximum of 62g annually (PFHxA), with a national estimate reaching 31kg (PFHxA) annually. The practise of treating leachate at WWTPs allows redistribution of PFASs between the solid and liquid waste streams, although the contribution of leachate to the total load of PFASs entering WWTPs is minor compared to domestic waste water sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fermentation pre-treatment of landfill leachate for enhanced electron recovery in a microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Pre-fermentation of poorly biodegradable landfill leachate (BOD5/COD ratio of 0.32) was evaluated for enhanced current density (j), Coulombic efficiency (CE), Coulombic recovery (CR), and removal of organics (BOD5 and COD) in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). During fermentation, the complex organic matter in the leachate was transformed to simple volatile fatty acids, particularly succinate and acetate in batch tests, but mostly acetate in semi-continuous fermentation. Carbohydrate had the highest degree of fermentation, followed by protein and lipids. j, CE, CR, and BOD5 removal were much greater for an MEC fed with fermented leachate (23 A/m(3) or 16 mA/m(2), 68%, 17.3%, and 83%, respectively) compared to raw leachate (2.5 A/m(3) or 1.7 mA/m(2), 56%, 2.1%, and 5.6%, respectively). All differences support the value of pre-fermentation before an MEC for stabilization of BOD5 and enhanced electron recovery as current when treating a recalcitrant wastewater like landfill leachate.

  16. Landfill leachate treatment by an experimental subsurface flow constructed wetland in tropical climate countries.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Soedjono, E; Salim, M R; Shutes, R B

    2005-01-01

    Municipal leachate was treated in an experimental unit of constructed wetlands of subsurface flow type. The parameters studied were organics (BOD and COD), solids and heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Pb). Using two types of emergent plants of Scirpus globulosus and Eriocaulon sexangulare, more than 80% removal was achieved for all the parameters. E. sexangulare removed organics and heavy metals better than Scirpus globulosus. A higher concentration of heavy metals in the influent did not change the removal efficiency.

  17. Perpetual landfilling through aeration of the waste mass; lessons from test cells in Georgia (USA).

    PubMed

    Read, A D; Hudgins, M; Phillips, P

    2001-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices.

  18. Rapid digestion of shredded MSW by sequentially flooding and draining small landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Clarke, William P; Xie, Sihuang; Patel, Miheka

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the digestion of a packed bed of shredded municipal waste using a flood and drain regime against a control digestion of similarly prepared material using a trickle flow regime. All trials were performed on shallow (2m) beds of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, encapsulated in a polyethylene bladder. The control cell (Cell 1) was loaded with 1974 tonnes shredded municipal waste and produced 76±9m(3) CH4dryt(-1) (45±2m(3) CH4 'as received't(-1)) over 200days in response to a daily recirculation of the leachate inventory which was maintained at 60m(3). The flood and drain operation was performed on two co-located cells (Cell 2 and Cell 3) that were loaded simultaneously with 1026 and 915 tonnes of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, with a third empty cell used as a reservoir for 275m(3) of mature landfill leachate. Cell 2 was first digested in isolation by flooding and draining once per week to avoid excessive souring. Gas production from Cell 2 peaked and declined to a steady residual level in 150days. Cell 3 was flooded and drained for the first time 186days after the commencement of Cell 2, using the same inventory of leachate which was now exchanged between the cells, such that each cell was flooded and drained twice per week. Biogas production from Cell 3 commenced immediately with flooding, peaking and reducing to a residual level within 100days. The average CH4 yield from Cells 2 and 3 was 123±15m(3)dryt(-1) (92±2m(3) 'as received't(-1), equal to 95% of the long term (2month) BMP yield.

  19. Construction, lithologic, and water-level data for wells near the Dickson County landfill, Dickson County, Tennessee, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Organic compounds were detected in water samples collected from Sullivan Spring during several sampling events in 1994. Prior to this, the spring was the drinking-water source for two families in the Dickson, Tennessee area. An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Dickson County Solid Waste Management, to determine if Sullivan Spring is hydraulically downgradient from the Dickson County landfill. This report describes the data collected during the investigation. Five monitoring wells were installed near the northwestern corner of the landfill at points between the landfill and Sullivan Spring. Water-level measurements were made on June 1 and 2, 1995, at these wells and 13 other wells near the landfill to determine ground- water altitudes in the area. Water-level altitudes in the five new monitoring wells and three other landfill-monitoring wells were higher (750.04 to 800.17 feet) than the altitude of Sullivan Spring (approximately 725 feet). In general, wells in topographically high areas had higher water-level altitudes than Sullivan Spring and wells near streams in lowland areas.

  20. Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell

    SciTech Connect

    Tallec, G.; Bureau, C.; Peu, P.; Benoist, J.C.; Lemunier, M.; Budka, A.; Presse, D.; Bouchez, T.

    2009-07-15

    This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N{sub 2}O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N{sub 2}O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N{sub 2}O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N{sub 2}O releases: 8.1 {+-} 0.16 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 384), 4.2 {+-} 0.14 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 132) and 1.9 {+-} 0.10 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N{sub 2}O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N{sub 2}O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

  1. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  2. Influence of tropical seasonal variations on landfill leachate characteristics--results from lysimeter studies.

    PubMed

    Tränkler, J; Visvanathan, C; Kuruparan, P; Tubtimthai, O

    2005-01-01

    Considering the quality of design and construction of landfills in developing countries, little information can be derived from randomly taken leachate samples. Leachate generation and composition under monsoon conditions have been studied using lysimeters to simulate sanitary landfills and open cell settings. In this study, lysimeters were filled with domestic waste, highly organic market waste and pre-treated waste. Results over two subsequent dry and rainy seasons indicate that the open cell lysimeter simulation showed the highest leachate generation throughout the rainy season, with leachate flow in all lysimeters coming to a halt during the dry periods. More than 60% of the precipitation was found in the form of leachate. The specific COD and TKN load discharged from the open cell was 20% and 180% more than that of the sanitary landfill lysimeters. Types of waste material and kind of pre-treatment prior to landfilling strongly influenced the pollutant load. Compared to the sanitary landfill lysimeter filled with domestic waste, the specific COD and TKN load discharged from the pre-treated waste lysimeter accounted for only 4% and 16%, respectively. Considering the local settings of tropical landfills, these results suggest that landfill design and operation has to be adjusted. Leachate can be collected and stored during the rainy season, and recirculation of leachate is recommended to maintain a steady and even accelerated degradation during the prolonged dry season. The open cell approach in combination with leachate recirculation is suggested as an option for interim landfill operations.

  3. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G; Sanderson, R

    1998-02-01

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  4. Life-cycle-assessment of fuel-cells-based landfill-gas energy conversion technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghi, P.; Bove, R.; Desideri, U.

    Landfill-gas (LFG) is produced as result of the biological reaction of municipal solid waste (MSW). This gas contains about 50% of methane, therefore it cannot be released into the atmosphere as it is because of its greenhouse effect consequences. The high percentage of methane encouraged researchers to find solutions to recover the related energy content for electric energy production. The most common technologies used at the present time are internal combustion reciprocating engines and gas turbines. High conversion efficiency guaranteed by fuel cells (FCs) enable to enhance the energy recovery process and to reduce emissions to air, such as NO x and CO. In any case, in order to investigate the environmental advantages associated with the electric energy generation using fuel cells, it is imperative to consider the whole "life cycle" of the system, "from cradle-to-grave". In fact, fuel cells are considered to be zero-emission devices, but, for example, emissions associated with their manufacture or for hydrogen production must be considered in order to evaluate all impacts on the environment. In the present work a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system for LFG recovery is considered and a life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for an evaluation of environmental consequences and to provide a guide for further environmental impact reduction.

  5. Enhancement of landfill gas production Nanticoke landfill, Binghamton, New York. Final report, October 1983-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, G.; Leuschner, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    An examination of the effects of landfill gas production enhancement in a field-scale program is presented. The enhancement entailed the use of leachate recycling to promote more conducive environmental conditions for the anaerobic microorganisms so that they would grow more quickly and thus convert the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste to methane at a faster rate. Seven field-scale landfill test cells were constructed and monitored for two years. The major conclusion of the study is that the addition of sludge to municipal solid waste in a landfill environment has a positive effect on quickly establishing a viable anaerobic community, as a result of which methane production rates and leachate quality improve. The appendix includes data from permeability tests.

  6. Perspective of harnessing energy from landfill leachate via microbial fuel cells: novel biofuels and electrogenic physiologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Wang, Ting; Huang, Xinghua; Dolfing, Jan; Xie, Bing

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur are highly concentrated in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate, which usually frustrates conventional leachate treatment technologies from the perspective of energy costs. Therefore, the possibility of converting leachate to a new energy source via microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has been examined recently. This paper summarizes the power output and energy recovery efficiency of the leachate-fed MFCs according to different feeding patterns, cell structures, and loading rates. Also, we assess potential energy-generating chemicals in leachate like nitrogen and sulfur compounds and propose alternative pathways, which may lift strict ratios between organic carbon and nitrogen content in conventional denitrification of leachate and are expected to achieve a higher voltage than traditional organic-oxygen based cells. Although currently power output of leachate-fed MFCs is limited, it seems well possible that dynamic characteristics of MSW leachates and microbial physiologies underlying some bio-electrochemically efficient activities (e.g., direct interspecies electron transfer) could be stimulated in MFC systems to improve the present status.

  7. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    .... The pilot test consisted of the construction of two landfill cover test plots at the Lake County landfill facility. One plot used a landfill cover design with a flexible membrane liner, and the other plot...

  8. Methane Emissions from Landfill: Isotopic Evidence for Low Percentage of Oxidation from Gas Wells, Active and Closed Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; Zazzeri, Giulia; al-Shalaan, Aalia; France, James; Lanoisellé, Mathias; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    Large landfill sites remain a significant source of methane emissions in developed and developing countries, with a global estimated flux of 29 Tg / yr in the EDGAR 2008 database. This is significantly lower than 20 years ago due to the introduction of gas extraction systems, but active cells still emit significant amounts of methane before the gas is ready for extraction. Historically the methane was either passively oxidized through topsoil layers or flared. Oxidation is still the primary method of methane removal in many countries, and covered, remediated cells across the world continue to emit small quantities of methane. The isotopic signatures of methane from landfill gas wells, and that emitted from active and closed cells have been characterized for more than 20 UK landfills since 2011, with more recent work in Kuwait and Hong Kong. Since 2013 the emission plumes have been identified by a mobile measurement system (Zazzeri et al., 2015). Emissions in all 3 countries have a characteristic δ13C signature of -58 ± 3 ‰ dominated by emissions from the active cells, despite the hot, dry conditions of Kuwait and the hot, humid conditions of Hong Kong. Gas well samples define a similar range. Surface emissions from closed cells and closed landfills are mostly in the range -56 to -52 ‰Ṫhese are much more depleted values than those observed in the 1990s (up to -35 ) when soil oxidation was the dominant mechanism of methane removal. Calculations using isotopic signatures of the amount of methane oxidised in these closed areas before emission to atmosphere range from 5 to 15%, but average less than 10%, and are too small to calculate from the high-emitting active cells. Compared to other major methane sources, landfills have the most consistent isotopic signature globally, and are distinct from the more 13C-enriched natural gas, combustion and biomass burning sources. Zazzeri, G. et al. (2015) Plume mapping and isotopic characterization of anthropogenic methane

  9. Electricity generation from young landfill leachate in a microbial fuel cell with a new electrode material.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Bestamin; Cetinkaya, Afşin Yusuf; Cakmakci, Mehmet; Karadağ, Doğan; Sahinkaya, Erkan

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of a two-chambered continuously fed microbial fuel cell with new Ti-TiO₂ electrodes for bioelectricity generation from young landfill leachate at varying strength of wastewater (1-50 COD g/L) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 0.25-2 days). The COD removal efficiency in the MFC increased with time and reached 45 % at full-strength leachate (50 g/L COD) feeding. The current generation increased with increasing leachate strength and decreasing HRT up to organic loading rate of 100 g COD/L/day. The maximum current density throughout the study was 11 A/m² at HRT of 0.5 day and organic loading rate of 67 g COD/L/day. Coulombic efficiency (CE) decreased from 57 % at feed COD concentration of 1 g/L to less than 1 % when feed COD concentration was 50 g/L. Increase in OLR resulted in increase in power output but decrease in CE.

  10. Landfill leachate treatment with microbial fuel cells; scale-up through plurality.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Antonia; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2009-11-01

    Three Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) were fluidically connected in series, with a single feed-line going into the 1st column through the 2nd column and finally as a single outflow coming from the 3rd column. Provision was also made for re-circulation in a loop (the outflow from the 3rd column becoming the feed-line into the 1st column) in order to extend the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on treatment of landfill leachate. The effect of increasing the electrode surface area was also studied whilst the columns were (fluidically) connected in series. An increase in the electrode surface area from 360 to 1080 cm(2) increased the power output by 118% for C2, 151% for C3 and 264% for C1. COD and BOD(5) removal efficiencies also increased by 137% for C1, 279% for C2 and 182% for C3 and 63% for C1, 161% for C2 and 159% for C3, respectively. The system when configured into a loop was able to remove 79% of COD and 82% of BOD(5) after 4 days. These high levels of removal efficiency demonstrate the MFC system's ability to treat leachate with the added benefit of generating energy.

  11. Landfill gas production from large landfill simulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.W.; Larson, R.J.; Malone, P.G.

    1984-08-01

    Two sizes of landfill simulators or test cells; one set containing approximately 320 kg wet weight of municipal solid wastes (MSW) and the other set containing 2555 kg wet weight of MSW were used to measure the amount and composition of gases produced from MSW under typical landfill conditions. The relative amounts and gas compositions follow those reported by other investigators. This study demonstrates that the conditions present in the average MSW landfill are not ideal for maximum production of methane; but large quantities of methane can, nevertheless, be produced over the active decomposition period of landfilled MSW. Further studies on the effects of environmental and microbial nutritional factors on methane production in landfilled MSW are recommended.

  12. Electric power generation using a phosphoric acid cell on a municipal solid waste landfill gas stream. Technology verification report, November 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Masemore, S.; Piccot, S.

    1998-08-01

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phosphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Performance data were collected at two sites determined to be representative of the U.S. landfill market. The Penrose facility, in Los Angeles, CA, was the first test site. The landfill gas at this site represented waste gas recovery from four nearby landfills, consisting primarily of industrial waste material. It produced approximately 3000 scf of gas/minute, and had a higher heating value of 446 Btu/scf at about 44% methane concentration. The second test site, in Groton, CT, was a relatively small landfill, but with greater heat content gas (methane levels were about 57% and the average heating value was 585 Btu/scf). The verification test addressed contaminant removal efficiency, flare destruction efficiency, and the operational capability of the cleanup system, and the power production capability of the fuel cell system.

  13. Municipal landfill leachate management

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, T.; Willson, R.; Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

  14. Proceedings from the GRCDA 9th international landfill gas symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on methane recovery from sanitary landfills. Topics considered at the conference included hazardous wastes, gaseous wastes, emission, pollution regulations, landfill testing, ambient air monitoring, landfill gas control, methane collection system operation and maintenance, estimating landfill gas yields, the production of high BTU gas, medium BTU gas, the pressure swing MDEA process, landfill gas power conversion, and methane fuel cells.

  15. Public health assessment for Clarke Road Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, Region 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-21

    The Burke County Clarke Road Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL) opened in 1975 and is still in operation. This landfill has two areas which accept waste, one cell for municipal and the other for construction and demolition waste. The Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD) and the consultant for Burke County, Tribble and Richardson, Inc. (T and R) collected drinking-water well samples on May 12, 1997, at seven residences in the vicinity of the landfill. EPD asked the Georgia Division of Public Health (GDPH) to conduct a public health investigation at the Clarke Road MSWL in Waynesboro, Georgia. EPD is concerned about possible adverse health effects caused by past, present, and future exposure to environmental contamination from the landfill. GDPH classifies this site as no apparent public health hazard. Discussions of exposure pathways, specific contaminants, and conclusions about the risk posed to residents near the landfill are included in this document.

  16. Method of constructing an improved electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry

    1984-10-09

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  17. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  18. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Line K; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m(3) were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation. The construction of the landfill is only a significant contributor to the impact of resource depletion owing to the high use of gravel and steel.

  19. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, S.A. . E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. . E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. . E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

    2007-07-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

  20. Cell wall construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Klis, Frans M; Boorsma, Andre; De Groot, Piet W J

    2006-02-01

    In this review, we discuss new insights in cell wall architecture and cell wall construction in the ascomycetous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transcriptional profiling studies combined with biochemical work have provided ample evidence that the cell wall is a highly adaptable organelle. In particular, the protein population that is anchored to the stress-bearing polysaccharides of the cell wall, and forms the interface with the outside world, is highly diverse. This diversity is believed to play an important role in adaptation of the cell to environmental conditions, in growth mode and in survival. Cell wall construction is tightly controlled and strictly coordinated with progression of the cell cycle. This is reflected in the usage of specific cell wall proteins during consecutive phases of the cell cycle and in the recent discovery of a cell wall integrity checkpoint. When the cell is challenged with stress conditions that affect the cell wall, a specific transcriptional response is observed that includes the general stress response, the cell wall integrity pathway and the calcineurin pathway. This salvage mechanism includes increased expression of putative cell wall assemblases and some potential cross-linking cell wall proteins, and crucial changes in cell wall architecture. We discuss some more enzymes involved in cell wall construction and also potential inhibitors of these enzymes. Finally, we use both biochemical and genomic data to infer that the architectural principles used by S. cerevisiae to build its cell wall are also used by many other ascomycetous yeasts and also by some mycelial ascomycetous fungi.

  1. Beneficial application of landfill mining Millersville Landfill, Anne Arundel County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Vanetti, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Several studies and investigations have been completed for the Millersville Sanitary Landfill in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The studies and reports range from detailed hydrogeologic investigations through review of closure alternatives for the individual refuse disposal cells located at the landfill. As a result of the evaluations and studies, one recommendation that was put before Anne Arundel County is the excavation and relocation of refuse from Cell 3 to: (1) create an infiltration basin; and (2) reduce the overall refuse footprint at the site, resulting in reduce long term environmental impacts and closure costs. Subsequent to this recommendation, several preliminary reviews have been held between Anne Arundel County, regulatory agencies and their consultants, Stearns & Wheler. These discussions indicated that it would be feasible, and the concept acceptable, to relocate the refuse in Cell 3 to ultimately create an infiltration basin. Subsequent to the preliminary meetings, a project plan and construction Contract Documents and Drawings were developed by Stearns & Wheler. The Project Plan was submitted to the State regulatory agencies (Maryland and Department of Environment (MDE) and Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR)), Millersville Landfill Citizen`s Advisory Committee, and Anne Arundel County (Department of public Works (DPW), Permit Acquisition and Code Enforcement (PACE) and Soil Conservation District (SCD)) for review and comment prior to undertaking the relocation of refuse in Cell 3.

  2. Evaluation of landfill gas production and emissions in a MSW large-scale Experimental Cell in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Felipe Jucá; Jucá, José Fernando Thomé

    2011-05-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are an important environmental concern in Brazil due to the existence of several uncontrolled disposal sites. A program of laboratory and field tests was conducted to investigate gas generation in and emission from an Experimental Cell with a 36,659-ton capacity in Recife/PE - Brazil. This investigation involved waste characterisation, gas production and emission monitoring, and geotechnical and biological evaluations and was performed using three types of final cover layers. The results obtained in this study showed that waste decomposes 4-5 times faster in a tropical wet climate than predicted by traditional first-order models using default parameters. This fact must be included when considering the techniques and economics of projects developed in tropical climate countries. The design of the final cover layer and its geotechnical and biological behaviour proved to have an important role in minimising gas emissions to the atmosphere. Capillary and methanotrophic final cover layers presented lower CH(4) flux rates than the conventional layer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Demonstration of landfill gas-enhancement techniques in landfill simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.; Vogt, G.; DiPuccio; Kinman, R.; Rickabaugh, J.

    1982-09-01

    Sixteen landfill test cells (lysimeters) were constructed, each to hold approximately 0.80 m/sup 3/ (1 yd/sup 3/) of shredded refuse. The lysimeters were located above ground on a concrete slab in an enclosed, temperature-controlled room. The purpose of the project was to evaluate environmental variables that have been proposed to enhance methane production. The four variables investigated were accelerated moisture addition, leachate recirculation, pH control/buffer addition, and nutrient addition. Domestic municipal refuse was shredded to a particle size of 38 to 64 mm, mixed with dry chemical additives in selected cells, and compacted. The dry chemical additives included ammonium phosphate (added as nutrient) and calcium carbonate (added as buffer). Variable quantities of infiltration water were added tp different cells each month to identify the gas-enhancement value of accelerated moisture addition. Leachate removed each month was recirculated into selected lysimeters to identify the value of this technique in the sense of adding moisture and retaining nutrients. Results indicate that significant amounts of methane were generated in the majority of the test cells. Methane production was greatest in the leachate-recycle cells, and low in most nonrecycle cells, regardless of variables such as buffer addition, nutrient addition, or high infiltration. No significant differences in methane generation were observed between the recycle cells with either nutrient or buffer additives. After 2 years, methane levels were lower than the expected range of 40 to 60%.

  4. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-04-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  5. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  6. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  7. Geosynthetics conquer the landfill law

    SciTech Connect

    Derian, L.; Gharios, K.M. . Solid Waste Management Div.); Kavazanjian, E. Jr.; Snow, M.S. )

    1993-12-01

    Los Angeles' last operating landfill is undergoing a 4 million m[sup 3] expansion using innovative materials in the liner system to overcome difficult site conditions. The design represents the first approved alternative in California -- and perhaps in the nation -- to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act's Subtitle D regulations for liner systems. This article examines the regulatory journey that led to approval and the liner's design and construction. Steep slopes at Los Angeles' only operating municipal solid-waste landfill (MSW) forced designers to use an innovative geosynthetic liner and leachate collection system. Its use sets a precedent for alternatives to the prescriptive regulations for liner systems present in Subtitle D of the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). To provide uninterrupted service at the landfill, design and construction proceeded concurrently with regulatory approval.

  8. Monitoring fugitive CH4 and CO2 emissions from a closed landfill at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Tompkins, Mitchell R. K.; Turtle, Lara A. K.; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Rodrígez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Solid waste must be managed systematically to ensure environmental best practices. One of the ways to manage this huge problem is to systematic dispose waste materials in locations such as landfills. However, landfills could face possible threats to the environment such as groundwater pollution and the release of landfill gases (CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) to the atmosphere. These structures should be carefully filled, monitored and maintained while they are active and for up to 30 years after they are closed. Even after years of being closed, a systematically amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through its surface in a diffuse and fugitive form. During the period 1999-2016, we have studied the spatial-temporal distribution of the surface fugitive emission of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere in a cell in the Arico's municipal landfill (0.3 km2) at Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This cell was operative until 2004, when it was filled and closed. Monitoring these diffuse landfill emissions provides information of how the closed landfill is degassing. To do so, we have performed 9 gas emission surveys during the period 1999-2016. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at around 450 sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases taken in the chamber were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. CH4 efflux measurements were computed combining CO2 efflux measurements and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. In general, a decrease in the CO2 emission is observed since the cell was closed (2004) to the present. The total CO2 and CH4 diffuse emissions estimated in the 2016 survey were 4.54 ± 0.14 t d-1 and 268.65 ± 17.99 t d-1, respectively

  9. Landfills in karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.H. ); Memon, B.A.; LaMoreaux, P.E. )

    1994-06-01

    State and Federal regulations have established restrictions for location of hazardous waste and municipal, solid waste landfills. Regulations require owners/operators to demonstrate that the hydrogeology has been completely characterized at proposed landfills, and that locations for monitoring wells have been properly selected. Owners/operators are also required to demonstrate that engineering measures have been incorporated in the design of the municipal solid waste landfills, so that the site is not subject to destabilizing events, as a result of location in unstable areas, such as karst terrains. Karst terrains are typically underlain by limestone or dolomite, and may contain a broad continuum of karst features and karst activity. Preliminary investigation of candidate sites will allow ranking of the sites, rejection of some unsuitable sites, and selection of a few sites for additional studies. The complexity of hydrogeologic systems, in karst terrains, mandates thorough hydrogeologic studies to determine whether a specific site is, or can be rendered, suitable for a land disposal facility. Important components of hydrogeologic studies are: field mapping of structural and stratigraphic units; interpretation of sequential aerial photographs; test drilling and geophysical analyses; fracture analyses; seasonal variation in water-levels; spatial variation of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and aquiclude; velocity and direction of movement of ground water within aquifers; determination of control for recharge, discharge, and local base level; and evaluation of the effects of man's activities, such as pumping, dewatering and construction.

  10. Cleaner Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  11. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  12. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  13. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  14. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  15. 40 CFR 270.21 - Specific part B information requirements for landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... each landfill or landfill cell; (b) Detailed plans and an engineering report describing how the... engineering report describing the final cover which will be applied to each landfill or landfill cell at... provided by § 264.301(b) of this chapter, submit detailed plans, and engineering and hydrogeological...

  16. Data Gap Analysis and Damage Case Studies: Risk Analyses from Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills and Recycling Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an evaluation of construction and demolition (C&D) debris management in the US to update and expand upon the previous set of data to include information on more recent cases of damage and potential impacts and expand the breadth of damages beyond groundwater a...

  17. Data Gap Analysis and Damage Case Studies: Risk Analyses from Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills and Recycling Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an evaluation of construction and demolition (C&D) debris management in the US to update and expand upon the previous set of data to include information on more recent cases of damage and potential impacts and expand the breadth of damages beyond groundwater a...

  18. The Cell as the First Niche Construction

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Niche construction nominally describes how organisms can form their own environments, increasing their capacity to adapt to their surroundings. It is hypothesized that the formation of the first cell as ‘internal’ Niche Construction was the foundation for life, and that subsequent niche constructions were iterative exaptations of that event. The first instantation of niche construction has been faithfully adhered to by returning to the unicellular state, suggesting that the life cycle is zygote to zygote, not adult to adult as is commonly held. The consequent interactions between niche construction and epigenetic inheritance provide a highly robust, interactive, mechanistic way of thinking about evolution being determined by initial conditions rather than merely by chance mutation and selection. This novel perspective offers an opportunity to reappraise the processes involved in evolution mechanistically, allowing for scientifically testable hypotheses rather than relying on metaphors, dogma, teleology and tautology. PMID:27136594

  19. The Cell as the First Niche Construction.

    PubMed

    Torday, John S

    2016-04-28

    Niche construction nominally describes how organisms can form their own environments, increasing their capacity to adapt to their surroundings. It is hypothesized that the formation of the first cell as 'internal' Niche Construction was the foundation for life, and that subsequent niche constructions were iterative exaptations of that event. The first instantation of niche construction has been faithfully adhered to by returning to the unicellular state, suggesting that the life cycle is zygote to zygote, not adult to adult as is commonly held. The consequent interactions between niche construction and epigenetic inheritance provide a highly robust, interactive, mechanistic way of thinking about evolution being determined by initial conditions rather than merely by chance mutation and selection. This novel perspective offers an opportunity to reappraise the processes involved in evolution mechanistically, allowing for scientifically testable hypotheses rather than relying on metaphors, dogma, teleology and tautology.

  20. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    PubMed

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  1. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources.

  2. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    elimination of methane production and acceleration of waste decomposition. In the first phase of this project a 12-acre module that contains a 9.5-acre anaerobic cell and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell has been constructed and filled with over 220,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Water and leachate addition began in April 2002 and to date less than 200,000 gallons of liquid has been added to the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell. The waste filling phase of the aerobic cell was completed in June of 2002 and a 12-inches soil cover and 12-inches of greenwaste compost cover was placed on top of the cell. A vacuum will be applied to the piping within the waste to draw air through the landfill. Instrumentations have been installed to monitor the following parameters: waste temperature, moisture, leachate volumes, leachate hydraulic head over the primary liner, leachate composition, gas volumes and composition. A supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed to monitor and control the operation of the bioreactor cells. Waste samples were taken from each cell for laboratory testing in early June 2002.

  3. Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, M. A.; Mattson, E.; Ankeny, M.; Kelsey, J.

    2005-05-01

    The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill covers indicate that vegetation-free areas are not uncommon at municipal waste landfills. Data from soil profiles beneath these areas suggest that anaerobic conditions in the plant-rooting zone are controlling plant distribution. On the same landfill, aerobic conditions exist at similar depths beneath well-vegetated areas. The movement of methane and carbon dioxide, generated by degradation of organic wastes, into the overlying soil cover displaces oxygen in the root zone. Monitoring data from landfills in semi-arid areas indicate that barometric pumping can result in hours of anaerobic conditions in the root zone. Microbial consumption of oxygen in the root zone reduces the amount of oxygen available for plant root respiration but consumption of oxygen and methane also produce water as a reaction byproduct. This biogenic water production can be on the order of centimeters of water per year which, while increasing water availability, also has a negative feedback on transport of landfill gases through the cover. Accounting for these processes can improve evapotranspirative landfill cover design at other sites.

  4. Removal of phenol, bisphenol A, and 4-tert-butylphenol from synthetic landfill leachate by vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    A, Dan; Fujii, Daiki; Soda, Satoshi; Machimura, Takashi; Ike, Michihiko

    2017-02-01

    Lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to remove phenol, bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) from synthetic young and old leachate. Removal percentages of phenolic compounds from the CWs were in the following order: phenol (88-100%)>4-t-BP (18-100%)≥BPA (9-99%). In all CWs, phenol was removed almost completely from leachate. Results show that BPA and 4-t-BP were removed more efficiently from CWs planted with Phragmites australis than from unplanted CWs, from old leachate containing lower amounts of acetate and propionate as easily degradable carbon sources than from young leachate, and in the dry season mode with long retention time than in the wet season mode with short retention time. Adsorption by initial removal and subsequent biodegradation processes might be major removal processes for these phenolic compounds. The presence of plant is beneficial for enrichment of BPA-degrading and 4-t-BP-degrading bacteria and for the carbon source utilization potential of microbes in CWs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

    2006-08-29

    A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor

  6. Niche construction game cancer cells play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Aviv; Gligorijevic, Bojana

    2015-10-01

    Niche construction concept was originally defined in evolutionary biology as the continuous interplay between natural selection via environmental conditions and the modification of these conditions by the organism itself. Processes unraveling during cancer metastasis include construction of niches, which cancer cells use towards more efficient survival, transport into new environments and preparation of the remote sites for their arrival. Many elegant experiments were done lately illustrating, for example, the premetastatic niche construction, but there is practically no mathematical modeling done which would apply the niche construction framework. To create models useful for understanding niche construction role in cancer progression, we argue that a) genetic, b) phenotypic and c) ecological levels are to be included. While the model proposed here is phenomenological in its current form, it can be converted into a predictive outcome model via experimental measurement of the model parameters. Here we give an overview of an experimentally formulated problem in cancer metastasis and propose how niche construction framework can be utilized and broadened to model it. Other life science disciplines, such as host-parasite coevolution, may also benefit from niche construction framework adaptation, to satisfy growing need for theoretical considerations of data collected by experimental biology.

  7. Landfill Gas Energy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes how local governments and communities can achieve energy, environmental, health, and economic benefits by using landfill gas (LFG) recovered from municipal solid waste landfills as a source of renewable energy.

  8. Landfill Gas Energy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes how local governments and communities can achieve energy, environmental, health, and economic benefits by using landfill gas (LFG) recovered from municipal solid waste landfills as a source of renewable energy.

  9. Learning from Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)

  10. Learning from Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)

  11. Designing systems for landfill gas migration control in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, J.

    1996-11-01

    Camp, Dresser & McKee (CDM) has designed or is in the process of designing several landfill gas migration control systems in Minnesota. The systems are for both active and closed municipal solid waste landfills. The sites have a variety of covers, including geomembranes, clay caps, and non-engineered soil covers. The control system types include small perimeter systems, full-site systems and phased systems for active sites. Figure 1 shows the locations of the systems CDM is working on in Minnesota. This paper focuses on four sites: Oak Grove Landfill, Hopkins Landfill, Washington County Landfill, and Elk River Landfill. Table 1 provides an outline of the individual site characteristics. The first three sites are closed landfills. The Oak Grove Landfill system was designed and constructed for a group of industries responsible for closure and remedial action. The Hopkins and Washington County landfills are under the control of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The MPCA enacted a remedial action program at closed landfills, taking over responsibility for long-term liability under the terms of legally binding agreements negotiated with the site owners. The Elk River Landfill is an active, privately-owned facility. The migration problems and solutions developed for these four landfills are generally descriptive of all the landfills CDM is working on in Minnesota. All landfills have unique characteristics requiring site-specific solutions. CDM, after designing a number of migration control systems in Minnesota, is able to provide a generalized description of design options for specific types of sites. This paper discussions design options used to address different cover types, aesthetic needs, and waste depths, and includes a discussion of design needs for cold climates. A brief case history of the Oak Grove Landfill is included.

  12. [Performance of microbial fuel cells with Fe/C catalyst carbon felt air-cathode for treating landfill leachate].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu-Lan; Peng, Man; Yu, Yan; He, Ya-Ting; Fu, Jin-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Ferric nitrate/activated carbon powder catalyst was obtained through impregnation and Fe/C catalyst was adsorbed on carbon felt as air cathode electrodes. Effects of activated carbon powder dosage and ferric nitrate concentration on electricity generation of MFC with landfill leachate as fuel were measured. Performances of cathodes obtained at different ferric nitrate concentrations were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry tests. The results showed that with the increase of activated carbon powder dosage or the iron nitrate concentration, MFC produce electrical properties showed a decreasing trend after the first rise. When the activated carbon powder dosage was 1 g and the iron nitrate concentration was 0.25 mol x L(-1), it was proved to be an optimum cell performance for 4199.8 mW x m(-3) output power and 465 omega apparent resistance. Under the optimal ratio rang between ferric nitrate and activated carbon powder, MFC apparent resistance decreased and the power density increased respectively with the increase of catalyst total dosage. The best produce electrical properties of MFC with Fe/C catalyst for 0.25 mol x L(-1) iron nitrate and 1 g activated carbon powder dosage was observed by cyclic voltammetry tests. The output power of MFC and the removal quantity increased with the concentration of inlet and the maximum values were respectively 5478.92 mW x m(-3) and 1505.2 mg x L(-1). the maximum removal rates of COD achieved at 89.1%.

  13. Recovery of nitrogen and water from landfill leachate by a microbial electrolysis cell-forward osmosis system.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mohan; Molitor, Hannah; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)-forward osmosis (FO) system was previously reported for recovering ammonium and water from synthetic solutions, and here it has been advanced with treating landfill leachate. In the MEC, 65.7±9.1% of ammonium could be recovered in the presence of cathode aeration. Without aeration, the MEC could remove 54.1±10.9% of ammonium from the leachate, but little ammonia was recovered. With 2M NH4HCO3 as the draw solution, the FO process achieved 51% water recovery from the MEC anode effluent in 3.5-h operation, higher than that from the raw leachate. The recovered ammonia was used as a draw solute in the FO for successful water recovery from the treated leachate. Despite the challenges with treating returning solution from the FO, this MEC-FO system has demonstrated the potential for resource recovery from wastes, and provide a new solution for sustainable leachate management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An assessment of bioreactor landfill costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Reinhart, Debra R; Batarseh, Eyad S

    2009-05-01

    Because effective operation of bioreactor landfills involves careful operation and construction of infrastructure beyond that necessary in traditional landfills, upfront capital and operating costs are greater than those associated with traditional landfills. Prior to investing in bioreactor landfills, landfill owners must be convinced that larger short-term expenses (e.g., liquid and/or air injection infrastructure) will be balanced by future economic benefits (e.g., extension of landfill life, reduced leachate treatment costs, etc.). The purpose of this paper is to describe an economic model developed to evaluate the impact of various operational (anaerobic, aerobic, or hybrid) and construction (retrofit and as-built) bioreactor landfill strategies on project economics. Model results indicate retrofit bioreactor landfills are more expensive than traditional landfills, while both the as-built and aerobic bioreactor landfills are less costly. Simulation results indicate the parameters that influence bioreactor economics most significantly are airspace recovery, gas recovery and subsequent use to generate electricity, and savings resulting from reduced leachate treatment costs.

  15. Advanced coal technology by-products: Long-term results from landfill test cells and their implications for reuse or disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.; Harness, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    New air pollution regulations under the 1991 Clean Air Act and other legislation are motivating continued development and implementation, of cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electrical power. These clean coal processes produce solid by-products which differ in important respects from conventional pulverized coal combustion ash. Clean coal by-products` contain both residual sorbent and captured SO{sub 2} control products, as well as the mineral component of the coal. The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center has contracted Radian Corporation to construct and monitor landfill test cells with a several different advanced coal combustion by-products at three locations around the US; data from these sites provide a unique picture of the long-term field behavior of clean coal combustion by-products. The field testing sites were located in western Colorado, northern Ohio, and central Illinois. Fluidized bed combustion and lime injection residues are characterized by high lime and calcium sulfate contents` contributed by reacted and unreacted sorbent materials, and produce an leachate, when wetted. Compared with conventional coal fly ash, the clean coal technology ashes have been noted for potential difficulties when wetted, including corrosivity, heat generation, cementation, and swelling on hydration. On the other hand, the high lime content and chemical reactivity of clean coal residues offer potential benefits in reuse as a cementitious material.The results of three years of data collection suggest a fairly consistent pattern of behavior for the calcium-based dry sorbent systems involved in the project, despite differences in the initial of the by-products, differences in the methods of placement, and differences in climate at the test sites.

  16. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  17. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-02-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  18. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-01-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  19. Landfills in New York City: 1844--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.C.; LaFleur, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Historic topographic maps are reviewed to locate landfills constructed within New York City during four time intervals between 1844 and 1994. A total of 184.75 km{sup 2} (45,650 acres) of landfill are identified (approximately 20% of the study area). Data are not available to determine the fill composition at most sites but literature sources indicate that municipal solid waste (MSW) has been an important source of fill since at least 1891. Qualitative temporal trends in the spatial distribution of landfills and the composition and thickness of MSW landfills are observed. The oldest landfills are clustered in the vicinity of the early urban center (southern New York County) but expand in spatial distribution after the turn of this century. Logs of borings through 10 MSW landfills show that waste landfills built prior to the mid-1950s contain abundant ash (coal ash is common in the oldest landfills) and are relatively thin (3--7 m) with no topographic mounding. In MSW landfills built since that time, uncombusted organic matter is abundant, thicknesses increase greatly (16--27 m), and pronounced topographic mounding is observed. Most landfills identified in this study were built on tidal wetlands. Fine-grained wetland deposits underlying the landfills and close proximity to large surface-water bodies favor lateral transport of leachate from MSW landfills in shallow ground water and local discharge to surface water. The wide distribution of historic landfills and common use of MSW for fill indicates that these sites should be considered in investigations of ground water, surface water, and sediment quality in New York City and other urban areas where extensive historic landfilling has occurred.

  20. Landfill bioreactor design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.

    1998-12-31

    Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

  1. Case study of landfill reclamation at a Florida landfill site.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Johnson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A landfill reclamation project was considered to recover landfill airspace and soil, reduce future groundwater impacts by removing the waste buried in the unlined area, and optimize airspace use at the site. A phased approach was utilized to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the reclamation project; based on the results of these evaluations, approximately 6.8 ha of the unlined cells were reclaimed. Approximately 371,000 in-place cubic meters of waste was mined from 6.8 ha in this project. Approximately 230,600 cubic meters of net airspace was recovered due to beneficial use of the recovered final cover soil and reclaimed soil as intermediate and daily cover soil, respectively, for the current landfill operations. This paper presents the researchers' landfill reclamation project experience, including a summary of activities pertaining to reclamation operations, an estimation of reclamation rates achieved during the project, project costs and benefits, and estimated composition of the reclaimed materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, R; De Araujos Morais, J; Carre, J; Bayard, R; Chovelon, J M; Gourdon, R

    2011-11-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  3. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  4. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates.

  5. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  8. Assessment of methane generation, oxidation, and emission in a subtropical landfill test cell.

    PubMed

    Moreira, João M L; Candiani, Giovano

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents results of a methane balance assessment in a test cell built in a region with a subtropical climate near São Paulo, Brazil. Measurements and calculations were carried out to obtain the total methane emission to the atmosphere, the methane oxidation rate in the cover, and the total methane generation rate in the test cell. The oxidation rate was obtained through a calculation scheme based on a vertical one-dimensional methane transport in the cover region. The measured maximum and mean methane fluxes to the atmosphere were 124.4 and 15.87 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. The total methane generation rate obtained for the test cell was 0.0380 ± 0.0075 mol s(-1). The results yielded that 69 % of the emitted methane occurred through the central well and 31 % through the cover interface with the atmosphere. The evaluations of the methane oxidation fraction for localized conditions in the lateral embankment of the test cell yielded 0.36 ± 0.11, while for the whole test cell yielded 0.15 ± 0.10. These results conciliate localized and overall evaluations reported in the literature. The specific methane generation rate obtained for the municipal solid waste with an age of 410 days was 317 ± 62 mol year(-1) ton(-1). This result from the subtropical São Paulo region is lower than reported figures for tropical climates and higher than reported figures for temperate climates.

  9. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  10. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  11. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  12. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  13. Transpiration as landfill leachate phytotoxicity indicator.

    PubMed

    Białowiec, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    An important aspect of constructed wetlands design for landfill leachate treatment is the assessment of landfill leachate phytotoxicity. Intravital methods of plants response observation are required both for lab scale toxicity testing and field examination of plants state. The study examined the toxic influence of two types of landfill leachate from landfill in Zakurzewo (L1) and landfill in Wola Pawłowska (L2) on five plant species: reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud, manna grass Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla, sweet flag Acorus calamus L., and miscanthus Miscanthus floridulus (Labill) Warb. Transpiration measurement was used as indicator of plants response. The lowest effective concentration causing the toxic effect (LOEC) for each leachate type and plant species was estimated. Plants with the highest resistance to toxic factors found in landfill leachate were: sweet flag, bulrush, and reed. The LOEC values for these plants were, respectively, 17%, 16%, 9% in case of leachate L1 and 21%, 18%, 14% in case of L2. Leachate L1 was more toxic than L2 due to a higher pH value under similar ammonia nitrogen content, i.e. pH 8.74 vs. pH 8.00.

  14. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, D.; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Toshinori

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste material exhibits heterogeneous engineering properties that vary over locations and time within a landfill. These factors, combined with the fact that a landfill is not fully saturated, render a traditional soil mechanics approach less attractive for settlement prediction. An empirical approach of expressing settlement rate using logarithmic and power relationships is commonly used in conjunction with an observational procedure. In this paper, validity of these functions is reexamined based on published settlement results from three landfill sites. A hyperbolic function is proposed as an improved tool to simulate the settlement-time relationships, as well as to detect final settlement. The relationships between the parameters of these empirical functions and water content are examined.

  15. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.; Bostick, K.V.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ``low-permeability`` cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration.

  16. Self-powered denitration of landfill leachate through ammonia/nitrate coupled redox fuel cell reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Feng, Daolun; Liu, Zhanmeng; Wu, Zucheng

    2016-03-01

    In order to explore the feasibility of energy-free denitrifying N-rich wastewater, a self-powered device was uniquely assembled, in which ammonia/nitrate coupled redox fuel cell (CRFC) reactor was served as removing nitrogen and harvesting electric energy simultaneously. Ammonia is oxidized at anodic compartment and nitrate is reduced at cathodic compartment spontaneously by electrocatalysis. In 7.14 mM ammonia+0.2M KOH anolyte and 4.29 mM KNO3+0.1M H2SO4 catholyte, the nitrate removal efficiency was 46.9% after 18 h. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 170 mW m(-2) was achieved when applying Pd/C cathode. When NH4Cl/nitrate and ammonia/nitrite CRFCs were tested, 26.2% N-NH4Cl and 91.4% N-NO2(-) were removed respectively. Nitrogen removal efficiency for real leachate at the same initial NH3-N concentration is 22.9% and nitrification of ammonia in leachate can be used as nitrate source. This work demonstrated a new way for N-rich wastewater remediation with electricity generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitigation of methane emission from an old unlined landfill in Klintholm, Denmark using a passive biocover system

    SciTech Connect

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Rasmus Broe; Petersen, Per Haugsted; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • An innovative biocover system was constructed on a landfill cell to mitigate the methane emission. • The biocover system had a mitigation efficiently of typically 80%. • The system also worked efficiently at ambient temperatures below freezing. • A whole landfill emission measurement tool was required to document the biocover system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane generated at landfills contributes to global warming and can be mitigated by biocover systems relying on microbial methane oxidation. As part of a closure plan for an old unlined landfill without any gas management measures, an innovative biocover system was established. The system was designed based on a conceptual model of the gas emission patterns established through an initial baseline study. The study included construction of gas collection trenches along the slopes of the landfill where the majority of the methane emissions occurred. Local compost materials were tested as to their usefulness as bioactive methane oxidizing material and a suitable compost mixture was selected. Whole site methane emission quantifications based on combined tracer release and downwind measurements in combination with several local experimental activities (gas composition within biocover layers, flux chamber based emission measurements and logging of compost temperatures) proved that the biocover system had an average mitigation efficiency of approximately 80%. The study showed that the system also had a high efficiency during winter periods with temperatures below freezing. An economic analysis indicated that the mitigation costs of the biocover system were competitive to other existing greenhouse gas mitigation options.

  18. Mining landfills for recyclables

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.

    1991-02-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) began a landfill reclamation experiment in Edinburgh, NY, a rural community in the Adirondack Park. According to NYSERDA's Fact Sheet about the project, landfill reclamation is a process of excavating a landfill using conventional surface mining technology to recover metals, glass, plastics and combustibles, soils, and the land resource itself. The recovered site can then be either upgraded into a state-of-the-art landfill, if appropriate, closed or redeveloped for some other suitable purpose. As an energy-related public benefit corporation, NYSERDA is particularly interested in the potential energy value of combustible material reclaimed from landfills. With an energy content of over 11 million BTUs per ton, this translates to the energy equivalent of 275 million barrels of oil.

  19. Application of frequency- and time-domain electromagnetic surveys to characterize hydrostratigraphy and landfill construction at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Beatty, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Eric A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 and 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), conducted frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS), approximately 17 kilometers (km) south of Beatty, Nevada. The FDEM surveys were conducted within and adjacent to a closed low-level radioactive waste disposal site located at the ADRS. FDEM surveys were conducted on a grid of north-south and east-west profiles to assess the locations and boundaries of historically recorded waste-disposal trenches. In 2015, the USGS conducted time-domain (TDEM) soundings along a profile adjacent to the disposal site (landfill) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), to assess the thickness and characteristics of the underlying deep unsaturated zone, and the hydrostratigraphy of the underlying saturated zone.FDEM survey results indicate the general location and extent of the waste-disposal trenches and reveal potential differences in material properties and the type and concentration of waste in several areas of the landfill. The TDEM surveys provide information on the underlying hydrostratigraphy and characteristics of the unsaturated zone that inform the site conceptual model and support an improved understanding of the hydrostratigraphic framework. Additional work is needed to interpret the TDEM results in the context of the local and regional structural geology.

  20. Methane emission to the atmosphere from landfills in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez, Fátima; Alonso, Mar; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel A.; Hernández-Abad, Marta; Pérez, Erica; Alonso, Monica; Tassi, Franco; Raco, Brunella; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    . To quantify the the diffuse or fugitive CO2 and CH4 emission, gas efflux contour maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. Considering that (a) there are 5 controlled landfills in the Canary Islands, (b) the average area of the 23 studied cells is 0.17 km2 and (c) the mean value of the CH4 emission estimated for the studied cells range between 6.9 and 8.1 kt km-2 y-1, the estimated CH4 emission to the atmosphere from landfills in the Canary Islands showed a range of 7.0 - 7.8 kt y-1. On the contrary and for the same period of time, the PRTR-Spain estimates CH4 emission in the order of 10.3 - 14.9 kt y-1, nearly two times our estimated value. This result demonstrates the need to perform direct measurements to estimate the surface fugitive emission of CH4 from landfills. Bingemer, H. G., and P. J. Crutzen (1987). The production of methane from solid wastes, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2182-2187

  1. The use of engineered lightweight fill for landfill cover remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, D.E.; Gardner, R.B.; Xiaoyu Fu

    1995-12-31

    In 1991, SCS was retained to provide design and construction engineering services to retrofit a landfill gas migration control system and regrade/repair an existing low-permeability soil final cover system for a 10-acre closed landfill located in west-central Florida. The final cover system modifications consisted of regrading the top of the landfill to re-establish positive drainage across and off of the top of the landfill. While active, the landfill had received municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste, and various industrial wastes and sludges. The landfill was closed in the early 1980`s. At the time of filling, the subject landfill was operated as a trench fill. A series of 40-foot deep trenches were excavated across the fill area, and the MSW was placed and compacted into the trenches. The soil excavated during construction of the trenches was used to construct berms along the sides of the individual trenches. No constructed bottom liner or leachate collection system was incorporated into the design. This report presents the results of a conceptual evaluation of utilizing expanded polystyrene blocks or Geofoam, as the lightweight fill component for an alternative cover remediation.

  2. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-07-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  3. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  4. [Performance of leachate nitrogen removal in bioreactor landfill system].

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Shen, Dongsheng; Zhu, Yin-mei

    2006-03-01

    Utilizing the unique vertical aerobic-anoxic-anerobic ecological enviornment of landfills and adopting intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled refuse, this paper studied the performance of leachate nitrogen removal in the bioreactor landfill system. The results showed that intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled refuse could stimulate the growth of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. The population of denitrifying bacteria was 4 to approximately 13 orders of magnitude higher than that in conventional landfilled waste layers, and the maximal value of nitrifying bacteria population reached 10(9) cells g(-1). The bioreactor landfill system with intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled refuse increased the potential of nitrogen removal from re-circulated leachate in the landfill bioreactor. By the end of the experiment, the concentrations of leachate NH4(+) -N and total nitrogen (TN) decreased to 186 mg x L(-1) and 289 mg x L(-1), being only 18% and 26% of control, respectively. Intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled refuse also accelerated refuse decomposition, and increased the degree of waste stabilization.

  5. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  6. Field Practices Installation and operations of a landfill gas collection and flare system

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, A.S.; Greeb, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Sheldon-Arleta Landfill was operated by the City of Los Angeles from 1962 until 1974. Refuse was landfilled in what was formerly a quarry pit and placed prior to development and use of clay and synthetic liner materials. This paper is a continuance of the paper presented at the 17th Annual Landfill Gas Symposium-identifying sources and causes of landfill gas migration hazards, the design for their remediation, and the field construction/implementation of those designs to remediate landfill gas migration hazards.

  7. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  8. Landfill gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, A.

    1991-08-01

    This facility describes a project that began four years ago as an effort to control odor, but has since grown into the Northeast's largest landfill gas-to-electricity power project. A series of wells and miles of pipe snaking beneath the ground channel gas to the power plant. When operating at capacity, the Northeast Landfill Power Project in Rhode Island can produce 12.3 megawatts of electricity for sale enough to power about 17,500 households. Landfill gas (LFG) is produced naturally as organic solid waste decomposes. Typically, LFG consists of methane (50 to 55 percent), carbon dioxide (45 to 50 percent),a nd small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and various trace elements. Left uncontrolled, LFG will migrate out of a landfill and into the atmosphere, creating odor, safety and environmental problems.

  9. Utilization of landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced by the anaerobic decay of organic matter present in municipal solid waste. Raw landfill gas is composed primarily of carbon dioxide (45 vol percent) and methane (55 vol percent) with part-per-million levels of numerous chemical impurities. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that over 200 billion cubic feet of methane are generated in landfills every year. To address this potential energy source the author's company has developed a landfill gas treatment system (LFGTS) as an economic means of producing high BTU gas. The LFGTS, presented in this paper, consists of three major processing steps: raw gas collection and compression, trace impurity removal and destruction by temperature swing adsorption, and carbon dioxide removal by pressure swing adsorption to produce pipeline quality methane.

  10. Bondad Landfill NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-R050005, Transit Waste, LLC is authorized to discharge from the Bondad Landfill facility in La Plata County, Colorado, to an unnamed tributary of the Animas River.

  11. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  12. Low-cost treatment of landfill leachate using peat.

    PubMed

    Heavey, M

    2003-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive obliges member states to collect and treat leachate from landfill sites. In regions of high population density, this is commonly achieved through discharge of the leachate to the municipal sewerage system. In Ireland, rural landfills can be a long distance from a suitable sewerage system, resulting in high transportation costs. On-site treatment systems, when used elsewhere, are mainly aerobic treatment systems, which are costly to construct and operate. There is a particular need for low-cost, low-maintenance leachate treatment systems for small low-income landfills, and for closed landfills, where long-term running costs of aerobic systems may be unsustainable. In 1989, this research work was initiated to investigate the use of local peat for the treatment of leachate from a small rural landfill site. In 1997, following the award of grant-aid under the EU LIFE Programme, a full-scale leachate treatment plant was constructed, using local un-drained peat as the treatment medium. When the LIFE Project ended in February 2001, leachate treatment research continued at the site using a pre-treated peat as the treatment medium. The treatment levels achieved using both types of peat are discussed in this paper. It is concluded that landfill leachate may be successfully treated using a low-cost peat bed to achieve almost 100% removal of both BOD and ammonia.

  13. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  14. Quantitative option analysis for implementation and management of landfills.

    PubMed

    Kerestecioğlu, Merih

    2016-09-01

    The selection of the most feasible strategy for implementation of landfills is a challenging step. Potential implementation options of landfills cover a wide range, from conventional construction contracts to the concessions. Montenegro, seeking to improve the efficiency of the public services while maintaining affordability, was considering privatisation as a way to reduce public spending on service provision. In this study, to determine the most feasible model for construction and operation of a regional landfill, a quantitative risk analysis was implemented with four steps: (i) development of a global risk matrix; (ii) assignment of qualitative probabilities of occurrences and magnitude of impacts; (iii) determination of the risks to be mitigated, monitored, controlled or ignored; (iv) reduction of the main risk elements; and (v) incorporation of quantitative estimates of probability of occurrence and expected impact for each risk element in the reduced risk matrix. The evaluated scenarios were: (i) construction and operation of the regional landfill by the public sector; (ii) construction and operation of the landfill by private sector and transfer of the ownership to the public sector after a pre-defined period; and (iii) operation of the landfill by the private sector, without ownership. The quantitative risk assessment concluded that introduction of a public private partnership is not the most feasible option, unlike the common belief in several public institutions in developing countries. A management contract for the first years of operation was advised to be implemented, after which, a long term operating contract may follow. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Hydrogeology of a landfill, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario

    1983-01-01

    The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)

  16. Cost comparisons of alternative landfill final covers

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-02-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle ``D`` Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle ``C`` Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed of uniform size, side-by-side. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  17. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  18. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  19. Numerical simulation of landfill gas pressure distribution in landfills.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yonghui; Xiong, Hao

    2013-11-01

    Landfill gas emissions are recognized as one of the three major concerns in municipal solid waste landfills. There are many factors that affect the generation of landfill gas when the landfill is capped. In this article, a model has been developed based on the theory of porous media flow. The model could predict the pressure distribution of landfill gas in landfill, coupling the effect of landfill settlement. According to the simulation analysis of landfill, it was found that: (a) the landfill gas pressure would reach a peak after 1.5 years, then begin to decline, and the rate of decay would slow down after 10 years; (b) the influence radius of the gas wells is limited; (c) the peak value of landfill gas pressure is larger, it appears later and the rate of decay is slower when the landfill settlement is considered in the model; (d) the calculation of excess gas pressure in landfill under different negative pressures of the extraction well is compared between this model and another model, and the results show that the relative pressure distribution form and range are almost the same.

  20. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional

  1. A decision support system for assessing landfill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Basak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlue, Kahraman

    2010-01-15

    Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills.

  2. A decision support system for assessing landfill performance.

    PubMed

    Celik, Başak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlü, Kahraman

    2010-01-01

    Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills.

  3. Migrating landfill gas proves challenging

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, J.G.; Dellinger, A.S.

    1994-12-01

    Located in the San Fernando Valley at the foothills of the San Gabriel mountains, the 41-acre Sheldon-Arleta Landfill originated as one of many gravel pits in the area and was operated by CalMat as a gravel quarry pit from the mid 1950s until 1962. In 1967, methane gas was detected in the residential dwellings located across from the landfill along Sharp Street. Three landfill gas wells were installed at the north corner of the landfill to control off-site migration of landfill gas. Landfill gas, through diffusion, saturates soil pores below and around the landfill. Groundwater serves as an effective barrier to landfill gas migration. Thus a rising water table mobilizes landfill gas from soil pores. Where that gas cannot be effectively collected, off-site migration will occur. The solution to ensuring public safety is to collect landfill gas on-site before it escapes the influence of gas collection wells. This may require complete reevaluation of an existing landfill gas collection system and potential renovation to collect greater quantities of land-fill gas. Cost-effective implementation of this strategy calls for two gas collection systems: one for collection of methane-rich landfill gas for electrical generation and resource recovery, and the other to control off-site migration of landfill gas through on-site combustion. Installation/upgrades of the foregoing solutions are long-term options. For the short-term immediate mitigation of high landfill gas migration, installation of a passive vent system was necessary with the option of active extraction. However, one must recognize that the public is ultimately better served by controlling landfill gas on-site before it approaches dangerous off-site levels.

  4. Evaluation of landfill gas decay constant for municipal solid waste landfills operated as bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tolaymat, Thabet M; Green, Roger B; Hater, Gary R; Barlaz, Morton A; Black, Paul; Bronson, Doug; Powell, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important for the optimization of energy recovery and for estimating greenhouse gas emissions. To improve the predictability of gas production, landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rates were monitored for 4 yr from one conventional and two bioreactor landfill cells at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY. The ultimate methane yield (L(o)) was estimated from the biochemical methane (CH4) potential of freshly buried refuse and the decay rate constant (k) was estimated from measured CH4 collection. The site-specific L(o) was estimated to be 48.4 m3-CH4 wet Mg(-1). The estimated decay rate in the conventional cell (0.06 yr(-1)) was comparable to the AP-42 default value of 0.04 yr(-1), whereas estimates for the two bioreactor cells were substantially higher (approximately 0.11 yr(-1)). The data document the ability of the bioreactor operation to enhance landfill CH4 generation, although the estimated decay rate is sensitive to the selected L(o). The more rapid decomposition in the bioreactor cells reduces the length of time over which gas will be produced and emphasizes the importance of having a LFG collection system operational once the waste receives added moisture.

  5. Construction of an open tin cell at Inmetro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, R.; Teixeira, R. N.

    2013-09-01

    For the last decade, the Thermometry Laboratory of the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO) has been developing its own primary standards. In late 2010, a brand new fixed point cell containing high purity tin (99.9999 %) was constructed as the continuation of a project for constructing metal fixed-point cells in the positive range, in accordance with the temperature fixed-points described by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) [1]. This is the fourth temperature fixed-point constructed by the laboratory team, which enables the performance of some calibrations without having to rely solely on commercially available cells. The materials and their preparation, the design, the procedures for the construction of the cell, the equipment, the investigation on its performance and its results will be detailed in the present paper. In addition, it is worth mentioning that this cell has recently taken part in a bilateral comparison with the National Physical Laboratory - NPL.

  6. Method for treating landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Singhvi, S.S.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described for removing contaminants from leachate of a landfill which produces landfill gas, comprising the steps of: (a) combusting the landfill gas to produce combustion products; (b) heating the leachate with said combustion products; (c) removing contaminants from the leachate by gas stripping; and (d) reducing the pH of the leachate with said combustion products.

  7. Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-19

    SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SIGIR PA... Solid Waste Landfill 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Municipal Solid Waste Landfill , Baghdad, Iraq (Report Number SIGIR-PA-06-067) We are providing this project assessment report for your information

  8. A case study: Environmental benefit plan for Blydenburgh Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.M.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Town of Islip, New York, encompasses 285 square kilometers (110 square miles) along the southern shore of Suffolk County, Long Island. The Town relied upon Blydenburgh Landfill for the disposal of its estimated 290 kilotonnes per year (320,000 tons per year) of municipal solid waste (MSW) without having to contract for off-Long Island hauling and disposal. In 1983, the Long Island Landfill Law was enacted and effectively banned landfilling of raw garbage on most of Long Island after December 18, 1990. The act precluded the economic development of new landfill capacity for the Town. Blydenburgh Landfill was projected to reach capacity in early 1987 and close. To conserve landfill capacity for residential use, the Town prohibited commercial haulers from the landfill in the fall of 1986. In response, the Mobro barge departed Long Island City on March 22, 1987 loaded with commercial MSW that was no longer accepted at the Blydenburgh site. Negative publicity surrounded the Mobro barge and the continuing need to provide for waste disposal. In response, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the Town`s Resource Recovery Agency entered into an Order on Consent on May 12, 1987. This allowed for continued operations and a vertical MSW {open_quotes}piggyback{close_quotes} expansion on top of a closed and capped portion of the existing 181,000 square meter (44.8 acre) landfill mound. In addition, the Order on Consent permitted construction of a separate 12,000 square meter (3.0 acre) ash residue vertical piggyback expansion adjacent to the MSW piggyback expansion. Both expansions were designed for and constructed on top of existing landfilled MSW.

  9. The estimation of methane emissions from landfills with different cover systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Lee, K.; Sung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, second only to CO2 as an anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Landfills are important anthropogenic source in the CH4 emissions. Microbially mediated CH4 oxidation in landfills with conventional soil covers can serve as an efficient biological sink. Methane from modern sanitary landfills equipped with composite covers and gas collection system is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills at which it is collected and burned. However, previous laboratory research has shown that biofilters have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills with modern composite covers. In this study a CH4 emission model was developed. The model used the calculated CH4 oxidation rates to estimate CH4 emissions from landfills constructed with conventional soil covers, modern composite covers, and modern composite covers plus biofilters. According to the CH4 emission rates predicted by CH4 emission model, it was estimated that 90% of the generated CH4 was emitted to the atmosphere for landfills with modern composite cover. For landfills with modern composite cover plus biofilters, an average of only 9% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. For landfills with conventional covers, an average of 83% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. By comparing the CH4 emission rates from three different landfill types, the use of a properly managed biofilter should be an effective technique to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills.

  10. "Constructing" the Cell Cycle in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Isil; Turan, Merve

    2012-01-01

    The cycle of duplication and division, known as the "cell cycle," is the essential mechanism by which all living organisms reproduce. This activity allows students to develop an understanding of the main events that occur during the typical eukaryotic cell cycle mostly in the process of mitotic phase that divides the duplicated genetic material…

  11. "Constructing" the Cell Cycle in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Isil; Turan, Merve

    2012-01-01

    The cycle of duplication and division, known as the "cell cycle," is the essential mechanism by which all living organisms reproduce. This activity allows students to develop an understanding of the main events that occur during the typical eukaryotic cell cycle mostly in the process of mitotic phase that divides the duplicated genetic material…

  12. 19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL PIPING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-3212. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Port Washington Landfill, Nassau County, NY. (First Remedial Action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-30

    The Port Washington Landfill site is on the eastern portion of Manhasset Neck, Nassau County, Long Island, New York. The 139-acre municipally owned site consists of two landfilled areas separated by a vacant area. The Record of Decision addresses the 53-acre inactive landfill on the western portion of the site, which is the suspected source of methane gas thought to cause furnace explosions in residences neighboring the landfill during 1979 through 1981. From 1974 to 1983 the landfill operator accepted incinerator residue, residential and commercial refuse, and construction rubble for disposal. Because extensive air monitoring, performed in 1981, revealed high methane levels in several areas residences, a venting system was installed to prevent subsurface gases from migrating west of the landfill and to destroy hazardous chemicals commonly detected in sanitary landfill gas. The selected remedial action for the site includes capping the landfill; rehabilitating the existing gas collection system and installing additional vacuum extraction vents; ground water pumping and treatment.

  14. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifang; Lu, Gang; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming Jimmy

    2016-04-15

    Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  15. Energy potential of modern landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Power generation and pollutants removal from landfill leachate in microbial fuel cell: Variation and influence of anodic microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Wei, Huawei; Qiu, Huijing; Jaafry, Syed Wajahat H; Su, Yinglong; Xie, Bing

    2017-09-20

    MFC was studied using young and old landfill leachate substrate to remove pollutants and produce renewable energy coupled with study of anodic microbiomes. The power output of 96.8mWm(-2) with COD removal of 90.0±1.2% was achieved at young leachate 60% in batch mode, which decreased to 75mWm(-2) having 55.5% COD abatement in continuous mode employing 100% young leachate. Power production using simulated wastewater without organic source proved that ammonium could also serve as fuel in MFC. The high ammonium dosage increased the overall system performance but beyond a certain limit, the inhibitory effect intensified. Nitrogen removal (66.0±3.3% NH4(+)-N and 86.0±0.1% NO2(-)-N) occurred obeying different removal pathways. Sequencing analyses revealed that anammox bacteria (2%), denitrifying bacteria (5%) and electrogenic bacteria (15%) were in abundance of the microbial community in the anode. This technology can be promising for leachate treatment and power production however certain constraints still exist in pilot scale experiments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Modelling gas generation for landfill.

    PubMed

    Chakma, Sumedha; Mathur, Shashi

    2016-09-27

    A methodology was developed to predict the optimum long-term spatial and temporal generation of landfill gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide on post-closure landfill. The model incorporated the chemical and the biochemical processes responsible for the degradation of the municipal solid waste. The developed model also takes into account the effects of heterogeneity with different layers as observed at the site of landfills' morphology. The important parameters for gas generation due to biodegradation such as temperature, pH, and moisture content were incorporated. The maximum and the minimum generations of methane and hydrogen sulphide were observed. The rate of gas generation was found almost same throughout the depth after 30 years of landfill closure. The proposed model would be very useful for landfill engineering in the mining landfill gas and proper design for landfill gas management systems.

  18. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  19. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  1. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d-1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m-2 d-1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  2. Mathematical modelling of landfill gas migration in MSW sanitary landfills.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Marañón, E; Sastre, H

    2001-10-01

    The laws that govern the displacement of landfill gas in a sanitary landfill are analysed. Subsequently, a 2-D finite difference flow model of a fluid in a steady state in a porous medium with infinite sources of landfill gas is proposed. The fact that landfill gas is continuously generated throughout the entire mass of the landfill differentiates this model from others extensively described in the literature and used in a variety of different applications, such as oil recovery, groundwater flow, etc. Preliminary results are then presented of the application of the model. Finally, the results obtained employing data from the literature and experimental assays carried out at the La Zoreda sanitary landfill (Asturias, Spain) are discussed and future lines of research are proposed.

  3. Bio-printing cell-laden Matrigel–agarose constructs

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Piou, Marine; Darling, Evan; Cormier, Denis; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-01-01

    3D printing of biological architectures that mimic the structural and functional features of in vivo tissues is of great interest in tissue engineering and the development of transplantable organ constructs. Printable bio-inks that are compatible with cellular activities play critical roles in the process of 3D bio-printing. Although a variety of hydrogels have been used as bio-inks for 3D bio-printing, they inherit poor mechanical properties and/or the lack of essential protein components that compromise their performance. Here, a hybrid Matrigel–agarose hydrogel system has been demonstrated that possesses both desired rheological properties for bio-printing and biocompatibility for long-term (11 days) cell culture. The agarose component in the hybrid hydrogel system enables the maintenance of 3D-printed structures, whereas Matrigel provides essential microenvironments for cell growth. When human intestinal epithelial HCT116 cells are encapsulated in the printed Matrigel–agarose constructs, high cell viability and proper cell spreading morphology are observed. Given that Matrigel is used extensively for 3D cell culturing, the developed 3D-printable Matrigel–agarose system will open a new way to construct Matrigel-based 3D constructs for cell culture and tissue engineering. PMID:27638155

  4. Bio-printing cell-laden Matrigel-agarose constructs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Piou, Marine; Darling, Evan; Cormier, Denis; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-11-01

    3D printing of biological architectures that mimic the structural and functional features of in vivo tissues is of great interest in tissue engineering and the development of transplantable organ constructs. Printable bio-inks that are compatible with cellular activities play critical roles in the process of 3D bio-printing. Although a variety of hydrogels have been used as bio-inks for 3D bio-printing, they inherit poor mechanical properties and/or the lack of essential protein components that compromise their performance. Here, a hybrid Matrigel-agarose hydrogel system has been demonstrated that possesses both desired rheological properties for bio-printing and biocompatibility for long-term (11 days) cell culture. The agarose component in the hybrid hydrogel system enables the maintenance of 3D-printed structures, whereas Matrigel provides essential microenvironments for cell growth. When human intestinal epithelial HCT116 cells are encapsulated in the printed Matrigel-agarose constructs, high cell viability and proper cell spreading morphology are observed. Given that Matrigel is used extensively for 3D cell culturing, the developed 3D-printable Matrigel-agarose system will open a new way to construct Matrigel-based 3D constructs for cell culture and tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Wood Pallets and Landfills - Status and Opportunities for Economic Recovery and Recycling

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; E. Brad Hager

    1998-01-01

    Wood pallet recovery, repair, and recycling are sound environmental activities that can reduce both forest resource demands and waste in landfills. Our studies found that 6.16 million tons of wood pallets (or 223.6 million pallets) entered municipal solid waste (MSW) and construction and demolition (C&D) landfill facilities in 1995. At the same time, wood pallet...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  8. Potential Material Sources for Board Products: Used Pallets and Wastewood at Landfills

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Robert J. Bush; Vijay S. Reddy

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tons of pallets and other types of wood waste are being sent to landfills every year. At many landfills wood is or could be reclaimed. One potential use for this material is as furnish for board products. To evaluate the potential to reclaim wood waste for useful products we surveyed municipal solid waste (MSW) and construction and demolition (C&D)...

  9. Alternatives for Upgrading or Closing Army Landfills Classified as Open Dumps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    were: Means Buildiniz Construction Cost Data, Remedial Action Alternatives for Muni- cival Solid Waste Landfill Sites, and Manual for Remedial Actions...Alternatives for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Sites (A. W. Martin Associates, Inc., 1978); Manual for Remedial Actions at Waste Disposal Sites (JRB

  10. Claymax landfill cap

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1989-12-15

    A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.

  11. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.L. . E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  12. Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

    2009-06-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site with vegetative landfill cover and LL recirculation after its treatment in constructed wetland. The only exception was chromium (Cr). Its concentrations in LL ranged between 0.10 and 2.75 mg/L, and were higher than the concentrations usually found in the literature. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand why Cr is high in LL and (2) to understand the fate and transport of Cr in soil and vegetation of landfill cover due to known Cr toxicity to plants. The total concentration of Cr in LL, total and exchangeable concentrations of Cr in landfill soil cover and Cr content in the plant material were extensively monitored from May 2004 to September 2006. By obtained data on Cr concentration in different landfill constituents, supported with the data on the amount of loaded leachate, amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) during the performance of the research, a detailed picture of time distribution and co-dependency of Cr is provided in this research. A highly positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cr and dissolved organic carbon (r=0.875) in LL, which indicates the co-transport of Cr and dissolved organic carbon through the system. Monitoring results showed that the substrate used in the experiment did not contribute to Cr accumulation in the landfill soil cover, resulting in percolation of a high proportion of Cr back into the waste layers and its circulation in the system. No negative effects on plant growth appeared during the monitoring period. Due to low uptake of Cr by plants (0.10-0.15 mg/kg in leaves and 0.05-0.07 mg

  13. Biphasic nanofibrous constructs with seeded cell layers for osteochondral repair.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Zhen; Kim, Jung-Ju; Park, Jeong-Hui; Seo, Seog-Jin; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won

    2014-11-01

    Biphasic scaffolds have gained increasing attention for the regeneration of osteochondral interfacial tissue because they are expected to effectively define the interfacial structure of tissue that comprises stratified cartilage with a degree of calcification. Here, we propose a biphasic nanofiber construct made of poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) and its mineralized form (mPLCL) populated with cells. Primary rat articular chondrocytes (ACs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the layers of bare PLCL and mPLCL nanofibers, respectively, for 7 days, and the biphasic cell-nanofiber construct was investigated at 4 weeks after implantation into nude mice. Before implantation, the ACs and MSCs grown on each layer of PLCL and mPLCL nanofibers exhibited phenotypes typical of chondrocytes and osteoblasts, respectively, under proper culture conditions, as analyzed by electron microscopy, histological staining, cell growth kinetics, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The biphasic constructs also showed the development of a possible formation of cartilage and bone tissue in vivo. Results demonstrated that the cell-laden biphasic nanofiber constructs may be useful for the repair of osteochondral interfacial tissue structure.

  14. Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments.

  15. Potential SRF generation from a closed landfill in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Passamani, Giorgia; Ragazzi, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the possibility of producing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and "combustible SRF" from a landfill located in the north of Italy, where the waste is placed in cylindrical wrapped bales. Since the use of landfills for the disposal of municipal solid waste has many technical limitations and is subject to strict regulations and given that landfill post-closure care is very expensive, an interesting solution is to recover the bales that are stored in the landfill. The contents of the bales can then be used for energy recovery after specific treatments. Currently the landfill is closed and the local municipal council together with an environmental agency are considering constructing a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plant for SRF production. The municipal solid waste that is stored in the landfill, the bio-dried material produced by the hypothetically treated waste in a plant for bio-drying, and the SRF obtained after the post-extraction of inert materials, metals and glass from the bio-dried material were characterized according to the quality and classification criteria of regulations in Italy. The analysis highlighted the need to treat the excavated waste in a bio-drying plant and later to remove the inert waste, metals and glass. Thus in compliance with Italian law, the material has a high enough LHV to be considered as "combustible SRF", (i.e. an SRF with enhanced characteristics). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Augmenting groundwater monitoring networks near landfills with slurry cutoff walls.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of slurry cutoff walls in conjunction with monitoring wells to detect contaminant releases from a solid waste landfill. The 50 m wide by 75 m long landfill was oriented oblique to regional groundwater flow in a shallow sand aquifer. Computer models calculated flow fields and the detection capability of six monitoring networks, four including a 1 m wide by 50 m long cutoff wall at various positions along the landfill's downgradient boundaries and upgradient of the landfill. Wells were positioned to take advantage of convergent flow induced downgradient of the cutoff walls. A five-well network with no cutoff wall detected 81% of contaminant plumes originating within the landfill's footprint before they reached a buffer zone boundary located 50 m from the landfill's downgradient corner. By comparison, detection efficiencies of networks augmented with cutoff walls ranged from 81 to 100%. The most efficient network detected 100% of contaminant releases with four wells, with a centrally located, downgradient cutoff wall. In general, cutoff walls increased detection efficiency by delaying transport of contaminant plumes to the buffer zone boundary, thereby allowing them to increase in size, and by inducing convergent flow at downgradient areas, thereby funneling contaminant plumes toward monitoring wells. However, increases in detection efficiency were too small to offset construction costs for cutoff walls. A 100% detection efficiency was also attained by an eight-well network with no cutoff wall, at approximately one-third the cost of the most efficient wall-augmented network.

  17. Landfill Gas Energy Project Data and Landfill Technical Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides data from the LMOP Database for U.S. landfills and LFG energy projects in Excel files, a map of project and candidate landfill counts by state, project profiles for a select group of projects, and information about Project Expo sites.

  18. Landfill gas management in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David, A.

    1997-12-31

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada`s commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10{sup 15} Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring.

  19. Use of activated carbon to treat landfill gas at Villa Park Landfill, Orange County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Beizer, M.; Stege, P.E.; Stege, A.

    1996-11-01

    In June, 1995, the Orange County integrated Waste Management Department (IWMD) contacted SCS Engineers for assistance regarding landfill gas (LFG) migration from a small closed landfill in the community of Villa Park in suburban Orange County, California. High concentrations of methane (up to 60 percent) had been detected in monitoring probes along the perimeter of the landfill, which is within 200 feet of several expensive homes shown in Figure 1. SCS Engineers and its construction subsidiary, SCS Field Services, were contracted by the County on an emergency basis to design and install a system of extraction wells in the landfill to mitigate the migration problem. Within six weeks of design approval, SCS completed installation of an LFG extraction, treatment, and monitoring system consisting of 17 extraction wells connected by below-grade HDPE header piping, and 22 perimeter monitoring probes with multi-depth casings. In addition to the requirements that a swift response be made to an emergency situation, this project was unusual due to the use of a carbon adsorption system to treat the collected LFG.

  20. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential). © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Construction of photoenergetic mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Wada, Takeyoshi; Kino, Kuniki; Asahi, Toru; Sawamura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    The proton motive force (PMF) is bio-energetically important for various cellular reactions to occur. We developed PMF-photogenerating mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells. An archaebacterial rhodopsin, delta-rhodopsin, which is a light-driven proton pump derived from Haloterrigena turkmenica, was expressed in the mitochondria of CHO-K1 cells. The constructed stable CHO-K1 cell lines showed suppression of cell death induced by rotenone, a pesticide that inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity involved in PMF generation through the electron transport chain. Delta-rhodopsin was also introduced into the mitochondria of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The constructed stable SH-SY5Y cell lines showed suppression of dopaminergic neuronal cell death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), an inducer of Parkinson's disease models, which acts through inhibition of complex I activity. These results suggest that the light-activated proton pump functioned as a PMF generator in the mitochondria of mammalian cells, and suppressed cell death induced by inhibition of respiratory PMF generation.

  2. 23. Construction view of Building 202 test cell, 1956. On ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Construction view of Building 202 test cell, 1956. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-952D-1956. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment system equipment; (2) Collect gas from each area, cell, or group of cells in the landfill in which... device, the landfill gas stream shall be introduced into the flame zone. (2) The control device shall be... operating parameters to be monitored are specified in § 60.756; (C) Route the collected gas to a...

  4. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment system equipment; (2) Collect gas from each area, cell, or group of cells in the landfill in which... device, the landfill gas stream shall be introduced into the flame zone. (2) The control device shall be... operating parameters to be monitored are specified in § 60.756; (C) Route the collected gas to a...

  5. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment system equipment; (2) Collect gas from each area, cell, or group of cells in the landfill in which... device, the landfill gas stream shall be introduced into the flame zone. (2) The control device shall be... operating parameters to be monitored are specified in § 60.756; (C) Route the collected gas to a...

  6. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment system equipment; (2) Collect gas from each area, cell, or group of cells in the landfill in which... device, the landfill gas stream shall be introduced into the flame zone. (2) The control device shall be... operating parameters to be monitored are specified in § 60.756; (C) Route the collected gas to a...

  7. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment system equipment; (2) Collect gas from each area, cell, or group of cells in the landfill in which... device, the landfill gas stream shall be introduced into the flame zone. (2) The control device shall be... operating parameters to be monitored are specified in § 60.756; (C) Route the collected gas to a...

  8. Sanitary Landfill Leachate Recycle and Environmental Problems at Selected Army Landfills: Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamlys, Characteristics, Control and Treatment of Leachate at Military Irnstallations, !nterim Report N- 97/ADA097035...D. Smith, R. Pileccia, J. Handy, G. Gerdes, S. Kloster, G. Schanche, _. .1. fJanson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Characteri.tic.i Control, and...Learned N 1. Do not construct buildings on top of or close to a closed landfill until methane gas production has stopped.... - 2. Note that explosive

  9. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  10. Leachate evaporation using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.M.; Grace, V.M.; Freivald, W.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a century-old technology with a new twist of using landfill gas as a fuel in an evaporation system. The system is designed to help landfills reduce the cost of leachate disposal while also destroying VOC emissions in an enclosed flare.

  11. Changing face of the landfill

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Integrated approach at Oregon landfill diverts wood and yard trimmings, while turning methane into power for 1,800 homes. Opened in the 1940`s as an open burn dump, Coffin Butte has evolved over the years into a sophisticated waste management facility incorporating ambitious recovery programs. While some of this change has been driven by regulatory demands, many of Valley Landfill`s innovations have come in response to market opportunities. Valley Landfill`s Processing and Recovery Center (PRC) is located a half mile down the road from the landfill site. Opened in 1990, the facility recycles urban wood waste, yard trimmings and street sweepings. The heart of this operation is a 500 hp horizontal feed, fixed-hammer grinder. Although this machine is typically used only for wood grinding, PRC was able to adapt it to handle both wood and yard trimmings by installing special feed roll assembly to compress green waste passing over the infeed belt. The facility handles approximately 40,000 cubic yards of loose green material and produces 15,000 to 18,000 yards of compost. The finished product is run through a trommel with a 5/8 inch mesh screen. Most of the compost is sold in bulk to area garden centers. A portion is processed through a 3/8 inch shaker screen and sold to a local company for use in bagged soil products. Valley Landfill is a partner in an ambitious project to generate electricity from landfill biogas.

  12. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  13. Turning a liability into an asset: Developing a landfill gas energy recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.M.

    1995-11-01

    Landfill methane is a potent greenhouse gas and a renewable fuel that can be harvested and put to use to meet diverse energy needs. Landfill energy recovery is a proven technology; over 120 sites in the United States alone convert landfill gas to energy. EPA estimates that as many as 750 landfills in the U.S. could cost-effectively recover energy from landfill gas; however, landfills must be individually assessed to determine whether an energy recovery project is feasible. Necessary elements of a feasibility assessment include: determining whether an energy recovery project is feasible for a particular landfill; determining what type of energy recovery project is right for a particular landfill (e.g., electricity generation; upgrade to pipeline quality gas; direct use of processed gas; and in emerging technologies, such as compression for vehicle fuel, conversion to methanol, fuel cells); evaluating project economics, including an evaluation of project costs and available incentives; and assessing other issues, such as assessing options for financing, selecting a project development partner, negotiating an energy sales contract with an electrical utility and permitting. The EPA`s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) encourages the development of landfill energy recovery projects. The LMOP is environmentally beneficial, in that it promotes projects which cause a measurable reduction in methane; as well as economical-energy recovery projects have proven to be profitable investments. The LMOP is uniquely able to work with all of the stakeholders, including municipal solid waste landfill owners and operators, states, utilities, the landfill energy recovery industry, and the financial community, to effectively overcome barriers to landfill energy recovery project development.

  14. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, L.; Lewicki, S.

    2008-11-01

    Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission (NJMC) Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ and operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory brings hands-on scientific experiences to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that come to our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

  15. Application of simulation models to the diagnosis of MSW landfills: an example.

    PubMed

    García de Cortázar, Amaya Lobo; Tejero Monzón, Iñaki

    2007-01-01

    Among the landfill simulation programs being developed by several research groups around the world as tools for the management of sanitary landfills is MODUELO, whose second version, MODUELO 2, has been presented elsewhere. It reproduces the operational history of the landfill and its hydrologic and biodegradation processes, allowing the estimation of the flow and pollutants emitted in the leachate and the generated landfill gas over time. This program has been used for a diagnosis study of an existing European MSW landfill. The construction and calibration of the facility's hydrologic model, based on the available data, allowed the detection and quantification of two sources increasing the flows reaching the leachate collection system: a small portion (6-7%) of the runoff over the landfill surface and the contribution of water coming from external hillsides of the same watershed that represent a total surface area of around 20ha. The contrast of the leachate quality (COD, BOD, NH(4)-N and TKN) simulation results and measured data showed the potential of these models for the assessment of other significant aspects in landfill operation such as the potential harnessing of the landfill gas. Nonetheless, in this case as in many others, the accuracy of the simulation results was limited by the scant quality of the available data, which highlights the need for implementing continuous monitoring and characterizing protocols to take advantage of these programs as a tool for landfill optimization.

  16. A Student-Constructed Galvanic Cell for the Measurement of Cell Potentials at Different Temperatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A student-made galvanic cell is proposed for temperature measurements of cell potential. This cell can be easily constructed by students, the materials needed are readily available and nontoxic, and the solution applied is in an attractive color. For this cell, the potential values are excellently reproducible at each temperature, and the…

  17. A Student-Constructed Galvanic Cell for the Measurement of Cell Potentials at Different Temperatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A student-made galvanic cell is proposed for temperature measurements of cell potential. This cell can be easily constructed by students, the materials needed are readily available and nontoxic, and the solution applied is in an attractive color. For this cell, the potential values are excellently reproducible at each temperature, and the…

  18. Biofabrication of cell-loaded 3D spider silk constructs.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Kristin; Jüngst, Tomasz; Schweinlin, Matthias; Ewald, Andrea; Groll, Jürgen; Scheibel, Thomas

    2015-02-23

    Biofabrication is an emerging and rapidly expanding field of research in which additive manufacturing techniques in combination with cell printing are exploited to generate hierarchical tissue-like structures. Materials that combine printability with cytocompatibility, so called bioinks, are currently the biggest bottleneck. Since recombinant spider silk proteins are non-immunogenic, cytocompatible, and exhibit physical crosslinking, their potential as a new bioink system was evaluated. Cell-loaded spider silk constructs can be printed by robotic dispensing without the need for crosslinking additives or thickeners for mechanical stabilization. Cells are able to adhere and proliferate with good viability over at least one week in such spider silk scaffolds. Introduction of a cell-binding motif to the spider silk protein further enables fine-tuned control over cell-material interactions. Spider silk hydrogels are thus a highly attractive novel bioink for biofabrication. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  20. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  1. Cell Population Tracking and Lineage Construction with Spatiotemporal Context 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Chen, Mei; Kanade, Takeo; Miller, Eric D.; Weiss, Lee E.; Campbell, Phil G.

    2008-01-01

    Automated visual-tracking of cell populations in vitro using phase contrast time-lapse microscopy enables quantitative, systematic and high-throughput measurements of cell behaviors. These measurements include the spatiotemporal quantification of cell migration, mitosis, apoptosis, and the construction of cell lineages. The combination of low signal-to-noise ratio of phase contrast microscopy images, high and varying densities of the cell cultures, topological complexities of cell shapes, and wide range of cell behaviors pose many challenges to existing tracking techniques. This paper presents a fully-automated multi-target tracking system that can efficiently cope with these challenges while simultaneously tracking and analyzing thousands of cells observed using time-lapse phase contrast microscopy. The system combines bottom-up and top-down image analysis by integrating multiple collaborative modules, which exploit a fast geometric active contour tracker in conjunction with adaptive interacting multiple models (IMM) motion filtering and spatiotemporal trajectory optimization. The system, which was tested using a variety of cell populations, achieved tracking accuracy in the range of 86.9%–92.5%. PMID:18656418

  2. Understanding leachate flow in municipal solid waste landfills by combining time-lapse ERT and subsurface flow modelling - Part I: Analysis of infiltration shape on two different waste deposit cells.

    PubMed

    Audebert, M; Clément, R; Moreau, S; Duquennoi, C; Loisel, S; Touze-Foltz, N

    2016-09-01

    Landfill bioreactors are based on an acceleration of in-situ waste biodegradation by performing leachate recirculation. To quantify the water content and to evaluate the leachate injection system, in-situ methods are required to obtain spatially distributed information, usually electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). In a previous study, the MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy) methodology was proposed to improve the hydrodynamic interpretation of ERT results by a precise delimitation of the infiltration area. In this study, MICS was applied on two ERT time-lapse data sets recorded on different waste deposit cells in order to compare the hydrodynamic behaviour of leachate flow between the two cells. This comparison is based on an analysis of: (i) the volume of wetted waste assessed by MICS and the wetting rate, (ii) the infiltration shapes and (iii) the pore volume used by the leachate flow. This paper shows that leachate hydrodynamic behaviour is comparable from one waste deposit cell to another with: (i) a high leachate infiltration speed at the beginning of the infiltration, which decreases with time, (ii) a horizontal anisotropy of the leachate infiltration shape and (iii) a very small fraction of the pore volume used by the leachate flow. This hydrodynamic information derived from MICS results can be useful for subsurface flow modelling used to predict leachate flow at the landfill scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying Methane Abatement Efficiency at Three Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were conducted at three municipal solid waste landfills to compare fugitive methane emissions from the landfill cells to the quantity of collected gas (i.e., gas collection efficiency). The measurements were conducted over a multi-week sampling campaign using EPA Oth...

  4. Quantifying Methane Abatement Efficiency at Three Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were conducted at three municipal solid waste landfills to compare fugitive methane emissions from the landfill cells to the quantity of collected gas (i.e., gas collection efficiency). The measurements were conducted over a multi-week sampling campaign using EPA Oth...

  5. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  6. Estimating historical landfill quantities to predict methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Seán; Murphy, Liam; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-10-01

    There are no observations for methane emissions from landfill waste in Ireland. Methane emissions are imputed from waste data. There are intermittent data on waste sent to landfill. We compare two alternative ways to impute the missing waste "data" and evaluate the impact on methane emissions. We estimate Irish historical landfill quantities from 1960-2008 and Irish methane emissions from 1968-2006. A model is constructed in which waste generation is a function of income, price of waste disposal and, household economies of scale. A transformation ratio of waste to methane is also included in the methane emissions model. Our results contrast significantly with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) figures due to the differences in the underlying assumptions. The EPA's waste generation and methane emission figures are larger than our estimates from the early 1990s onwards. Projections of the distance to target show that the EPA overestimates the required policy effort.

  7. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, L.

    2008-11-01

    Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ, operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

  8. Waste disposal mapping with electrical resistivity tomography case: Leuwigajah landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryanti, Erisha; Ardi, Ahmad Puji; Almunziri, Muaz; Xanggam, Zael Yahd; Eleazar, Adino; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Leuwigajah landfill as administrative is located between district of Bandung and Cimahi citythat has an environmental and social problem that caused aquifer contamination due to the big amount of waste from Bandung city, Cimahi and Bandung regency. It is occupied in abandoned andesite mine site with an area of about 25 hectare. The aim of this research is to map the geology structure and to study the leachate towards aquifer layer below Leuwigajah landfill. Here, we present the study of Leuwigajah landfill subsurface using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). ERT is one of the most promising prospecting techniques mainly concerning its effective contribution to resolve several environmental problems, was applied for the geophysical modeling. ERT is a robust imaging method the theory and implementation of which are well documented in geophysical research literature. The geological setting comprises clayed weathered layer, fractured andesitic dike. Due to the above-mentioned geological singularity and in the light of the requirement for an environmentally safe construction of the landfill, an ERT survey was carried out with dipole-dipole array, 78 m of acquisition line and 6 m of electrode spacing. The model consists of 4 layers below the Leuwigajah landfill and andesitic fracture until depth of 18.7 m below the surface.

  9. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Landfill site selection using combination of GIS and fuzzy AHP, a case study: Iranshahr, Iran.

    PubMed

    Torabi-Kaveh, M; Babazadeh, R; Mohammadi, S D; Zaresefat, M

    2016-03-09

    One of the most important recent challenges in solid waste management throughout the world is site selection of sanitary landfill. Commonly, because of simultaneous effects of social, environmental, and technical parameters on suitability of a landfill site, landfill site selection is a complex process and depends on several criteria and regulations. This study develops a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) process, which combines geographic information system (GIS) analysis with a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), to determine suitable sites for landfill construction in Iranshahr County, Iran. The GIS was used to calculate and classify selected criteria and FAHP was used to assess the criteria weights based on their effectiveness on selection of potential landfill sites. Finally, a suitability map was prepared by overlay analyses and suitable areas were identified. Four suitability classes within the study area were separated, including high, medium, low, and very low suitability areas, which represented 18%, 15%, 55%, and 12% of the study area, respectively.

  11. Cryopreservation of Cell/Scaffold Tissue-Engineered Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Pedro F.; Dias, Ana F.; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of cryopreservation over the functionality of tissue-engineered constructs, analyzing the survival and viability of cells seeded, cultured, and cryopreserved onto 3D scaffolds. Further, it also evaluated the effect of cryopreservation over the properties of the scaffold material itself since these are critical for the engineering of most tissues and in particular, tissues such as bone. For this purpose, porous scaffolds, namely fiber meshes based on a starch and poly(caprolactone) blend were seeded with goat bone marrow stem cells (GBMSCs) and cryopreserved for 7 days. Discs of the same material seeded with GBMSCs were also used as controls. After this period, these samples were analyzed and compared to samples collected before the cryopreservation process. The obtained results demonstrate that it is possible to maintain cell viability and scaffolds properties upon cryopreservation of tissue-engineered constructs based on starch scaffolds and goat bone marrow mesenchymal cells using standard cryopreservation methods. In addition, the outcomes of this study suggest that the greater porosity and interconnectivity of scaffolds favor the retention of cellular content and cellular viability during cryopreservation processes, when compared with nonporous discs. These findings indicate that it might be possible to prepare off-the-shelf engineered tissue substitutes and preserve them to be immediately available upon request for patients' needs. PMID:22676448

  12. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  13. Landfill gas project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The methane gas recovered from the landfill is used for space heating and water heating for the Florence-Lauderdale Humane Shelter 600 feet from the well head. The project to date and future development are described briefly. (MHR)

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC[sub 2]) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  15. Where Should the Landfill Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

  16. Where Should the Landfill Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

  17. Stem Cells and Scaffolds for Vascularizing Engineered Tissue Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, E.; Gerecht, S.

    The clinical impact of tissue engineering depends upon our ability to direct cells to form tissues with characteristic structural and mechanical properties from the molecular level up to organized tissue. Induction and creation of functional vascular networks has been one of the main goals of tissue engineering either in vitro, for the transplantation of prevascularized constructs, or in vivo, for cellular organization within the implantation site. In most cases, tissue engineering attempts to recapitulate certain aspects of normal development in order to stimulate cell differentiation and functional tissue assembly. The induction of tissue growth generally involves the use of biodegradable and bioactive materials designed, ideally, to provide a mechanical, physical, and biochemical template for tissue regeneration. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), derived from the inner cell mass of a developing blastocyst, are capable of differentiating into all cell types of the body. Specifically, hESCs have the capability to differentiate and form blood vessels de novo in a process called vasculogenesis. Human ESC-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells have substantial potential for microvessel formation, in vitro and in vivo. Human adult EPCs are being isolated to understand the fundamental biology of how these cells are regulated as a population and to explore whether these cells can be differentiated and reimplanted as a cellular therapy in order to arrest or even reverse damaged vasculature. This chapter focuses on advances made toward the generation and engineering of functional vascular tissue, focusing on both the scaffolds - the synthetic and biopolymer materials - and the cell sources - hESCs and hEPCs.

  18. Electrical and mechanical stimulation of cardiac cells and tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Stoppel, Whitney L; Kaplan, David L; Black, Lauren D

    2016-01-15

    The field of cardiac tissue engineering has made significant strides over the last few decades, highlighted by the development of human cell derived constructs that have shown increasing functional maturity over time, particularly using bioreactor systems to stimulate the constructs. However, the functionality of these tissues is still unable to match that of native cardiac tissue and many of the stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes display an immature, fetal like phenotype. In this review, we seek to elucidate the biological underpinnings of both mechanical and electrical signaling, as identified via studies related to cardiac development and those related to an evaluation of cardiac disease progression. Next, we review the different types of bioreactors developed to individually deliver electrical and mechanical stimulation to cardiomyocytes in vitro in both two and three-dimensional tissue platforms. Reactors and culture conditions that promote functional cardiomyogenesis in vitro are also highlighted. We then cover the more recent work in the development of bioreactors that combine electrical and mechanical stimulation in order to mimic the complex signaling environment present in vivo. We conclude by offering our impressions on the important next steps for physiologically relevant mechanical and electrical stimulation of cardiac cells and engineered tissue in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of alternate construction materials for a lithium electrolysis cell

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Olsen, A.R.; DiStefano, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    Electrolytic cells currently used for the production of lithium metal are constructed of A285 Grade A steel (carbon content less than 0.15%). Failures of the cell wall have frequently occurred after 2 to 5 years of service, and these failures have been attributed to corrosion resulting from the reaction of iron carbide with lithium. An examination of a recent failure confirmed this conclusion. In an effort to identify alternate construction materials with better corrosion resistance for this application, five materials with very low carbon levels and/or carbides more stable than those in A285 were selected for evaluation. Materials were evaluated after exposure in an operating electrolytic cell, after exposure to pure lithium, and after exposure to a moist air-chlorine mixture. Results show that all five of the alternative materials selected are more corrosion resistant than A285, but two were eliminated from further consideration because of other potential shortcomings. Additional long-term corrosion tests are recommended for the remaining three candidate materials. Final selection should be based on considerations of cost, availability, and fabricability in addition to compatibility. 26 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Methane emissions from MBT landfills.

    PubMed

    Heyer, K-U; Hupe, K; Stegmann, R

    2013-09-01

    Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency ("Umweltbundesamt"), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18-24 m(3)CH(4)/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH(4)/(m(2)h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000-135,000 t CO(2-eq.)/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied

  1. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  2. Smooth Muscle-Like Tissue Constructs with Circumferentially Oriented Cells Formed by the Cell Fiber Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Amy Y.; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments. PMID:25734774

  3. Lateral migration and offsite surface emission of landfill gas at City of Montreal Landfill Site.

    PubMed

    Franzidis, Jean-Pierre; Héroux, Martin; Nastev, Miroslav; Guy, Christophe

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of lateral landfill gas migration was carried out at the Saint-Michel Environmental Complex in Montreal, City of Montreal Landfill Site, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. Biogas concentration measurements and gas-pumping tests were conducted in multilevel wells installed in the backfilled overburden beside the landfill site. A migration event recorded in autumn 2004 during the maintenance shutdown of the extraction system was simulated using TOUGH-LGM software. Eleven high-density instantaneous surface monitoring (ISM) surveys of methane were conducted on the test site. Gas fluxes were calculated by geostatistical analyses of ISM data correlated to dynamic flux chamber measurements. Variograms using normal transformed data showed good structure, and kriged estimates were much better than inverse distance weighting, due to highly skewed data. Measurement-based estimates of yearly off-site surface emissions were two orders of magnitude higher than modelled advective lateral methane flux. Nucleodensimeter measurements of the porosity were abnormally high, indicating that the backfill was poorly compacted. Kriged porosity maps correlated well with emission maps and areas with vegetation damage. Pumping tests analysis revealed that vertical permeability was higher than radial permeability. All results suggest that most of the lateral migration and consequent emissions to the atmosphere were due to the existence of preferential flow paths through macropores. In December 2006, two passively vented trenches were constructed on the test site. They were successful in countering lateral migration.

  4. Spraying Respiratory Epithelial Cells to Coat Tissue-Engineered Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Thiebes, Anja Lena; Albers, Stefanie; Klopsch, Christian; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Cornelissen, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Applying cells in a spray can overcome current hurdles in coating tissue engineered constructs with a thin layer of endo- or epithelial cells. We report here a structured study on the influences of spray application with a medical spray device on vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and respiratory epithelial cells (RECs) with and without fibrin gel. Next to viability and cytotoxicity assays, the in vitro differentiation capacity after spray processing was analyzed. For vSMC, no influence of air pressures till 0.8 bar could be shown, whereas the viability decreased for higher pressures. The viability of RECs was reduced to 88.5% with 0.4 bar air pressure. Lactate dehydrogenase-levels in the culture medium increased the first day after spraying but normalized afterward. In the short term, no differences by means of morphology and expression-specific markers for vSMCs and RECs were seen between the control and study group. In addition, in a long-term study for 28 days with the air–liquid interface, RECs differentiated and built up an organized epithelial layer with ciliary development that was comparable to the control for cells sprayed without fibrin gel. When spraying within fibrin gel, ciliary development was lower at 28 days. Thus, spraying of vSMCs and RECs was proved to be a suitable method for tissue engineering. Especially for RECs, this application is of special significance when coating luminal structures or other unfavorable topographies. PMID:26309803

  5. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  6. Performance of paper mill sludges as landfill capping material

    SciTech Connect

    Moo-Young, H.K. Jr.; Zimmie, T.F.

    1997-12-31

    The high cost of waste containment has sparked interest in low cost and effective strategies of containing wastes. Paper mill sludges have been effectively used as the impermeable barrier in landfill covers. Since paper mill sludges are viewed as a waste material, the sludge is given to the landfill owner at little or no cost. Thus, when a clay soil is not locally available to use as the impermeable barrier in a cover system, paper sludge barriers can save $20,000 to $50,000 per acre in construction costs. This study looks at the utilization and performance of blended and primary paper sludge as landfill capping material. To determine the effectiveness of paper sludge as an impermeable barrier layer, test pads were constructed to simulate a typical landfill cover with paper sludge and clay as the impermeable barrier and were monitored for infiltration rates for five years. Long-term hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the leachate generation rates of the test pads indicate that paper sludge provides an acceptable hydraulic barrier.

  7. Cell permeable ITAM constructs for the modulation of mediator release in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kuil, Joeri; Fischer, Marcel J E; de Mol, Nico J; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2011-02-07

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is essential for high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) mediated mast cell degranulation. Once FcεRI is stimulated, intracellular ITAM motifs of the receptor are diphosphorylated (dpITAM) and Syk is recruited to the receptor by binding of the Syk tandem SH2 domain to dpITAM, resulting in activation of Syk and, eventually, degranulation. To investigate intracellular effects of ITAM mimics, constructs were synthesized with ITAM mimics conjugated to different cell penetrating peptides, i.e. Tat, TP10, octa-Arg and K(Myr)KKK, or a lipophilic C(12)-chain. In most constructs the cargo and carrier were linked to each other through a disulfide bridge, which is convenient for combining different cargos with different carriers and has the advantage that the cargo and the carrier may be separated by reduction of the disulfide once it is intracellular. The ability of these ITAM constructs to label RBL-2H3 cells was assessed using flow cytometry. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the octa-Arg-SS-Flu-ITAM construct was present in various parts of the cells, although it was not homogeneously distributed. In addition, cell penetrating constructs without fluorescent labels were synthesized to examine degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. Octa-Arg-SS-ITAM stimulated the mediator release up to 140%, indicating that ITAM mimics may have the ability to activate non-receptor bound Syk.

  8. A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633) interior under construction. Hot cells ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633) interior under construction. Hot cells and their doors are along concrete wall. Note side wall of pumice block. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: October 28, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5335 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  10. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  11. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  12. Landfill mining: Giving garbage a second chance

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, C.C.; Ruckstuhl, K. )

    1988-08-01

    Some communities face the problems of lack of landfill space and lack of landfill cover dirt. In some cases, existing landfills may be mined to reclaim dirt for use as cover material and to recover space for reuse. Such mining also has the potential of recovering recyclables and incinerator fuels. Machinery to reclaim refuse deposits, and their heterogeneous composted ingredients, was successfully tested at two Florida landfills in June 1987. One of the Florida mining tests, at the Collier County landfill near the city of Naples, had goals of demonstrating an economical mechanical system to separate the depository's ingredients into usable or redisposable components, and to see if the method could enable the county to avoid the expenses associated with permanent closure of a full landfill. This paper describes the history of the Collier County landfill, the equipment and feasibility test, economics, the monitoring of odors, landfill gas, and heavy metals, and results of the test.

  13. Use of historic VOCs in ground water to evaluate the integrity of a landfill cap

    SciTech Connect

    DeMers, G.L.

    1994-12-31

    A municipal landfill site in south central Wisconsin was listed on the National Priorities list (NPL) in October 1989 due to contamination of the ground water with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 14-acre site was operated from 1973 to 1983 as a landfill, and had accepted municipal, commercial and industrial wastes. A clay cap was constructed on the site in 1983. Under contract between the site owner and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), a Remedial Investigation (RI) to identify the vertical and horizontal extent of ground-water impacts was conducted according to the requirements of CERCLA. In order to streamline the RI/FS process for the site, a focused Feasibility Study (FS) was prepared concurrently with the RI. The focused FS evaluated landfill cap alternatives for the site. As a result of the FS, the WDNR`s proposed plan for source control recommended that a composite cap be constructed on the landfill.

  14. Landfill mining for resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reith, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    Landfills are repositories of subeconomic resources. Landfill mining is an important enterprise that will someday return these resources to productive use, closing the loop on finite resources and stimulating economic development in communities near landfills. Secondary development of interred resources (landfill waste) will become economically viable as the environmental externalities of primary resource development -- e.g., the destruction of pristine habitat -- are more fully accounted for in programs of ecological design and design for environment. It is important to take an integrated and holistic approach to this new endeavor, which will be a complex assemblage of disciplines. Component disciplines include: resource economics, characterization, and excavation; contaminant control, and protection of environmental safety and health; material sorting, blending, and pretreatment; resource conversion, recovery, storage, and distribution; and reclamation for long-term land use. These technical elements must be addressed in close combination with compelling social issues such as environmental justice that may be especially critical in economically depressed communities surrounding today`s landfills.

  15. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrogen aspects of hydrological processes: a case study in Likeng landfill, Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianyao; Zhu, Aiping; Tang, Changyuan; Luo, Yinglin; Zhang, Yizhang

    2014-11-01

    The nitrogen aspects of hydrological processes must be determined to identify nitrogen sources and relevant mechanisms. Landfills are the dominant disposal approach to deal with solid waste in urban areas in China. Landfills require adequate land and pose a potential threat to aquifer contamination, particularly in the humid zone, such as Guangzhou. The unlined Likeng landfill in Guangzhou was investigated in three campaigns during the period 2001-2007: water was sampled and analyzed for major ions, heavy metals, and stable isotopes of (18)O and (2)H in water, and (18)O and (15)N in nitrate. Contamination sources, water components, and groundwater flow were examined, revealing a mixture of various sources from landfill effluent, septic tank leakage, fertilizer, and manure following complex processes of recharge, mixing, and denitrification. The effluent from the landfill was rich in Na(+), Ca(2+), K(+), HCO3(-), and Cl(-) ions. A similar process of high NH4(+) in effluent resulting in episodic increases in NO3(-) because of NH4(+) oxidation was found in Likeng landfill when compared with landfills in Denmark and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the precipitation was lost to evaporation before recharging the aquifer, indicating a possible maximum recharge rate of 75% and the potential for a large amount of water penetration to the landfill if not well constructed. Apparent groundwater flow velocity of 3.7 × 10(-7) m s(-1) (11.67 m/a) was found for the front of the effluent under the landfill by considering the vertical and horizontal flow. These findings provide background to delineate the plume from Likeng landfill and to conceptualize the natural attenuation processes of other toxic compounds, which are imperative for any remediation strategy.

  17. Modelling for environmental assessment of municipal solid waste landfills (part 1: hydrology).

    PubMed

    García de Cortázar, Amaya Lobo; Lantarón, Javier Herrero; Fernández, Oscar Montero; Monzón, Iñaki Tejero; Lamia, Maria Fantelli

    2002-04-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic simulation program for the prediction of leachate flows, their organic contamination and the gas generated in municipal waste landfills, (MODUELO) has been developed. It permits the simulation of canyon landfills in which the surface area changes throughout the landfill's history and of complex drainage systems. The "hydrologic module" calculates, based on the saturated flow equations, the water flow between cells and the overall moisture balance. Its results allow the "contamination module" to carry out the balance of organic material. This paper presents the development of the "hydrologic module". The contamination models are included in another paper. A preliminary application to the Meruelo Landfill (Spain) is also shown here. The fitting of a data series of leachate flows in Meruelo indicated the existence, in this particular landfill, of unconsidered phenomena. The final adjustment of the results makes it possible to obtain a reliable simulation of the degradation processes.

  18. Consequences of raising the height of a landfill in a water-deficient climate.

    PubMed

    Blight, G E

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale field experiment has been carried out at the Coastal Park landfill which serves the City of Cape Town, South Africa. The landfill is unlined, and the City Council was under pressure from the central Government to cap and close the existing landfill and to establish an extension to the landfill with a lining to prevent the escape of leachate into the ground water. Measuring cells, installed to measure the rate of leachate flow from the landfill had shown that over a period of 9 years, from 1987 to 1995, leachate flow had averaged only 2% of rainfall. It therefore appeared possible, by increasing the moisture absorption capacity of the landfill, i.e., by increasing its height, to stop the leachate flow completely. If this could be achieved, there would be no need for a lining, and the raising would considerably extend the life of the landfill. The paper describes the experiment and its results, including the effects of the raising on leachate flow, settlement, leachate quality and the potential for polluting ground water, and the landfill's water balance.

  19. Variation in organic matter characteristics of landfill leachates in different stabilisation stages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhinav; Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Goldsmith, C Douglas

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of landfill age on landfill leachate characteristics; two aspects are focused here. One is ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)) property, as the discharge of landfill leachates to publically owned treatment works can cause interference with UV(254) disinfection. The other is biorefractory organic nitrogen in leachates, as it can contribute to effluent nitrogen making it difficult to meet stringent effluent nitrogen regulations. To study variation in UV(254)-absorbing organic carbon and organic nitrogen, leachate samples ranging from cells with ages 2 to 30 y from a large landfill in Kentucky, were collected and fractionated on a basis of their molecular weight and chemical nature into humic acids, fulvic acids and a hydrophilic fraction. The effectiveness of long term landfilling and membrane treatment for organic matter and organic nitrogen removal was examined. Humic materials, which were the major UV(254)-absorbing substances, were mainly >1 kDa and they degraded significantly with landfill age. The hydrophilic organic fraction, which was the major contributor to organic nitrogen, was mainly <1 kDa and it became increasingly recalcitrant with landfill age. This study provides insight into the characteristics of the different leachate fractions with landfilling age that might aid the design of on-site leachate treatment techniques.

  20. Leachate recirculation at the Nanticoke sanitary landfill using a bioreactor trench. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, J.J.; Scrudato, R.J.; Sumner, G.M.

    1998-02-01

    A one-year landfill leachate recirculation demonstration project was conducted in a 20-acre cell at the Broome County, NY, Nanticoke Landfill using a retrofit bioreactor trench design concept to introduce landfill leachate to the surrounding refuse mass. Over the course of the project, 1.1 million gallons of landfill leachate were distributed through the bioreactor trench, substantially increasing the moisture content (approaching 70%) of the surrounding municipal solid waste. Experimental results also indicate that the bioreactor trench functioned as an in-situ anaerobic bioreactor, effectively treating landfill leachate retained within the trench due to decreasing refuse permeability and enhanced leachate hydraulic retention time. A significant and steady decline was noted in landfill leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acid (VFA), and total organic carbon (TOC), suggesting that the rapid biological stabilization of the refuse within the 20-acre demonstration area was influenced by the bioreactor trench. Characterization of the resulting landfill gas indicated that optimum methane:carbon dioxide ratios were measured in all experimental gas wells and in the bioreactor trench. No apparent enhancement of landfill gas production was noted in promixity to the bioreactor trench.

  1. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  2. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  3. Mining landfills for space and fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Flosdorf, H.W.; Alexieff, S.

    1993-03-01

    Lancaster County, Pennsylvania`s experiments with landfill reclamation are helping the county remain self-sufficient in managing its solid waste stream. Landfill mining is proving to be a worthwhile approach to extending landfill life and obtaining fuel for the county`s waste-to-energy plant.

  4. THE USEPA'S LANDFILL RESEARCH AND REGULATORY STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The priorities and initiatives of Environmental Protection Agency's landfill research and regulatory program over the next five years will be described. This will include municipal solid waste landfills as well as abandoned hazardous waste landfills.

    Regarding municipals s...

  5. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  6. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  7. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  8. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  9. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  10. Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) antibody constructs can mediate bystander tumor cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sandra L.; Sherman, Marika; McElroy, Patricia L.; Lofgren, Julie A.; Moody, Gordon; Baeuerle, Patrick A.; Coxon, Angela

    2017-01-01

    For targets that are homogenously expressed, such as CD19 on cells of the B lymphocyte lineage, immunotherapies can be highly effective. Targeting CD19 with blinatumomab, a CD19/CD3 bispecific antibody construct (BiTE®), or with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) has shown great promise for treating certain CD19-positive hematological malignancies. In contrast, solid tumors with heterogeneous expression of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) may present a challenge for targeted therapies. To prevent escape of TAA-negative cancer cells, immunotherapies with a local bystander effect would be beneficial. As a model to investigate BiTE®-mediated bystander killing in the solid tumor setting, we used epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a target. We measured lysis of EGFR-negative populations in vitro and in vivo when co-cultured with EGFR-positive cells, human T cells and an EGFR/CD3 BiTE® antibody construct. Bystander EGFR-negative cells were efficiently lysed by BiTE®-activated T cells only when proximal to EGFR-positive cells. Our mechanistic analysis suggests that cytokines released by BiTE®-activated T-cells induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and FAS on EGFR-negative bystander cells, contributing to T cell-induced bystander cell lysis. PMID:28837681

  11. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  12. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  13. The use of liposomes for constructing cell models.

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, T; Luisi, P L

    2002-12-01

    We illustrate here in a form of a short review some of the work developed in our and other groups aiming at performing inside liposomes enzymatic reactions relevant for the origin of life. The work on giant vesicles will not be considered here. The long-range goal of our work with SUVs or LUVs (small unilamellar vesicles or large unilamellar vesicles) is the construction of a model minimal cell. By this we mean a cell-like system containing the minimal and sufficient number of macromolecular components for expressingsome of the basic functions of a living cell- such as protein biosynthesis, growth and self-reproduction, homeostasis based on a primitive metabolism. We begin describing a POPC liposomal system containing some of the enzymes of the salvage cycle for the synthesis of lecithin; then vesicles containing the nucleotide phosphorylase enzyme for the polymerisation of ADP into poly(A); an oleate self-reproducing vesicular system which hosts Qβ replicase for the replication of a RNA template; a POPC systems (POPC = 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine) hosting the elements for a polymerase chain reaction; and finally the attempts to organize inside liposomes the ribosomal system capable of the synthesis of poly(phenylalanine). This analysis of published work will be followed by the description of novel work aimed at expressing a protein (green fluorescent protein) inside liposomes. The possible development of this work and its limits will be discussed.

  14. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  15. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  16. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  17. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard...construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete Proposals, Economist, July 24

  18. Sustainable Management of Construction and Demolition Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web page discusses how to sustainably manage construction and demolition materials, Information covers, what they are, and how builders, construction crews, demolition teams,and deign practitioners can divert C&D from landfills.

  19. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  1. Landfill Liners and Covers: Properties and Application to Army Landfills.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    sands and gravels were used for cover material. Several moni- toring points placed through and around the landfill defined the area of groundwater ... pollution . 2 1H. Dratfield and L. Mavtone, personal communication. 53 0 O GAS VENT 2’ FINAL COVER TREATMENT NEW- LAGOON W LT WAT _ LEACHATE COLLECTION

  2. Treatment of landfill leachates by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Latesh B; Murthy, Z V P

    2010-05-01

    Landfill leachate contains high concentrations of organic matter, color, heavy metals and toxic substances. This study presents the feasibility of a commercial nanofiltration membrane (NF-300) in the removal of pollutants from a landfill leachate generated from the Treatment Stabilization and Disposal Facility in Gujarat state of India. Two different leachate samples (Leachates A and B) were collected from the downstream side of closed landfill cells A and B. The average quality of the leachate was 67 719 mg/L COD, 217 mg/L ammonical nitrogen, 22 418 mg/L BOD, 3847 mg/L chlorides and 909 mg/L sulphate. The operating variables studied were applied pressure (4-20 atm), feed flowrate (5-15L/min) and pH (2, 4, 5.5 and 6.7). It was observed that the solute rejection (R(O)) increased with increase in feed pressure and decreased with increase in feed concentration at constant feed flowrate. In the present study, the rejection of cations followed the sequence: R(O) (Cr(3+))>R(O) (Ni(2+))>R(O) (Zn(2+))>R(O) (Cu(2+))>R(O) (Cd(2+)) for leachates A and B. The order of solute rejection sequence is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficients. The rejection of sulphate ions by the NF-300 membrane was 83 and 85%, while the rejection of chlorides was 62 and 65% for leachates A and B, respectively. The NF-300 membrane was characterized by using the combined-film theory-Spiegler-Kedem (CFSK) model based on irreversible thermodynamics and the ion transport model based on the extended Nernst-Planck equation. The membrane transport parameters were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquadt method. The estimated parameters were used to predict the membrane performance and the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    hot water, appliances, lightening and misc.66 Average and efficient energy costs were determined for each base. The collection of average and...data and the appropriate regional median condominium87 and apartment O&M costs . For new housing projects the energy efficient utility costs were used...supply of domestic skilled laborers and the increasing cost of insurance. The construction industry has always contracted and expanded based

  4. Geophysical identification of leachate levels and refuse characterization in a landfill at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, P.J.; Xi, Y.; El-Hussain, I.W. . Dept. of Geology); Moos, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic and electrical geophysical techniques were used to survey the 800 Area landfill at Argonne National Laboratory as part of an environmental site assessment. This landfill was opened in 1966 and has accepted non-radioactive laboratory, office, food service and construction wastes. Magnetic profiles and electrical resistivity surveys using Wenner, Schlumberger and dipole-dipole arrays were made primarily over the northern portion of the landfill and long its margins. Mounding of leachate to within 5 ft. (1.5 m) of the surface was identified within the north-central and northeastern portions of the landfill using resistivity soundings and dipole-dipole surveys. Soundings also suggest refuse thickness varies from 10--30 ft (3--10 m) south to north across the landfill. Both dipole-dipole and magnetic profiles have identified conductive and insulating objects in the refuse. Areas of low resistivity flanking the northeastern and eastern margins of the landfill may represent migration of leachate to the north and east. High resistivity layers detected beneath the landfill suggest little or no downward percolation of mineralized leachate. Such high resistivity layers, however, may indicate the presence of sand and gravel layers/lenses embedded in the drift which are potential contaminant pathways. The geophysical results are presently being used in optimum placement of monitoring wells, soil gas probes and future remediation planning. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  6. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability

  7. Research, development and demonstration in the design of sanitary landfill to optimize the generation and capture of compressible gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosanov, M. E.; Teeple, F. E.; Buesch, S. C.

    1982-02-01

    The influences of selected factors on the generation and recovery of methane gas from sanitary landfills were investigated. The factors included encapsulation, shredding, air classifying, moisture, and pH. Facilities consisting of six model sanitary landfill cells, each with a capacity of approximately 450 cubic yards of municipal waste, and auxiliary subsystems were constructed. Municipal waste in each cell is contained in a 30-mil thick polyvinly chloride plastic sheeting forming a virtually gas-tight envelope. Two cells were filled with as-collected urban waste, two with shredded waste, and two with shredded and air classified waste, constituting three pairs of cells. One of each pair is a control cell with the other used as an experimental variable. Systems were provided for adding measured amounts of water, removing and recirculating leachate, and for extracting gas and measuring gas flow. During testing, gas production and internal cell characteristics were measured to determine the effects of mechanical processing, moisture content, and leachate pH.

  8. Influence of scaffold design on 3D printed cell constructs.

    PubMed

    Souness, Auryn; Zamboni, Fernanda; Walker, Gavin M; Collins, Maurice N

    2017-02-14

    Additive manufacturing is currently receiving significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and biomaterial science. The development of precise, affordable 3D printing technologies has provided a new platform for novel research to be undertaken in 3D scaffold design and fabrication. In the past, a number of 3D scaffold designs have been fabricated to investigate the potential of a 3D printed scaffold as a construct which could support cellular life. These studies have shown promising results; however, few studies have utilized a low-cost desktop 3D printing technology as a potential rapid manufacturing route for different scaffold designs. Here six scaffold designs were manufactured using a Fused deposition modeling, a "bottom-up" solid freeform fabrication approach, to determine optimal scaffold architecture for three-dimensional cell growth. The scaffolds, produced from PLA, are coated using pullulan and hyaluronic acid to assess the coating influence on cell proliferation and metabolic rate. Scaffolds are characterized both pre- and postprocessing using water uptake analysis, mechanical testing, and morphological evaluation to study the inter-relationships between the printing process, scaffold design, and scaffold properties. It was found that there were key differences between each scaffold design in terms of porosity, diffusivity, swellability, and compressive strength. An optimal design was chosen based on these physical measurements which were then weighted in accordance to design importance based on literature and utilizing a design matrix technique. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  9. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  10. Landfill reclamation attracts attention and questions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    Landfill mining or reclamation has fit neatly into the recycling/reuse mindset. In heralding the first California landfill reclamation project at the Caspar Landfill municipal solid waste (MSW) site in May 1994, a California state official described it as ''win-win. Nobody loses''. Speaking at a session at the annual meeting of the Solid Waste Management Association of North America (SWANA), held August 2--6, 1994, Joanne R. Guerriero, senior project engineer, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (White Plains, NY), said landfill reclamation--the excavation of a landfill using conventional mining technology to recover and reuse resources--can: extend the life of existing landfill sites and reduce the need for siting new landfills; decrease the area requiring closure; remediate an environmental concern by removing a contaminant source; reclaim marketable recyclables; and capture energy through waste combustion.

  11. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  12. Fugitive halocarbon emissions from working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Dastyar, Wafa; Liu, Yanting; Guo, Hanwen; Fu, Xindi; Li, Hao; Meng, Ruihong; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-09-13

    Halocarbons are important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to their long lifetime and large characteristic factors. The present study for the first time assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of fugitive halocarbon emissions from the working face of landfills in China. The national emissions of five major halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-113, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4) from the working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China were provided through observation-based estimations. The fluxes of halocarbons from working face of landfills were observed much higher than covered cells in landfills hence representing the hot spots of landfill emissions. The annual emissions of the halocarbons from landfills in China were 0.02-15.6kt·y(-1), and their GWPs were 128-60,948kt-CO2-eq·y(-1) based on their characteristic factors on a 100-year horizon. CFC-113 was the dominant species owing to its highest releasing rate (i.e. 15.4±19.1g·t(-1)) and largest characteristic factor, resulting in a GWP up to 4036±4855kt-CO2-eq·y(-1). The annual emissions of CFC-113 from landfills (i.e. 0.61kt·y(-1)) made up ∼76% of the total national CFC-113 emissions. The GWPs of halocarbons were estimated ∼14.4% of landfill methane emissions. Therefore, fugitive halocarbons emissions from working face are significant sources of GHGs in landfill sites in China, although they comprise a small fraction of total landfill gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Landfill gas makes cheap fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1984-08-01

    According to a recent study by the American Gas Assn (AGA), the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas has grown by nearly 800% over the last five years. There are nearly 30 active sites recovering energy across the US--mostly in California and the Northeast--and, based on one optimistic estimate, there are close to 3500 potential sites. Reasons for recovering landfill gas are numerous. One, communities are attracted by the additional revenue a successful landfill-gas recovery project brings; the gas can be sold to a naturalgas supplier, it can be burned in gas turbines or gas engines to generate electricity for sale to the local utility, and it can be used to generate steam for use at a nearby industrial or institutional site. Recovering methane helps reduce the odors produced from decomposing garbage which can be disturbing to people living in the vicinity of the landfill. It also helps reduce the chance of explosions--methane trapped beneath the surface can build up to dangerous levels.

  14. Biotechnology comes to landfill sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-19

    The GLC's Aveley site in Essex is being managed for the production and collection of methane. Commercial tapping of methane for delivery to local firms is planned. It is estimated that Britain's 2.5 million cubic metres of landfill sites could contain methane reserves worth around number20M.

  15. Water balance comparison between a dry and a wet landfill — a full-scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, S. T. S.; Wang, Q. J.; Styles, J. R.; McMahon, T. A.

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a water balance study conducted in a full-scale experimental municipal solid waste landfill in Melbourne, Australia. The investigation identified the significance of various hydrological components of a 'dry' landfill (represented by half of the experimental cell as a control section) and a 'wet' landfill (represented by other half of the cell allowing leachate recirculation and working as a bioreactor). The information obtained is important and useful in terms of leachate management for both dry and wet cell operations, especially for landfills located in a similar climate region. The study also determined the in situ field capacity of the waste and compared it to published data. The implication of using this field capacity value in water balance study is discussed.

  16. Emissions from the Bena Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, C.; Blake, D. R.; Hughes, S.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, Americans generated 254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generated from the decomposition of MSW is composed of approximately 50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide, and a small proportion of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). NMOCs constitute less than 1% of landfill emissions, but they can have a disproportionate environmental impact as they are highly reactive ozone precursors. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected at the Bena landfill outside of Bakersfield, CA and throughout Bakersfield and analyzed using gas chromatography in order to quantify NMOC emissions. This area was determined to have elevated concentrations of benzene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which are categorized by the EPA as hazardous to human health. Benzene was found to have a concentration of 145 ± 4 pptv, four times higher than the background levels in Bakersfield (36 ± 1 pptv). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene had concentrations of 18 ± 1 pptv and 31 ± 1 pptv which were 18 and 10 times greater than background concentrations, respectively. In addition, hydroxyl radical reactivity (ROH) was calculated to determine the potential for tropospheric ozone formation. The total ROH of the landfill was 7.5 ± 0.2 s-1 compared to total background ROH of 1.0 ± 0.1 s-1 . NMOCs only made up 0.6% of total emissions, but accounted for 67% of total ROH.These results can help to shape future landfill emission policies by highlighting the importance of NMOCs in addition to methane. More research is needed to investigate the ozone forming potential of these compounds at landfills across the country.

  17. Limited site investigation of Landfills 1 and 4, Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Eddy, P.A.; Airhart, S.P.; Olsen, K.R.; Raymond, J.R.; Dahl, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The information presented in this report was collected during limited site investigation activities conducted in the vicinity of Landfills 1 and 4 at Fort Lewis. The purpose of this work was to provide a means of detecting and evaluating the impacts of these inactive landfills on ground-water quality and adjacent lands. This effort included the design and construction of ground-water monitoring systems for compliance with applicable federal and state regulations governing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-type landfills. Ground-water samples were collected from both existing (1981 and 1984) wells and the newly installed (1988) wells. The analytical results from the water samples indicate that the ground water in and around Landfill 1 contains limited contamination. Contaminants may include volatile organic compounds and nitrate. The primary concern in the area around Landfill 1 was the determination that ground water from two wells may contain cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. Nitrate levels in the downgradient wells were greater than those in upgradient wells and exceeded drinking water standards in some of the less-representative samples. Analyses of ground-water samples from wells in and around Landfill 4 indicate several contaminants may be present. These include volatile organic compounds (principally cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene), coliform, oil and grease, and perhaps some metals (iron and magnesium). The primary concern in the area around Landfill 4 was the determination that ground water from five wells contained cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. The source of contaminants beneath either landfill cannot yet be identified. Insufficient data exist to disprove or confirm either landfill as possible contributors. 19 refs., 32 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Cell cycle stage specific application of municipal landfill leachates to assess the genotoxicity in root meristem cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Municipal solid wastes (MSW) are unavoidable sources of environmental pollution. Improper disposal of municipal waste results in the leaching of toxic metals and organic chemicals, which can contaminate the surface and ground water leading to serious health hazard. In this study, the toxic effects of the leachate prepared from municipal solid waste samples were examined in root meristem cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at various stages of cell cycle, i.e., G1, S, and G2. Seeds of barley were exposed to 2.5, 5, and 10 % of leachates in soil and aqueous media in 48 h at different cell cycle stages. The physicochemical data of the present study revealed that municipal solid waste leachate contains high amount of heavy metals, which significantly affected growth and physiological activities of barley. Significant inhibition in hypocotyl length, germination, and mitotic index were observed at all concentration of leachate treatment. Induction of chromosomal aberrations (CA's) and micronuclei (MN) formation were also observed with different concentrations of leachate treatment at 7, 17, and 27 h of presoaking durations, which falls in G1, S, and G2 phase of the cell cycle, respectively. Also, exposure of leachate at S phase of the cell cycle had significant effects in barley through chromosomal aberration and micronuclei formation.

  19. Spatial Data Mining Toolbox for Mapping Suitability of Landfill Sites Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujayyab, S. K. M.; Ahamad, M. S. S.; Yahya, A. S.; Aziz, H. A.

    2016-09-01

    Mapping the suitability of landfill sites is a complex field and is involved with multidiscipline. The purpose of this research is to create an ArcGIS spatial data mining toolbox for mapping the suitability of landfill sites at a regional scale using neural networks. The toolbox is constructed from six sub-tools to prepare, train, and process data. The employment of the toolbox is straightforward. The multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks structure with a backpropagation learning algorithm is used. The dataset is mined from the north states in Malaysia. A total of 14 criteria are utilized to build the training dataset. The toolbox provides a platform for decision makers to implement neural networks for mapping the suitability of landfill sites in the ArcGIS environment. The result shows the ability of the toolbox to produce suitability maps for landfill sites.

  20. Steel slag used in landfill cover liners: laboratory and field tests.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Inga; Andreas, Lale; Diener, Silvia; Lind, Lotta

    2010-12-01

    Stricter rules for landfilling within the EU have led to the closure of many landfills and a need for large amounts of cover liner materials. Therefore, the potential utilization of mixtures of electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and ladle slag (LS), which are currently deposited in landfills, as a material for use as landfill liner was investigated. Laboratory analyses showed the mixtures to have similar compression strength to that of high-strength concrete and low hydraulic conductivity (< 10(-11) m s(-1) in some cases). However, both their hydraulic conductivity and compaction properties were strongly affected by the time between adding water to the mixtures and compacting them (tests showed that a delay of 24 h can lead to an increase in hydraulic conductivity, so it should be compacted as soon as possible after mixing the material with water). In addition, the performance of a cover liner constructed using EAFS and LS was studied in a 2-year field trial on a landfill for municipal solid waste, in which the average amount of leachate collected from ten lysimeters was only 27 L m(-2) year(-1), easily meeting Swedish criteria for the permeability of covers on non-hazardous waste landfills (≤ 50 L m(-2) year(-1)). Thus, the material seems to have promising potential for use in barrier constructions.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of Gonabad municipal waste landfill site using Leopold Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Aliakbari, Zohreh; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed; Rasouli, Seyedeh Samira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An environmental impact assessment (EIA) before embarking on any project is a useful tool to reduce the potential effects of each project, including landfill, if possible. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the current municipal solid waste disposal site of Gonabad by using the Iranian Leopold matrix method. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of a landfill site in Gonabad in 2015 by an Iranian matrix (modified Leopold matrix). This study was conducted based on field visits of the landfill, and collected information from various sources and analyzing and comparing between five available options, including the continuation of the current disposal practices, construction of new sanitary landfills, recycling plans, composting, and incineration plants was examined. The best option was proposed to replace the existing landfill. Results The current approach has a score of 2.35, the construction of new sanitary landfill has a score of 1.59, a score of 1.57 for the compost plant, and recycling and incineration plant, respectively, have scores of 1.68 and 2.3. Conclusion Results showed that continuation of the current method of disposal, due to severe environmental damage and health problems, is rejected. A compost plant with the lowest negative score is the best option for the waste disposal site of Gonabad City and has priority over the other four options. PMID:28465797

  2. Environmental impact assessment of Gonabad municipal waste landfill site using Leopold Matrix.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Aliakbari, Zohreh; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed; Rasouli, Seyedeh Samira

    2017-02-01

    An environmental impact assessment (EIA) before embarking on any project is a useful tool to reduce the potential effects of each project, including landfill, if possible. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the current municipal solid waste disposal site of Gonabad by using the Iranian Leopold matrix method. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of a landfill site in Gonabad in 2015 by an Iranian matrix (modified Leopold matrix). This study was conducted based on field visits of the landfill, and collected information from various sources and analyzing and comparing between five available options, including the continuation of the current disposal practices, construction of new sanitary landfills, recycling plans, composting, and incineration plants was examined. The best option was proposed to replace the existing landfill. The current approach has a score of 2.35, the construction of new sanitary landfill has a score of 1.59, a score of 1.57 for the compost plant, and recycling and incineration plant, respectively, have scores of 1.68 and 2.3. Results showed that continuation of the current method of disposal, due to severe environmental damage and health problems, is rejected. A compost plant with the lowest negative score is the best option for the waste disposal site of Gonabad City and has priority over the other four options.

  3. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  4. Compartment model of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yul; Tojo, Yasumasa; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2007-12-01

    The mathematical formulations in a one-dimensional compartment model of the biodegradation of organic landfill components are described. The model is designed to switch between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, depending on the local oxygen concentration. The model also includes the effect of environmental factors, such as moisture content, pH, and temperature, on reaction rates. The model includes not only biodegradation processes for carbon compounds (acetate, CO2, CH4), but also for nitrogen compounds involved in nitrification and denitrification due to their significance in landfills. Two example runs to simulate anaerobic and aerobic waste were conducted for a single landfill unit cell by changing the organic content and diffusion coefficient.

  5. Genetic programs constructed from layered logic gates in single cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Tae Seok; Lou, Chunbo; Tamsir, Alvin; Stanton, Brynne C; Voigt, Christopher A

    2012-11-08

    Genetic programs function to integrate environmental sensors, implement signal processing algorithms and control expression dynamics. These programs consist of integrated genetic circuits that individually implement operations ranging from digital logic to dynamic circuits, and they have been used in various cellular engineering applications, including the implementation of process control in metabolic networks and the coordination of spatial differentiation in artificial tissues. A key limitation is that the circuits are based on biochemical interactions occurring in the confined volume of the cell, so the size of programs has been limited to a few circuits. Here we apply part mining and directed evolution to build a set of transcriptional AND gates in Escherichia coli. Each AND gate integrates two promoter inputs and controls one promoter output. This allows the gates to be layered by having the output promoter of an upstream circuit serve as the input promoter for a downstream circuit. Each gate consists of a transcription factor that requires a second chaperone protein to activate the output promoter. Multiple activator-chaperone pairs are identified from type III secretion pathways in different strains of bacteria. Directed evolution is applied to increase the dynamic range and orthogonality of the circuits. These gates are connected in different permutations to form programs, the largest of which is a 4-input AND gate that consists of 3 circuits that integrate 4 inducible systems, thus requiring 11 regulatory proteins. Measuring the performance of individual gates is sufficient to capture the behaviour of the complete program. Errors in the output due to delays (faults), a common problem for layered circuits, are not observed. This work demonstrates the successful layering of orthogonal logic gates, a design strategy that could enable the construction of large, integrated circuits in single cells.

  6. Environmental state and buffering properties of underground hydrosphere in waste landfill site of the largest petrochemical companies in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musin, R. Kh; Kurlyanov, N. A.; Kalkamanova, Z. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article examines the waste landfill site of PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” built 1982. Particular attention is paid to the volume of disposed wastes and peculiarities of landfill operation. It has been revealed that the landfill negatively impacts groundwater. The increase in groundwater level and contamination degree is dependent on recharge from infiltration of precipitation that interacts with the waste in the landfill cells. Groundwater contamination follows the longitudinal distribution pattern, with maximum intensity reaching in the nearest area of the landfill. With increasing distance, concentration of all pollutants sharply reduces. Within three kilometers away from the landfill, groundwater turns to its background values indicating its quality. The landfill discharges oil, phenols, formaldehyde, benzol, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, and iron and, to a lesser extent, sulfates, chlorides and barium into the underground hydrosphere. The overlimiting concentrations of other components are caused by intensive leaching from the rocks by aggressive carbonic acid water. The concentrations of hydrocarbonates can reach 8 g/l in the groundwater within the landfill and its nearest area, however, under natural conditions, they do not exceed 0.4 g/l. This is only possible in a case of partial activity of carbon dioxide associated with destruction of organic matter disposed in the landfill. One of the processes that play an important role in groundwater quality recovery is mixing of contaminated groundwater with infiltrating precipitation.

  7. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  8. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  9. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-01

    Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills.

  10. Cell models lead to understanding of multi-cellular morphogenesis consisting of successive self-construction of cells.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hisao; Nagai, Tatsuzo

    2015-03-01

    Morphogenesis of multi-cellular organisms occurs through cell behaviours within a cell aggregate. Cell behaviours have been described using cell models involving equations of motion for cells. Cells in cell models construct shapes of the cell aggregate by themselves. Here, a history of cell models, the cell centre model and the vertex cell model, which we have constructed, are described. Furthermore, the application of these cell models is explained in detail. These cell models have been applied to transformation of cell aggregates to become spherical, formation of mammalian blastocysts and cell intercalation in elongating tissues. These are all elemental processes of morphogenesis and take place in succession during the whole developmental process. A chain of successive elemental processes leads to morphogenesis. Finally, we highlight that cell models are indispensable to understand the process whereby genes direct biological shapes.

  11. Surface emission of landfill gas from solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Won; Shin, Ho-Chul

    The surface emission of landfill gas (LFG) was studied to estimate the amount of LFG efflux from solid waste landfills using an air flux chamber. LFG efflux increased as atmospheric temperature increased during the day, and the same pattern for the surface emission was observed for the change of seasons. LFG efflux rate decreased from summer through winter. The average LFG efflux rates of winter, spring and summer were 0.1584, 0.3013 and 0.8597 m 3 m -2 h -1 respectively. The total amount of surface emission was calculated based on the seasonal LFG efflux rate and the landfill surface area. From the estimates of LFG generation, it is expected that about 30% of the generated LFG may be released through the surface without extraction process. As forced extraction with a blower proceeded, the extraction well pressure decreased from 1100 to -100 mm H 2O, and the LFG surface efflux decreased markedly above 80%. Thus, the utilization of LFG by forced extraction would be the good solution for global warming and air pollution by LFG.

  12. Landfill reclamation feasibility study for the Montauk Landfill, town of East Hampton, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    A landfill reclamation feasibility study was performed at Montauk Landfill in East Hampton, Long Island, New York. The purpose of the study was to determine whether landfill reclamation is a technically and economically feasible alternative to conventional landfill closure via capping. The technical feasibility of landfill reclamation at the site was determined from a field investigation in which the waste from different periods in the landfill`s history was characterized, the percent of reusable and recyclable materials determined, environmental hazards assessed, and throughput rates determined. Potential markets and/or uses for reclaimed materials were identified and estimates for the re-disposal of the residual waste were obtained from waste-to-energy facilities and offsite landfills.

  13. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  14. Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Sonia

    The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the

  15. Emerging contaminants at a closed and an operating landfill in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Landfills are the final depositories for a wide range of solid waste from both residential and commercial sources, and therefore have the potential to produce leachate containing many organic compounds found in consumer products such as pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, disinfectants, cleaning agents, fire retardants, flavorings, and preservatives, known as emerging contaminants (ECs). Landfill leachate was sampled from landfill cells of three different age ranges from two landfills in Central Oklahoma. Samples were collected from an old cell containing solid waste greater than 25 years old, an intermediate age cell with solid waste between 16 and 3 years old, and operating cell with solid waste less than 5 years old to investigate the chemical variability and persistence of selected ECs in landfill leachate of differing age sources. Twenty-eight of 69 analyzed ECs were detected in one or more samples from the three leachate sources. Detected ECs ranged in concentration from 0.11 to 114 μg/L and included 4 fecal and plant sterols, 13 household\\industrial, 7 hydrocarbon, and 4 pesticide compounds. Four ECs were solely detected in the oldest leachate sample, two ECs were solely detected in the intermediate leachate sample, and no ECs were solely detected in the youngest leachate sample. Eleven ECs were commonly detected in all three leachate samples and are an indication of the contents of solid waste deposited over several decades and the relative resistance of some ECs to natural attenuation processes in and near landfills.

  16. Seismic evaluation of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hovind, C.; Slyh, R.

    1995-12-31

    With the promulgation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) Subtitle D, landfills situated within seismic impact zones must be evaluated for seismic hazards to demonstrate that the containment structures of the landfill can resist the maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth materials (bedrock) for the site. If a landfill is sited on saturated soils, it must also be evaluated for liquefaction and lateral spreading. In 1994, EMCON evaluated the seismic hazard for a landfill located along the Columbia River in southwestern Washington. The landfill was founded on dredge fill over natural alluvial deposits. Laboratory testing and state-of-the-art engineering analyses indicated that the sand unit below the landfill had a high potential for liquefaction. The seismic hazard evaluation for the site included a site-specific seismic response analysis, a liquefaction potential analysis, and seismic stability and deformation analysis. The seismic response analysis was conducted for nonliquefied, partially liquefied, and fully liquefied foundation soil conditions. Results are described.

  17. Application of the CERCLA municipal landfill presumptive remedy to military landfills (interim guidance). Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This directive highlights a step-by-step approach to determining when a specific military landfill is an appropriate site for application of the containment presumptive remedy. It identifies the characteristics of municipal landfills that are relevant to the applicability of the presumptive remedy, addresses characteristics specific to military landfills, outlines an approach to determining whether the presumptive remedy applies to a given military landfill, and discusses Administrative Record documentation requirements.

  18. Water-quality conditions at selected landfills in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1986-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrell, G.M.; Smith, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Water-quality conditions at five municipal landfills in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, were studied during 1986-92. Analytical results of water samples from monitoring wells and streams at and near the landfills were used to evaluate effects of leachate on surface and ground water. Ground-water levels at monitoring wells were used to determine directions of ground-water flow at the landfills. Data from previous studies were used for analysis of temporal trends in selected water-quality properties and chemical constituents. Effects of leachate, such as large biochemical- and chemical-oxygen demands, generally were evident in small streams originating within the landfills, whereas effects of leachate generally were not evident in most of the larger streams. In larger streams, surface-water quality upstream and downstream from most of the landfills was similar. However, the chemical quality of water in Irwin Creek appears to have been affected by the Statesville Road landfill. Concentrations of several constituents indicative of leachate were larger in samples collected from Irwin Creek downstream from the Statesville Road landfill than in samples collected from Irwin Creek upstream from the landfill. The effect of leachate on ground-water quality generally was largest in water from wells adjacent to waste-disposal cells. Concentrations of most constituents considered indicative of leachate generally were smaller with increasing distance from waste-disposal cells. Water samples from offsite wells generally indicated no effect or very small effects of leachate. Action levels designated by the Mecklenburg County Engineering Department and maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were exceeded in some samples from the landfills. Ground-water samples exceeded action levels and maximum contaminant levels more commonly than surface-water samples. Iron and manganese were the constituents that most commonly exceeded action levels

  19. Experimental landfill caps for semi-arid and arid climates.

    PubMed

    Blight, Geoffrey E; Fourie, Andries B

    2005-04-01

    The United States EPA Subtitle D municipal solid waste landfill requirements specify that the permeability of a cap to a landfill be no greater than the permeability of the underliner. In recent years the concept of the evapotranspirative (ET) cap has been developed in which the cap is designed to store all rain infiltration and re-evapotranspire it during dry weather. Concern at the long period required for landfilled municipal solid waste to decompose and stabilize in arid and semi-arid climates has led to an extension of the concept of the ET cap. With the infiltrate-stabilize-evapotranspire (ISE) cap, rain infiltration during wet weather is permitted to enter the underlying waste, thus accelerating the decomposition and stabilization process. Excess infiltration is then removed from both waste and cap by evaporation during dry weather. The paper describes the construction and operation of two sets of experimental ISE caps, one in a winter rainfall semi-arid climate, and the other in a summer rainfall semi-arid climate. Observation of the rainfall, soil evaporation and amount of water stored in the caps has allowed water balances to be constructed for caps of various thicknesses. These observations show that the ISE concept is viable. In the limit, when there is insufficient rainfall to infiltrate the waste, an ISE cap operates as an ET cap.

  20. EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

  1. Best Management Practices to Prevent and Control Hydrogen Sulfide and Reduced Sulfur Compound Emissions at Landfills That Dispose of Gypsum Drywall

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can be emitted from both construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. H2S emissions may be problematic at a landfill as they can cause odor, impact surrounding communities, cause wear or dama...

  2. Best Management Practices to Prevent and Control Hydrogen Sulfide and Reduced Sulfur Compound Emissions at Landfills That Dispose of Gypsum Drywall

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can be emitted from both construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. H2S emissions may be problematic at a landfill as they can cause odor, impact surrounding communities, cause wear or dama...

  3. Plants scrub landfill leachate clean

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Leachate from the sanitary landfill in Barre, Mass., is collected in a series of holding lagoons. There, aquatic plants such as duckweed biodegrade and purify the wastewater. The plants saturate the leachate with oxygen, which speeds up aerobic oxidation by bacteria. The leachate is moved progressively through the series of lagoons, and the contents of the final lagoon are emptied into a trout pond. (3 photos)

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  5. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  6. Nitrogen management in bioreactor landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Price, G. Alexander; Barlaz, Morton A.; Hater, Gary R

    2003-07-01

    One scenario for long-term nitrogen management in landfills is ex situ nitrification followed by denitrification in the landfill. The objective of this research was to measure the denitrification potential of actively decomposing and well decomposed refuse. A series of 10-l reactors that were actively producing methane were fed 400 mg NO{sub 3}-N /l every 48 h for periods of 19-59 days. Up to 29 nitrate additions were either completely or largely depleted within 48 h of addition and the denitrification reactions did not adversely affect the leachate pH. Nitrate did inhibit methane production, but the reactors recovered their methane-producing activity with the termination of nitrate addition. In well decomposed refuse, the nitrate consumption rate was reduced but was easily stimulated by the addition of either acetate or an overlayer of fresh refuse. Addition of acetate at five times the amount required to reduce nitrate did not lead to the production of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by dissimilatory nitrate reduction. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria decreased by about five orders of magnitude during refuse decomposition in a reactor that did not receive nitrate. However, rapid denitrification commenced immediately with nitrate addition. This study shows that the use of a landfill as a bioreactor for the conversion of nitrate to a harmless byproduct, nitrogen gas, is technically viable.

  7. Innovative and effective landfill treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.B.; Karmazyn, J.; Scrivner, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    An innovative and effective metals treatment technology was developed for a Superfund site landfill. The new landfill technology reduced the remedial cost of that operable unit from $34 million (MM) to $12 MM. In 1993, EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for a Superfund site in Newport, Delaware. Among other remedies, deep-soil mixing was specified for a 16-acre landfill. New information on waste volumes developed in the remedial design phase increased the cost of the remedy from $14 MM to $34 MM. An alternative treatment technology was developed to immobilize the metal contaminants with no increase in volume. EPA was included early in the development to ensure the proposal would be focused on issues critical to its review and acceptance. EPA accepted this technology and issued an Explanation of Significant Differences decision. the new remedy is estimated to cost $12 MM. The constituents of concern at the site are primarily metals: barium, lead, zinc, and cadmium. A treatment technology was developed which employed straight-forward chemical precipitation: sulfate addition for barium and sulfide addition for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The combined effect of numerous competing chemical equilibrium effects was modeled with the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), a state-of-the-art equilibrium simulation program from OLI Systems, Inc. Due to the potential effects of acid rain, limestone was added to the treatment plan.

  8. Decision maker`s guide to issues effecting post-closure reutilization of municipal solid waste landfills. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganowski, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills serve as society`s primary waste handling mechanism and have promising potential to continue as a community asset well after their capacity has been reached. This guide aims to familiarize the reader with landfills and the issues that can effect their potential after closure. Landfills have evolved into technologically advanced facilities that are designed, constructed, and operated with strict environmental controls. When a landfill reaches capacity, it must be formally and properly closed, ensuring that the environment and public health will continue to be protected. To establish a baseline, the guide will discuss the landfill`s evolution, its life-cycle, and closure/post-closure requirements. The acreage of a closed landfill site offers wonderful opportunities for beneficial re-use. There are, however, several imperative issues that must be appreciated and considered when evaluating options for a closed, or soon to close, landfill: socioeconomics, landfill gas, settlement, and revegetation. Each of these issues is a potential obstacle to successful re-use. Conversely, if their associated hazards are known and mitigating methods are selectively applied, the issues can breed innovation and opportunity. The focus of this guide is to address these issues and present techniques that can lead to a fruitful re-use effort. Although post-closure re-use is a logical goal, this guide will also introduce developments and research in landfill mining and accelerated waste decomposition that offer promise for extending the life of landfills. Extending the life of a landfill complements a proactive re-use strategy. Accounting for the issues discussed in this guide and exercising foresight will facilitate the smooth transition of a closed landfill into a symbol of community pride.

  9. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  10. Appointment in Sonzay: Landfill gas fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Balbo, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    The SITA Group (Paris, France) an international waste management company, wanted to research and develop a means to economically and environmentally reuse the inherent value of its landfill gas. As the owner of more than 100 landfills in France alone--both hazardous and non-hazardous--SITA felt that it had a responsibility to research innovative gas treatment and/or reuse options, particularly as public scrutiny of landfill management practices was on the rise. In a successful pilot program initiated by SITA, landfill gas was reused as biofuel for vehicles in a way that was economically viable and environmentally sound.

  11. Turbines produce energy from L. A. landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Carry, C.W.; Stahl, J.F.; Maguin, S.R.; Friess, P.L.

    1984-06-01

    This article describes one of the Nation's most sophisticated resource recovery projects which began operating in February at the Puente Hills Landfill Methane Energy Station as part of the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County. The project is currently generating 2.8 megawatts of power which would serve the electrical needs of approximately 5600 homes. Future plans for the landfill energy project include generating enough electricity for more than 50,000 homes. Unlike other methane recovery projects that use diesel or gasoline power reciprocating engines, the Puente Hills Landfill Methane Energy Station drives its electrical generators with gas turbines. This is a first for power generation at a landfill site.

  12. Rhetorical Construction of Cells in Science and in a Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsatsarelis, Charalampos; Ogborn, Jon; Jewitt, Carey; Kress, Gunther

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of the construction of entities following a social semiotic approach that enables the use of new analytical tools and describes the rhetoric used in construction. Based on an analysis of the historical formation of the notion of cells by scientists, and analysis of a lesson on the microscopic observation of onion cells.…

  13. Rhetorical Construction of Cells in Science and in a Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsatsarelis, Charalampos; Ogborn, Jon; Jewitt, Carey; Kress, Gunther

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of the construction of entities following a social semiotic approach that enables the use of new analytical tools and describes the rhetoric used in construction. Based on an analysis of the historical formation of the notion of cells by scientists, and analysis of a lesson on the microscopic observation of onion cells.…

  14. PV reference cell-construction, calibration, and use

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.

    1995-09-01

    A reference cell is a sensor that produces a given response for a given total and spectral irradiance. A photovoltaic reference cell has a calibrated short-circuit current for a given total and spectral irradiance at a given operating temperature. A reference cell is typically chosen to minimize the spectral mismatch error between the reference cell is typically chosen to minimize the spectral mismatch error between the reference cell and device under test. ASTM standard E1040 defines a reference cell {open_quotes}as a calibrated and finished product that consists of the photovoltaic cell, cell holder, cover and cabling.{close_quotes} Primary AMO reference cells calibrated by NASA Lewis on their high altitude jet are typically bare cells. Groups like NREL, Sandia, or the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in Germany calibrate a wide range of PV cell technologies for the PV community as secondary reference cells.

  15. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  16. CCA-TREATED WOOD DISPOSED IN LANDFILLS AND LIFE-CYCLE TRADE-OFFS WITH WASTE-TO-ENERGY AND MSW LANDFILL DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. In the U.S. CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills, however some of the wood is combu...

  17. CCA-TREATED WOOD DISPOSED IN LANDFILLS AND LIFE-CYCLE TRADE-OFFS WITH WASTE-TO-ENERGY AND MSW LANDFILL DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. In the U.S. CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills, however some of the wood is combu...

  18. The Measurement of Landfill Gas Emissions with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory and CarbonSAT Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S. A.; Bovensmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Landfill gas is a significant contributor to anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and CO2. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the total U.S. 2007 emissions of the CH4 component of landfill gas at 132.9 Tg CO2 Equivalent. This compares to total CH4 emission from all US sources in 2007 at 585.3 Tg CO2 Equivalent. Worldwide CH4 emissions from landfill gas have been estimated at 668 Tg CO2 Equivalent. Satellite remote sensing can also be used to characterize landfill gas emissions. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) and the proposed CarbonSAT (University of Bremen) satellites are particularly suited for this purpose. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) was designed to provided high spatial resolution ( < 3 km2 footprints) and high accuracy ( 0.5 to 3 ppm) CO2 measurements. The original OCO satellite failed to achieve orbit in February 2009. A replacement satellite (OCO-2) is under construction and scheduled for launch in February 2013. These characteristics will allow the measurement of CO2 emissions from large landfills on the orbit path. Because surface landfill gas emissions include both CH4 and CO2 , the CH4 concentration can be inferred from CO2 concentrations. The CarbonSAT satellite which is being designed by the University of Bremen, Institute for Environmental Physics, has similar characteristics to OCO-2 but it has been optimized for measurement of both CH4 and CO2 . Key specifications for the CarbonSAT satellite include XCO2 single measurement error of < 1 to 3 ppm and XCH4 single measurement error of < 10 to 18 ppb. These characteristics will make it possible to detect both CO2 and CH4 emissions from large landfills. The spatial resolution and accuracy of the CO2 measurements from OCO-2 and CO2 and CH4 measurements from CarbonSAT present a unique opportunity to measure landfill gas emissions from large landfills such as exist in the United States and other developed countries. In general, landfills in the developed countries have

  19. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  20. The leaching of lead from lead-based paint in landfill environments.

    PubMed

    Wadanambi, Lakmini; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2008-08-30

    Lead leaching from lead-based paint (LBP) was examined using standardized laboratory protocols and tests with leachate from actual and simulated landfill environments. Two different LBP samples were tested; leaching solutions included leachates from three municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and three construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were also performed. Lead concentrations were many times higher using the TCLP compared to the SPLP and the landfill leachates. No significant difference (alpha=0.05) was observed in leached lead concentrations from the MSW landfill and C&D debris landfill leachates. The impact of other building materials present in LBP debris on lead leaching was examined by testing mixtures of LBP (2%) and different building materials (98%; steel, wood, drywall, concrete). The type of substrate present impacted lead leaching results, with concrete demonstrating the most dramatic impact; the lowest lead concentrations were measured in the presence of concrete under both TCLP and SPLP extractions.

  1. Influence of a Municipal Waste Landfill on the Spatial Distribution of Mercury in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Koda, Eugeniusz; Osiecka, Renata; Borzyszkowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The study investigations were focused on assessing the influence of a 35-year-old municipal waste landfill on environmental mercury pollution. The total Hg content was determined in the soil profile, groundwater, and the plants (Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp.) in the landfill area. Environmental pollution near the landfill was relatively low. The topsoil layer, groundwater and the leaves of Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp. contained 19–271 μg kg-1, 0.36–3.01 μg l-1, 19–66 μg kg-1 and 8–29 μg kg-1 of Hg, respectively. The total Hg content in the soil decreased with the depth. The results are presented as pollution maps of the landfill area based on the total Hg content in the soil, groundwater and plants. Statistical analysis revealed the lack of correlation between the total Hg content in the soil and plants, but a relationship between the total concentration of Hg in groundwater and soil was shown. The landfill is not a direct source of pollution in the area. The type of land morphology did not influence the pollution level. Construction of bentonite cut-off wall bypassing MSW landfill reduces the risk of mercury release into ground-water environment. PMID:26176607

  2. Environmental and economic assessment of combined biostabilization and landfill for municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Dong-Qing; Jin, Tai-Feng; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Zheng-Hao; Shao, Li-Ming

    2011-10-01

    Biostabilization can remove considerable amounts of moisture and degradable organic materials from municipal solid waste (MSW), and can therefore be an effective form of pretreatment prior to landfill. The environmental and economic impacts of two combined processes, active stage biostabilization + sanitary landfill (AL), and active and curing stage biostabilization + sanitary landfill (ACL), were compared with sanitary landfill (SL) for MSW with high moisture content. The results indicated that land requirement, leachate generation, and CH(4) emission in the ACL process decreased by 68.6%, 89.1%, and 87.6%, respectively, and the total cost was reduced by 24.1%, compared with SL. This implies that a combined biostabilization and landfill process can be an environmentally friendly and economically feasible alternative to landfill of raw MSW with high moisture content. Sensitivity analysis revealed that treatment capacity and construction costs of biostabilization and the oxidation factor of CH(4) significantly influenced the costs and benefits of the AL and ACL process at an extremely low land price. When the land price was greater than 100 USD m(-2), it became the dominating factor in determining the cost of treatment and disposal, and the total costs of ACL were reduced to less than 40% of those of SL.

  3. Influence of a Municipal Waste Landfill on the Spatial Distribution of Mercury in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Koda, Eugeniusz; Osiecka, Renata; Borzyszkowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The study investigations were focused on assessing the influence of a 35-year-old municipal waste landfill on environmental mercury pollution. The total Hg content was determined in the soil profile, groundwater, and the plants (Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp.) in the landfill area. Environmental pollution near the landfill was relatively low. The topsoil layer, groundwater and the leaves of Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp. contained 19-271 μg kg-1, 0.36-3.01 μg l-1, 19-66 μg kg-1 and 8-29 μg kg-1 of Hg, respectively. The total Hg content in the soil decreased with the depth. The results are presented as pollution maps of the landfill area based on the total Hg content in the soil, groundwater and plants. Statistical analysis revealed the lack of correlation between the total Hg content in the soil and plants, but a relationship between the total concentration of Hg in groundwater and soil was shown. The landfill is not a direct source of pollution in the area. The type of land morphology did not influence the pollution level. Construction of bentonite cut-off wall bypassing MSW landfill reduces the risk of mercury release into ground-water environment.

  4. Fabrication of Biomimetic Bone Tissue Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Three-Dimensional Constructs Incorporating Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Hashimoto, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Itsumi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Imazato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of technologies to promote vascularization of engineered tissue would drive major developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) cell constructs composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the majority of cells within the constructs underwent necrosis due to a lack of nutrients and oxygen. We hypothesized that incorporation of vascular endothelial cells would improve the cell survival rate and aid in the fabrication of biomimetic bone tissues in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of endothelial cells combined with the MSC constructs (MSC/HUVEC constructs) during short- and long-term culture. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incorporated into the cell constructs, cell viability and growth factor production were increased after 7 days. Furthermore, HUVECs were observed to proliferate and self-organize into reticulate porous structures by interacting with the MSCs. After long-term culture, MSC/HUVEC constructs formed abundant mineralized matrices compared with those composed of MSCs alone. Transmission electron microscopy and qualitative analysis revealed that the mineralized matrices comprised porous cancellous bone-like tissues. These results demonstrate that highly biomimetic bone tissue can be fabricated in vitro by 3D MSC constructs incorporated with HUVECs.

  5. Fabrication of Biomimetic Bone Tissue Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Three-Dimensional Constructs Incorporating Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Hashimoto, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Itsumi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Imazato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of technologies to promote vascularization of engineered tissue would drive major developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) cell constructs composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the majority of cells within the constructs underwent necrosis due to a lack of nutrients and oxygen. We hypothesized that incorporation of vascular endothelial cells would improve the cell survival rate and aid in the fabrication of biomimetic bone tissues in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of endothelial cells combined with the MSC constructs (MSC/HUVEC constructs) during short- and long-term culture. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incorporated into the cell constructs, cell viability and growth factor production were increased after 7 days. Furthermore, HUVECs were observed to proliferate and self-organize into reticulate porous structures by interacting with the MSCs. After long-term culture, MSC/HUVEC constructs formed abundant mineralized matrices compared with those composed of MSCs alone. Transmission electron microscopy and qualitative analysis revealed that the mineralized matrices comprised porous cancellous bone-like tissues. These results demonstrate that highly biomimetic bone tissue can be fabricated in vitro by 3D MSC constructs incorporated with HUVECs. PMID:26047122

  6. Evaluation of Partitioning Gas Tracer Tests for Measuring Water in Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Han, B.; Jafarpour, Y.; Gallagher, V. N.; Chiu, P. C.; Fluman, D. A.; Vasuki, N. C.; Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Cohen, K. K.

    2003-12-01

    which a vacuum was applied. The results from this test are reported along with an overview of a similar test planned for the bioreactor landfill cells operated by the Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works.

  7. Approximate Boundaries for West Lake Landfill, Missouri, 2014, EPA REG 07

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This ESRI File Geodatabase Feature Class contains polygons for GIS depicting the approximate boundaries for West Lake Landfill (MOD079900932), Missouri, 2014, EPA REG 07These polygons are for graphically representing the site. The estimated boundary was developed using St. Louis County Parcels (2014). The boundaries of the individual landfill cells and areas within the site are interpolated based on sample results from the Remedial Investigation Report, ??EMSI, 2000, Remedial Investigation Report, West Lake Landfill Operable Unit 1, April 10.??Boundaries for Operational Units derived from CAD drawings provided by Aquaterra Environmental Solutions, Inc based on work provided by Herst & Associates Inc. and published in the Record of Decision, West Lake Landfill Site, Bridgeton, Missouri, Operable Unit 2, July 2008. CERCLIS ID MOD079900932.

  8. Adsorption and hydraulic conductivity of landfill-leachate perfluorinated compounds in bentonite barrier mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Belinda; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are leached in landfills from a wide range of domestic and industrial products. Sodium bentonite, a common barrier material, was contacted with water and landfill leachate spiked with PFCs in batch adsorption tests to measure PFC adsorption. Leaching cell tests were also conducted in which water, landfill leachate and PFC-spiked leachate permeated through compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. It was found that the PFCs did not bind substantially to the bentonite. Hydraulic conductivities were not appreciably affected by the PFCs, showing that bentonite liners are not affected for the range of concentrations tested. The sand-bentonite mixture partially retained the PFCs, indicating limited effectiveness in containing PFC within landfills.

  9. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, D J; Achterkamp, M C; de Visser, B J

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Consequently, market size for companies operating landfills shrinks. Among the companies facing the problem is the Dutch company Essent. Given the expected market conditions, it looks for alternative business opportunities. Landfill mining, i.e., the recycling of existing landfills, is considered one of them. Proceeds of landfill mining are related to, for example, recycled materials available for re-use, regained land, and possibilities for a more efficient operation of a landfill. The market for landfill mining is of a considerable size--there are about 3800 landfills located in the Netherlands. Given market size the company faces the dilemma of how to explore this market, i.e., select the most profitable landfills in a fast and efficient way. No existing methods or tools could be found to do so. Therefore, to answer to the problem posed, we propose a step-wise research method for market exploration. The basic idea behind the method is to provide an adequate, cost-saving and timely answer by relying on a series of quick scans. Relevant aspects of a mining project concern the proceeds of regained land and recyclables, the costs of the mining operation and the associated business and environmental risks. The method has been tested for its practical use in a pilot study. The pilot study addressed 147 landfills located in the Dutch Province of Noord-Brabant. The study made clear how method application resulted in the selection of a limited number of high potential landfills in a few weeks, involving minimal research costs.

  10. Heat management strategies for MSW landfills.

    PubMed

    Yeşiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Kopp, Kevin B; Yee, Emma H

    2016-10-01

    Heat is a primary byproduct of landfilling of municipal solid waste. Long-term elevated temperatures have been reported for MSW landfills under different operational conditions and climatic regions around the world. A conceptual framework is presented for management of the heat generated in MSW landfills. Three main strategies are outlined: extraction, regulation, and supplementation. Heat extraction allows for beneficial use of the excess landfill heat as an alternative energy source. Two approaches are provided for the extraction strategy: extracting all of the excess heat above baseline equilibrium conditions in a landfill and extracting only a part of the excess heat above equilibrium conditions to obtain target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation. Heat regulation allows for controlling the waste temperatures to achieve uniform distribution at target levels at a landfill facility. Two approaches are provided for the regulation strategy: redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain uniform target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation and redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain specific target temperatures. Heat supplementation allows for controlling heat generation using external thermal energy sources to achieve target waste temperatures. Two approaches are provided for the supplementation strategy: adding heat to the waste mass using an external energy source to increase waste temperatures and cooling the waste mass using an external energy source to decrease waste temperatures. For all strategies, available landfill heat energy is determined based on the difference between the waste temperatures and the target temperatures. Example analyses using data from landfill facilities with relatively low and high heat generation indicated thermal energy in the range of -48.4 to 72.4MJ/m(3) available for heat management. Further modeling and experimental analyses are needed to verify the effectiveness

  11. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs.

  12. Emergency landfill gas control at the Milwaukee County Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, M.S.; Boone, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    In October 1994, up to 55 percent methane concentrations by volume were found below 76th Street in Franklin, Wisconsin. Numerous utilities exist below 76th Street which service homes located only 100 feet east. The Milwaukee County Landfill, located immediately west of 76th Street, was the source of methane gas. With winter weather conditions approaching, Milwaukee County was concerned that landfill gas (LFG) could migrate along utilities or in sandy soil and enter basements of adjacent homes. The County declared an emergency to immediately release funds and authorized a design/build contract to remedy the gas migration. CDM Engineers and Constructors, Inc. was selected for the project. The Milwaukee County Department of Public Works, Environmental Services Division led the project team. Numerous activities occurred simultaneously, including: (1) Public Relations, (2) Notification to Wisconsin DNR, (3) Design and Permitting, (4) Ordering the Flare, (5) Installing Methane Detectors in 29 Basements. Public relations included public forums with local residences, monthly newsletters, meetings with the ski hill operator, television interviews, local newspaper interviews, briefing the County Alderman and City of Franklin officials. Cooperation from Wisconsin DNR provided a 10-day turnaround for approval of the design. A perimeter active gas collection and flare system was employed to mitigate LFG. The system included eight gas extraction wells drilled to the base of the landfill and one horizontal trench (approximately 40 feet long). Extraction wells and trench were connected together with a buried 6-inch HDPE header pipe. Condensate is collected in a 550-gallon double-walled steel tank.

  13. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B.

    1998-08-01

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  14. A water budget model for operating landfills: an application in Greece.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Athiniotou, Angeliki

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the work was to develop and verify a one-dimensional monthly water budget model (MWBM) to predict leachate generation rates from operating landfills. Although there has been a considerable modelling work on the hydraulic behaviour of landfills after they reach closure, less attention has been given on such modelling for operating landfills that have a continuously changing geometry. A MWBM was developed here that accounted for landfill cell development, precipitation and evaporation, the change of the water holding capacity of a waste cell and waste decomposition. The MWBM was verified using a two-year leachate generation rate database from a new operating sanitary landfill in Greece. The MWBM results showed a very good agreement with field data whilst it was observed that peak precipitation rates followed a parallel trend with peak leachate generation rates. A distinct two-month lag phase between the model results and actual values was observed during a certain period, which is a likely indication of the presence of channelling within the waste mass. A sensitivity analysis performed in the MWBM showed that the leachate is affected by the initial municipal solid waste moisture content as well as by the precipitation rates. A linear regression empirical model showed that precipitation can still be an adequate predictor of leachate generation rates in operating landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  16. Microbial mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfill cover soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Woo

    Landfills are one of the major sources of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential (GWP) ˜23 times higher than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Although some effective strategies have been formulated to prevent methane emissions from large landfills, many landfills allow methane to be freely emitted to the atmosphere. In such situations, it is often proposed to stimulate methanotrophs, a group of bacteria that consume methane, in the cover soil to prevent fugitive methane emissions. Several factors, however, must be addressed to make such a biogenic removal mechanism effective. First, methanotrophic activity can be inhibited by nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) that are commonly found in landfill soil gas. Second, although methanotrophs can be easily stimulated with the addition of nitrogenous fertilizers, biogenic production of nitrous oxide with a GWP ˜296 times higher than that of carbon dioxide, is also stimulated. To consider these issues, two general areas of research were performed. First, a dimensionless number was developed based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics that describes the effects of the presence of multiple NMOCs on methanotrophic growth and survival. This model was validated via experimental measurements of methanotrophic growth in the presence of varying amounts of NMOCs. Second, the effects of nutrient amendments on methane oxidation and nitrous oxide production were examined by constructing soil microcosms using landfill cover soils. Here, it was shown that the addition of ammonium in the presence of phenylacetylene stimulated methane oxidation but inhibited nitrous oxide production. Furthermore, to understand the methanotrophic community structure and activity in response to these amendments, DNA microarray and transcript analyses were performed. The results indicated the predominance of Type II methanotrophs but that Type I methanotrophs responded more significantly to these amendments. Also, substantial activity

  17. Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: a synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2013-10-15

    The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ≤4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region.

  18. Numerical modeling of landfill gas and heat transport in the deformable MSW landfill body. Part 2. Verification and application of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyi, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    The article is devoted to studying the parameters of wells that are used as part of vertical landfill gas collection systems for degassing landfills. To this end, the thermophysical model developed in the first part of this work is considered. The model is constructed using the initial data obtained at real dump and landfill with subsequently comparing the calculation results with the data of experimental measurements. A method for determining the average hydrodynamic properties of wastes is proposed, using which the heterogeneity of wastes can be taken into account. The effect the operating and design parameters of the well have on its performance is investigated on the basis of these properties. It has been determined that increasing the suction pressure, drilling diameter, and perforation height allows the well production rate to be increased by around 10%. The effect the increase of the well production rate has on the landfill gas collection project's payback period is demonstrated taking typical dump and landfill as an example.

  19. Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

    2013-11-01

    The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution

  20. Municipal waste landfill permitting in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Mentzer, G.F.

    1996-11-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has 50 permitted municipal waste landfills (MWL) with calculated capacities ranging from 0.5 to 25.3 million tons. The most common size for our landfills is in the range of 3 to 5 million tons, with three landfills exceeding the 20+ million ton capacity. Future expansion projects will increase a few landfills to in excess of 35+ million tons. Exact VOC emission numbers are not available since not all landfills have or are required to report their emissions to the Pennsylvania air emissions database. However, estimates from several of our larger facilities indicates the uncontrolled VOC emissions are in the range of 250 to 350 TPY with a possible high of 580 TPY. Although the numbers are not exact, it does point out the fact that landfills are a major source of VOC emissions. With the advent of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed New Source Performance Standards (Subpart WWW) and emissions guidance (Subpart Cc), the EPA declared that the MWL are a source of air pollution. Following the release of these proposed regulations, the Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Quality began in mid 1994 the task of permitting landfills. Through the use of customized forms G(A) and G(B), the Department made in 1995 its first attempt to identify and quantify emissions from its landfills. The process of quantifying and verifying emission estimates is still on going. To date, the Department is in various stages of permitting eight MWL.

  1. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  2. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  3. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  4. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  5. Influence of in vitro cultivation on the integration of cell-matrix constructs after subcutaneous implantation.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Sebastian; Ern, Khrystyna; Lamper, Gabriella; Docheva, Denitsa; Drosse, Inga; Milz, Stefan; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias

    2007-05-01

    Dynamic cultivation of scaffolds loaded with undifferentiated stem cells can lead toward osteogenic differentiation in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different in vitro cultivation setups on the integration of cell-matrix constructs after subcutaneous implantation. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were inoculated on clinically approved scaffolds. These cell-matrix constructs were then cultured under static (12 hours or 14 days) or dynamic (14 days) conditions, followed by paravertebral subcutaneous implantation in athymic nude mice. After 2 weeks and 12 weeks the constructs and selected organs were harvested for histological evaluation, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histological analysis showed good integration of cell-matrix constructs independent of culture conditions and a differential effect of static and dynamic in vitro culture on fat cell formation in vivo. Human DNA (hDNA) was detected in explanted cell-matrix constructs at all time points with a significant decrease in human cells on the constructs compared to the initial amount of cells seeded. No hDNA was detected in the explanted organs. In conclusion, we could prove the survival of hMSC on scaffolds after in vitro cultivation and consecutive implantation in vivo. While the amount of adipose tissue increased after static cultivation, we could not achieve osteogenic differentiation.

  6. Cell Sheet-Based Tissue Engineering for Organizing Anisotropic Tissue Constructs Produced Using Microfabricated Thermoresponsive Substrates.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hironobu; Okano, Teruo

    2015-11-18

    In some native tissues, appropriate microstructures, including orientation of the cell/extracellular matrix, provide specific mechanical and biological functions. For example, skeletal muscle is made of oriented myofibers that is responsible for the mechanical function. Native artery and myocardial tissues are organized three-dimensionally by stacking sheet-like tissues of aligned cells. Therefore, to construct any kind of complex tissue, the microstructures of cells such as myotubes, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes also need to be organized three-dimensionally just as in the native tissues of the body. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering allows the production of scaffold-free engineered tissues through a layer-by-layer construction technique. Recently, using microfabricated thermoresponsive substrates, aligned cells are being harvested as single continuous cell sheets. The cell sheets act as anisotropic tissue units to build three-dimensional tissue constructs with the appropriate anisotropy. This cell sheet-based technology is straightforward and has the potential to engineer a wide variety of complex tissues. In addition, due to the scaffold-free cell-dense environment, the physical and biological cell-cell interactions of these cell sheet constructs exhibit unique cell behaviors. These advantages will provide important clues to enable the production of well-organized tissues that closely mimic the structure and function of native tissues, required for the future of tissue engineering. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier

  8. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged

  9. Toxicological characterization of a novel wastewater treatment process using EDTA-Na2Zn as draw solution (DS) for the efficient treatment of MBR-treated landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Niu, Aping; Ren, Yi-Wei; Yang, Li; Xie, Shao-Lin; Jia, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Jing-Hui; Wang, Xiao; Li, Jing; Pei, De-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Landfill leachate has become an important source of environmental pollution in past decades, due to the increase of waste volume. Acute toxic and genotoxic hazards to organisms can be caused by landfill leachate. Thus, how to efficiently recover water from landfill leachate and effectively eliminate combined toxicity of landfill leachate are the most pressing issues in waste management. In this study, EDTA-Na2Zn as draw solution (DS) was used to remove the toxicity of membrane bioreactor-treated landfill leachate (MBR-treated landfill leachate) in forward osmosis (FO) process, and nanofiltration (NF) was designed for recovering the diluted DS. Zebrafish and human cells were used for toxicity assay after the novel wastewater treatment process using EDTA-Na2Zn as DS. Results showed that the water recovery rate of MBR-treated landfill leachate (M-LL) in FO membrane system could achieve 66.5% and 71.2% in the PRO and FO mode respectively, and the diluted DS could be efficiently recovered by NF. Toxicity tests performed by using zebrafish and human cells showed that M-LL treated by EDTA-Na2Zn had no toxicity effect on zebrafish larvae and human cells, but it had very slight effect on zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, all results indicated that EDTA-Na2Zn as DS can effectively eliminate toxicity of landfill leachate and this method is economical and eco-friendly for treatment of different types of landfill leachate.

  10. Degradability of Chlorinated Solvents in Landfill Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Litman, M.

    2002-12-01

    The use of landfills as an in situ remediation system represents a cost-effective alternative for groundwater remediation in the source area. This research was conducted to investigate the intrinsic bioattenuation capacity of the landfill ecosystem for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). This research, using excavated refuse samples, studied how the reductive dechlorination of CAHs is linked to the decomposition of solid waste in landfills. Most research effort in groundwater remediation has focused on the contaminant plumes beneath and downgradient from landfills, while the source area remediation has received increasing attention. Bioreactor landfill and leachate recirculation projects have been planned and implemented by the USEPA and some states. However, the use of bioreactor landfill has primarily been considered only to expedite refuse decomposition. This research provides an understanding of the biological fate of CAHs in landfills, an understanding that can lead to the bioreactor landfill system designed to promote the degradation of pollutants right at the source. The research was conducted in two complementary systems: simulated landfill bioreactors and batch degradation experiment in serum bottles. Refuse samples were excavated from a municipal solid waste landfill located in Wayland, Massachusetts, USA. Bioreactors were designed and operated to facilitate refuse decomposition under landfilling conditions. For each reactor, leachate was collected and recirculated back to the reactor and gas was collected into a gas bag and the methane production rate was monitored. Target CAHs, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), were added to selected reactors and maintained at about 20 uM each in leachate. The design is to study the effect of long-term exposure of refuse microorganisms to CAHs on the degradation potential of these chemicals in landfills. Changes of biochemical conditions in bioreactors, including leachate pH, leachate COD, and

  11. Venice Park landfill: Working with the community

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Venice Park landfill was one of the first sites to be permitted under Michigan's proposed Public Act 641. PA 641 essentially changed the rules and regulations for landfills from the simple design of digging a hole and filling it. It also upgraded standards to those that are more sophisticated, including liners, leachate collection systems, and gas extraction systems. In 1992, methane gas from the landfill was collected into wells drilled into the trash varying in depth from 30-50 feet in depth. A vacuum pulls the gas from the trash into the wells, then through a piping system. The landfill uses about 80-100 kilowatts in-house. The remainder of the gas is sold to Consumers Power Co. which uses landfill gas to supply power to homes.

  12. Methane landfill gas. an 80's reality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    According to a recent American Gas Association report, enough methane could be extracted from America's city dumps during the 1980's to supply to 2.1 million homes annually. But to do so, federal and state policies limiting the size of dumps must be contended with. Recovery plants cost $10-$50 million. The economic breakeven point is a landfill that handles 300,000-500,000 tons/yr of refuse, based on a recovery rate of 3 million Btu of pipeline-quality gas from each ton of refuse. The economics of landfill gas recovery involve low transportation costs, since landfills are generally near urban areas where end users are located. Nationally, economic and indirect benefits would result in landfill gas having a value of over $10/million Btu to the U.S. Unfortunately, regulatory barriers exist despite a precedent of 13 active landfill methane recovery plants in operation at present in California, New Jersey, and New York.

  13. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, T. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the value of existing aerial photographs for waste management, including landfill monitoring. The value of historic aerial photographs for documenting landfill boundaries is shown in a graph in which the expansion of an active landfill is traced over a 40-year period. Historic aerial photographs can also be analyzed to obtain general or detailed land-use and land-cover information. In addition, the photographs provide information regarding other elements of the physical environment, including geology, soils, and surface and subsurface drainage. The value of historic photos is discussed, taking into account applications for inventory, assessing contamination/health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, developing inactive landfills, and research concerning improved land-filling operations.

  14. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    PubMed

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. Although some countries have banned the use of the product for some applications, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. In the US, CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills; however some of the wood is combusted in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, sometimes including CCA-treated wood, is combustion for the production of energy. This paper presents an estimate of the quantity of CCA-treated wood entering the disposal stream in the US, as well as an examination of the trade-offs between landfilling and WTE combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). Based upon production statistics, the estimated life span and the phaseout of CCA-treated wood, recent disposal projections estimate the peak US disposal rate to occur in 2008, at 9.7 million m(3). CCA-treated wood, when disposed with construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills have been recommended as a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated

  15. Construction of tissue engineered skin with human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, S-C; Xu, Y-Y; Li, Y; Xu, B; Sun, Q; Li, F; Zhang, X-G

    2015-12-01

    To establish a new model for construction of tissue engineered skin with human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs). hAMSCs and hAECs were isolated from amniotic membrane. The morphology and phenotype of hAMSCs and hAECs were confirmed by microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Then, we performed RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining to assess the expression of stem cells and keratinocyte markers. Moreover, cell co-culture was performed to observe the growth and phenotype characteristics of hAMSCs and hAECs in vitro. In addition, tissue engineered skin with hAMSCs and hAECs was constructed and assessed with histological methods. hAMSCs and hAECs were successfully isolated, exhibiting fibroblast-like morphous and cobblestone-shape epithelial morphous, respectively. The surface biomarker analysis showed that hAMSCs and hAECs were both positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105, and negative for CD34 and HLA-DR. The RT-PCR showed that hAMSCs expressed stem cell marker Nanog and c-MYC, and keratinocyte marker K19, β1 integrin and K8, whereas hAECs expressed stem cell marker KLF4 and c-MYC, and keratinocyte marker K19, β1 integrin, K5 and K8. The expression of keratinocyte proliferation antigen K14 was also found on hAECs. Furthermore, we found co-culture has no impact on the phenotype of hAMSCs and hAECs, but increased the proliferation activity of hAECs and decreased the proliferation activity of hAMSCs. Finally, the histological analysis showed that the tissue engineered skin exhibited similar structure as normal skin. Tissue engineered skin with hAMSCs and hAECs was successfully constructed and shown a similar feature as a skin equivalent. The tissue engineered skin might have good application prospects in regenerative medicine.

  16. Nanotechnology-based Cryopreservation of Cell-Scaffold Constructs: A New Breakthrough to Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Lv, Y

    The developments of "off-the-shelf" cell-scaffold constructs received an increasing interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Although the direct cryopreservation of a single-cell suspension in the tube is a relative mature technology, the cryopreservation of cell-scaffold constructs remains a challenge. Nanotechnology shows tremendous potential for cryopreservation in regulating of freezing and thawing processes. For example, nanoparticles have been reported to modify the cryoprotective agent (CPA), adjust the process of cooling and warming cycles. In this review, we provide an overview of cryopreservation of cell-scaffold constructs firstly. The review further focuses on the effects of nanotechnology on cryopreservation of cell-scaffold constructs, including the nanostructure of scaffold, nanoparticles in cooling and warming process in cryopreservation. The perspectives on future challenges in this filed are also pointed out.

  17. The dependence of the methylation of mercury on the landfill stabilization process and implications for the landfill management.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Li, Zhonggen; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Mercury species and other chemical characteristics of the leachate from anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills were analyzed to investigate the factors that control mercury methylation during the landfill stabilization process. At the early landfill stage, the total mercury (THg) and the monomethyl mercury (MMHg) released rapidly and significantly, the THg concentration of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate was obviously higher than that of the anaerobic landfill leachate, while compared with the semi-aerobic landfill, the MMHg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was higher. As the landfill time increased, both of THg and MMHg concentration decreased quickly, the THg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was much higher than that in semi-aerobic landfill, while the MMHg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was lower than that in the semi-aerobic landfill. Generally, the concentrations of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in the anaerobic landfill leachate were slightly higher than in the semi-aerobic landfill leachate during the stabilization process. A significant positive correlation was found between the DMHg concentrations and the pH value in anaerobic landfill leachate, but this correlation was opposite in the semi-aerobic landfill. The oxidative-reductive potential (ORP) condition was found to be the controlling factor of the methylation process during the early stage. However, the chemical characteristics, especially the TOC concentration, appeared to be the dominant factor affecting the methylation process as the landfill time increased.

  18. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at Laogang Landfill, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Yao; Zhang, L M; Chen, H X

    2016-09-19

    Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively. The composition of the MSW varied with age. With the depth increasing from 0 to 16m, the unit weight increased from 7.2 to 12.5kN/m(3), while the void ratio decreased from 2.5 to 1.76. The water content ranged between 30.0% and 68.9% but did not show a trend with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the MSW ranged between 4.6×10(-4) and 6.7×10(-3)cm/s. It decreased as the dry unit weight increased and was sensitive to changes in dry unit weight in deeper layers. Displacement-hardening was observed during the whole shearing process and the shear strength increased with the normal stress, the displacement rate, and the unit weight. The friction angle and cohesion varied from (15.7°, 29.1kPa) to (21.9°, 18.3kPa) with depth increasing from 4 to 16m. The shear strength of the MSW obtained in this study was lower than the reported values in other countries, which was caused by the less fibrous materials in the specimens in this study. The results in this study will provide guidance in the design and operation of the landfills in China.

  19. Constructing space difference schemes which satisfy a cell entropy inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical methodology for solving convection problems is presented, using finite difference schemes which satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis in addition to the usual conservation laws. It is shown that satisfaction of a cell entropy inequality is sufficient, in some cases, to guarantee nonlinear stability. Some details are given for several one-dimensional problems, including the quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations applied to flow in a nozzle.

  20. Constructing space difference schemes which satisfy a cell entropy inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical methodology for solving convection problems is presented, using finite difference schemes which satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis in addition to the usual conservation laws. It is shown that satisfaction of a cell entropy inequality is sufficient, in some cases, to guarantee nonlinear stability. Some details are given for several one-dimensional problems, including the quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations applied to flow in a nozzle.

  1. Metabolic measurements in cell culture and tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2008-10-01

    This paper concerns the study and use of biological cells in which there is a need for sensors and assemblies for the measurement of a diverse range of physical and chemical variables. In this field cell culture is used for basic research and for applications such as protein and drug synthesis, and in cell, tissue and organ engineering. Metabolic processes are fundamental to cell behaviour and must therefore be monitored reliably. Basic metabolic studies measure the transport of oxygen, glucose, carbon dioxide, lactic acid to, from, or within cells, whilst more advanced research requires examination of energy storage and utilisation. Assemblies are designed to incorporate bioreactor functions for cell culture together with appropriate sensing devices. Oxygen consumption by populations of cells is achieved in a flowthrough assembly that incorporates O2 micro-sensors based on either amperometry or fluorescence. Measurements in single cell are possible with intra-cellular fluorophores acting as biosensors together with optical stimulation and detection. Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) is used for analysis within culture fluid, for example for estimation of glucose levels, as well as within cell populations, for example to study the respiratory enzymes.Â#

  2. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Celary, Piotr Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  3. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting

  4. A methodology for the determination of fugitive dust emissions from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria; Glytsos, Thodoros; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a methodology for the determination of the contribution of fugitive dust emissions from landfill sites to ambient PM10 concentrations and the subsequent exposure to working personnel. Fugitive dust emissions in landfills mainly originate from resuspension due to truck traffic on paved and unpaved roads and from wind-blown dust from landfill cover soil. The results revealed that exposure to PM10, originating from fugitive dust emissions in the landfill site, was exceeding the health protection standards (50 μg m(-3)). The higher average daily PM10 concentration (average value) for weekdays was equal to 275 μg m(-3) and was computed for the areas nearby the unpaved road located inside the landfill facilities that lead to the landfill cell. The percentage contributions of road and wind-blown dust to the PM10 concentrations on weekdays were equal to 76 and 1%, respectively. The influence of the background concentration is estimated close to 23%.

  5. A Bilayer Construct Controls Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Differentiation into Endothelial Cells and Pericytes without Growth Factor Stimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    dermal matrix. Our intent is that such a construct could be utilized following large-surface-area burn wounds that require extensive skin grafting and that...This challenge, in combination with the time required to grow significant numbers of autologous cells, has limited the clinical utility of the...on stem cells, such as epidermal stem cells, dermal stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow, may provide technologies for the

  6. Constructing COMSOL Models of a Bacteriological Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Mansell, James

    2012-01-01

    We show very initial work on a specific bioelectrochemical system (BES), a bacteriologically driven 'fuel cell' (BFS), that is intended to process waste products, such as CO2 and brine. (1) Processing is the priority, not power generation (2) Really a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC)

  7. Dynamic culture of osteogenic cells in biomimetically coated poly(caprolactone) nanofibre mesh constructs.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Jose V; Cunha-Reis, Cassilda; Rada, Tommaso; da Silva, Marta Alves; Gomes, Manuela E; Yang, Ying; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Reis, Rui L; El-Haj, Alicia J; Neves, Nuno M

    2010-02-01

    In our previous work, biomimetic calcium phosphate-coated poly(caprolactone) nanofibre meshes (BCP-NMs) were demonstrated to be more effective for supporting cell attachment and proliferation under static conditions, when compared with poly(caprolactone) nanofibre meshes (PCL-NMs). In many applications, in vitro cultivation of constructs using bioreactors that support efficient nutrition of cells has appeared as an important step toward the development of functional grafts. This work aimed at studying the effects of dynamic culture conditions and biomimetic coating on bone cells grown on the nanofibre meshes. BCP-NM and PCL-NM were seeded with osteoblast-like cells (MG63--human osteosarcoma-derived cell line). The cell-seeded constructs were cultured within a rotating bioreactor that simulated microgravity, at a fixed rotating speed, for different time periods, and then characterized. Cell morphology, viability, and phenotype were assessed. PCL-NM constructs presented a higher number of dead cells than BCP-NM constructs. Under dynamic conditions, the production of proteins associated with the extracellular matrix of bone was higher on BCP-NM constructs than in the PCL-NM ones, which indicates that coated samples may provide cells with a better environment for tissue growth. It is suggested that improved mass transfer in the bioreactor in combination with the appropriate substrate were decisive factors for this highly positive outcome for generating bone.

  8. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs.

  9. [Construction of a recombinant stable Ba/F3 cell strain containing Tpr-Met].

    PubMed

    Shu, Ling-fei; Li, Wei; Zhan, Yi-qun; Xu, Wang-xiang; Yang, Xiao-ming; Li, Chang-yan

    2012-11-01

    To construct a stable cell strain encoding tumor-associated fused gene which expresses oncoprotein Tpr-Met. We transfected Tpr-Met vector into Ba/F3 cells and screened the cell strain stably expressing Tpr-Met. The interleukin 3 (IL-3) independent proliferation of the cells was measured using the MTS assay. The expression of Tpr-Met, the activity of downstream signal transduction pathway and SU11274-induced inhibition of the signal pathway were investigated by Western blotting. We obtained a Ba/F3 cell strain stably expressing Tpr-Met. The cells presented IL-3 independent proliferation, suggesting a malignant transformation of the cell line. In Tpr-Met transformed Ba/F3 cells, the phosphorylation of Met and ERK were enhanced; however, specific c-Met inhibitor SU11274 suppressed the cell proliferation and c-Met phosphorylation. Tpr-Met transformed Ba/F3 strain has been successfully constructed.

  10. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, B.A.; Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

  11. 75 FR 8986 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Please include your name, return address, and the caption ``DSEIS, Campo Solid Waste Management Project... of constructing and operating a solid waste disposal facility. The solid waste disposal facility... facilities. The proposed Class III (non-hazardous) solid waste landfill would occupy approximately 400...

  12. Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

  13. Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

  14. Construction of three-dimensional vascularized cardiac tissue with cell sheet engineering.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2015-05-10

    Construction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues with pre-isolated cells is a promising achievement for novel medicine and drug-discovery research. Our laboratory constructs 3D tissues with an innovative and unique method for layering multiple cell sheets. Cell sheets maintain a high-efficiently regenerating function, because of the higher cell density and higher transplantation efficiency, compared to other cell-delivery methods. Cell sheets have already been applied in clinical applications for regenerative medicine in treating patients with various diseases. Therefore, in our search to develop a more efficient treatment with cell sheets, we are constructing 3D tissues by layering cell sheets. Native animal tissues and organs have an abundance of capillaries to supply oxygen and nutrients, and to remove waste molecules. In our investigation of vascularized cardiac cell sheets, we have found that endothelial cells within cell sheets spontaneously form blood vessel networks as in vivo capillaries. To construct even thicker 3D tissues by layering multiple cell sheets, it is critical to have a medium or blood flow within the vascular networks of the cell sheets. Therefore, to perfuse medium or blood in the cell sheet vascular network to maintain the viability of all cells, we developed two types of vascular beds; (1) a femoral muscle-based vascular bed, and (2) a synthetic collagen gel-based vascular bed. Both vascular beds successfully provide the critical flow of culture medium, which allows 12-layer cell sheets to survive. Such bioreactor systems, when combined with cell sheet engineering techniques, have produced functional vascularized 3D tissues. Here we explain and discuss the various processes to obtain vascular networks by properly connecting cell sheets and the engineering of 3D tissues.

  15. FIELD TEST MEASUREMENTS AT FIVE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS WITH LANDFILL GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate landfill gas emissions at five municipal solid waste landfills which have modern control technology for landfill gas emissions. Comprehensive testing was conducted on the raw landfill gas and the combustion outlet exhaust. The project had two ...

  16. FIELD TEST MEASUREMENTS AT FIVE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS WITH LANDFILL GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate landfill gas emissions at five municipal solid waste landfills which have modern control technology for landfill gas emissions. Comprehensive testing was conducted on the raw landfill gas and the combustion outlet exhaust. The project had two ...

  17. In Vivo Bioluminescent Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Within Large Hydrogel Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ashley B.; Gazit, Zulma; Su, Susan; Stevens, Hazel Y.

    2014-01-01

    The use of multicomponent scaffolds for cell implantation has necessitated sophisticated techniques for tracking of cell survival in vivo. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) has emerged as a noninvasive tool for evaluating the therapeutic potential of cell-based tissue engineering strategies. However, the ability to use BLI measurements to longitudinally assess large 3D cellular constructs in vivo and the effects of potential confounding factors are poorly understood. In this study, luciferase-expressing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were delivered subcutaneously within agarose and RGD-functionalized alginate hydrogel vehicles to investigate the impact of construct composition and tissue formation on BLI signal. Results showed that alginate constructs exhibited twofold greater BLI counts than agarose constructs at comparable hMSC doses. However, each hydrogel type produced a linear correlation between BLI counts and live cell number, indicating that within a given material, relative differences in cell number could be accurately assessed at early time points. The survival efficiency of delivered hMSCs was highest for the lower cell doses embedded within alginate matrix. BLI signal remained predictive of live cell number through 1 week in vivo, although the strength of correlation decreased over time. Irrespective of hydrogel type or initial hMSC seeding dose, all constructs demonstrated a degree of vascularization and development of a fibrotic capsule after 1 week. Formation of tissue within and adjacent to the constructs was accompanied by an attenuation of BLI signal during the initial period of the image acquisition time-frame. In alginate constructs only, greater vessel volume led to a delayed rise in BLI signal following luciferin delivery. This study identified vascular and fibrotic tissue ingrowth as potential confounding variables for longitudinal BLI studies. Further investigation into the complexities of noninvasive BLI data acquisition from

  18. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Suites, Final Feasibility Study Report, Cold Spring Brook Landfill Operable Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    depositional feature, is located south of Patton Road. Before construction of the landfill, a swampy area stretched from Cold Spring Brook to the base of...feet bgs. Rubble and construction debris have deformed and mixed with the peat layer forming a matrix of well- graded sand and gravel within the peat...8 is not constructed in landfill materials. Wells CSB-4 ABB Environmental Services, Inc. I W0029434.M80 7005-08 1-8 I ! i SECTION 1 I and CSB-5 are

  19. Numerical Groundwater Model of the Inarajan and Tinaga River Basins in Support of a Potential Landfill Inarajan, Guam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallman, A. A.; Richards, K. E.; Stringer, A. C.; Weaver, J.; Daus, A.; Robinson, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Geomatrix conducted a hydrogeologic assessment of the Inarajan and Tinaga River basins in southern Guam to develop a conceptual understanding of groundwater flow and occurrence in support of design, construction, and operation of a regional municipal landfill. Few previous hydrologic studies have focused on southern Guam, and thus this study provided the first detailed comprehensive assessment of groundwater and surface water conditions in the area. Data collected from an extensive field program, along with previous investigations were used to develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model describing regional and site geology, hydrostratigraphy, and groundwater and surface water flow. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model of the system was developed using MODFLOW-SURFACT. The model was used to test various alternative conceptualizations and to provide a tool to evaluate landfill design and potential impacts to water resources from construction and operation of the landfill. The nature of the local watershed systems allowed for design of a basin-scale model. Historic USGS daily discharge measurements on the Inarajan and Tinaga Rivers coupled with historic precipitation records facilitated the basin scale approach. The model was calibrated to both steady state and transient conditions allowing for simulation of groundwater flow under a variety of conditions. Following calibration, predictive simulations were conducted to assess various aspects of landfill construction. The primary finding of the predictive assessments was that elimination of areal recharge resulting from construction of the landfill will cause a dramatic lowering of the water table in the weathered and fractured pyroclastic units that underlie the site. In addition, construction of the landfill will likely result in some reduction in stream base flow. Discharge of storm water runoff from the landfill into adjacent wetlands will mitigate some of the predicted impacts to base flow and

  20. Construction of ICAM-1-GFP and its binding with Molt-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; DA, Wan-Ming; Gao, Chun-Ji

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to clone human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene, to transfect the constructed eukaryotic expression vector ICAM-1-GFP into CHO cells, as well as to detect ICAM-1-GFP expression in CHO cells binding with Molt-4 cells. ICAM-1 cDNA gene was amplified by RT-PCR and inserted in PMD(18)-T vector. Then ICAM-1 cDNA from pMD18-ICAM-1 vector was subcloned into eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C1 to construct recombinant ICAM-1-pEGFP-C1 vector. Restriction analysis and DNA sequencing were used to confirm the recombinant vector. After stable transfection of CHO-K1 cells with the recombinant vector, the expression and subcellular localization of ICAM-1-GFP were detected by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The function of ICAM-1-GFP fusion protein was assessed by the binding of ICAM-1-GFP/CHO cells to Molt-4 cells. The results showed that 1622 bp full-length ICAM-1 cDNA obtained and was successfully ligated with pMD(18)-T-vector, subcloned to construct recombinant ICAM-1-pEGFP-C1 vector. Restriction analysis and DNA sequencing indicated that recombinant ICAM-1-GFP was successfully constructed and ICAM-1-GFP was expressed stably in CHO cells. ICAM-1-GFP expression was only observed in the cytoplasm of ICAM-1-GFP/CHO cells by fluorescence microscopy. The ICAM-1-GFP/CHO cells were bound to PMA-treated Molt-4 cells. The expression of MEM-148 was very weak in PMA-treated Molt-4 cells. It is concluded that the ICAM-1-GFP eukaryotic expression vector has been constructed successfully and expresses stably in CHO cells. PMA can increase the binding of Molt-4 cells to ICAM-1-GFP/CHO cells by inducing specialized form of ICAM-1 clustering.

  1. Utility of tricalcium phosphate and osteogenic matrix cell sheet constructs for bone defect reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ueha, Tomoyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Shimizu, Takamasa; Uchihara, Yoshinobu; Morita, Yusuke; Nitta, Naoya; Kido, Akira; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawate, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of transplanting osteogenic matrix cell sheets and beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) constructs on bone formation in bone defects. METHODS: Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), and a porous TCP ceramic was used as a scaffold. Three experimental groups were prepared, comprised of TCP scaffolds (1) seeded with BMSCs; (2) wrapped with osteogenic matrix cell sheets; or (3) both. Constructs were implanted into a femoral defect model in rats and bone growth was evaluated by radiography, histology, biochemistry, and mechanical testing after 8 wk. RESULTS: In bone defects, constructs implanted with cell sheets showed callus formation with segmental or continuous bone formation at 8 wk, in contrast to TCP seeded with BMSCs, which resulted in bone non-union. Wrapping TCP constructs with osteogenic matrix cell sheets increased their osteogenic potential and resulting bone formation, compared with conventional bone tissue engineering TCP scaffolds seeded with BMSCs. The compressive stiffness (mean ± SD) values were 225.0 ± 95.7, 30.0 ± 11.5, and 26.3 ± 10.6 MPa for BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation, BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with segmental bone formation, and BMSC/TCP constructs, respectively. The compressive stiffness of BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation was significantly higher than those with segmental bone formation and BMSC/TCP constructs. CONCLUSION: This technique is an improvement over current methods, such as TCP substitution, and is useful for hard tissue reconstruction and inducing earlier bone union in defects. PMID:26131318

  2. Construction of Cooler for New Propulsion Systems Laboratory Test Cells

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-21

    The 50-foot diameter primary cooler for the new Propulsion Systems Laboratory No. 3 and 4 facility constructed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. In 1968, 20 years after planning began for the original Propulsion Systems Laboratory test chambers, No. 1 and 2, NASA Lewis began preparations to add two additional and more powerful chambers. The move coincided with the center’s renewed focus on aeronautics in 1966. The new 40-foot long and 24-foot diameter chambers were capable of testing engines twice as powerful any then in existence and significantly larger than those in the original two test chambers. After exiting the engine nozzle, the hot exhaust air passed through a 17-foot diameter water exhaust duct and the 50-foot diameter primary cooler. Twenty-seven hundred water-filled tubes inside the cooler reduced the temperature of the air flow as it passed between the tubes from 3000 to 600 °F. A spray cooler further reduced the temperature of the gases to 150 °F before they were sent to the Central Air Building. Excavations for the new facility were completed by October 1967, and the shell of the building was completed a year later. In September 1968, work began on the new test chambers and associated infrastructure. Construction was completed in late 1972, and the first test was scheduled for February 1973.

  3. Screening for soluble expression constructs using cell-free protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lamla, T; Hoerer, S; Bauer, M M T

    2006-08-15

    The SH2 domain of STAT6 was chosen to test the in vitro protein synthesis as a screening tool. Goal of the screening was to obtain constructs which produce soluble protein in E. coli. The expression of 70 different constructs using an E. coli based cell-free system revealed two constructs, which give partly soluble protein. The introduction of two mutations, which had been suggested by a structural based alignment of 20 different SH2 domains lead to increased solubility. The expression of both constructs in E. coli followed by an affinity and size exclusion chromatography resulted in milligram quantities of highly purified protein.

  4. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  5. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  6. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  7. BUNCOMBE COUNTY WASTEWATER PRE-TREATMENT AND LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Creighton

    2012-03-13

    The objective of this project was to construct a landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) facility that generates a renewable energy source utilizing landfill gas to power a 1.4MW generator, while at the same time reducing the amount of leachate hauled offsite for treatment. The project included an enhanced gas collection and control system, gas conditioning equipment, and a 1.4 MW generator set. The production of cleaner renewable energy will help offset the carbon footprint of other energy sources that are currently utilized.

  8. Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yang Englehardt, James D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of electrochemical oxidation processes used for treatment of landfill leachate. The typical characteristics of landfill leachate are briefly reviewed, and the reactor designs used for electro-oxidation of leachate are summarized. Electrochemical oxidation can significantly reduce concentrations of organic contaminants, ammonia, and color in leachate. Pretreatment methods, anode materials, pH, current density, chloride concentration, and other additional electrolytes can considerably influence performance. Although high energy consumption and potential chlorinated organics formation may limit its application, electrochemical oxidation is a promising and powerful technology for treatment of landfill leachate.

  9. GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATING LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides guidance to Superfund remedial project managers, on scene coordinators, facility owners, and potentially responsible parties for conducting an air pathway analysis for landfill gas (LFG) emissions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The document provides procedures and a set of tools for evaluating LFG emissions to ambient air, subsurface vapor migration due to landfill gas pressure gradients, and subsurface vapor intrusion into buildings. The air pathway analysis is used to evaluate the inhalation risks of offsite receptors as well as the hazards of both onsite and offsite methane explosions and landfill fires. information

  10. Computer optimization of landfill-cover design

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.

    1982-12-01

    A finite difference computer program to aid optimizing landfill-cover design was developed. The program was used to compare the methane yield from sand-covred and clay-covered landfills equipped with methane-recovery systems. The results of this comparison indicate a clay cover can restrict air inflow into the landfill system, thus preventing oxygen poisoning of the methane-producing organisms. The practice of monitoring methane-to-air ratios in the pipelines of the recovery system in order to warn of oxygen infiltration into the fill material was shown to be ineffective in some situations. More-reliable methods to forewarn of oxygen poisoning are suggested.

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Lauer 1 Sanitary Landfill (Boundary road), Menomonee Falls, WI, March 11, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Boundary Road Landfill (formerly known as the Lauer 1 Landfill) is located in the northeastern portion of the Village of Menomonee Falls. Construction of a new multi-layer soil cover system over the landfill; installation of leachate extraction measures in the northeastern portion of the site; installation of an active landfill gas extraction system; construction of a new leachate conveyance, likely a forcemain (pressure pipe), to transmit all extracted leachate from the site to the local sanitary sewer system; continued operation and maintenance of an existing slurry cut-off wall and leachate collection system, including conveyance of leachate from the collection system to the new forcemain; implementation of proper institutional controls; installation of new fencing and improvement of existing fencing to restrict site access; long-term monitoring of groundwater, surface water and landfill gas; supplementary studies of groundwater quality and internal landfill leachate elevations; and implementation of additional remedial actions found to be necessary under the additional studies of groundwater quality and internal leachate elevations.

  12. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    PubMed

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  13. Exopolysaccharide control of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hilger, H.A.; Liehr, S.K.; Barlaz, M.A.

    1999-12-01

    The study objective was to examine whether a relationship exists between the accumulation of exopolymeric substances (EPS) in landfill cover soil and the gradual decline in biotic methane oxidation observed in laboratory soil columns sparged with synthetic landfill gas. A mathematical model that combined multicomponent gas diffusion along the vertical axis of the columns with biotic methane oxidation was used to predict vertical gas gradients in the columns. An initial trial assumed methane oxidizers were embedded in a thin base layer of biofilm coating the soil, and the model predictions fit experimental data from soil columns early in their operating period. A second trial modeled the same system with a thick EPS layer coating the base biofilm and limiting diffusion of gases into and out of the cells. Predictions from the alter trials fit experimental data from soil columns later in their operating period when lower methane consumption rates were observed. The model results suggest that EPS accumulation may regulate methane oxidation rates in landfill covers.

  14. Nondestructive test to track pollutant transport into landfill liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzar, A.; Ghomari, F.

    2009-03-01

    Over the last decade, waste disposal has become a particularly sensitive issue in Algeria. New legislation concerning landfill liner design has been adopted. Traditional methods of landfill liner characterization involve soil sampling and chemical analysis, which are costly, destructive and time-consuming. New techniques are currently being investigated that aim to provide nondestructive liner characterisation. This paper details technical aspects associated with electrical conductivity measurements within landfill liners and presents experimental work to show the direct application of electrical techniques to track ionic movement through a sand bentonite liner under chemically induced flow. Samples of sand bentonite were mixed and compacted with NaCl electrolytes at different concentrations. The electrical conductivities of compacted specimens were measured with a two-electrode cell. The effects of frequency and electrolyte concentration on the conductivity measurement were explored. The relationship between the soil electrical conductivity and the NaCl electrolyte concentration in interstitial pore fluid was determined. The conductivity measurements were used to quantify the pore fluid concentration and effective diffusion coefficient of sand bentonite liners. It is concluded here that the electrical conductivity of compacted specimens depends mainly on the salt concentration in the pore fluid, and that this approach could therefore be used to track ionic movement through liners during diffusion.

  15. Construction and characterization of deltaretrovirus indicator cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Nancy A; Mansky, Louis M

    2005-01-01

    The deltaretroviruses, which include bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2), replicate poorly in culture and the molecular details of their life cycles are limited. To facilitate the analysis of virus replication, mammalian cell lines were created with the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of each virus driving expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (egfp). The BLGFP, H1GFP and H2GFP cell lines detect virus infection by the expression of GFP via the transactivation of the LTR via the Tax protein of BLV, HTLV-1 or HTLV-2, respectively. GFP expression was measured by flow cytometry, yielding sensitive and rapid detection of virus infectivity. Interestingly, we observed that the Tax proteins of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 could transactivate the BLV LTR at levels that were comparable to that of BLV Tax. In contrast, the BLV Tax showed low levels of transactivation in H1GFP and H2GFP cells. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax proteins efficiently transactivated both the HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 LTRs. Finally, spinoculation of BLV resulted in only a two-fold increase in viral titer.

  16. Evaluation and application of site-specific data to revise the first-order decay model for estimating landfill gas generation and emissions at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH₄) generated from low-organic waste degradation at four Danish landfills was estimated by three first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models (LandGEM, IPCC, and Afvalzorg). Actual waste data from Danish landfills were applied to fit model (IPCC and Afvalzorg) required categories. In general, the single-phase model, LandGEM, significantly overestimated CH₄generation, because it applied too high default values for key parameters to handle low-organic waste scenarios. The key parameters were biochemical CH₄potential (BMP) and CH₄generation rate constant (k-value). In comparison to the IPCC model, the Afvalzorg model was more suitable for estimating CH₄generation at Danish landfills, because it defined more proper waste categories rather than traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions. Moreover, the Afvalzorg model could better show the influence of not only the total disposed waste amount, but also various waste categories. By using laboratory-determined BMPs and k-values for shredder, sludge, mixed bulky waste, and street-cleaning waste, the Afvalzorg model was revised. The revised model estimated smaller cumulative CH₄generation results at the four Danish landfills (from the start of disposal until 2020 and until 2100). Through a CH₄mass balance approach, fugitive CH₄emissions from whole sites and a specific cell for shredder waste were aggregated based on the revised Afvalzorg model outcomes. Aggregated results were in good agreement with field measurements, indicating that the revised Afvalzorg model could provide practical and accurate estimation for Danish LFG emissions. This study is valuable for both researchers and engineers aiming to predict, control, and mitigate fugitive CH₄emissions from landfills receiving low-organic waste. Landfill operators use the first-order decay (FOD) models to estimate methane (CH₄) generation. A single-phase model (LandGEM) and a traditional model (IPCC) could result in

  17. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  18. Emissions of C&D refuse in landfills: a European case.

    PubMed

    López, Ana; Lobo, Amaya

    2014-08-01

    A field study was developed in a new landfill for refuse from construction and demolition (C&D) material recovery plants of small size (4 Ha.) in Europe, with the aim of evaluating the liquid and gas emissions in this type of facility at a large scale. It included characterization of the materials, monitoring leachate and gas quantity and composition. Besides thermometers, piezometers and sampling ports were placed in several points within the waste. This paper presents the data obtained for five years of the landfill life. The materials disposed were mainly made up of wood and concrete, similar to other C&D debris sites, but the amount of gypsum drywall (below 3% of the waste) was significantly smaller than other available studies, where percentages above 20% had been reported. Leachate contained typical C&D pollutants, such as different inorganic ions and metals, some of which exceeded other values reported in the literature (conductivity, ammonium, lead and arsenic). The small net precipitation in the area and the leachate recirculation into the landfill surface help explain these higher concentrations, thus highlighting the impact of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio on leachate characteristics. In contrast to previous studies, neither odor nuisances nor significant landfill gas over the surface were detected. However, gas samples taken from the landfill inside revealed sulfate reducing and methanogenic activity.

  19. Development of an empirical model of methane emissions from landfills. Final report Mar-Dec 91

    SciTech Connect

    Peer, R.L.; Epperson, D.L.; Campbell, D.L.; von Brook, P.

    1992-03-01

    The report gives results of a field study of 21 U.S. landfills with gas recovery systems, to gather information that can be used to develop an empirical model of methane (CH4) emissions. Site-specific information includes average CH4 recovery rate, landfill size, tons of refuse (refuse mass), average age of the refuse, and climate. A correlation analysis showed that refuse mass was positively linearly correlated with landfill depth, volume, area, and well depth. Regression of the CH4 recovery rate on depth, refuse mass, and volume was significant, but depth was the best predictive variable (R2 = 0.53). Refuse mass was nearly as good (R2 = 0.50). None of the climate variables (precipitation, average temperature, dewpoint) were correlated with the CH4 recovery rate or with CH4 recovery per metric ton of refuse. Much of the variability in CH4 recovery remains unexplained, and is likely due to between-site differences in landfill construction, operation, and refuse composition. A model for global landfill emissions estimation is proposed.

  20. Effect of temperature on hydration of geosynthetic clay liners in landfills.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Arden; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2013-03-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) have gained popularity as a barrier system in modern landfill construction. As such, it is depended upon to provide a level of impermeability to prevent the escape of contaminants into the surrounding soil and groundwater. It has been proven that a GCL's hydraulic conductivity is closely related to its moisture content. GCLs are known to absorb moisture from the underlying soil after installation. In a landfill, temperatures near the liner can reach upwards of 55ºC. The effect of these elevated temperatures on the hydration process of the GCL was determined for two types of GCL over two types of subsoil: sand and clay. It was found that elevated temperatures prevented the GCL from reaching moisture content levels that would be acceptable in a real-life scenario. Temperatures in landfills could be expected to cause a GCL to reach a moisture equilibrium at roughly 16% gravimetric moisture content, where GCL at room temperature would reach higher than 100% gravimetric moisture content. The significant difference in moisture equilibrium of GCLs at different temperatures may suggest that the heat naturally produced in landfills could negatively affect the liner's hydraulic performance. The importance of allowing a GCL to properly hydrate before heat exposure must be better understood in order to minimize the potential negative effect of a landfill on our environment and our livelihood. This study also confirmed that the hydration potential of GCL depends on the method of GCL manufacture and the subsoil characteristics.

  1. Evaluation of the odour reduction potential of alternative cover materials at a commercial landfill.

    PubMed

    Solan, P J; Dodd, V A; Curran, T P

    2010-02-01

    The availability of virgin soils and traditional landfill covers are not only costly and increasingly becoming scarce, but they also reduce the storage capacity of landfill. The problem can be overcome by the utilisation of certain suitable waste streams as alternative landfill covers. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Construction & Demolition fines (C&D), Commercial & Industrial fines (C&I) and woodchip (WC) as potential landfill cover materials in terms of odour control. Background odour analysis was conducted to determine if any residual odour was emitted from the cover types. It was deemed negligible for the three materials. The odour reduction performance of each of the materials was also examined on an area of an active landfill site. A range of intermediate cover compositions were also studied to assess their performance. Odour emissions were sampled using a Jiang hood and analysed. Results indicate that the 200 mm deep combination layer of C&D and wood chip used on-site is adequate for odour abatement. The application of daily cover was found to result in effective reduction allowing for the background odour of woodchip.

  2. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  3. Hippocampal place cells construct reward related sequences through unexplored space

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Aman B

    2015-01-01

    Dominant theories of hippocampal function propose that place cell representations are formed during an animal's first encounter with a novel environment and are subsequently replayed during off-line states to support consolidation and future behaviour. Here we report that viewing the delivery of food to an unvisited portion of an environment leads to off-line pre-activation of place cells sequences corresponding to that space. Such ‘preplay’ was not observed for an unrewarded but otherwise similar portion of the environment. These results suggest that a hippocampal representation of a visible, yet unexplored environment can be formed if the environment is of motivational relevance to the animal. We hypothesise such goal-biased preplay may support preparation for future experiences in novel environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06063.001 PMID:26112828

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE III. DEMONSTRATION TESTS - PHASE IV. GUIDELINES AND DEMONSTRATIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of a four-phase program to demonstrate that fuel cell energy recovery using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell is both environmentally sound and commercially feasible. Phase I, a conceptual design and evaluation study, addressed the technical...

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE III. DEMONSTRATION TESTS - PHASE IV. GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS- VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of a four-phase program to demonstrate that fuel cell energy recovery using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell is both environmentally sound and commercially feasible. Phase I, a conceptual design and evaluation study, addressed the technical...

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE III. DEMONSTRATION TESTS - PHASE IV. GUIDELINES AND DEMONSTRATIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of a four-phase program to demonstrate that fuel cell energy recovery using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell is both environmentally sound and commercially feasible. Phase I, a conceptual design and evaluation study, addressed the technical...

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE III. DEMONSTRATION TESTS - PHASE IV. GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS- VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of a four-phase program to demonstrate that fuel cell energy recovery using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell is both environmentally sound and commercially feasible. Phase I, a conceptual design and evaluation study, addressed the technical...

  8. Analysis of Vegetative on Six Different Landfill Cover Profiles in an Arid Environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; McClellan, Yvonne; Reavis, Bruce A.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Newman, Gretchen; Wolters, Gale

    2005-05-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs was constructed and monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle 'D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle 'C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for arid environments. The demonstration was intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. A portion of this project involves the characterization of vegetation establishment and growth on the landfill covers. The various prototype landfill covers were expected to have varying flux rates (Dwyer et al 2000). The landfill covers were further expected to influence vegetation establishment and growth, which may impact site erosion potential and long-term site integrity. Objectives of this phase were to quantify the types of plants occupying each site, the percentage of ground covered by these plants, the density (number of plants per unit area) of plants, and the plant biomass production. The results of this vegetation analysis are presented in this report.3 DRAFT07/06/14AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank all technical and support staff from Sandia and the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Station not included in the authors' list of this document for their valuable contributions to this research. We would also like to acknowledge the Department of Energy's Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area for funding this work.4

  9. A study of methods to reduce groundwater contamination around the Kimpo landfill in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, G; Shon, J; Won, H; Hyun, J; Oh, W

    2002-05-01

    Four different methods were studied to reduce the groundwater contamination around the Kimpo landfill in Korea by leakage of a leachate. The hydraulic parameters were measured for this study and then the groundwater flow and contaminant transport systems around the Kimpo landfill were simulated with MODFLOW and MT3D models. Both the method of establishing 5 sets of Radial Collector Well Laterals (RCWLs) within the landfill and a method utilizing the wells for dewatering condensed water brought about a 70% leachate elimination efficiency. Their construction costs were cheap, and the maximum concentrations of chloride and phenol in the leachate effluent were high. Meanwhile, a method establishing an interception wall to the 2nd layer at the cirumference of the landfill and 22 sets of RCWLs within it brought about a 92% leachate elimination efficiency. Its construction cost was expensive, and the maximum concentrations of chloride and phenol in the leachate effluent were low. A method of establishing an interception wall to the 3rd layer and 40 sets of RCWLs brought about a 97% leachate elimination efficiency. Its construction cost was the most expensive, and the maximum concentrations of chloride and phenol were low. Conclusively, a method of establishing 22 sets of RCWLs was evaluated as the most stable and economical option to reduce groundwater contamination concentration below drinking water standard.

  10. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  11. Experience with landfill gas monitoring and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, S.R.; Wilcox, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    Landfills have recently come under additional environmental scrutiny for their potential as air emission sources. This paper discusses an air monitoring program that was performed in 1997 for the landfill located at US Army Fort Dix, New Jersey. Results of the program are presented as well as conclusions that were drawn from the sampling data and the sampling techniques employed. The Fort Dix Landfill air monitoring program consisted of quarterly measurements of gas vent (more than 50) flow rates. Flow rates were measured twice per day (morning and afternoon) with vane anemometers in order to assess diurnal effects. Measurements of ambient pressure and temperature were also taken for correlation with the gas vent flow rates. Additional gas sampling was performed on selected vents at the landfill to ascertain fixed gases (methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen) content, total non-methane organic compounds (NMOC), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) content, mercury content, and over sixty individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  12. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The program models rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and other water pathways to estimate how much water builds up above each landfill liner. It can incorporate data on vegetation, soil types, geosynthetic materials, initial moisture conditions, slopes, etc.

  13. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, A A; Beaven, R P; White, J K

    2004-01-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  14. Landfill mining: Developing a comprehensive assessment method.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Robert; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pomberger, Roland; Sarc, Renato

    2016-11-01

    In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.

  15. The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.

    1994-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites.

  16. Understanding landfill gas generation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Rose, C.; Vogt, M.; Gartman, D.

    1988-01-01

    Landfill gas research in the US Department of Energy (DOE) from Municipal Waste (EMW) Program is focusing on two major areas of investigation: (1) Landfill gas migration processes; and (2) Landfill gas generation. With regard to gas migration, a field investigation is examining bidirectional gas movement through landfill cover materials by processes of pressure and diffusional flow. The overall purpose of the study is to quantify gas loss from the landfill reservoir by natural venting and air influx due to pumping on recovery wells. Two field sites--a humid site with clay cover and a semiarid site with sand cover--have been instrumented to examine vertical gas movement through cover materials. Results from the humid site indicate that: (1) concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen in soil gas vary seasonally with soil moisture; (2) based on average methane gradients in soil gas and a simple diffusion model, up to 10E5 g methane m/sup /minus /2/ yr/sup /minus/1/ are vented through the cover materials at the humid site (area of 17 ht); and (3) during prolonged wet weather, pressure gradients of more than 2 kPa may develop between the cover materials and top of refuse, indicating that pressure flow is periodically an important mechanism for gas transport. The second project is addressing landfill gas generation. The major goal is to develop simple assay techniques to examine the gas production potential of landfilled refuse. Refuse samples extracted from various depths in a landfill are being leached by three different methods to separate microbial mass and substrate. The leachates are being subjected to Biochemical Methane Production (BMP) assays with periodic qualitative examination of microbial populations using fluorescence microscopy of live cultures and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  18. Occurrence and treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals in landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mu-Chen; Chen, Yao Yin; Chiou, Mei-Rung; Chen, Men Yu; Fan, Huan-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachates might contain pharmaceuticals due to the expired or unwanted drugs were disposed of at landfills. These pharmaceuticals might pose a threat to soil and groundwater. Therefore, this study investigated the distributions of pharmaceutical residues and toxicities among four typical municipal landfill leachates. Twenty six pharmaceuticals were investigated in this study and fifteen of them were found in all samples from four leachates. In addition, ampicillin and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) were detected in urban landfills (A1 and A2) but were not in rural and suburb landfills (B and C). On the other hand, some compounds were much more abundant in suburb/rural landfill leachates than those in urban landfills including diclofenac, gemfibrozil and amphetamine. Landfill leachate treatment plants could not remove most of the pharmaceuticals effectively. Landfill leachates without proper treatments would have significant adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life.

  19. Performance evaluation of the bioreactor landfill in treatment and stabilisation of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-03-01

    The potential of bioreactor landfills to treat mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste is analysed in this study. Developing countries like India and China have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This article describes the impacts of leachate recirculation on waste stabilisation, landfill gas generation, leachate characteristics and long-term waste settlement. A small-scale and large-scale anaerobic cell were filled with mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste collected from a landfill site at the outskirts of Bangalore, India. Leachate collected from the same landfill site was recirculated at the rate of 2-5 times a month on a regular basis for 370 days. The total quantity of gas generated was around 416 L in the large-scale reactor and 21 L in the small-scale reactor, respectively. Differential settlements ranging from 20%-26% were observed at two different locations in the large reactor, whereas 30% of settlement was observed in the small reactor. The biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio indicated that the waste in the large reactor was stabilised at the end of 1 year. The performance of the bioreactor with respect to the reactor size, temperature, landfill gas and leachate quality was analysed and it was found that the bioreactor landfill is efficient in the treatment and stabilising of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

  20. Shallow groundwater hydrochemistry assessment of engineered landfill and dumpsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan; Hossain, Md Shabbir

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, hydrochemistry analysis was performed at two different landfill site that is Matang and Beriah landfills, to evaluate the environmental risks associated with leachate flowing into groundwater resources. Selected parameters considered were heavy metal and physico-chemical properties of the groundwater samples. Analysis for Matang Landfill shows that the pollutant species seem to accumulate within MT1 that were located at the southeast of the landfill site. The pollutant species have tendency to migrate and disperse toward the southeast side of the landfill site which are MT 1, MT4 AND MT5. Meanwhile, the analysis for Beriah Landfill site shows that the contaminant tends to migrate to the south west direction of the landfill where AP6 and AP7 show the highest concentration of Heavy Metals, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2. The concentration of heavy metal is higher in Beriah Landfill as compared to Matang Landfill which was due to the type of landfill itself, where Matang Landfill operates as sanitary landfill meanwhile Beriah Landfil function as a dumpsite or uncontrolled landfill.

  1. Effect of biogas generation on radon emissions from landfills receiving radium-bearing waste from shale gas development.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gary R; Benke, Roland R; Pickett, David A

    2012-09-01

    analyses the processes by which radon may be emitted from a landfill to the atmosphere. The analyses indicate that landfill gas generation can significantly increase radon emissions, but that the actual level of radon emissions depend on the place of the waste, construction of the landfill cover, and nature of the landfill gas control system.

  2. Mineral and organic compounds in leachate from landfill with concentrate recirculation.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a reverse osmosis concentrate recirculation on the mineral and organic compounds in a landfill leachate was investigated. Investigated was the quality of a leachate from two landfills operated for different periods (a 20-year-old Cell A and a 1-year-old Cell B), where the concentrate was recirculated. Examined were general parameters (conductivity, pH), organic compounds (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic nitrogen, BOD/COD), and inorganic compounds (nitrogen ammonia, sulfite, sulfate, cyanide, boron, chloride, ferrous, zinc, chrome, copper). The findings from the first year of investigation showed that over the initial period of recirculation, the concentration of organic compounds (BOD, COD) increased, but after 6 months their values stabilized. It indicates that the concentrate recirculation accelerated organic decomposition, especially in the new landfill Cell. The analysis of inorganic parameters showed that recirculation landfills produce a leachate with a higher concentration of N-NH4, and Cl(-). In case of the old landfill Cell, an increase in B and Fe was also noticeable. These compounds are cyclically washed out from a waste dump and require an additional pretreatment in order to exclude them from recirculation cycle. The increased concentration of Cu, Zn, and Fe was noticed during the initial months of recirculation and in the season of intense atmospheric precipitation in the leachate from both Cells. Higher values of electro conductivity, Cl(-), N-NH4 (+), B, and Fe in the leachate from the old field indicate that the attenuation capacity of this landfill is close to exhaustion.

  3. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  4. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  5. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  6. Air toxics speciation of landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Potas, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    USEPA`s AP-42, emission factor reference manual lists 27 hazardous air pollutants that have been determined to be present in gas generated at landfills. Different AP-42 values are given for some air toxic compounds generated from municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and hazardous waste. This paper compares data compiled from five landfill gas sampling projects in parts per million with the AP-42 data. The sampling took place at landfills containing municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial waste. Sampling was performed according to the Tier 2 testing procedures for total non-methane organic compound concentrations described in the New Source Performance Standards Subpart WWW for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. The speciation analysis was conducted by EPA Method TO-14. The list of TO-14 compounds for the speciation analysis was extended to include, at a minimum, all 27 AP-42 listed hazardous air pollutant compounds. The landfills included sites from across the country. The paper describes data quality and the effect of landfill age on some individual air toxic concentrations. The author also comments on the agreement between the total non-methane organic compound concentration and the total molecular weight equivalent concentration of the individual compound concentrations. In general, the concentration values were similar for the AP-42 compounds, although several AP-42 compounds were not detected.

  7. A statistical model for landfill surface emissions.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Martin; Guy, Christophe; Millette, Denis

    2010-02-01

    Landfill operators require a rapid, simple, low-cost, and accurate method for estimation of landfill methane surface emissions over time. Several methods have been developed to obtain instantaneous field measurements of landfill methane surface emissions. This paper provides a methodology for interpolating instantaneous measurements over time, taking variations in meteorological conditions into account. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of three factors on landfill methane surface emissions: air temperature, pressure gradient between waste and atmosphere, and soil moisture content of the cover material. On the basis of a statistical three-factor and two-level full factorial design, field measurements of methane emissions were conducted at the City of Montreal landfill site during the summer of 2004. Three areas were measured: test area 1 (4800 m2), test area 2 (1400 m2), and test area 3 (1000 m2). Analyses of variance were performed on the data. They showed a significant statistical effect of the three factors and the interaction between temperature and soil moisture content on methane emissions. Analysis also led to the development of a multifactor correlation, which can be explained by the underlying processes of diffusive and advective flow and biological oxidation. This correlation was used to estimate total emissions of the three test areas for July and August 2004. The approach was validated using a second dataset for another area adjacent to the landfill.

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from a municipal landfill.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Janne; Pihlatie, Mari; Lohila, Annalea; Thum, Tea; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Laurila, Tuomas; Vesala, Timo

    2005-10-15

    The first measurements of nitrous oxide (N20) emissions from a landfill by the eddy covariance method are reported. These measurements were compared to enclosure emission measurements conducted at the same site. The average emissions from the municipal landfill of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area were 2.7 mg N m(-2) h(-1) and 6.0 mg N m(-2) h(-1) measured bythe eddy covariance and the enclosure methods, respectively. The N20 emissions from the landfill are about 1 order of magnitude higher than the highest emissions reported from Northern European agricultural soils, and 2 orders of magnitude higher than the highest emissions reported from boreal forest soils. Due to the small area of landfills as compared to other land-use classes, the total N20 emissions from landfills are estimated to be of minor importance for the total emissions from Finland. Expressed as a greenhouse warming potential (GWP100), the N2O emissions make up about 3% of the total GWP100 emission of the landfill. The emissions measured by the two systems were generally of similar magnitude, with enclosure measurements showing a high small-scale spatial variation.

  9. Functional relationships of landfill and landraise capacity with design and operation parameters.

    PubMed

    Aivaliotis, Vassilis; Dokas, Ioannis; Hatzigiannakou, Maria; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios

    2004-08-01

    Solid waste management presses for effective landfill design and operation. While planning and operating a landfill (LF) or a landraise (LR), choices need to be made regarding: (1) LF-LR morphology (base shape, side slopes, final cover thickness, LR/LF height/depth); (2) cell geometry (height, length, slopes); and (3) operation parameters (waste density, working face length, cover thicknesses). These parameters affect LF/LR capacity, operation lifespan and construction/ operation costs. In this paper, relationships are generated between capacity (C, space available for waste) and the above parameters. Incorporating real data into simulation kgamma A1.38, runs, two types of functions are developed: first, C = where A is the LF/LR base area size and kgamma a base shape-dependent coefficient; and second, C = alpha(p,gamma,A) + delta(p,gamma,A)Xp for every parameter p, where Xp is the value of p and alpha(p,gamma,A) and delta(p,gamma,A) are parameter- and base (shape/size)-specific coefficients. Moreover, the relationship between LF depth and LR height that balances excavation volume with cover material, is identified. Another result is that, for a symmetrical combination of LF/LR, with base surface area shape between square and 1:2 orthogonal, and final density between 500 and 800 kg m(-3), waste quantity placed ranges from 1.76A1.38 to 2.55A1.38 tons. The significance of such functions is obvious, as they allow the analyst to investigate alternative LF/LR schemes and make trade-off analyses.

  10. Determination of transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA in landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, J.; Yoon, H.; Bae, J.; Jung, H.; Kong, M.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTA) have receiving increasing attention because of its high toxicity to human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2007) and bladder EJ-1 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2009). These findings require accurate assessment of arsenic species including thiolated compounds in environmental media. Recently, Li et al. (2010) found DMMTA and DMDTA was transformed from dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in landfill leachate with low redox potential and high bacterial biomass and concentrations of BOD and sulfide. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA were investigated to quantify what arsenic species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. For this purpose, simulated leachate mimicking mature landfill condition was prepared under the concentrations of sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) and redox potential controlled. The leachate was spiked with arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and DMA respectively and the transformed arsenic species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Factors influencing arsenic transformations in landfill leachate were evaluated in present study and these results provide to us pathways for being generated thiolated arsenicals. Realistic risk in arsenic disposed landfill is able to calculate by using these results. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the research grant T31603 from Korea Basic Science Institute.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Davie Landfill, Broward County, Florida, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Broward County Solid Waste Disposal facility (a.k.a. Davie Landfill) is located 10 miles southwest of Fort Lauderdale, Florida near the intersection of Orange Drive and Boy Scout Road. The landfill, area includes a 50-acre garbage landfill, an 80-acre trash landfill and a 56-acre sludge lagoon. The facility began operation in 1964 accepting trash and ash from the county's adjacent garbage incinerator. In November 1971, the lagoon was created in an unlined natural depression onsite. Grease-trap pumpouts, septic-tank, and treated municipal sludges were disposed in the lagoon which contains an estimated 75,000 cubic yards of sludge. Initial sampling of the lagoon contents characterize the waste as being in the high range of typical wastewater-treatment-plant-sludge hazardous constituents. In addition, concerns have been raised about the relatively high cyanide and sulfide concentrations detected. The selected remedial action includes: dewatering and stabilization of the sludge lagoon contents and placement in a single-lined sanitary landfill cell; and installation of a cap on the cell that meets the regulatory requirements of 40 CFR 264.310(a). This ROD addresses only source control measures. The decision concerning cleanup of groundwater contamination will be made following an evaluation of these actions and monitoring data. Total capital cost for the selected remedial action is estimated to be $3.0-$3.7 million with annual OandM costs of $100,000.

  12. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Thomas; Hägg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Kölby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Methods: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket. Four groups of printed constructs were used: (1) human (male) nasal chondrocytes (hNCs), (2) human (female) bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), (3) coculture of hNCs and hBMSCs in a 20/80 ratio, and (4) Cell-free scaffolds (blank). After 14, 30, and 60 days, the scaffolds were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical analysis. Results: The constructs had good mechanical properties and keep their structural integrity after 60 days of implantation. For both the hNC constructs and the cocultured constructs, a gradual increase of glycosaminoglycan production and hNC proliferation was observed. However, the cocultured group showed a more pronounced cell proliferation and enhanced deposition of human collagen II demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusions: In vivo chondrogenesis in a 3D bioprinted human cell-laden hydrogel construct has been demonstrated. The trophic role of the hBMSCs in stimulating hNC proliferation and matrix deposition in the coculture group suggests the potential of 3D bioprinting of human cartilage for future application in reconstructive surgery. PMID:28280669

  13. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs.

    PubMed

    Möller, Thomas; Amoroso, Matteo; Hägg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Kölby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket. Four groups of printed constructs were used: (1) human (male) nasal chondrocytes (hNCs), (2) human (female) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), (3) coculture of hNCs and hBMSCs in a 20/80 ratio, and (4) Cell-free scaffolds (blank). After 14, 30, and 60 days, the scaffolds were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical analysis. The constructs had good mechanical properties and keep their structural integrity after 60 days of implantation. For both the hNC constructs and the cocultured constructs, a gradual increase of glycosaminoglycan production and hNC proliferation was observed. However, the cocultured group showed a more pronounced cell proliferation and enhanced deposition of human collagen II demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. In vivo chondrogenesis in a 3D bioprinted human cell-laden hydrogel construct has been demonstrated. The trophic role of the hBMSCs in stimulating hNC proliferation and matrix deposition in the coculture group suggests the potential of 3D bioprinting of human cartilage for future application in reconstructive surgery.

  14. Construction of a Hep-2 cell line stably transfected with Livin shRNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, S L; Deng, W T; Wen, G F; Li, C W; Zeng, Y J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Livin in order to obtain a stably transfected Hep-2 cell line with a reduced expression of Livin. The shRNA targeting Livin mRNA was designed, and a shRNA plasmid and a negative control plasmid were constructed. After amplification in E. coli, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequence confirmation, the plasmids were transfected into Hep-2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The stably transfected cell line was screened using G418, and inhibition of Livin mRNA and protein levels were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. pGenesil-Livin-shRNA eukaryotic expression plasmid was successfully constructed and identified by sequencing. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was observed in Hep-2 cells transfected with shRNA plasmids by fluorescence microscopy. The expression levels of Livin mRNA and protein decreased significantly in Hep-2 cells transfected with the shRNA recombinant plasmid. The mRNA level was reduced by 47.17 %, and the protein level was reduced by 34.25 %. The shRNA eukaryotic expression plasmid targeting Livin was successfully constructed, which could significantly inhibit the expression of Livin in laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells. This provides a basis for future research on the function of Livin in Hep-2 cells, and gene therapy for laryngeal cancer.

  15. Printing cell-laden gelatin constructs by free-form fabrication and enzymatic protein crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Agrawal, Animesh; Lee, Bae Hoon; Chua, Hui Yee; Low, Kok Yao; Lau, Boon Chong; Machluf, Marcelle; Venkatraman, Subbu

    2015-02-01

    Considerable interest has arisen in precision fabrication of cell bearing scaffolds and structures by free form fabrication. Gelatin is an ideal material for creating cell entrapping constructs, yet its application in free form fabrication remains challenging. We demonstrate the use of gelatin, crosslinked with microbial transglutaminase (mTgase), as a material to print cell bearing hydrogels for both 2-dimensional (2-D) precision patterns and 3-dimensional (3-D) constructs. The precision patterning was attained with 3 % gelatin and 2 % high molecular weight poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) whereas 3-D constructs were obtained using a 5 % gelatin solution. These hydrogels, referred to as "bioinks" supported entrapped cell growth, allowing cell spreading and proliferation for both HEK293 cells and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). These bioinks were shown to be dispensable by robotic precision, forming patterns and constructs that were insoluble and of suitable stiffness to endure post gelation handling. The two bioinks were further characterized for fabrication parameters and mechanical properties.

  16. A rapid seeding technique for the assembly of large cell/scaffold composite constructs.

    PubMed

    Solchaga, Luis A; Tognana, Enrico; Penick, Kitsie; Baskaran, Harihara; Goldberg, Victor M; Caplan, Arnold I; Welter, Jean F

    2006-07-01

    These studies address critical technical issues involved in creating human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)/ scaffold implants for cartilage repair. These issues include obtaining a high cell density and uniform spatial cell distribution within the scaffold, factors that are critical in the initiation and homogeneity of chondrogenic differentiation. For any given scaffold, the initial seeding influences cell density, retention, and spatial distribution within the scaffold, which eventually will affect the function of the construct. Here, we discuss the development of a vacuum-aided seeding technique for HYAFF -11 sponges which we compared to passive infiltration. Our results show that, under the conditions tested, hMSCs were quantitatively and homogeneously loaded into the scaffolds with 90+% retention rates after 24 h in perfusion culture with no negative effect on cell viability or chondrogenic potential. The retention rates of the vacuum-seeded constructs were at least 2 times greater than those of passively seeded constructs at 72 h. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that the core of the vacuum-seeded constructs contained 240% more cells than the core of passively infiltrated scaffolds. The vacuum seeding technique is safe, rapid, reproducible, and results in controlled quantitative cell loading, high retention, and uniform distribution.

  17. A Rapid Seeding Technique for the Assembly of Large Cell/Scaffold Composite Constructs*

    PubMed Central

    SOLCHAGA, LUIS A.; TOGNANA, ENRICO; PENICK, KITSIE; BASKARAN, HARIHARA; GOLDBERG, VICTOR M.; CAPLAN, ARNOLD I.

    2006-01-01

    These studies address critical technical issues involved in creating human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)/scaffold implants for cartilage repair. These issues include obtaining a high cell density and uniform spatial cell distribution within the scaffold, factors that are critical in the initiation and homogeneity of chondrogenic differentiation. For any given scaffold, the initial seeding influences cell density, retention, and spatial distribution within the scaffold, which eventually will affect the function of the construct. Here, we discuss the development of a vacuum-aided seeding technique for HYAFF®-11 sponges which we compared to passive infiltration. Our results show that, under the conditions tested, hMSCs were quantitatively and homogeneously loaded into the scaffolds with 90+% retention rates after 24 h in perfusion culture with no negative effect on cell viability or chondrogenic potential. The retention rates of the vacuum-seeded constructs were at least 2 times greater than those of passively seeded constructs at 72 h. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that the core of the vacuum-seeded constructs contained 240% more cells than the core of passively infiltrated scaffolds. The vacuum seeding technique is safe, rapid, reproducible, and results in controlled quantitative cell loading, high retention, and uniform distribution. PMID:16889515

  18. Synthetic genomics and the construction of a synthetic bacterial cell.

    PubMed

    Glass, John I

    2012-01-01

    The first synthetic cellular organism was created in 2010 and based on a very small, very simple bacterium called Mycoplasma mycoides. The bacterium was called synthetic because its DNA genome was chemically synthesized rather than replicated from an existing template DNA, as occurs in all other known cellular life on Earth. The experiment was undertaken in order to develop a system that would allow creation of a minimal bacterial cell that could lead to a better understand of the first principles of cellular life. The effort resulted in new synthetic genomics techniques called genome assembly and genome transplantation. The ability of scientists to design and build bacteria opens new possibilities for creating microbes to solve human problems.

  19. Microbial fuel cells for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Clara; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Clogging in HSSF CW may result in a reduction of system's life-span or treatment efficiency. Current available techniques to assess the degree of clogging in HSSF CW are time consuming and cannot be applied on a continuous basis. Main objective of this work was to assess the potential applicability of microbial fuel cells for continuous clogging assessment in HSSF CW. To this aim, two replicates of a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) were built up and operated under laboratory conditions for five weeks. The MFC anode was gravel-based to simulate the filter media of HSSF CW. MFC were weekly loaded with sludge that had been accumulating for several years in a pilot HSSF CW treating domestic wastewater. Sludge loading ranged from ca. 20kgTS·m(-3)CW·year(-1) at the beginning of the study period up to ca. 250kgTS·m(-3)CW·year(-1) at the end of the study period. Sludge loading applied resulted in sludge accumulated within the MFC equivalent to a clogging degree ranging from 0.2years (ca. 0.5kgTS·m(-3)CW) to ca. 5years (ca. 10kgTS·m(-3)CW). Results showed that the electric charge was negatively correlated to the amount of sludge accumulated (degree of clogging). Electron transference (expressed as electric charge) almost ceased when accumulated sludge within the MFC was equivalent to ca. 5years of clogging (ca. 10kgTS·m(-3)CW). This result suggests that, although longer study periods under more realistic conditions shall be further performed, HSSF CW operated as a MFC has great potential for clogging assessment.

  20. Construction of porcine CCK pDNA and its expression in COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jigang; Lü, Yi; Bai, Qiaoling

    2007-06-01

    CCK correlates with the generation and progression of pancreatic cancer. The research aims to construct eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES2-EGFP/CCK (CCK pDNA) and transiently express it in COS-7 cells. Total RNA was extracted from porcine intestinal mucosa. RT-PCR was used to amplify the aimed segments CCKcDNA which was then digested with EcoR1 and BamH1 and inserted into a eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES2-EGFP to construct CCK pDNA. The constructed plasmid was transfected into COS-7 cells by lepofectamin 2000-mediated transfer method. The expression of CCK in transfected COS-7 cells was detected 24, 48 and 72 h post-transfection with fluorescence microscopy and the expression level of CCK mRNA in transfected COS-7 cells was assayed by using RT-PCR. The results showed CCK pDNA was successfully constructed and expressed transiently in COS-7 cells. Green fluorescent protein could be detected in the COS-7 cells transfected with porcine CCK pDNA 24 h post-transfection. At 48th h post-transfection, the number of positive cells was increased significantly and much brighter green fluorescence could be detected. And 72 h post-transfection, the green fluorescence of positive cells became even stronger, while no green fluorescence was detected in the control group. The expression of CCK mRNA in the cells was detectable by using RT-PCR. In COS-7 cells transfected with CCK pDNA a high level of porcine CCK mRNA was detected while no expression of porcine CCKmRNA was found in the cells transfected with null plasmid. It was concluded CCK pDNA was expressed successfully in COS-7 cells, which lays a foundation for further research on the relationship between CCK and tumor.