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Sample records for landgard pyrolysis system

  1. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  2. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  3. Efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures: chicken litter; swine solids; and swine solids blended with rye grass. Eight to 19 liters of dried manures were used as feedstocks for the skid-mounted pyrolysis ste...

  4. Comparison of petroleum generation kinetics by isothermal hydrous and nonisothermal open-system pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Ruble, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares kinetic parameters determined by open-system pyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis using aliquots of source rocks containing different kerogen types. Kinetic parameters derived from these two pyrolysis methods not only differ in the conditions employed and products generated, but also in the derivation of the kinetic parameters (i.e., isothermal linear regression and non-isothermal nonlinear regression). Results of this comparative study show that there is no correlation between kinetic parameters derived from hydrous pyrolysis and open-system pyrolysis. Hydrous-pyrolysis kinetic parameters determine narrow oil windows that occur over a wide range of temperatures and depths depending in part on the organic-sulfur content of the original kerogen. Conversely, open-system kinetic parameters determine broad oil windows that show no significant differences with kerogen types or their organic-sulfur contents. Comparisons of the kinetic parameters in a hypothetical thermal-burial history (2.5 ??C/my) show open-system kinetic parameters significantly underestimate the extent and timing of oil generation for Type-US kerogen and significantly overestimate the extent and timing of petroleum formation for Type-I kerogen compared to hydrous pyrolysis kinetic parameters. These hypothetical differences determined by the kinetic parameters are supported by natural thermal-burial histories for the Naokelekan source rock (Type-IIS kerogen) in the Zagros basin of Iraq and for the Green River Formation (Type-I kerogen) in the Uinta basin of Utah. Differences in extent and timing of oil generation determined by open-system pyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis can be attributed to the former not adequately simulating natural oil generation conditions, products, and mechanisms.

  5. Investigating the potential for a self-sustaining slow pyrolysis system under varying operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Kyle; Mašek, Ondřej

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to investigate the impact of highest treatment temperature (HTT), heating rate, carrier gas flow rate and feedstock on the composition and energy content of pyrolysis gas to assess whether a self-sustained system could be achieved through the combustion of the gas fraction alone, leaving other co-products available for alternative high-value uses. Calculations based on gas composition showed that the pyrolysis process could be sustained by the energy contained within the pyrolysis gases alone. The lower energy limit (6% biomass higher heating value (HHV)) was surpassed by pyrolysis at ⩾450°C while only a HTT of 650°C consistently met the upper energy limit (15% biomass HHV). These findings fill an important gap in literature related to the energy balance of the pyrolysis systems for biochar production, and show that, at least from an energy balance perspective; self-sustained slow pyrolysis for co-production of biochar and liquid products is feasible.

  6. Investigating the potential for a self-sustaining slow pyrolysis system under varying operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Kyle; Mašek, Ondřej

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to investigate the impact of highest treatment temperature (HTT), heating rate, carrier gas flow rate and feedstock on the composition and energy content of pyrolysis gas to assess whether a self-sustained system could be achieved through the combustion of the gas fraction alone, leaving other co-products available for alternative high-value uses. Calculations based on gas composition showed that the pyrolysis process could be sustained by the energy contained within the pyrolysis gases alone. The lower energy limit (6% biomass higher heating value (HHV)) was surpassed by pyrolysis at ⩾450°C while only a HTT of 650°C consistently met the upper energy limit (15% biomass HHV). These findings fill an important gap in literature related to the energy balance of the pyrolysis systems for biochar production, and show that, at least from an energy balance perspective; self-sustained slow pyrolysis for co-production of biochar and liquid products is feasible. PMID:24747394

  7. Pyrolysis biochar systems for recovering biodegradable materials: A life cycle carbon assessment.

    PubMed

    Ibarrola, Rodrigo; Shackley, Simon; Hammond, James

    2012-05-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) focused on biochar and bioenergy generation was performed for three thermal treatment configurations (slow pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis and gasification). Ten UK biodegradable wastes or residues were considered as feedstocks in this study. Carbon (equivalent) abatement (CA) and electricity production indicators were calculated. Slow pyrolysis systems offer the best performance in terms of CA, with net results varying from 0.07 to 1.25tonnes of CO(2)eq.t(-1) of feedstock treated. On the other hand, gasification achieves the best electricity generation outputs, with results varying around 0.9MWhet(-1) of feedstock. Moreover, selection of a common waste treatment practice as the reference scenario in an LCA has to be undertaken carefully as this will have a key influence upon the CA performance of pyrolysis or gasification biochar systems (P/GBS). Results suggest that P/GBS could produce important environmental benefits in terms of CA, but several potential pollution issues arising from contaminants in the biochar have to be addressed before biochar and bioenergy production from biodegradable waste can become common practice.

  8. The thermal degradation of 5 alpha (H)-cholestane during closed-system pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Bennett, Barry; Stuart Fetch, G.

    1995-06-01

    Involatile hydrocarbons were identified following the heating of 5α(H)-cholestane in water with reaction vessel walls composed of 316 grade stainless steel and borosilicate glass. These analyses were compared with the hydrocarbon product compositions from closed-system pyrolysis experiments with no added water. Unsaturated hydrocarbons dominate their saturated counterparts following hydrous pyrolysis in both stainless steel-316 and borosilicate glass. In the absence of added water the converse is true in that saturated components dominate the hydrocarbon mixture. Backbone rearrangement in the steroid nucleus leading to spirosterene formation was only observed under aqueous conditions in both borosilicate glass and stainless steel-316 vessels. These comparisons demonstrate that water, as opposed to reaction vessel surface catalytic effects, plays a central role in mediating hydrocarbon degradation during closed-system hydrous pyrolysis. 5α(H)-cholestane degradation under aqueous conditions is a complex composite of dissociative and rearrangement processes. These include (I) carbon-carbon bond cleavage in the sidechains as well as the ring system, (2) dehydrogenation, and (3) backbone rearrangement. These laboratory experiments provide a product description of the involatile hydrocarbons which will be the basis for a mechanistic study of 5α(H)-cholestane degradation in hot water.

  9. Investigating the use of phenolic rich fraction of pyrolysis bio-oils as an adhesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahaf, Amir

    Fast pyrolysis allows converting of up to 75 % of biomass into a crude bio-oil, which can be separated into a phenolic rich fraction (PRF) via ethyl acetate extraction while a sugar rich fraction preferentially concentrates in the aqueous phase. Rheological and thermal characterization of heat treated PRF from pyrolysis of Douglas Fir is performed using cone and plate rheology set up, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that this material demonstrates a unique thermoplastic behavior with low Tg and softening point that can be systematically manipulated through changes in thermal history. As these materials are good candidates for development of hot melt adhesives, lap shear tests were also performed using wood stripes to evaluate their mechanical properties as an adhesive. Optimization of properties of the PRF is sought in this study through polymer blending with other bio-degradable thermoplastic poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Blends of PRF/PCL and PRF/PLA of different ratios are prepared by solvent casting and melt blending and thermally and thermomechanically characterized for their miscibility and phase behavior. Presence of molecular interactions are furthur investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FTIR). The blends show complete miscibility based on their Tg and melting points and significant improvement in shear strength is observed. Mechanisms leading to changes in properties are described and a physical model is proposed. The blend systems have good potential to be used as a thermoplastic bio degradable adhesives with satisfactoty properies.

  10. Rock samples analysis with the pyrolysis system of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, H.; Goetz, W.; Goesmann, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a combined pyrolysis gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and laser desorption mass spectrometer (LD-MS). It will be the key instrument of the ESA/Roscosmos ExoMars 2018 mission to search for extinct and extant life. Additionally the instrument will be able to detect the organic background which has possibly been delivered to Mars by meteorites. Several samples containing a wide range of organic molecules have been tested with a flight analog injection system. The results of the tests were compared to results obtained by a commercial pyrolysis system, the Pyrola pyrolysis unit. The first experimental setup (Pyrola unit) consists of a small quartz tube with an electrically heated platinum filament. A constant helium flow transports the volatilized compounds through an injection needle directly into the injector of the GC. The whole system is heated to 175°C. The second experimental setup (flight analog injection system) consists of a 6 mm diameter platinum oven connected to a microvalve plate to route the gas from the oven to the GC. The microvalves can be switched electrically. The volatiles are subsequently trapped in a cold trap consisting of a Tenax filed tube. Heating this tube releases the volatiles and injects them through an injection needle into the GC. A Varian 4000 GC-MS with RTX-5 column was used to separate and analyze the volatiles generated from both experimental setups. During the experiments several natural rock samples with a broad content of organic material have been analyzed. The sample material was crushed and ground. To obtain comparable results the same amount of sample was used in both setups. Lower temperatures were used in the flight analog injection system due to restrictions of the reusable oven. Lower temperatures normally lead to only a slight decrease in the very heavy and non-volatile compounds but do not change the overall appearance of the chromatogram. Significant differences in

  11. On methane pyrolysis special applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toncu, D. C.; Toncu, G.; Soleimani, S.

    2015-11-01

    Methane pyrolysis represents one of the most important processes in industrial use, with applications rising from the chemical and petrochemical industry, combustion, materials and protective coatings. Despite the intense research, experimental data lack kinetic aspects, and the thermodynamics involved often leads to inaccurate results when applied to various systems. Carrying out a comparative analysis of several available data on methane pyrolysis, the paper aims to study the phenomenon of methane pyrolysis under different environments (combustion and plasma), concluding on the most possible reaction pathways involved in many of its applications. Computer simulation using different database underlines the conclusion, helping to the understanding of methane pyrolysis importance in future technologies.

  12. Energy and costs scoping study for plasma pyrolysis thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, K.E.; Findley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information in support of an investigation of thermal technologies as possible treatment process for buried wastes at the INEL. Material and energy balances and a cost estimate were generated for a representative plasma torch-based thermal waste treatment system operating in a pyrolysis mode. Two waste streams were selected which are representative of INEL buried wastes, large in volume, and difficult to treat by other technologies. These streams were a solidified nitrate sludge waste stream and a waste/soil mix of other buried waste components. The treatment scheme selected includes a main plasma chamber operating under pyrolyzing conditions; a plasma afterburner to provide additional residence time at high temperature to ensure complete destruction of hazardous organics; an off-gas treatment system; and a incinerator and stack to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and vent the clean, oxidized gases to atmosphere. The material balances generated provide materials flow and equipment duty information of sufficient accuracy to generate initial rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) system capital and operating cost estimates for a representative plasma thermal processing system.

  13. Using Pyrolysis and its Bioproducts to Help Close the Loop in Sustainable Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCoy, LaShelle E.

    2012-01-01

    The next step in human exploration of space is beyond low Earth orbit and possibly to sites such as the Moon and Mars. Resupply of critical life support components for missions such as these are difficult or impossible. Life support processes for closing the loop of water, oxygen and carbon have to be identified .. Currently, there are many technologies proposed for terrestrial missions for waste, water, air processing and the creation of consumables. There are a variety of different approaches, but few address all of these issues simultaneously. One candidate is pyrolysis; a method where waste streams can be heated in the absence of oxygen to undergo a thermochemical conversion producing a series of bioproducts. Bioproducts like biochar made from non-edible biomass and human solid waste can possibly provide valuable benefits such as waste reduction, regolith fertilization for increased food production, and become a consumable for water processing and air revitalization systems. Syngas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and cbon dioxide, can be converted to methane and dimethyl ether to create propellants. Bio-oils can be utilized as a heating fuel or fed to bioreactors that utilize oil-eating microbes. Issues such as carbon sequestration and subsequent carbon balance of the closed system and identifying ideal process methods to achieve the highest quality products, whilst being energy friendly, will also be addressed.

  14. Increased Oxygen Recovery from Sabatier Systems Using Plasma Pyrolysis Technology and Metal Hydride Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Zachary W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.; Miller, Lee A.; Dahl, Roger W.; Hadley, Neal M.; Wambolt, Spencer R.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is based on the Sabatier reaction where less than 50% of the oxygen required for the crew is recovered from metabolic CO2. The reaction produces water as the primary product and methane as a byproduct. Oxygen recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. This is further exacerbated when Sabatier methane (CH4) is vented as a waste product resulting in a continuous loss of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing methane with the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen has the potential to dramatically increase oxygen recovery and thus drastically reduce the logistical challenges associated with oxygen resupply. The PPA decomposes methane into predominantly hydrogen and acetylene. Due to the highly unstable nature of acetylene, a separation system is necessary to purify hydrogen before it is recycled back to the Sabatier reactor. Testing and evaluation of a full-scale Third Generation PPA is reported and investigations into metal hydride hydrogen separation technology is discussed.

  15. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  16. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  17. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  18. A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  19. Pyrolysis: theory and industrial practice

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.; Crynes, B.L.; Corcoran, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    This book is useful for the study of pyrolysis from two perspectives: theory and industrial practice. Topics included are thermal decompositions and reactions of methane pyrolysis of ethane and propane, pyrolysis of n-butane, thermal reaction of olefins and diolefins, pyrolysis of heavy hydrocarbons, formation of aromatics, hydrogenolysis of toluene, mathematical modeling of hydrocarbon pyrolysis reactions, nonpetroleum feedstocks, formation and gasification of coke, surface reactions in pyrolysis units, pyrolysis furnace design, laboratory reactors for pyrolysis, and economic considerations in the design and operation of conventional pyrolysis furnaces.

  20. A Review: Using Pyrolysis and its Bioproducts to Help Close the Loop in Sustainable Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCoy, LaShelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The next step in human exploration of space is beyond low Earth orbit and possibly to sites such as the Moon and Mars. Resupply of critical life support components for missions such as these are difficult or impossible. Life support processes for closing the loop of water, oxygen and carbon have to be identified. Currently, there are many technologies proposed for terrestrial missions for waste, water, air processing. and the creation of consumables. There are a variety of different approaches, but few address all of these issues simultaneously. One candidate is pyrolysis; a method where waste streams can be heated in the absence of oxygen to undergo a thermochemical conversion producing a series of bioproducts. Bioproducts like biochar made from non-edible biomass and human solid waste can possibly provide valuable benefits such as waste reduction, regolith fertilization for increased food production, and become a consumable for water processing and air revitalization systems. Syngas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, can be converted to methane and dimethyl ether to create propellants. Bio-oils can be utilized as a heating fuel or fed to bioreactors that utilize oil-eating microbes.

  1. The slow and fast pyrolysis of cherry seed.

    PubMed

    Duman, Gozde; Okutucu, Cagdas; Ucar, Suat; Stahl, Ralph; Yanik, Jale

    2011-01-01

    The slow and fast pyrolysis of cherry seeds (CWS) and cherry seeds shells (CSS) was studied in fixed-bed and fluidized bed reactors at different pyrolysis temperatures. The effects of reactor type and temperature on the yields and composition of products were investigated. In the case of fast pyrolysis, the maximum bio-oil yield was found to be about 44 wt% at pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C for both CWS and CSS, whereas the bio yields were of 21 and 15 wt% obtained at 500 °C from slow pyrolysis of CWS and CSS, respectively. Both temperature and reactor type affected the composition of bio-oils. The results showed that bio-oils obtained from slow pyrolysis of CWS and CSS can be used as a fuel for combustion systems in industry and the bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis can be evaluated as a chemical feedstock.

  2. Sabatier Reactor System Integration with Microwave Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Post-Processor for Closed-Loop Hydrogen Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Williams, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) designed and developed for the International Space Station (ISS) represents the state-of-the-art in carbon dioxide reduction (CDRe) technology. The CRA produces water and methane by reducing carbon dioxide with hydrogen via the Sabatier reaction. The water is recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) and the methane is vented overboard resulting in a net loss of hydrogen. The proximity to earth and the relative ease of logistics resupply from earth allow for a semi-closed system on ISS. However, long-term manned space flight beyond low earth orbit (LEO) dictates a more thoroughly closed-loop system involving significantly higher recovery of hydrogen, and subsequent recovery of oxygen, to minimize costs associated with logistics resupply beyond LEO. The open-loop ISS system for CDRe can be made closed-loop for follow-on missions by further processing methane to recover hydrogen. For this purpose, a process technology has been developed that employs a microwave-generated plasma to reduce methane to hydrogen and acetylene resulting in 75% theoretical recovery of hydrogen. In 2009, a 1-man equivalent Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for technical evaluation. The PPA has been integrated with a Sabatier Development Unit (SDU). The integrated process configuration incorporates a sorbent bed to eliminate residual carbon dioxide and water vapor in the Sabatier methane product stream before it enters the PPA. This paper provides detailed information on the stand-alone and integrated performance of both the PPA and SDU. Additionally, the integrated test stand design and anticipated future work are discussed.

  3. Characteristics and potential values of bio-oil, syngas and biochar derived from Salsola collina Pall. in a fixed bed slow pyrolysis system.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yan; Lin, Qimei; Irfan, Muhammad; Chen, Qun; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2016-11-01

    Salsola collina Pall. as a typical euhalophyte was slowly pyrolyzed at 300°C, 500°C and 700°C in a fixed-bed system. The physiochemical properties of syngas, bio-oil and biochar were assayed to understand the impact of pyrolysis temperature on these parameters and then to evaluate their potential values. The results showed that syngas yield (26.07-46.37%) increased with pyrolysis temperature, while biochar yield (47.54-26.83%) decreased. Bio-oil yield (26-30%) was hardly affected by pyrolysis temperature. Both syngas and bio-oil had poor values as direct fuel. The euhalophyte-derived biochar had higher aromaticity (H/C 0.16-0.85, O/C 0.06-0.26), higher cation exchange capacity (198.82-435.74cmolkg(-1)), and higher K(+) (59.35-80.42gkg(-1)) and Na(+) (37.56-53.26gkg(-1)) compared with glycophyte-derived biochars. Our findings imply that halophyte biochar may be more suitable to use as a soil conditioner, which is worthy of further study.

  4. Characteristics and potential values of bio-oil, syngas and biochar derived from Salsola collina Pall. in a fixed bed slow pyrolysis system.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yan; Lin, Qimei; Irfan, Muhammad; Chen, Qun; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2016-11-01

    Salsola collina Pall. as a typical euhalophyte was slowly pyrolyzed at 300°C, 500°C and 700°C in a fixed-bed system. The physiochemical properties of syngas, bio-oil and biochar were assayed to understand the impact of pyrolysis temperature on these parameters and then to evaluate their potential values. The results showed that syngas yield (26.07-46.37%) increased with pyrolysis temperature, while biochar yield (47.54-26.83%) decreased. Bio-oil yield (26-30%) was hardly affected by pyrolysis temperature. Both syngas and bio-oil had poor values as direct fuel. The euhalophyte-derived biochar had higher aromaticity (H/C 0.16-0.85, O/C 0.06-0.26), higher cation exchange capacity (198.82-435.74cmolkg(-1)), and higher K(+) (59.35-80.42gkg(-1)) and Na(+) (37.56-53.26gkg(-1)) compared with glycophyte-derived biochars. Our findings imply that halophyte biochar may be more suitable to use as a soil conditioner, which is worthy of further study. PMID:27595703

  5. An in-line micro-pyrolysis system to remove contaminating organic species for precise and accurate water isotope analysis by spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetta, R. J.; Hsiao, G.

    2011-12-01

    Trace levels of organic contaminants such as short alcohols and terpenoids have been shown to cause spectral interference in water isotope analysis by spectroscopic techniques. The result is degraded precision and accuracy in both δD and δ18O for samples such as beverages, plant extracts or slightly contaminated waters. An initial approach offered by manufacturers is post-processing software that analyzes spectral features to identify and flag contaminated samples. However, it is impossible for this software to accurately reconstruct the water isotope signature, thus it is primarily a metric for data quality. Here, we describe a novel in-line pyrolysis system (Micro-Pyrolysis Technology, MPT) placed just prior to the inlet of a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer that effectively removes interfering organic molecules without altering the isotope values of the water. Following injection of the water sample, N2 carrier gas passes the sample through a micro-pyrolysis tube heated with multiple high temperature elements in an oxygen-free environment. The temperature is maintained above the thermal decomposition threshold of most organic compounds (≤ 900 oC), but well below that of water (~2000 oC). The main products of the pyrolysis reaction are non-interfering species such as elemental carbon and H2 gas. To test the efficacy and applicability of the system, waters of known isotopic composition were spiked with varying amounts of common interfering alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, hexanol, trans-2-hexenol, cis-3-hexanol up to 5 % v/v) and common soluble plant terpenoids (carveol, linalool, geraniol, prenol). Spiked samples with no treatment to remove the organics show strong interfering absorption peaks that adversely affect the δD and δ18O values. However, with the MPT in place, all interfering absorption peaks are removed and the water absorption spectrum is fully restored. As a consequence, the δD and δ18O values also return to their original

  6. Disposal of municipal refuse and RDF in Japan by a two-bed pyrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, N.; Ishi, Y.; Ito, K. Hirayama, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This system efficiently and effectively produces high-quality, high-heating-value fuel gas from municipal refuse and RDF. In 1978, the commercial demonstration plant was constructed in Yokohama and since 1979 it has operated with municipal solid waste, RDF, and industrial refuse. The technology is now ready for commercialization.

  7. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  8. Pyrolysis with staged recovery

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1979-03-20

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.

  9. The Construction of a Simple Pyrolysis Gas Chromatograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Jack L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simple and inexpensive pyrolysis gas chromatography (PGC) system constructed from items available in undergraduate institutions. The system is limited, accepting only liquid samples and pyrolyzing "on the fly" rather than statically and not allowing for reductive pyrolysis. Applications, experiments, and typical results are included.…

  10. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  11. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  12. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The soft'' ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  13. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak

    SciTech Connect

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-11-15

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  14. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  15. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    PubMed

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  16. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  17. Pyrolysis products of PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Paasivirta, J; Herzschuh, R; Humppi, T; Kantolahti, E; Knuutinen, J; Lahtiperä, M; Laitinen, R; Salovaara, J; Tarhanen, J; Virkki, L

    1985-01-01

    Model compound studies which were previously done for impurities and environmental residues of chlorophenols and for wastes of chlorination processes were extended to the impurities and pyrolysis products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Model compounds were commercial products or synthesized and their structures proven by spectroscopic methods. These models were used as analytical reference substances in GC/ECD and GC/MS studies of the pyrolyzed PCB samples. In addition to previously known neutral components like polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), chlorophenolic substances, especially polychlorophenols (PCPs) and polychlorinated biphenylols (PCB-OHs) were observed as major pyrolysis products of PCBs. Capacitor fires are suggested to produce in many cases chlorophenols which are major toxic hazards to people. PMID:3928353

  18. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  19. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  20. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  1. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  2. Pyrolysis of wastewater biosolids significantly reduces estrogenicity.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, T C; Zitomer, D H; McNamara, P J

    2016-11-01

    Most wastewater treatment processes are not specifically designed to remove micropollutants. Many micropollutants are hydrophobic so they remain in the biosolids and are discharged to the environment through land-application of biosolids. Micropollutants encompass a broad range of organic chemicals, including estrogenic compounds (natural and synthetic) that reside in the environment, a.k.a. environmental estrogens. Public concern over land application of biosolids stemming from the occurrence of micropollutants hampers the value of biosolids which are important to wastewater treatment plants as a valuable by-product. This research evaluated pyrolysis, the partial decomposition of organic material in an oxygen-deprived system under high temperatures, as a biosolids treatment process that could remove estrogenic compounds from solids while producing a less hormonally active biochar for soil amendment. The estrogenicity, measured in estradiol equivalents (EEQ) by the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, of pyrolyzed biosolids was compared to primary and anaerobically digested biosolids. The estrogenic responses from primary solids and anaerobically digested solids were not statistically significantly different, but pyrolysis of anaerobically digested solids resulted in a significant reduction in EEQ; increasing pyrolysis temperature from 100°C to 500°C increased the removal of EEQ with greater than 95% removal occurring at or above 400°C. This research demonstrates that biosolids treatment with pyrolysis would substantially decrease (removal>95%) the estrogens associated with this biosolids product. Thus, pyrolysis of biosolids can be used to produce a valuable soil amendment product, biochar, that minimizes discharge of estrogens to the environment. PMID:27344259

  3. Structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.D.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project is an intensive effort on the application of laser to the microscopic structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal particles pyrolysis, char combustion and ash transformation at combustion level heat fluxes in a laser beam. Research emphasis in FY91 is placed on setup and calibration of the laser pyrolysis system, preparation and mass loss studies of Beulah lignite and subbituminous coals. The task is therefore divided into three subtasks.

  4. WEEE recycling: Pyrolysis of fire retardant model polymers.

    PubMed

    Luda, M P; Euringer, N; Moratti, U; Zanetti, M

    2005-01-01

    Pyrolysis treatments of model polymers were made with the aim of studying the recycling of wastes from electronic, electric equipment containing brominated flame retardants. Pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and epoxy resins were made both in flow and closed systems. Products of pyrolysis were analysed with FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS and the evolution of bromine was followed with a bromine ion specific electrode. The effect of alkali on pyrolysis was also studied demonstrating, as far epoxy resin is concerned, to be effective on decreasing bromine content in oil and volatile products leading to the recovery of bromine from the residue by washing. The alkali treatment was shown to be less effective in styrenic polymers containing brominated flame retardants.

  5. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  6. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization. PMID:22751053

  7. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization.

  8. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  9. Silane-Pyrolysis Reactor With Nonuniform Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K.

    1991-01-01

    Improved reactor serves as last stage in system processing metallurgical-grade silicon feedstock into silicon powder of ultrahigh purity. Silane pyrolized to silicon powder and hydrogen gas via homogeneous decomposition reaction in free space. Features set of individually adjustable electrical heaters and purge flow of hydrogen to improve control of pyrolysis conditions. Power supplied to each heater set in conjunction with flow in reactor to obtain desired distribution of temperature as function of position along reactor.

  10. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  11. Generation of functional structures by laser pyrolysis of polysilazane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Hans-Joachim; Otto, Andreas

    2002-06-01

    The pyrolysis of polysilazanes by laser power represents an innovative technique for the generation of ceramic-like coatings and structures. The dissolved polysilazanes can be easily applied by painting techniques such as dipping or spraying. In the following pyrolysis the polysilazane layer transforms into an amorphous ceramic-like coating. The laser power is absorbed in the precursor layer, which leads to the latter's ceramization without damaging the substrate by thermal load. While plane laser pyrolysis creates a protective coating, selective pyrolysis creates a raised and adherent ceramic-like structure that remains after the unexposed polymer layer has been removed. The flexibility of a writing laser system in conjunction with a suitable handling system makes it possible to inscribe any kind of 2D structure on nearly any complexly shaped part. Some of the chemical, magnetic, and electrical structure properties can be adjusted by the pyrolysis parameters and special types of filler particles. Especially the possibility to control electric conductivity should make it possible to create structure dielectric films or planar resistors, inductors or capacitors, which are basically written on the surface of the part. Because of their ceramic nature of the structures are resistant against high temperatures and corrosive media. Thus, this new additive structuring technique could finally strike a new path in creating corrosion resistant high- temperature sensors and control systems.

  12. Pyrolysis kinetics of lignocellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balci, S.; Dogu, T.; Yuecel, H. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of almond and hazelnut shells and beech wood were carried out using a thermogravimetric technique. Experiments were repeated for different final pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 300 to 850 C. Approximately 90% of the pyrolysis reactions were completed up to 450 C. The initial values of the activation energy of pyrolysis reaction were found to be around 22 kcal/mol for shells of almond and hazelnut. On the other hand, initial activation energy of beech wood pyrolysis was found as 29.4 kcal/mol. Results indicated that a first-order decomposition in terms of volatile content of the reactant showed good agreement with the data only at the initial stages of the reaction. The reaction rate constant was found to decrease with reaction extent due to the changes in the chemical and physical structure of the solid. Among several models proposed, a model which predicted an increase of activation energy with reaction extent gave the best agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Vacuum Pyrolysis and Related ISRU Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Pomeroy, Brian R.; Banks, Ian S.; Benz, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    A number of ISRU-related techniques have been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the team has been on development of the vacuum pyrolysis technique for the production of oxygen from the lunar regolith. However, a number of related techniques have also been developed, including solar concentration, solar heating of regolith, resistive heating of regolith, sintering, regolith boiling, process modeling, parts manufacturing, and instrumentation development. An initial prototype system was developed to vaporize regolith simulants using a approx. l square meter Fresnel lens. This system was successfully used to vaporize quantities of approx. lg, and both mass spectroscopy of the gasses produced and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the slag were done to show that oxygen was produced. Subsequent tests have demonstrated the use of a larger system With a 3.8m diameter reflective mirror to vaporize the regolith. These results and modeling of the vacuum pyrolysis reaction have indicated that the vaporization of the oxides in the regolith will occur at lower temperature for stronger vacuums. The chemical modeling was validated by testing of a resistive heating system that vaporized quantities of approx. 10g of MLS-1A. This system was also used to demonstrate the sintering of regolith simulants at reduced temperatures in high vacuum. This reduction in the required temperature prompted the development of a small-scale resistive heating system for application as a scientific instrument as well as a proof-of principle experiment for oxygen production.

  14. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; Feng, Steven H.; Kotecki, Carl A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Rice, James W.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1990-01-01

    We made considerable progress towards developing a thermogravimetric reactor with in-situ video imaging capability (TGA/IVIM). Such a reactor will allow us to observe macroscopic changes in the morphology of pyrolyzing particles and thermal ignitions while monitoring at the time the weight of pyrolyzing or reacting samples. The systematic investigation on the effects of pyrolysis conditions and char macropore structure on char reactivity continued. Pyrolysis and gasification experiments were performed consecutively in our TGA reactor and the char reactivity patterns were measured for a wide range of temperatures (400 to 600[degrees]C). These conditions cover both the kinetic and the diffusion limited regimes. Our results show conclusively that chars produced at high pyrolysis heating rates (and, therefore, having a more open cellular macropore structure) are more reactive and ignite more easily than chars pyrolyzed at low heating rates. These results have been explained using available predictions from theoretical models. We also investigated for the first time the effect of coal particle size and external mass transfer limitations on the reactivity patterns and ignition behavior of char particles combusted in air. Finally, we used our hot stage reactor to monitor the structural transformations occurring during pyrolysis via a video microscopy system. Pyrolysis experiments were videotaped and particle swelling and the particle ignitions were determined and analyzed using digitized images from these experiments.

  16. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  17. An Optically Accessible Pyrolysis Microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Joshua H.; David, Donald E.; Ellison, Barney; Daily, John W.

    2016-06-01

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions. (This work has been published in J. H. Baraban, D. E. David, G. B. Ellison, and J. W. Daily. An Optically Accessible Pyrolysis Micro-Reactor. Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(1):014101, 2016.)

  18. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  19. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; David, D. E.; Ellison, G. Barney; Daily, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  20. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The ``soft`` ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  1. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Yi; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Andries, J; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Spliethoff, H; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme. PMID:12861621

  2. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    PubMed

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

  3. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology. PMID:1175552

  4. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  5. Coal structure vs flash pyrolysis products

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis of coal produces tar, char and a range of low molecular weight gases in various proportions and amounts depending on the pyrolysis conditions (temperature, pressure) and the coal being pyrolyzed. Much research effort has been devoted to study of the reaction kinetics and effect of process variables, attempting thereby to elucidate the pyrolysis mechanism. Less effort has been focused on coal chemical structure and its relationship to the pyrolysis reactions and pyrolysis products. It was to attempt to better understand coal structure and its influence on pyrolysis products and pyrolysis mechanisms that this project was undertaken. This paper reports only on that portion of the work concerned with the aliphatic hydrocarbon products and particularly the light olefins. (7 tables, 12 figures, 16 refs.)

  6. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  7. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  8. Preliminary study of the pyrolysis of steam classified municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sebghati, J M; Eley, M H

    1997-01-01

    Steam classified municipal solid waste (MSW) has been studied for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. A preliminary study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system (in cooperation with Plasma Energy Applied Technology Inc., Huntsville, AL) to convert the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. Using a feed rate of 50 lbs/h, 300 lbs of the material was pyrolysized. The major components of this pyrolysis gas were H(2), CO, and CO(2). A detailed presentation of the emission data along with details on the system used will be presented. PMID:18576067

  9. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  10. On-Line Analysis and Kinetic Behavior of Arsenic Release during Coal Combustion and Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Dai, Jinxin

    2015-11-17

    The kinetic behavior of arsenic (As) release during coal combustion and pyrolysis in a fluidized bed was investigated by applying an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. This system, based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), was developed to measure trace elements concentrations in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. Obvious variations of arsenic concentration in flue gas were observed during coal combustion and pyrolysis, indicating strong influences of atmosphere and temperature on arsenic release behavior. Kinetic laws governing the arsenic release during coal combustion and pyrolysis were determined based on the results of instantaneous arsenic concentration in flue gas. A second-order kinetic law was determined for arsenic release during coal combustion, and the arsenic release during coal pyrolysis followed a fourth-order kinetic law. The results showed that the arsenic release rate during coal pyrolysis was faster than that during coal combustion. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to identify the forms of arsenic in vapor and solid phases during coal combustion and pyrolysis, respectively. Ca3(AsO4)2 and Ca(AsO2)2 are the possible species resulting from As-Ca interaction during coal combustion. Ca(AsO2)2 is the most probable species during coal pyrolysis.

  11. On-Line Analysis and Kinetic Behavior of Arsenic Release during Coal Combustion and Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Dai, Jinxin

    2015-11-17

    The kinetic behavior of arsenic (As) release during coal combustion and pyrolysis in a fluidized bed was investigated by applying an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. This system, based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), was developed to measure trace elements concentrations in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. Obvious variations of arsenic concentration in flue gas were observed during coal combustion and pyrolysis, indicating strong influences of atmosphere and temperature on arsenic release behavior. Kinetic laws governing the arsenic release during coal combustion and pyrolysis were determined based on the results of instantaneous arsenic concentration in flue gas. A second-order kinetic law was determined for arsenic release during coal combustion, and the arsenic release during coal pyrolysis followed a fourth-order kinetic law. The results showed that the arsenic release rate during coal pyrolysis was faster than that during coal combustion. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to identify the forms of arsenic in vapor and solid phases during coal combustion and pyrolysis, respectively. Ca3(AsO4)2 and Ca(AsO2)2 are the possible species resulting from As-Ca interaction during coal combustion. Ca(AsO2)2 is the most probable species during coal pyrolysis. PMID:26488499

  12. Pyrolysis and gasification of lignocellulosic solid wastes for activated-carbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The production process under consideration was pyrolysis of raw solid-waste material (precursor) to form a carbonaceous char followed by activation, or expansion of the pore system of the char by gasification with carbon dioxide at 900/sup 0/C. Char yield was found to be determined by precursor composition (percent lignin, holocellulose, etc.) and pyrolysis heating rate. Both factors were found to exert their main influence on char yield during pyrolysis below 500/sup 0/C. Selected chars prepared by pyrolysis at the lower heating rates (1 and 15/sup 0/C/min) to 500/sup 0/, 700/sup 0/, and 900/sup 0/C were gasified for various lengths of time in a CO/sub 2/ atmosphere at 900/sup 0/C. Pore-volume analysis of the final products was performed by nitrogen adsorption 77K and mercury porosimetry. The rate of mass loss and development of the pore system during gasification was found to vary with prior pyrolysis conditions: e.g., low heating rate or longer exposure to high temperature during pyrolysis led to lower rate of gasification. However, the pore volume developed for a given mass loss due to gasification reactions was independent of prior pyrolysis conditions. The latter result was apparently due to the similarity of the pore systems present in the chars immediately prior to the onset of the gasification reactions, i.e. after the char had heated to the gasification temperature. Because the heating rate during pyrolysis below 500/sup 0/C was the critical factor controlling char yield at 900/sup 0/C, the final yield of activated carbon (i.e. gasified char) of a specified pore volume was also influenced mainly by the pyrolysis heating rate below 500/sup 0/C.

  13. Flame spray pyrolysis for finding multicomponent nanomaterials with superior electrochemical properties in the CoO(x)-FeO(x) system for use in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-10-01

    High-temperature flame spray pyrolysis is employed for finding highly efficient nanomaterials for use in lithium-ion batteries. CoO(x)-FeO(x) nanopowders with various compositions are prepared by one-pot high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis. The Co and Fe components are uniformly distributed over the CoO(x)-FeO(x) composite powders, irrespective of the Co/Fe mole ratio. The Co-rich CoO(x)-FeO(x) composite powders with Co/Fe mole ratios of 3:1 and 2:1 have mixed crystal structures with CoFe2O4 and Co3O4 phases. However, Co-substituted magnetite composite powders prepared from spray solutions with Co and Fe components in mole ratios of 1:3, 1:2, and 1:1 have a single phase. Multicomponent CoO(x)-FeO(x) powders with a Co/Fe mole ratio of 2:1 and a mixed crystal structure with Co3O4 and CoFe2O4 phases show high initial capacities and good cycling performance. The stable reversible discharge capacities of the composite powders with a Co/Fe mole ratio of 2:1 decrease from 1165 to 820 mA h g(-1) as the current density is increased from 500 to 5000 mA g(-1); however, the discharge capacity again increases to 1310 mA h g(-1) as the current density is restored to 500 mA g(-1). PMID:25065898

  14. Dissolved phosphorus speciation of flash carbonization, slow pyrolysis, and fast pyrolysis biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis of waste biomass is a promising technology to produce sterile and renewable organic phosphorus fertilizers. Systematic studies are necessary to understand how different pyrolysis platforms influence the chemical speciation of dissolved (bioavailable) phosphorus. This study employed solut...

  15. Valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae via pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Zunino, Josefina; Piccolo, María C; Volpe, María A

    2016-09-01

    The valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae through pyrolysis for obtaining bio-oils is studied in this work. The reaction is carried out at 400°C, at high contact time. The bio-oil has a practical yield of 35% and is rich in phytol. Besides, it is simpler than the corresponding to lignocellulosic biomass due to the absence of phenolic compounds. This property leads to a bio-oil relatively stable to storage. In addition, heterogeneous catalysts (Al-Fe/MCM-41, SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15), in contact with algae during pyrolysis, are analyzed. The general trend is that the catalysts decrease the concentration of fatty alcohols and other high molecular weight products, since their mild acidity sites promote degradation reactions. Thus, the amount of light products increases upon the use of the catalysts. Particularly, acetol concentration in the bio-oils obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis with SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15 is notably high.

  16. Valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae via pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Zunino, Josefina; Piccolo, María C; Volpe, María A

    2016-09-01

    The valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae through pyrolysis for obtaining bio-oils is studied in this work. The reaction is carried out at 400°C, at high contact time. The bio-oil has a practical yield of 35% and is rich in phytol. Besides, it is simpler than the corresponding to lignocellulosic biomass due to the absence of phenolic compounds. This property leads to a bio-oil relatively stable to storage. In addition, heterogeneous catalysts (Al-Fe/MCM-41, SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15), in contact with algae during pyrolysis, are analyzed. The general trend is that the catalysts decrease the concentration of fatty alcohols and other high molecular weight products, since their mild acidity sites promote degradation reactions. Thus, the amount of light products increases upon the use of the catalysts. Particularly, acetol concentration in the bio-oils obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis with SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15 is notably high. PMID:27253478

  17. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  18. Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.; Jones, Jr., John B.

    1978-05-30

    A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

  19. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  20. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Alex D; Hough, Blake R; Williams, C Luke; Teixeira, Andrew R; Schwartz, Daniel T; Pfaendtner, Jim; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2014-02-20

    Fast pyrolysis of woody biomass is a promising process capable of producing renewable transportation fuels to replace gasoline, diesel, and chemicals currently derived from nonrenewable sources. However, biomass pyrolysis is not yet economically viable and requires significant optimization before it can contribute to the existing oil-based transportation system. One method of optimization uses detailed kinetic models for predicting the products of biomass fast pyrolysis, which serve as the basis for the design of pyrolysis reactors capable of producing the highest value products. The goal of this work is to improve upon current pyrolysis models, usually derived from experiments with low heating rates and temperatures, by developing models that account for both transport and pyrolysis decomposition kinetics at high heating rates and high temperatures (>400 °C). A new experimental technique is proposed herein: spatiotemporally resolved diffuse reflectance in situ spectroscopy of particles (STR-DRiSP), which is capable of measuring biomass composition during fast pyrolysis with high spatial (10 μm) and temporal (1 ms) resolution. Compositional data were compared with a comprehensive 2D single-particle model, which incorporated a multistep, semiglobal reaction mechanism, prescribed particle shrinkage, and thermophysical properties that varied with temperature, composition, and orientation. The STR-DRiSP technique can be used to determine the transport-limited kinetic parameters of biomass decomposition for a wide variety of biomass feedstocks. PMID:24678023

  1. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale, skid-mounted pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620ºC from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  2. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  3. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  4. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J.

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  5. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste. PMID:20724061

  6. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  7. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste.

  8. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re–Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re–Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re–Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma – all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re–Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a, Selby and Creaser, 2005b and Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re–Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer

  9. Entrained-Flow, Fast Ablative Pyrolysis of Biomass - Annual Report, 1 December 1984 - 31 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, J. P.; Scahill, J. W.; Evans, R. J.

    1986-07-01

    The ablative, fast pyrolysis system was relocated to SERI's new, permanent Field Test Laboratory. Pyrolysis system modifications were made to increase the energy available to the vortex reactor and to enhance the collection efficiency of primary pyrolysis vapors. Mathematical modeling of the vapor cracker has resulted in the ability to accurately predict experimental results with respect to the thermal cracking of the primary vapors, the generation of noncondensible gases, and the gas composition. The computer algorithm of this model can be readily used to perform experimental simulation and/or reactor scale-up due to its fundamental nature. Preliminary screening tests with pure ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, supplied by Mobil Research and Development Corporation, have shown promise for the conversion of primary pyrolysis oil vapors to aromatic hydrocarbons; i.e., gasoline.

  10. Fast Pyrolysis Conversion Tests of Forest Concepts' Crumbles™. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Santosa, Daniel M.; Zacher, Alan H.; Eakin, David E.

    2012-04-02

    The report describes the work done by PNNL on assessing Forest Concept's engineered feedstock using the bench-scale continuous fast pyrolysis system to produce liquid bio-oil, char and gas. Specifically, bio-oil from the following process were evaluated for its yield and quality to determine impact of varying feed size parameters. Furthermore, the report also describes the handling process of the biomass and the challenges of operating the system with above average particle size.

  11. Effect of catalytic pyrolysis conditions using pulse current heating method on pyrolysis products of wood biomass.

    PubMed

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800 °C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800 °C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  12. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  13. Effect of catalytic pyrolysis conditions using pulse current heating method on pyrolysis products of wood biomass.

    PubMed

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800 °C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800 °C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  14. Biofuel from fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-09-04

    This review addresses recent developments in biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by catalytic hydrotreating. The research in the field has expanded dramatically in the past few years with numerous new research groups entering the field while existing efforts from others expand. The issues revolve around the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Much work in batch reactor tests with precious metal catalysts needs further validation to verify long-term operability in continuous flow systems. The effect of the low level of sulfur in bio-oil needs more study to be better understood. Utilization of the upgraded bio-oil for feedstock to finished fuels is still in an early stage of understanding.

  15. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  16. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyoxymethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyoxymethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Under several test conditions, this material gave shorter times to death than many other synthetic polymers. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases.

  17. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  18. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Joardder, M U H; Hasan, S M; Takai, K; Haniu, H

    2011-01-01

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  19. Magnetic-luminescent spherical particles synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Norma L.; Flores, Dora L.; Hirata, Gustavo A.

    2015-07-01

    The combination of magnetic and luminescent properties in a single particle system, opens-up a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this work, we performed the synthesis of magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis performed in a tubular furnace. In order to achieve the composite formation, commercial superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a luminescent Eu3+-doped Gd2O3 shell in a low-cost one-step process. The spray pyrolysis method yields deagglomerated spherical shape magneto/luminescent particles. The photoluminescence spectra under UV excitation (λExc = 265 nm) of the magnetic Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 compound showed the characteristic red emission of Eu3+ (λEm = 612 nm). This magneto/luminescent system will find applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  20. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Analytical pyrolysis mass spectrometry: new vistas opened by temperature-resolved in-source PYMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jaap J.

    1992-09-01

    Analytical pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PYMS) is introduced and its applications to the analysis of synthetic polymers, biopolymers, biomacromolecular systems and geomacromolecules are critically reviewed. Analytical pyrolysis inside the ionisation chamber of a mass spectrometer, i.e. in-source PYMS, gives a complete inventory of the pyrolysis products evolved from a solid sample. The temperature-resolved nature of the experiment gives a good insight into the temperature dependence of the volatilisation and pyrolytic dissociation processes. Chemical ionisation techniques appear to be especially suitable for the analysis of oligomeric fragments released in early stages of the pyrolysis of polymer systems. Large oligomeric fragments were observed for linear polymers such as cellulose (pentadecamer), polyhydroxyoctanoic acid (tridecamer) and polyhydroxybutyric acid (heneicosamer). New in-source PYMS data are presented on artists' paints, the plant polysaccharides cellulose and xyloglucan, several microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates, wood and enzyme-digested wood, biodegraded roots and a fossil cuticle of Miocene age. On-line and off-line pyrolysis chromatography mass spectrometric approaches are also discussed. New data presented on high temperature gas chromatography--mass spectrometry of deuterio-reduced permethylated pyrolysates of cellulose lead to a better understanding of polysaccharide dissociation mechanisms. Pyrolysis as an on-line sample pretreatment method for organic macromolecules in combination with MS techniques is a very challenging field of mass spectrometry. Pyrolytic dissociation and desorption is not at all a chaotic process but proceeds according to very specific mechanisms.

  2. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break

  3. Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter includes the investigation of the mild pyrolysis of unoxidized coals plus a selection of selectively oxidized coals. In addition the effect of particle size and extent of oxidation on pyrolysis was investigated. Some preliminary data concerning pyrolysis under vacuum and ambient pressure was also obtained. Work completed this quarter supports the following conclusions: (1) Desulfurization of unoxidized coals increases with increasing pyrolysis temperature and correlates with the loss of volatile matter. (2) Particle size did not influence the extent of desulfurization significantly. (3) Removing pyrite prior to pyrolysis helps to achieve a lower sulfur product beyond that expected from the removal of pyrite alone. (4) The extent of selective oxidation in teh pretreatment step did not effect the level of desulfurization obtained by pyrolysis alone. However this factor was important in the desulfurization obtained with supercritical methanol (SCM)/base. (5) Up to 84% of the sulfur has been removed from the IBC 101 coal by combining selective oxidation and SCM/base reactions. (6) Evidence for regressive reactions between volatilized sulfur compounds and partially desulfurized products was obtained by studying how changes in pyrolysis pressure effected the product sulfur content.

  4. A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, J P

    1997-04-01

    The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

  5. Resources recovery of oil sludge by pyrolysis: Kinetics study

    SciTech Connect

    Shie, J.L.; Chang, C.Y.; Lin, J.P.; Wu, C.H.; Lee, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    Oil sludge, if unused, is one of the major industrial wastes needed to be treated for the petroleum refinery plant or petrochemical industry. It contains a large amount of combustibles with high heating values. The treatment of waste oil sludge by burning has certain benefit; however, it cannot provide the useful resource efficiently. On the other hand, the conversion of oil sludge to lower molecule weight organic compounds by pyrolysis not only solves the disposal problem but also matches the appeal of resource utilization. The major sources of oil sludge include the oil storage tank sludge, the biological sludge, the dissolve air flotation (DAF) scum, the American Petroleum Institute (API) separator sludge and the chemical sludge. In this study, the oil sludge from the oil storage tank of a typical petroleum refinery plant located in the northern Taiwan is used as the raw material of pyrolysis. Its heating value of dry basis and low heating value of wet basis are about 10,681 k cal/kg and 5,870 k cal/kg, respectively. The removal of the moisture of oil sludge significantly increases its heating value. The pyrolysis of oil sludge is conducted by the use of nitrogen as the carrier gas in the temperature range of 380 {approximately} 1,073 K and at various constant heating rates of 5.2, 12.8 and 21.8 K/min. The pyrolytic reaction is significant in 450 {approximately} 800 K and complex. For the sake of simplicity and engineering use, a one-reaction kinetic model is proposed for the pyrolysis of oil sludge, and is found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data. The activation energy, reaction order and frequency factor of the corresponding pyrolysis reaction in nitrogen for oil sludge are 78.22 kJ/mol, 2.92 and 9.48 105 l/min, respectively. These results are very useful for the proper design of the pyrolysis system of the oil sludge under investigation.

  6. The pyrolysis of toluene and ethyl benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolovskaya, V. G.; Samgin, V. F.; Kalinenko, R. A.; Nametkin, N. S.

    1987-01-01

    The pyrolysis of toluene at 850 to 950 C gave mainly H2, CH4, and benzene; PhEt at 650 to 750 C gave mainly H2, CH4, styrene, benzene, and toluene. The rate constants for PhEt pyrolysis were 1000 times higher than those for toluene pyrolysis; the chain initiation rate constants differed by the same factor. The activation energy differences were 46 kJ/mole for the total reaction and 54 kJ/mole for chain initiation. The chain length was evaluated for the PhEt case (10 + or - 2).

  7. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  8. Carbon nanoscrolls by pyrolysis of a polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Prasad; Warule, Sambhaji; Jog, Jyoti; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-12-01

    3D network of carbon nanoscrolls was synthesized starting from pyrolysis of poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt. It is a catalyst-free process where pyrolysis of polymer leads to formation of carbon form and sodium carbonate. Upon water soaking of pyrolysis product, the carbon form undergoes self-assembly to form carbon nanoscrolls. The interlayer distance between the walls of carbon nanoscroll was found to be 0.34 nm and the carbon nanoscrolls exhibited a surface area of 188 m2/g as measured by the BET method.

  9. Pyrolysis decomposition of tamarind seed for alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Kader, M A; Islam, M R; Parveen, M; Haniu, H; Takai, K

    2013-12-01

    The conversion of tamarind seed into bio-oil by pyrolysis has been taken into consideration in the present work. The major components of the system were fixed bed fire-tube heating reactor, liquid condenser and collector. The crushed tamarind seed in particle form was pyrolyzed in an electrically heated fixed bed reactor. The products were liquid, char and gasses. The parameters varied were reactor temperature, running time, gas flow rate and feed particle size. The maximum liquid yield was 45 wt% at 400°C for a feed size of 3200 μm diameter at a gas flow rate of 6l/min with a running time of 30 min. The obtained pyrolysis liquid at these optimum process conditions were analyzed for physical and chemical properties to be used as an alternative fuel. The results show the potential of tamarind seed as an important source of alternative fuel and chemicals as well.

  10. Pyrolysis decomposition of tamarind seed for alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Kader, M A; Islam, M R; Parveen, M; Haniu, H; Takai, K

    2013-12-01

    The conversion of tamarind seed into bio-oil by pyrolysis has been taken into consideration in the present work. The major components of the system were fixed bed fire-tube heating reactor, liquid condenser and collector. The crushed tamarind seed in particle form was pyrolyzed in an electrically heated fixed bed reactor. The products were liquid, char and gasses. The parameters varied were reactor temperature, running time, gas flow rate and feed particle size. The maximum liquid yield was 45 wt% at 400°C for a feed size of 3200 μm diameter at a gas flow rate of 6l/min with a running time of 30 min. The obtained pyrolysis liquid at these optimum process conditions were analyzed for physical and chemical properties to be used as an alternative fuel. The results show the potential of tamarind seed as an important source of alternative fuel and chemicals as well. PMID:24084198

  11. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Mudge, Lyle K.; Brown, Michael D.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Baker, Eddie G.

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  12. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    PubMed

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products.

  13. Reaction mechanisms for toluene pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Colket, M.B.; Seery, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The rich chemistry occurring during the pyrolysis of toluene has been investigated by studying its decomposition in a single-pulse shock tube coupled with detailed chemical kinetic modeling to describe product formation. This work provides information on the initial decomposition steps of toluene and its primary radical benzyl as well as the detailed steps leading to the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Temperatures ranged from approximately 1,200 to 1,850 K for 1% toluene in argon, total pressures of approximately 10 atm, and residence times near 600 {micro}s. Pyrolysis products were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. Profiles of hydrogen and hydrocarbons ranging from methane to pyrene were obtained. These semiquantitative data have been interpreted to help resolve many of the existing uncertainties involving the pyrolytic process. In particular, this work supports arguments for a low activation energy process for benzyl radical decomposition as evidenced by the low-temperature formation of cyclopentadiene and the radical recombination product, benzyl-cyclopentadienyl (b-cpd). Also, the data support suggestions for an important role of the methylphenyl radical, specifically in the formation of isomers of dimethyldiphenyl and as a key intermediate in the production of anthracene. Minimal evidence for rapid toluene decomposition to phenyl and methyl was found. Importantly, the data support general mechanisms proposed for ring growth sequences, although an additional important step involving ring closure and direct H{sub 2} elimination is suggested by the data. In addition, the data indicate rapid anthracene/phenanthrene isomerization above 1,600 K.

  14. Review of NMR characterization of pyrolysis oils

    DOE PAGES

    Hao, Naijia; Ben, Haoxi; Yoo, Chang Geun; Adhikari, Sushil; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-24

    Here, pyrolysis of renewable biomass has been developed as a method to produce green fuels and chemicals in response to energy security concerns as well as to alleviate environmental issues incurred with fossil fuel usage. However, pyrolysis oils still have limited commercial application, mainly because unprocessed oils cannot be readily blended with current petroleum-based transportation fuels. To better understand these challenges, researchers have applied diverse characterization techniques in the development of bio-oil studies. In particular, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a key spectroscopic characterization method through analysis of bio-oil components. This review highlights the NMR strategies for pyrolysis oil characterizationmore » and critically discusses the applications of 1H, 13C, 31P, 19F, and two-dimensional (2-D NMR) analyses such as heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) in representative pyrolysis oil studies.« less

  15. Behavior of sulfur during coal pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Heidbrink, J.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of sulfur in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by thermogravimetry/ Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR) techniques. SO2, COS, and H2S were major gaseous sulfur-containing products observed during coal pyrolysis. The release rates of the gaseous sulfur species showed several peaks within the temperature ranges, which were due to the emission of different forms of sulfur in coal. ?? 1994.

  16. Zone heating for fluidized bed silane pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An improved heated fluidized bed reactor and method for the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon by silane pyrolysis wherein silicon seed particles are heated in an upper heating zone of the reactor and admixed with particles in a lower reaction zone, in which zone a silane-containing gas stream, having passed through a lower cooled gas distribution zone not conducive to silane pyrolysis, contacts the heated seed particles whereon the silane is heterogeneously reduced to silicon.

  17. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Igor Ying; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2011-06-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  18. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization.

  19. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. PMID:24486940

  20. Scaling heat and mass flow through porous media during pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Julien; Muggeridge, Ann H.; Jackson, Matthew D.; Quintard, Michel; Lapene, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The modelling of heat and mass flow through porous media in the presence of pyrolysis is complex because various physical and chemical phenomena need to be represented. In addition to the transport of heat by conduction and convection, and the change of properties with varying pressure and temperature, these processes involve transport of mass by convection, evaporation, condensation and pyrolysis chemical reactions. Examples of such processes include pyrolysis of wood, thermal decomposition of polymer composite and in situ upgrading of heavy oil and oil shale. The behaviours of these systems are difficult to predict as relatively small changes in the material composition can significantly change the thermophysical properties. Scaling reduces the number of parameters in the problem statement and quantifies the relative importance of the various dimensional parameters such as permeability, thermal conduction and reaction constants. This paper uses inspectional analysis to determine the minimum number of dimensionless scaling groups that describe the decomposition of a solid porous material into a gas in one dimension. Experimental design is then used to rank these scaling groups in terms of their importance in describing the outcome of two example processes: the thermal decomposition of heat shields formed from polymer composites and the in situ upgrading of heavy oils and oil shales. A sensitivity analysis is used to divide these groups into three sets (primary, secondary and insignificant), thus identifying the combinations of solid and fluid properties that have the most impact on the performance of the different processes.

  1. Peat pyrolysis and the analytical semi-empirical model

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Green, A.E.S.

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis of peat could convert this material into useful fuels and valuable hydrocarbons. A study of peat pyrolysis can also serve as a useful bridge between studies of coal pyrolysis and biomass pyrolysis. Using an analytical model of pyrolysis that has previously been applied to biomass and to coal, we present here the results of applications of this model to a representative peat. The analysis suggests means of organizing and processing rate and yield data that should be useful in applications of pyrolysis for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  2. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Samolada, M.C.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  3. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4

  4. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  5. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  6. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality. PMID:24801125

  7. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  8. The Building and Commissioning of the Batch Pyrolysis Plant in Studsvik, Sweden - 12447

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Maria; Oesterberg, Carl; Vernersson, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    After a sequence of lab scale and bench scale trials the building of a pyrolysis plant could begin at the Studsvik site in Sweden. The facility is primarily aimed at treatment of uranium contaminated organic waste originating at fuel manufacturing plants and other facilities where the main contamination is uranium. The plant is an extension/addition to the already operating incinerator. In order to further widen the waste acceptance criteria the design of the off-gas treatment system does not have the same design as that of the incinerator. The building of the facility began in April 2011, and the first heating of the facility took place in late December, 2011. The site acceptance tests are planned for January, as are the first inactive trials aimed at optimisation of process control. The facility is planned to be operating with radioactive materials from February 2012. The pyrolysis unit is primarily aimed at treatment of uranium contaminated waste, under conditions that facilitate leaching and recovery of the uranium from the ashes. However, a number of other uses are conceivable. The batch fed pyrolysis unit, with its chosen design of the off-gas treatment system, enables treatment of some waste fractions that are difficult to treat in the incinerator. For instance small campaigns, i.e. smaller quantities of waste (typically <5 tonnes), or waste containing high levels of chlorine and sulphur are possible to treat in the pyrolysis unit. The pyrolysis unit is also expected to perform well in the treatment of other 'difficult' waste fractions, for instance waste containing pyrophoric materials, or other types of waste that benefit from the high level of process control, i.e. control of temperature and atmosphere throughout the process, that can be obtained in the pyrolysis unit compared to the incinerator. Furthermore, treatment in the pyrolysis unit minimises the risk of cross contamination between different waste treatment campaigns. This feature is obtained

  9. Biomarker generation from Type II-S kerogens in claystone and limestone during hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Carson, F.C.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.; Lewan, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate biomarkers, which resulted in the loss of important information. Desulfurization of the polar fraction of the claystone showed that anhydrous pyrolysis is not capable of converting S-bound biomarkers to free biomarkers. For the limestone, the differences between hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis are less dramatic. Adsorption of the polar fraction of the claystone to smectite interlayers probably leads to cross-linking reactions, preventing the generation of free biomarkers. During hydrous pyrolysis, the smectite interlayers are occupied by water so that generation of biomarkers can take place. In addition, cross-linking reactions during anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone may be enhanced because of the presence of S-S bonds in the organic matter of the claystone. These results show that water is important in closed system laboratory experiments designed to simulate natural maturation of sedimentary organic matter.A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate biomarkers, which resulted in the loss of important information. Desulfurization of the polar fraction of the claystone showed that anhydrous pyrolysis is not capable of converting S-bound biomarkers to free biomarkers. For the limestone, the differences between hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis are less dramatic. Adsorption of the polar fraction of the claystone to smectite interlayers probably leads to cross-linking reactions, preventing the generation of free biomarkers

  10. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  11. Analysis of photographic records of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.D.

    1991-10-01

    Bituminous coals upon heating undergo melting and pyrolytic decomposition with significant parts of the coal forming an unstable liquid that can escape from the coal by evaporation. The transient liquid within the pyrolyzing coal causes softening or plastic behavior that can influence the chemistry and physics of the process. Bubbles of volatiles can swell the softened coal mass in turn affecting the combustion behavior of the coal particles. The swelling behavior of individual coal particles has to be taken into account both as the layout as well as for the operation of pyrolysis, coking and performance of coal-fired boilers. Increased heating rates generally increase the amount of swelling although it is also known that in some cases, even highly swelling coals can be transformed into char with no swelling if they are heated slowly enough. The swelling characteristics of individual coal particles have been investigated by a number of workers employing various heating systems ranging from drop tube and shock tube furnaces, flow rate reactors and electrical heating coils. Different methods have also been employed to determine the swelling factors. The following sections summarize some of the published literature on the subject and outline the direction in which the method of analysis will be further extended in the study of the swelling characteristics of hvA bituminous coal particles that have been pyrolyzed with a laser beam.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  14. Structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal pyrolysis. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.D.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objectives of this project is an intensive effort on the application of laser to the microscopic structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal particles pyrolysis, char combustion and ash transformation at combustion level heat fluxes in a laser beam. Research emphasis in FY91 is placed on setup and calibration of the laser pyrolysis system, preparation and mass loss studies of Beulah lignite and subbituminous coals. The task is therefore divided into three subtasks.

  15. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  16. Effects of Nonequilibrium Chemistry and Darcy-Forchheimer Pyrolysis Flow for Charring Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Milos, Frank S.

    2013-01-01

    The fully implicit ablation and thermal response code simulates pyrolysis and ablation of thermal protection materials and systems. The governing equations, which include energy conservation, a three-component decomposition model, and a surface energy balance, are solved with a moving grid.This work describes new modeling capabilities that are added to a special version of code. These capabilities include a time-dependent pyrolysis gas flow momentum equation with Darcy-Forchheimer terms and pyrolysis gas species conservation equations with finite rate homogeneous chemical reactions. The total energy conservation equation is also enhanced for consistency with these new additions. Two groups of parametric studies of the phenolic impregnated carbon ablator are performed. In the first group, an Orion flight environment for a proposed lunar-return trajectory is considered. In the second group, various test conditions for arcjet models are examined. The central focus of these parametric studies is to understand the effect of pyrolysis gas momentum transfer on material in-depth thermal responses with finite-rate, equilibrium, or frozen homogeneous gas chemistry. Results indicate that the presence of chemical nonequilibrium pyrolysis gas flow does not significantly alter the in-depth thermal response performance predicted using the chemical equilibrium gas model.

  17. A ceramic matrix composite based on polymerization and pyrolysis of ethynylated aromatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1985-01-01

    A number of ethynylated aromatic monomers recently have been synthesized which thermally homopolymerize and copolymerize to produce rigid, highly cross-linked polymers with high thermal stability (Tg of about 450 C). On pyrolysis, these polymers lose few volatiles (more than 85 percent char yield) to yield carbon bodies of relatively low porosity. These properties render the ethynylated aromatics of significant interest as matrices for high temperature composites. Incorporation of a SiC particle filler in the matrix improves the rheology of the system and minimizes shrinkage during pyrolysis. Several unidirectional composites have been fabricated combining a graphite or boria-alumina-silica continuous reinforcement with an ethynylated aromatic polymer matrix and SiC filler. Thermogravimetric analysis of composite pyrolysis behavior was used to determine reaction kinetics and to establish a composite fabrication cycle. Composites retained 95 percent of their green weight on pyrolysis. Microstructure of the green and pyrolyzed composites is characterized for materials pyrolyzed at 600 C in vacuum and argon as well as for laminates heated at 1200 C in argon following pyrolysis.

  18. Pyrolysis Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Iisa, Kristiina; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Nimlos, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of biomass pyrolysis research at NREL is supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of the Biomass Program and is focused on the production of 'drop-in' transportation fuels. This includes studies of fast pyrolysis and vapor phase upgrading of pyrolysis vapors to produce hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks or refinery feedstocks.

  19. Microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this paper was to carry out microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass (shell and fibers) with the help of char as microwave absorber (MA). Rapid heating and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas was found to depend on the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the biomass materials which can rapidly heat-up to high temperature within seconds in presence of MA. Some characterization of pyrolysis products was also presented. The advantage of this technique includes substantial reduction in consumption of energy, time and cost in order to produce bio-oil from biomass materials. Large biomass particle size can be used directly in microwave heating, thus saving grinding as well as moisture removal cost. A synergistic effect was found in using MA with oil palm biomass.

  20. Pyrolysis Mechanisms of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Eskay, T.P.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-12-31

    Although decarboxylation of carboxylic acids is widely used in organic synthesis, there is limited mechanistic information on the uncatalyzed reaction pathways of aromatic carboxylic acids at 300-400 {degrees} C. The pyrolysis mechanisms of 1,2-(3,3-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane, 1,2-(4,4-dicarboxylphenyl)ethane, 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4- biphenyl)ethane, and substituted benzoic acids have been investigated at 325-425 {degrees} C neat and diluted in an inert solvent. Decarboxylation is the dominant pyrolysis path. Arrhenius parameters, substituent effects, and deuterium isotope effects are consistent with decarboxylation by an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Pyrolysis of benzoic acid in naphthalene, as a solvent, produces significant amounts of 1- and 2-phenylnaphthalenes. The mechanistic pathways for decarboxylation and arylation with be presented.

  1. Behavior of chlorine during coal pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Cao, H.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of chlorine in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by combined thermo-gravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-ion chromatography (TG-FTIR-IC) techniques. It was found that more than 90% of chlorine in Illinois coals (IBC-103, 105, 106, and 109) was liberated as HCl gas during pyrolysis from 300 to 600??C, with the rate reaching a maximum at 440 ??C. Similarity of the HCl and NH3 release profiles during pyrolysis of IBC-109 supports the hypothesis that the chlorine in coal may be associated with nitrogen and the chlorine is probably bonded to the basic nitrogen sites on the inner walls of coal micropores. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  2. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  3. Whole Microorganisms Studied by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Significance for Extraterrestrial Life Detection Experiments 1

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Peter G.

    1970-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric studies of two microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis var. niger, indicate that the majority of thermal fragments originate from the principal classes of bio-organic matter found in living systems such as protein and carbohydrate. Furthermore, there is a close qualitative similarity between the type of pyrolysis products found in microorganisms and the pyrolysates of other biological materials. Conversely, there is very little correlation between microbial pyrolysates and comparable pyrolysis studies of meteoritic and fossil organic matter. These observations will aid in the interpretation of a soil organic analysis experiment to be performed on the surface of Mars in 1975. The science payload of this landed mission will include a combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument as well as several “direct biology experiments” which are designed to search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:16349890

  4. Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Rice Husk and Sugarcane Bagasse: Kinetic Modeling and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters using Different Optimization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonde, Ruta Dhanram; Chaurasia, Ashish Subhash

    2015-04-01

    The present study provides the kinetic model to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice-husk and sugarcane bagasse as biomass. The kinetic scheme used for modelling of primary pyrolysis consisting of the two parallel reactions giving gaseous volatiles and solid char. Estimation of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis process has been carried out for temperature range of 773-1,173 K. As there are serious issues regarding non-convergence of some of the methods or solutions converging to local-optima, the proposed kinetic model is optimized to predict the best values of kinetic parameters for the system using three approaches—Two-dimensional surface fitting non-linear regression technique, MS-Excel Solver Tool and COMSOL software. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. The estimated value of kinetic parameters are compared with earlier researchers and found to be matching well.

  5. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P. )

    1989-05-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of (3H)cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time.

  6. Finding order in coal pyrolysis kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    A number of experiments have suggested that the rate constants for the release of tar and for the thermal decomposition of the various functional groups in coal pyrolysis depend on the nature of the bridging bond or of the functional group, but appears relatively insensitive to coal rank for lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals. The principal variation of pyrolysis behavior with rank is due to variations in the concentrations of functional groups and hence, the amount of each pyrolysis product. If the insensitivity of coal pyrolysis kinetics to coal rank can be generally demonstrated, it represents an important simplifying assumption in any general theory of coal pyrolysis. But the rank insensitivity of rate constants is controversial. There are two major questions. What species exhibit rank insensitive kinetics. Quantitatively, what does insensitivity mean, variations less than factors of two, ten, hundred, etc. This paper considers whether pyrolysis data in the literature support the hypothesis of rank insensitive kinetic rate constants. The experiments considered vary duration from 1.4 millisecond to 12 hours and in temperature from 350/sup 0/C to 1800/sup 0/C. Considering the available data, it appears that the decomposition of aliphatic and methyl functional groups, the loss of aromatic hydrogen and the evolution of tar and hydrocarbon species have rates which are relatively insensitive to rank variation. The rate varies by at most a factor of 5 between lignite and bituminous coals. Oxygen species are somewhat more rank sensitive. The factor of 5 variation in rate due to coal rank is substantially less than the factors of 100 to 10,000 in varition typical of reported rates. 56 references, 49 figures, 4 table.

  7. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  8. Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, J A; Inguanzo, M; Pis, J J

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself) temperatures of up to 900 degrees C can be achieved, so that pyrolysis takes place rather than drying. Microwave treatments were also compared with those carried out in a conventional electric furnace, as well as the characteristics of their respective carbonaceous solid residues.

  9. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polytetrafluoroethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using various test conditions of the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to death appears to be affected by the material of which the pyrolysis tube is made, with Monel tending to give longer times to death than quartz. When quartz tubes are used, time to death seems to be related to carbon monoxide concentration. When Monel tubes are used, carbon monoxide does not appear to be the principal toxicant.

  10. Consider Upgrading Pyrolysis Oils Into Renewale Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, J.; Marinangeli, R.; Nair, P.; Elliott, D.; Bain, R.

    2008-09-01

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. An alternate route being pursued involves using a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  11. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (Vapor) for Planetary Resource Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Malespin, C. A.; Ten Kate, I. L.; Mcadam, A.; Getty, S. A.; Mumm, E.; Franz, H. B.; Southard, A. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the chemical composition of planetary bodies and their atmospheres is key to understanding the formation of the Solar System and the evolution of the planets and their moons. In situ volatile measurements enable a ground-truth assessment of the distribution and abundance of resources such as water-ice and oxygen, important for a sustained human presence on the Moon and beyond. The Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) instrument is a compact pyrolysis mass spectrometer designed to detect volatiles released from solid samples that are heated to elevated temperatures and is one technique that should be considered for resource prospecting on the Moon, Mars, and asteroids.

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies into the formation of C4-C6 products in partially chlorinated hydrocarbon pyrolysis systems: a probabilistic approach to congener-specific yield predictions.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Grant J; Russell, Douglas K

    2014-09-25

    This work presents a study of the pyrolytic formation of vinylacetylene and benzene congeners formed from chlorinated hydrocarbon precursors, a complex, multipath polymerization system formed in a monomer-rich environment. (Co-)pyrolyses of dichloro- and trichloroethylene yield a rich array of products, and assuming a single dominant underlying growth mechanism, this (on comparing expected and observed products) allows a number of potentially competing channels to C4 and C6 products to be ruled out. Poor congener/isomer descriptions rule out even-carbon radical routes, and the absence of C3 and C5 products rule out odd-carbon processes. Vinylidenes appear unable to describe the increased reactivity of acetylenes with chlorination noted in our experiments, leaving molecular acetylene dimerization processes and, in C6 systems, the closely related Diels-Alder cyclization as the likely reaction mechanism. The feasibility of these routes is further supported by ab initio calculations. However, some of the most persuasive evidence is provided by congener-specific yield predictions enabled by the construction of a probability tree analogue of kinetic modeling. This approach is relatively quick to construct, provides surprisingly accurate predictions, and may be a very useful tool in screening for important reaction channels in poorly understood congener- or isomer-rich reaction systems.

  13. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  14. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis.

  15. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis. PMID:25194260

  16. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Antonakou, E.V.; Kalogiannis, K.G.; Stephanidis, S.D.; Triantafyllidis, K.S.; Lappas, A.A.; Achilias, D.S.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis is a powerful method for recycling of WEEEs. • Liquid products obtained from the pyrolysis of PC or HIPS found in waste CDs are very different. • Mainly phenols are obtained from pyrolysis PC based wastes while aromatics from HIPS. • Use of MgO catalyst increases the amount of phenols from CD recycling compared to ZSM-5. • Use of MgO or ZSM-5 catalysts reduces the amount of styrene recovered from HIPS. - Abstract: Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of automobile shredder residue

    SciTech Connect

    Arzoumanidis, G.G.; McIntosh, M.J.; Steffensen, E.J.

    1995-07-01

    In the United States, approximately 10 million automobiles are scrapped and shredded each year. The mixture of plastics and other materials remaining after recovery of the metals is known as Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR). In 1994, about 3.5 million tons of ASR was produced and disposed of in landfills. However, environmental, legislative, and economic considerations are forcing the industry to search for recycling or other alternatives to disposal. Numerous studies have been done relating the ASR disposal problem to possible recycling treatments such as pyrolysis, gasification, co-liquefaction of ASR with coal, chemical recovery of plastics from ASR, catalytic pyrolysis, reclamation in molten salts, and vacuum pyrolysis. These and other possibilities have been studied intensively, and entire symposia have been devoted to the problem. Product mix, yields, toxicology issues, and projected economics of conceptual plant designs based on experimental results are among the key elements of past studies. Because the kinds of recycling methods that may be developed, along with their ultimate economic value, depend on a very large number of variables, these studies have been open-ended. It is hoped that it may be useful to explore some of these previously studied areas from fresh perspectives. One such approach, currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory, is the catalytic pyrolysis of ASR.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  20. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polypropylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polypropylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The gases from this sample appeared to be equivalent or less toxic than the gases from a sample of polyethylene under these particular test conditions. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant.

  1. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from foam plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-three samples of flexible foams and twelve samples of rigid foams were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the USF toxicity screening test method. Polychloroprene among the flexible foams, and polystyrene among the rigid foams, appeared to exhibit the least toxicity under these particular test conditions.

  2. Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry of Complex Organic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Illustrates the state of the art in pyrolysis mass spectrometry techniques through applications in: (1) structural determination and quality control of synthetic polymers; (2) quantitative analysis of polymer mixtures; (3) classification and structural characterization of fossil organic matter; and (4) nonsupervised numerical extraction of…

  3. Pyrolysis of lipids using various catalysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A specific pursuit of the thermochemical (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, and liquefaction) conversion of biomass to energy research effort is the potential of converting lipids to alkanes, petroleum-like fuels and chemicals. Arguments can be made for, and against, the use of agricultural lipi...

  4. Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-09-26

    Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

  5. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  6. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  7. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace (HITAF): Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    An outgrowth of our studies of the FWDC coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) concept was the development of a concept for the repowering of existing boilers. The initial analysis of this concept indicates that it will be both technically and economically viable. A unique feature of our greenfields HIPPS concept is that it integrates the operation of a pressurized pyrolyzer and a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater. Once this type of operation is achieved, there are a few different applications of this core technology. Two greenfields plant options are the base case plant and a plant where ceramic air heaters are used to extend the limit of air heating in the HITAF. The greenfields designs can be used for repowering in the conventional sense which involves replacing almost everything in the plant except the steam turbine and accessories. Another option is to keep the existing boiler and add a pyrolyzer and gas turbine to the plant. The study was done on an Eastern utility plant. The owner is currently considering replacing two units with atmospheric fluidized bed boilers, but is interested in a comparison with HIPPS technology. After repowering, the emissions levels need to be 0.25 lb SO{sub x}/MMBtu and 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/MMBtu.

  8. Mass balance, energy and exergy analysis of bio-oil production by fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass, energy and exergy balances are analyzed for bio-oil production in a bench scale fast pyrolysis system developed by the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for the processing of commodity crops to fuel intermediates. Because mass balance closure is difficult to achieve due, in part, to ...

  9. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  10. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis.

  11. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  12. Pyrolysis of scrap tyres with zeolite USY.

    PubMed

    Shen, Boxiong; Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Rui; Guo, Binbin; Liang, Cai

    2006-09-21

    A zeolite catalyst of ultrastable Y-type (USY) was investigated in the research of two staged pyrolysis-catalysis of scrap tyres. Scrap tyres were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and the evolved pyrolysis gases were passed through a secondary catalytic reactor. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of zeolite USY on the yield of products and the composition of derived oil. The influences of several parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature, catalyst/tyre ratio, heating rate, etc. on the yield of the derived oil, char and gas were investigated. It showed that the increase of catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio resulted in high yield of gas at the expense of the oil yield. For example, when the catalyst/tyre ratio increased from 0.25 to 1.0, the yield of gas increased from 30.5 to 49.9 wt.%, and the oil yield decreased nearly two-fold from 31.6 to 12.7 wt.%. The concentration of light naphtha (boiling point < 160 degrees C) was also investigated in this study. And the high catalyst/tyre ratio favored to increase the concentration of light naphtha (< 160 degrees C) in oil. In order to study the composition of derived oil, a distilled fraction (< 280 degrees C), which was 92.5 wt.% of the oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of scrap tyre at a pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio of 500, 400 degrees C and 0.5, respectively, was analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The distillate was found to contain 1.23 wt.% benzene, 9.35 wt.% toluene, 3.68 wt.% ethylbenzene, 12.64 wt.% xylenes, 1.81 wt.% limonene and 13.89 wt.% PAHs, etc., where the single ring aromatics represented a significant potential use as chemicals.

  13. Fast Pyrolysis Process Development Unit for Validating Bench Scale Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to prepare and operate a fast pyrolysis process development unit (PDU) that can validate experimental data generated at the bench scale. In order to do this, a biomass preparation system, a modular fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor, modular gas clean-up systems, and modular bio-oil recovery systems were designed and constructed. Instrumentation for centralized data collection and process control were integrated. The bio-oil analysis laboratory was upgraded with the addition of analytical equipment needed to measure C, H, O, N, S, P, K, and Cl. To provide a consistent material for processing through the fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor, the existing biomass preparation capabilities of the ISU facility needed to be upgraded. A stationary grinder was installed to reduce biomass from bale form to 5-10 cm lengths. A 25 kg/hr rotary kiln drier was installed. It has the ability to lower moisture content to the desired level of less than 20% wt. An existing forage chopper was upgraded with new screens. It is used to reduce biomass to the desired particle size of 2-25 mm fiber length. To complete the material handling between these pieces of equipment, a bucket elevator and two belt conveyors must be installed. The bucket elevator has been installed. The conveyors are being procured using other funding sources. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from an 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection system that produced multiple fractions of bio-oil. This bio-oil was fractionated through two separate, but equally important, mechanisms within the collection system. The aerosols and vapors were selectively collected by utilizing laminar flow conditions to prevent aerosol collection and electrostatic precipitators to collect the aerosols. The vapors were successfully collected through a selective condensation process. The combination of these two mechanisms

  14. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  15. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  16. Aspen Plus® and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Nicole L; Boateng, Akwasi A; Mullen, Charles A; Wheeler, M Clayton

    2013-10-15

    Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site's 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum. PMID:23845952

  17. Aspen Plus® and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Nicole L; Boateng, Akwasi A; Mullen, Charles A; Wheeler, M Clayton

    2013-10-15

    Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site's 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum.

  18. Product distribution from pyrolysis of wood and agricultural residues

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Di Russo, C.; Rea, G.

    1999-06-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of agricultural residues (wheat straw, olive husks, grape residues, and rice husks) and wood chips have been investigated on a bench scale. The experimental system establishes the conditions encountered by a thin (4 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} m diameter) packed bed of biomass particles suddenly exposed in a high-temperature environment, simulated by a radiant furnace. Product yields (gases, liquids, and char) and gas composition, measured for surface bed temperatures in the range 650--1000 K, reproduce trends already observed for wood. However, differences are quantitatively large. Pyrolysis of agricultural residues is always associated with much higher solid yields (up to a factor of 2) and lower liquid yields. Differences are lower for the total gas, and approximate relationships exist among the ratios of the main gas species yields, indicating comparable activation energies for the corresponding apparent kinetics of formation. However, while the ratios are about the same for wood chips, rice husks, and straw, much lower values are shown by olive and grape residues. Large differences have also been found in the average values of the specific devolatilization rates. The fastest (up to factors of about 1.5 with respect to wood) have been observed for wheat straw and the slowest (up to factors of 2) for grape residues.

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  20. Pyrolysis polygeneration of poplar wood: Effect of heating rate and pyrolysis temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Cen, Kehui; Luo, Min; Li, Hongyan; Lu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    The pyrolysis of poplar wood were comprehensively investigated at different pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, and 600°C) and at different heating rates (10, 30, and 50°C/min). The results showed that BET surface area of biochar, the HHV of non-condensable gas and bio-oil reached the maximum values of 411.06m(2)/g, 14.56MJ/m(3), and 14.39MJ/kg, under the condition of 600°C and 30°C/min, 600°C and 50°C/min, and 550°C and 50°C/min, respectively. It was conducive to obtain high mass and energy yield of bio-oil at 500°C and higher heating rate, while lower pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed towards obtaining both higher mass yield and energy yield of biochar. However, higher pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed to obtain both higher mass yield and energy yield of the non-condensable gas. In general, compared to the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature had more effect on the product properties.

  1. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas. PMID:27183238

  2. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. PMID:26444486

  4. Optimization of pyrolysis properties using TGA and cone calorimeter test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Hee; Yoon, Kyung-Beom

    2013-04-01

    The present paper describes an optimization work to obtain the properties related to a pyrolysis process in the solid material such as density, specific heat, conductivity of virgin and char, heat of pyrolysis and kinetic parameters used for deciding pyrolysis rate. A repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to obtain the pyrolysis-related properties. In the previous study all properties obtained only using a cone calorimeter but in this paper both the cone calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) are used for precisely optimizing the pyrolysis properties. In the TGA test a very small mass is heated up and conduction and heat capacity in the specimen is negligible so kinetic parameters can first be optimized. Other pyrolysis-related properties such as virgin/char specific heat and conductivity and char density are also optimized in the cone calorimeter test with the already decided parameters in the TGA test.

  5. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  6. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  7. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270°C, densification, and torrefaction at 270°C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700°C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270°C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700°C as compared to 500°C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  8. Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roesener, W.S.; Mason, J.B.; Ryan, K.; Bryson, S.; Eldredge, H.B.

    2006-07-01

    In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THOR{sup sm} pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THOR{sup sm} electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

  9. Pyrolysis of Precambrian kerogens - Constraints and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, B.

    1982-01-01

    Precambrian kerogens are currently considered to be the primary candidates for the search of biochemical fossils. Degradation of kerogens by relatively 'mild' pyrolysis techniques, such as under high vacuum, can liberate indicative structural moieties which were incorporated in, and perhaps shielded by, these solid and highly condensed, basically aromatic substances. It is necessary to observe analytical constraints (sample size and shape, temperature, pressure, time, etc.) in order to prevent an overabundant yield of secondary pyrolyzates (inter- and intramolecular rearrangements) which can prevent kerogen characterization. Potential biochemical fossils have been found in Precambrian kerogens. Demonstratable syngenetic biochemical fossils are expected after kerogen diagenesis and catagenesis is understood in sufficient detail, and when pyrolysis is augmented by multiple, improved analytical techniques.

  10. Pyrolysis of Precambrian kerogens: constraints and capabilities.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B

    1982-01-01

    Precambrian kerogens are currently considered to be the primary candidates for the search of biochemical fossils. Degradation of kerogens by relatively "mild" pyrolysis techniques, such as under high vacuum, can liberate indicative structural moieties which were incorporated in, and perhaps shielded by, these solid and highly condensed, basically aromatic substances. It is necessary to observe analytical constraints (sample size and shape, temperature, pressure, time, etc.) in order to prevent an overabundant yield of secondary pyrolyzates (inter- and intramolecular rearrangements) which can prevent kerogen characterization. Potential biochemical fossils have been found in Precambrian kerogens. Demonstratable syngenetic biochemical fossils are expected after kerogen diagenesis and catagenesis is understood in sufficient detail, and when pyrolysis is augmented by multiple, improved analytical techniques.

  11. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of these coordinated experimental and modeling studies is to develop an improved understanding of the kinetics of coal devolatilization which are relevant to suspension firing of powdered coal. Principal topics include: (a) the pyrolysis and devolatilization of coal; and (b) the formation of char. Research activities include small-scale experimentation, interpretation of experimental results in terms of mechanistic understanding and the development and validation of kinetic models of fundamental processes. This report presents results on the effect of coal rank on the chemical characteristics of the evolved tars and some results of a modeling effort on intraparticle heat transfer. The modeling study of intraparticle heat transfer has developed new indices for quantifying extent of isothermally.'' These indices are valuable for determining the extent of agreement between volume averaged pyrolysis rates and the corresponding quantity calculated using the particle surface temperature for the entire volume. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    SciTech Connect

    Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-07-14

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method comprising the steps of diluting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil with a phenolic-containing diluent to form a diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is provided. The diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  13. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  14. Methane Pyrolysis and Disposing Off Resulting Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rapp, D.; Rahotgi, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) is a leading process for producing methane and oxygen for application to Mars ISPP. One significant problem with this process is that it produces an excess of methane for combustion with the amount of oxygen that is produced. Therefore, one must discard roughly half of the methane to obtain the proper stoichiometric methane/oxygen mixture for ascent from Mars. This is wasteful of hydrogen, which must be brought from Earth and is difficult to transport to Mars and store on Mars. To reduced the problem of transporting hydrogen to Mars, the S/E process can be augmented by another process which reduces overall hydrogen requirement. Three conceptual approaches for doing this are (1) recover hydrogen from the excess methane produced by the S/E process, (2) convert the methane to a higher hydrocarbon or other organic with a lower H/C ratio than methane, and (3) use a separate process (such as zirconia or reverse water gas shift reaction) to produce additional oxygen, thus utilizing all the methane produced by the Sabatier process. We report our results here on recovering hydrogen from the excess methane using pyrolysis of methane. Pyrolysis has the advantage that it produces almost pure hydrogen, and any unreacted methane can pass through the S/E process reactor. It has the disadvantage that disposing of the carbon produced by pyrolysis presents difficulties. Hydrogen may be obtained from methane by pyrolysis in the temperature range 10000-12000C. The main reaction products are hydrogen and carbon, though very small amounts of higher hydrocarbons, including aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. The conversion efficiency is about 95% at 12000C. One needs to distinguish between thermodynamic equilibrium conversion and conversion limited by kinetics in a finite reactor.

  15. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene. PMID:23240191

  16. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 °C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process.

  17. Oxygen production by pyrolysis of lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Constance L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen was identified as the most important product of initial lunar materials processing efforts. A source of oxygen on the Moon provides an alternative to the costly transport of propellant to the Moon or to low earth orbit. Pyrolysis, or vapor-phase reduction, involves heating a feedstock to temperatures sufficient to decompose the constituent metal oxides and release oxygen. The process relies on the vaporization of metal oxides in the form of reduced suboxides or atomic species. The reduced species must then be condensed without re-oxidizing, yielding oxygen in the gas phase. The feasibility of obtaining oxygen from common lunar minerals was demonstrated using solar furnace experiments. These results are discussed together with chemical equilibrium models which were extended to include the multicomponent oxides used in experiments. For the first time, both experiments and theoretical models dealt with the complex oxides that make up potential lunar feedstocks. Two major conclusions are drawn from this preliminary work. First, unbeneficiated regolith is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis. Second, the process can operate at moderate temperatures, circa 2000 K, which could be supplied by direct solar or electrical energy. In addition to these advantages in choice of feedstock and energy source, the pyrolysis process requires no chemicals or reagents, making it an attractive process for lunar oxygen production.

  18. Detecting Pyrolysis Products from Bacteria on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel; Schubert, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Kminek, Gerhard; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    A pyrolysis/sublimation technique was developed to isolate volatile amine compounds from a Mars soil analogue inoculated with approx. 10 billion Escherichia coli cells. In this technique, the inoculated soil is heated to 500 C for several seconds at Martian ambient pressure and the sublimate, collected by a cold finger, then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Methylamine and ethylamine, produced from glycine and alanine decarboxylation, were the most abundant amine compounds detected after pyrolysis of the cells. A heating cycle similar to that utilized in our experiment was also used to release organic compounds from the Martian soil in the 1976 Viking gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) pyrolysis experiment. The Viking GC/MS did not detect any organic compounds of Martian origin above a level of a few parts per billion in the Martian surface soil. Although the Viking GC/MS instruments were not specifically designed to search for the presence of living cells on Mars, our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected.

  19. Thermogravimetric analysis and fast pyrolysis of Milkweed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Agblevor, Foster A

    2014-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Milkweed was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Total liquid yield of Milkweed pyrolysis was between 40.74% and 44.19 wt% between 425 °C and 550 °C. The gas yield increased from 27.90 wt% to 33.33 wt% with increasing reaction temperature. The higher heating values (HHV) of the Milkweed bio-oil were relatively high (30.33-32.87 MJ/kg) and varied with reaction temperature, feeding rate and fluidization velocity. The selectivity for CO2 was highest within non-condensable gases, and the molar ratio of CO2/CO was about 3 at the different reaction conditions. The (13)C NMR analysis, of the bio-oil showed that the relative concentration carboxylic group and its derivatives was higher at 425 °C than 475 °C, which resulted in slightly higher oxygen content in bio-oil. The pH of aqueous phase obtained at 475 °C was 7.37 which is the highest reported for any lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis oils. PMID:25064334

  20. Mass spectrometric studies of trimethylindium pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, N. I.; Larsen, C. A.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of the pyrolysis of trimethylindium (TMIn) in He, D2, and H2 carriers was investigated using the atmospheric pressure flow-tube apparatus described by Larsen et al. (1987) and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The rate constant for the pyrolysis of TMIn in He was found to be comparable to that found by Jacko and Price (1964) for TMIn in toluene carrier (a radical scavenger), indicating that TMIn decomposes in He not by radical attack of methyl groups, but by homolytic fission. The decomposition of TMIn is enhanced in D2 and H2 carriers, where the principal products are CH3D and C2H6, and CH4 and C2H6, respectively, indicating that the reaction pathway in these carriers is different from those in He and toluene. The pyrolysis in H2 and D2 is attributed to a radical attack by H or D on TMIn. A reaction mechanism involving a short-lived hypervalent DTMIn species was proposed and was tested using numerical modeling techniques.

  1. Characterization of the pyrolysis products of methiopropamine.

    PubMed

    Bouso, Emily D; Gardner, Elizabeth A; O'Brien, John E; Talbot, Brian; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2014-01-01

    1-(Thien-2-yl)-2-methylaminopropane (methiopropamine, MPA), appeared as a 'legal high' in late 2010. It is structurally similar to methamphetamine, with a thiophene ring replacing the benzene moiety. Methiopropamine reportedly retains the pharmacological properties of amphetamine stimulants, but it does not fall under existing drug laws in the USA and Ireland. The objective of this research was to identify the pyrolysis products formed under conditions that mimic those used by recreational drugs users. Thirteen pyrolysis products were identified and ten were confirmed by comparison to synthesized standards. Methods for synthesizing the standards as well as an alternative method for the synthesis of methiopropamine were developed. The MPA pyrolysis products are formed through N-dealkylation, N-alkylation, N-formylation, β-carbon oxidation, β-carbon oxidation/N-alkylation, amine elimination and carbon-carbon bond cleavage. Two pyrazine isomers also formed. Some of these products have the potential to be psychoactive while others are potentially toxic. PMID:24166818

  2. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS.

    PubMed

    Antonakou, E V; Kalogiannis, K G; Stephanidis, S D; Triantafyllidis, K S; Lappas, A A; Achilias, D S

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  3. Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Wickstrom, Gary H.; Knell, Everett W.; Shaw, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yue G.

    1981-04-21

    In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

  4. Flash pyrolysis of coal by an argon ion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.S.; Egsgaard, H.

    1994-12-31

    A novel approach to laser induced pyrolysis of coal by using the visible blue-green emission from an argon ion laser is presented. The gaseous pyrolysis products are identified by on-line gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Five different subbituminous to bituminous coals have been studied and results for the low-molecular weight hydrocarbons up to C{sub 3} are discussed. Mechanisms for the formation of the unsaturated hydrocarbons, ethylene and acetylene, during laser pyrolysis of coal have been disclosed utilizing deuterium as a buffer gas in the pyrolysis cell.

  5. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  6. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. PMID:25700606

  7. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. PMID:25256662

  8. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  9. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  10. Fast Pyrolysis of Poplar Using a Captive Sample Reactor: Effects of Inorganic Salts on Primary Pyrolysis Products

    SciTech Connect

    Mukarakate, C.; Robichaud, D.; Donohoe, B.; Jarvis, M.; Mino, K.; Bahng, M. K.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a captive sample reactor (CSR) to study fast pyrolysis of biomass. The reactor uses a stainless steel wire mesh to surround biomass materials with an isothermal environment by independent controlling of heating rates and pyrolysis temperatures. The vapors produced during pyrolysis are immediately entrained and transported in He carrier gas to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Formation of secondary products is minimized by rapidly quenching the sample support with liquid nitrogen. A range of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and transition metal salts were tested to study their effect on composition of primary pyrolysis products. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis of the MBMS data shows that transition metal salts enhance pyrolysis of carbohydrates and AAEM salts enhances pyrolysis of lignin. This was supported by performing similar separate studies on cellulose, hemicellulose and extracted lignin. The effect of salts on char formation is also discussed.

  11. Biofuels from pyrolysis in perspective: trade-offs between energy yields and soil-carbon additions.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes; Fisher, Elizabeth M; Angenent, Largus T

    2014-06-01

    Coproduction of biofuels with biochar (the carbon-rich solid formed during biomass pyrolysis) can provide carbon-negative bioenergy if the biochar is sequestered in soil, where it can improve fertility and thus simultaneously address issues of food security, soil degradation, energy production, and climate change. However, increasing biochar production entails a reduction in bioenergy obtainable per unit biomass feedstock. Quantification of this trade-off for specific biochar-biofuel pathways has been hampered by lack of an accurate-yet-simple model for predicting yields, product compositions, and energy balances from biomass slow pyrolysis. An empirical model of biomass slow pyrolysis was developed and applied to several pathways for biochar coproduction with gaseous and liquid biofuels. Here, we show that biochar production reduces liquid biofuel yield by at least 21 GJ Mg(-1) C (biofuel energy sacrificed per unit mass of biochar C), with methanol synthesis giving this lowest energy penalty. For gaseous-biofuel production, the minimum energy penalty for biochar production is 33 GJ Mg(-1) C. These substitution rates correspond to a wide range of Pareto-optimal system configurations, implying considerable latitude to choose pyrolysis conditions to optimize for desired biochar properties or to modulate energy versus biochar yields in response to fluctuating price differentials for the two commodities.

  12. Confined-pyrolysis as an experimental method for hydrothermal organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leif, R N; Simoneit, B R

    1995-10-01

    A closed pyrolysis system has been developed as a tool for studying the reactions of organic compounds under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Small high pressure stainless steel vessels in which the ratio of sediment or sample to water has been adjusted to eliminate the headspace at peak experimental conditions confines the organic components to the bulk solid matrix and eliminates the partitioning of the organic compounds away from the inorganic components during the experiment. Confined pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally driven catagenetic changes in sedimentary organic matter using a solids to water ratio of 3.4 to 1. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated the hydrothermal transformations observed in nature. Molecular probe experiments using alkadienes, alkenes and alkanes in H2O and D2O elucidated the isomerization and hydrogenation reactions of aliphatic compounds and competing oxidative reactions occurring under hydrothermal conditions. This confined pyrolysis technique is being applied to test experiments on organic synthesis of relevance to chemical evolution for the origin of life.

  13. Predicting properties of gas and solid streams by intrinsic kinetics of fast pyrolysis of wood

    DOE PAGES

    Klinger, Jordan; Bar-Ziv, Ezra; Shonnard, David; Westover, Tyler; Emerson, Rachel

    2015-12-12

    Pyrolysis has the potential to create a biocrude oil from biomass sources that can be used as fuel or as feedstock for subsequent upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels or other chemicals. The product distribution/composition, however, is linked to the biomass source. This work investigates the products formed from pyrolysis of woody biomass with a previously developed chemical kinetics model. Different woody feedstocks reported in prior literature are placed on a common basis (moisture, ash, fixed carbon free) and normalized by initial elemental composition through ultimate analysis. Observed product distributions over the full devolatilization range are explored, reconstructed by the model, andmore » verified with independent experimental data collected with a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system. These trends include production of permanent gas (CO, CO2), char, and condensable (oil, water) species. Elementary compositions of these streams are also investigated. As a result, close agreement between literature data, model predictions, and independent experimental data indicate that the proposed model/method is able to predict the ideal distribution from fast pyrolysis given reaction temperature, residence time, and feedstock composition.« less

  14. Predicting properties of gas and solid streams by intrinsic kinetics of fast pyrolysis of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jordan; Bar-Ziv, Ezra; Shonnard, David; Westover, Tyler; Emerson, Rachel

    2015-12-12

    Pyrolysis has the potential to create a biocrude oil from biomass sources that can be used as fuel or as feedstock for subsequent upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels or other chemicals. The product distribution/composition, however, is linked to the biomass source. This work investigates the products formed from pyrolysis of woody biomass with a previously developed chemical kinetics model. Different woody feedstocks reported in prior literature are placed on a common basis (moisture, ash, fixed carbon free) and normalized by initial elemental composition through ultimate analysis. Observed product distributions over the full devolatilization range are explored, reconstructed by the model, and verified with independent experimental data collected with a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system. These trends include production of permanent gas (CO, CO2), char, and condensable (oil, water) species. Elementary compositions of these streams are also investigated. As a result, close agreement between literature data, model predictions, and independent experimental data indicate that the proposed model/method is able to predict the ideal distribution from fast pyrolysis given reaction temperature, residence time, and feedstock composition.

  15. Confined-Pyrolysis as an Experimental Method for Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leif, Roald N.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1995-01-01

    A closed pyrolysis system has been developed as a tool for studying the reactions of organic compounds under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Small high pressure stainless steel vessels in which the ratio of sediment or sample to water has been adjusted to eliminate the headspace at peak experimental conditions confines the organic components to the bulk solid matrix and eliminates the partitioning of the organic compounds away from the inorganic components during the experiment. Confined pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally driven catagenetic changes in sedimentary organic matter using a solids to water ratio of 3.4 to 1. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated the hydrothermal transformations observed in nature. Molecular probe experiments using alkadienes, alkenes and alkanes in H2O and D2O elucidated the isomerization and hydrogenation reactions of aliphatic and the competing oxidative reactions occurring under hydrothermal conditions. This confined pyrolysis technique is being applied to test experiments on organic synthesis of relevance to chemical evolution for the origin of life.

  16. Theoretical study of the pyrolysis of vanillin as a model of secondary lignin pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition reactions in processes of vanillin pyrolysis were theoretically investigated by employing density functional theory (DFT) method at M06-2X/6-31 G+(d,p) level. The result shows that the homolytic cleavage of O-CH3 bond could be the dominant initial step in the pyrolysis of vanillin. The hydrogen abstractions from functional groups of vanillin by the formed radicals play important roles in the formation of main products. Both formyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl group contribute to the formation of CO. Benzene is formed from the hydrogen addition reaction between hydrogen radical and phenol at high temperature.

  17. Methane Pyrolysis and Disposing Off Resulting Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rapp, D.; Rahotgi, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) is a leading process for producing methane and oxygen for application to Mars ISPP. One significant problem with this process is that it produces an excess of methane for combustion with the amount of oxygen that is produced. Therefore, one must discard roughly half of the methane to obtain the proper stoichiometric methane/oxygen mixture for ascent from Mars. This is a waste of hydrogen, which must be brought from Earth and is difficult to transport to Mars and store on Mars. To reduce the problem of transporting hydrogen to Mars, the S/E process can be augmented by another process which reduces overall hydrogen requirement. Three conceptual approaches for doing this are (i) recover hydrogen from the excess methane produced by the S/E process, (ii) convert the methane to a higher hydrocarbon or other organic with a lower H/C ratio than methane, and (iii) use a separate process (such as zirconia or reverse water gas shift reaction) to produce additional oxygen, thus utilizing all the methane produced by the Sabatier process. We report our results here on recovering hydrogen from the excess methane using pyrolysis of methane. Pyrolysis has the advantage that it produces almost pure hydrogen, and any unreacted methane can pass through the S/E process reactor. It has the disadvantage that disposing of the carbon produced by pyrolysis presents difficulties. The goals of a research program on recovery of hydrogen from methane are (in descending priority order): 1) Study the kinetics of pyrolysis to arrive at a pyrolysis reactor design that produces high yields in a confined volume at the lowest possible operating temperature; 2) Study the kinetics of carbon burnoff to determine whether high yields can be obtained in a confined volume at acceptable operating temperatures; and 3) Investigate catalytic techniques for depositing carbon as a fine soot which can be physically separated from the reactor. In the JPL program, we have made significant

  18. Continuous Synthesis of Doped Pyrochlore Materials by Spray Pyrolysis for Auto-thermal Reforming Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancey, Jonathan

    The use of a spray-pyrolysis method is studied for the continuous synthesis of refractory oxide reforming catalyst for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels to H2 and CO at 900°C. Nickel- and rhodium-doped zirconate pyrochlore materials with the formulas La1.89Ni2.81Y 0.25Ca0.11Zr1.47 and La1.89Rh 1.09Y0.25Ca0.11Zr1.641 were synthesized using the spray pyrolysis method. Both Pechini and glycine-nitrate precursor solutions were used in order to control the particle morphology, crystallinity, and surface area of the catalyst powder. Samples synthesized by the Pechini solution required post-synthesis heat treatment to 1000 °C for 2 hours to form the fully-crystalline pyrochlore phase. Both the Ni- and Rh-doped compositions formed by the spray-pyrolysis method performed as reported elsewhere for powder produced by solid-state and Pechini bulk methods. The use of the glycine-nitrate precursor solution in the spray-pyrolysis resulted in the formation of fully crystalline pyrochlore catalyst for the Ni-doped composition without any additional high temperature treatment. The Rh-doped catalysts synthesized from the glycine-nitrate precursor did not form a fully crystalline material directly from the spray-pyrolysis process, but required a further thermal treatment to 800 °C for 8 hours to transform the powder and burn-off excess carbon remaining from the synthesis process. Rapid catalyst aging tests for the Rh-doped catalysts synthesized by spray-pyrolysis (using either the Pechini and glycine-nitrate precursor solutions) produced stable and active catalysts achieving equilibrium hydrogen yield of 90% for 15 hours. To conclude, the work showed that through proper chemical design of the precursor system, a high surface area, chemically active, and stable zirconate pyrochlore catalyst could be synthesized efficiently by the spray-pyrolysis method developed.

  19. Continuous polyethylene pyrolysis for hybrid flame/CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Nicholas Wilder

    2011-12-01

    A system was designed to integrate the continuous feeding of polyethylene for pyrolysis into the hybrid flame/CVD carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis process previously developed in this laboratory. Following the completion of the stainless steel design and machining operations, the polyethylene dispenser, screw conveyor, pyrolysis chamber, venturi flame holder, particle filter, synthesis chamber and dual]zone heating system were successfully integrated for full operation. A water cooling unit was incorporated with the screw conveyor to ensure flawless delivery of polyethylene to the pyrolysis chamber, as well as a support system to suspend the CNT catalyst within the synthesis chamber. As with the previously developed process, the intended use of combustion effluent within the apparatus was to synthesize multi]walled CNTs using stainless steel wire mesh. This was facilitated by an extensive study of the effluent produced with this continuous feeding system at varying system settings and in comparison to the previous apparatus, followed by a determination of the system parameters, which result in conditions most favorable to multi walled CNT growth.

  20. Magnetic carbon nanostructures: microwave energy-assisted pyrolysis vs. conventional pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiahua; Pallavkar, Sameer; Chen, Minjiao; Yerra, Narendranath; Luo, Zhiping; Colorado, Henry A; Lin, Hongfei; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Khasanov, Airat; Ho, Thomas C; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-01-11

    Magnetic carbon nanostructures from microwave assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shells from conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including nanotubes, nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite phase from the conventional process.

  1. Pyrolysis of hydrochar from digestate: Effect of hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis temperatures on pyrochar formation.

    PubMed

    Garlapalli, Ravinder K; Wirth, Benjamin; Reza, M Toufiq

    2016-11-01

    Digestate from anaerobic digestion of biomass often contains more than 90% of water, which is economically unfavorable for pyrolysis. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has potential to treat very wet biomass, however, the hydrochar may be acidic, contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and toxic organic substances (e.g., phenolic compounds), and has very low Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. In this study, pyrolysis of digestate derived hydrochar is performed at various pyrolysis and HTC temperatures. Solid chars were characterized for elemental analysis, pH, PAH, BET, pore size and volume, and phenolic substances, while HTC process liquids were characterized for pH, organic acids, furfural derivatives, and phenolic substances. Physicochemical characteristics of pyro-HTC char were compared with corresponding pyrochar and hydrochar. Pyro-HTC chars produced at higher HTC (i.e., 260°C) and pyrolysis temperatures (i.e., 800°C) showed highest BET surface area (63.5m(2)g(-1)), no PAH, relatively mild basic pH (9.34), and no phenolic compounds. PMID:27567477

  2. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L.

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  3. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  4. Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures. Quarterly progress report No. 10, December 15, 1989--March 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1990-12-31

    We made considerable progress towards developing a thermogravimetric reactor with in-situ video imaging capability (TGA/IVIM). Such a reactor will allow us to observe macroscopic changes in the morphology of pyrolyzing particles and thermal ignitions while monitoring at the time the weight of pyrolyzing or reacting samples. The systematic investigation on the effects of pyrolysis conditions and char macropore structure on char reactivity continued. Pyrolysis and gasification experiments were performed consecutively in our TGA reactor and the char reactivity patterns were measured for a wide range of temperatures (400 to 600{degrees}C). These conditions cover both the kinetic and the diffusion limited regimes. Our results show conclusively that chars produced at high pyrolysis heating rates (and, therefore, having a more open cellular macropore structure) are more reactive and ignite more easily than chars pyrolyzed at low heating rates. These results have been explained using available predictions from theoretical models. We also investigated for the first time the effect of coal particle size and external mass transfer limitations on the reactivity patterns and ignition behavior of char particles combusted in air. Finally, we used our hot stage reactor to monitor the structural transformations occurring during pyrolysis via a video microscopy system. Pyrolysis experiments were videotaped and particle swelling and the particle ignitions were determined and analyzed using digitized images from these experiments.

  5. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  6. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  7. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis-GC/MS of lignin from several sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin from four different sources extracted by various methods were pyrolyzed at 650 degree C using analytical pyrolysis methods, py-GC/MS. Pyrolysis was carried out in the absence and presence of two heterogeneous catalysts , an acidic zeolite (HZSM-5) catalyst and a mixed metal oxide catalyst (Co...

  9. Plasma emission spectral detection for pyrolysis-gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riska, Gregory D.; Estes, Scott A.; Beyer, John O.; Uden, Peter C.

    Specific element gas chromatographic detection by plasma emission spectroscopy has been evaluated for the characterization of volatile pyrolyzates from a number of polymers containing hetero-atoms. Directly interfaced rapid-temperature rise time pyrolysis with high resolution open tubular column gas chromatography was employed. The atmospheric pressure microwave induced and sustained plasma utilizing a "Beenakker" type TM 010 cavity was applied for specific detection of phosphorus and carbon in polyphosphazene pyrolysis and for boron in carborane-silicone pyrolysis. An interfaced d.c. argon atmospheric pressure plasma was found more advantageous for the specific determination of silicon in the pyrolysis products of novel linear silarylene-siloxanes. In phosphazene pyrolysis notable differences were seen in the phosphorus content of volatiles formed on pyrolysis between polymers fluoroalkoxy and chlorophenoxy substituents. For carborane-silicones sequential volatilization followed by pyrolysis allowed the identification of residual boron containing monomers as well as pyrolyzates. Pyrolysis of the silarylene-siloxanes showed markedly differing levels of silicon content in polymers with differing aromatic backbones and different levels of vinyl substitution.

  10. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-09-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by "microwave dielectric heating" effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass pretreatment to bio-oil collection. The existing efforts are summarized in a table, providing a handy overview of the activities (e.g., feedstock and pretreatment, reactor/pyrolysis conditions) and findings (e.g., pyrolysis products) of various investigations.

  11. Flash Pyrolysis and Fractional Pyrolysis of Oleaginous Biomass in a Fluidized-bed Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Brook

    Thermochemical conversion methods such as pyrolysis have the potential for converting diverse biomass feedstocks into liquid fuels. In particular, bio-oil yields can be maximized by implementing flash pyrolysis to facilitate rapid heat transfer to the solids along with short vapor residence times to minimize secondary degradation of bio-oils. This study first focused on the design and construction of a fluidized-bed flash pyrolysis reactor with a high-efficiency bio-oil recovery unit. Subsequently, the reactor was used to perform flash pyrolysis of soybean pellets to assess the thermochemical conversion of oleaginous biomass feedstocks. The fluidized bed reactor design included a novel feed input mechanism through suction created by flow of carrier gas through a venturi which prevented plugging problems that occur with a more conventional screw feeders. In addition, the uniquely designed batch pyrolysis unit comprised of two tubes of dissimilar diameters. The bottom section consisted of a 1" tube and was connected to a larger 3" tube placed vertically above. At the carrier gas flow rates used in these studies, the feed particles remained fluidized in the smaller diameter tube, but a reduction in carrier gas velocity in the larger diameter "disengagement chamber" prevented the escape of particles into the condensers. The outlet of the reactor was connected to two Allihn condensers followed by an innovative packed-bed dry ice condenser. Due to the high carrier gas flow rates in fluidized bed reactors, bio-oil vapors form dilute aerosols upon cooling which that are difficult to coalesce and recover by traditional heat exchange condensers. The dry ice condenser provided high surface area for inertial impaction of these aerosols and also allowed easy recovery of bio-oils after natural evaporation of the dry ice at the end of the experiments. Single step pyrolysis was performed between 250-610°C with a vapor residence time between 0.3-0.6s. At 550°C or higher, 70% of

  12. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass by novel nanostructured catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Phuong T.; Le, Hy G.; Pham, Giang T. T.; Vu, Hông T. M.; Nguyen, Kien T.; Dao, Canh D.; Le, Giang H.; Hoang, Thuy T. T.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Nguyen, Quang K.; Vu, Tuan A.

    2013-12-01

    Nanostructured catalysts were successfully prepared by acidification of diatomites and the regeneration of used FCC catalysts. The obtained samples were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, EDX, MAS-NMR (27Al and 29Si), NH3-TPD and tested in catalytic pyrolysis of biomass (rice straw). The results showed that the similar bio-oil yield of 41,4% can be obtained by pyrolysis in presence of catalysts at 450°C as compared to that of the pyrolysis without catalyst at 550°C. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 42,55 % at the pyrolysis temperature of 500°C with catalytic content of 20%. Moreover, by catalytic pyrolysis, bio-oil quality was better as reflected in higher ratio of H/C, lower ratio of O/C. This clearly indicated high application potential of these new nanostructured catalysts in the production of bio-oil with low oxygenated compounds.

  14. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions. PMID:22452230

  15. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  16. Initial Stages of Pyrolysis of Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Konstantin V.

    Combustion and flammability of plastics are important topics of practical interest directly related to fire safety and recycling of polymeric materials; pyrolysis of the solid is the initial step of its combustion. One of the main ways to study such complicated processes is through detailed mechanistic modeling, in which the process is represented by a set of many elementary reactions. Mechanistic modeling of combustion of plastics is considerably hindered by the lack of necessary kinetic data. In virtually all existing models of polymer pyrolysis the majority of kinetic data used are derived from the corresponding gas phase values of smaller species. The use of gas phase rate constants is, generally, not justified without an experimental justification. In the first part of the work the influence of condensed phase on the rate of scission of a carbon-carbon bond (the reaction that initiates pyrolysis and combustion) in polyethylene (PE) was studied using the method of Reactive Molecular Dynamics (RMD). A method based on a two-step kinetic mechanism was developed to decouple the cage effect from the kinetics of the reaction under study. It was observed that under the conditions of condensed phase the rate constant of C-C bond scission in PE decreased by an order of magnitude compared to that obtained in vacuum. It was also shown that under the conditions of polymer melt the rate constant does not depend on the length of the polymer chain. In the second part of the work the kinetics of liquid phase and gas phase products of PE pyrolysis were studied experimentally using Gas Chromatography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Based on the assumption of applicability of gas phase kinetic data for C-C scission reaction and beta-scission reaction under the conditions of polymer melt, rate constants of hydrogen transfer, radical addition to double bonds, and radical recombination were determined via kinetic modeling of the experimental results. The obtained values of the rate

  17. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.; Oneill, B. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from nine wood samples was investigated. The samples of hardwoods were aspen poplar, beech, yellow birch, and red oak. The samples of softwoods were western red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, eastern white pine, and southern yellow pine. There was no significant difference between the wood samples under rising temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a developing fire, or under fixed temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a fully developed fire. This test method is used to determine whether a material is significantly more toxic than wood under the preflashover conditions of a developing fire.

  18. Analytical pyrolysis of cells and cell fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Faix, O.; Bertelt, E.

    1995-12-01

    Wood of spruce, beech and birch was disintegrated without chemical pretreatment after 10 minutes of steaming at 110{degrees}C in a laboratory defibrator. Fibers, vessels, and fragments of secondary wall were separated by wet screening. A hydrocylon was used for separation of middle lamellae. By using analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS, parenchymatic cells were found to be richer in lignin than the other cells. The lignin content of middle lamellae was 35% (beech, spruce) and 39% (birch). In agreement with the literature, the S/G ratios of the vessels and middle lamellae was lower than those of the other cells and cell fragments.

  19. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of these coordinated experimental and modeling studies is to develop an improved understanding of the kinetics of coal devolatilization which are relevant to suspension firing of powdered coal. These fundamental kinetic studies address several topics related to an improved understanding of pulverized coal combustion and includes both homogeneous and hetergeneous reactions. The principal topics include: (a) the pyrolysis and devolatilization of coal; and (b) the formation of char. Research activities include small-scale experimentation, interpretation of experimental results in terms of mechanistic understanding and the development and validation of kinetic models of fundamental processes. 6 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Rapid habitability assessment of Mars samples by pyrolysis-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Peter R.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (pyrolysis FTIR) is a potential sample selection method for Mars Sample Return missions. FTIR spectroscopy can be performed on solid and liquid samples but also on gases following preliminary thermal extraction, pyrolysis or gasification steps. The detection of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases can reveal information on sample mineralogy and past habitability of the environment in which the sample was created. The absorption of IR radiation at specific wavenumbers by organic functional groups can indicate the presence and type of any organic matter present. Here we assess the utility of pyrolysis-FTIR to release water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and organic matter from Mars relevant materials to enable a rapid habitability assessment of target rocks for sample return. For our assessment a range of minerals were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance FTIR. Subsequently, the mineral samples were subjected to single step pyrolysis and multi step pyrolysis and the products characterised by gas phase FTIR. Data from both single step and multi step pyrolysis-FTIR provide the ability to identify minerals that reflect habitable environments through their water and carbon dioxide responses. Multi step pyrolysis-FTIR can be used to gain more detailed information on the sources of the liberated water and carbon dioxide owing to the characteristic decomposition temperatures of different mineral phases. Habitation can be suggested when pyrolysis-FTIR indicates the presence of organic matter within the sample. Pyrolysis-FTIR, therefore, represents an effective method to assess whether Mars Sample Return target rocks represent habitable conditions and potential records of habitation and can play an important role in sample triage operations.

  1. On-probe pyrolysis desorption ecectrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry for the analysis of non-volatile pyrolysis products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An on-probe pyrolyzer has been constructed and interfaced with desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for the rapid analysis of non-volatile pyrolysis products. The detection and analysis of non-volatile pyrolysis products of peptides, proteins and the synthetic polymer pol...

  2. Intermediate pyrolysis of biomass energy pellets for producing sustainable liquid, gaseous and solid fuels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Brammer, J G; Mahmood, A S N; Hornung, A

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the use of intermediate pyrolysis system to produce liquid, gaseous and solid fuels from pelletised wood and barley straw feedstock. Experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale system and all products were collected and analysed. The liquid products were separated into an aqueous phase and an organic phase (pyrolysis oil) under gravity. The oil yields were 34.1 wt.% and 12.0 wt.% for wood and barley straw, respectively. Analysis found that both oils were rich in heterocyclic and phenolic compounds and have heating values over 24 MJ/kg. The yields of char for both feedstocks were found to be about 30 wt.%, with heating values similar to that of typical sub-bituminous class coal. Gas yields were calculated to be approximately 20 wt.%. Studies showed that both gases had heating values similar to that of downdraft gasification producer gas. Analysis on product energy yields indicated the process efficiency was about 75%.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  4. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Research continued on coal pyrolysis and devolatilization. The effects of reaction process on the transient temperature history of a particle have been examined. The reaction process is found to significantly reduce the temperature gradient across a burning particle relative to a nonreactive particle. The pyrolysis process, on the other hand, does not severely affect the temperature history of a heating particle for the kinetic parameters employed. Devolatilization experiments have been performed on various size cuts on an HVA Bituminous coal in entrained flow and heated grid reactors. Weight loss measurements were made in the entrained flow reactor (EFR) and tar yields and molecular weight distributions were measured for the heated grid reactor (HGR) experiments. The results imply the initial phase of the devolatilization of the HVA Bituminous coal is heat transfer controlled because the rate of tar information and evolution is heat transfer controlled. The invariance in EFR ultimate weight loss and low pressure tar yields and characteristics with change in particle size can be explained by morphological considerations of the parent coal particles. The non-symmetric, irregular shapes of the coal particles result in an intraparticle mass distribution much nearer an interphase surface area than that of an equivalent sphere or cube. 5 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  6. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  7. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization.

  8. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5. PMID:24508091

  9. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    PubMed

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  10. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  11. Mechanism and kinetics for the initial steps of pyrolysis and combustion of 1,6-dicyclopropane-2,4-hexyne from ReaxFF reactive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianchi; Bai, Chen; Sun, Huai; Goddard, William A

    2011-05-19

    We report the kinetic analysis and mechanism for the initial steps of pyrolysis and combustion of a new fuel material, 1,6-dicyclopropane-2,4-hexyne, that has enormous heats of pyrolysis and combustion, making it a potential high-energy fuel or fuel additive. These studies employ the ReaxFF force field for reactive dynamics (RD) simulations of both pyrolysis and combustion processes for both unimolecular and multimolecular systems. We find that both pyrolysis and combustion initiate from unimolecular reactions, with entropy-driven reactions being most important in both processes. Pyrolysis initiates with extrusion of an ethylene molecule from the fuel molecule and is followed quickly by isomerization of the fuel molecule, which induces additional radicals that accelerate the pyrolysis process. In the combustion process, we find three distinct mechanisms for the O(2) attack on the fuel molecule: (1) attack on the cyclopropane, ring expanding to form the cyclic peroxide which then decomposes; (2) attack onto the central single bond of the diyne which then fissions to form two C(5)H(5)O radicals; (3) attack on the alkyne-cyclopropane moiety to form a seven-membered ring peroxide which then decomposes. Each of these unimolecular combustion processes releases energy that induces additional radicals to accelerate the combustion process. Here oxygen has major effects both as the radical acceptor and as the radical producer. We extract both the effective activation energy and the effective pre-exponential factor by kinetic analysis of pyrolysis and combustion from these ReaxFF simulations. The low value of the derived effective activation energy (26.18 kcal/mol for pyrolysis and 16.40 kcal/mol for combustion) reveals the high activity of this fuel molecule. PMID:21510658

  12. Rapid pyrolysis of agricultural residues at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, R.; Sjoestroem, K.; Bjoernbom, E.

    1995-11-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of many countries especially in Latin America. Gasification of agricultural residues such as bagasse from sugar cane for electricity production is a solution to meet energy demands with a favourable effect on the environment. Pyrolysis (heating solid biomass in absence of air to produce solid, liquid or gaseous fuels) is the first step in gasification and combustion. Depending on the conditions the solid, liquid or gaseous products are maximized. The treatment conditions in the pyrolysis determine the char yield and its reactivity in gasification. Char yield and char reactivity are important for the capacity of the gasifier. The rapid pyrolysis of biomass is performed in a free-fall reactor at 850{degrees}C. The biomass used in the study was wood (birch) and agricultural residues such as bagasse and leaves both from sugar cane and banana. The reactivity of the char obtained in pyrolysis is determined by reaction with steam in a thermobalance. The low amounts of a highly porous char and the high yield of gaseous products obtained in rapid pyrolysis of bagasse at high temperature are similar to those produced in rapid pyrolysis of wood. Bagasse gives more volatiles and less char than sugar cane residues and banana harvest residues. Bagasse produces a less reactive char after devolatilization than wood. The char obtained by rapid pyrolysis contains a fraction that can be further volatilized by slow pyrolysis. The fraction of char removed by slow pyrolysis is lower in chars from bagasse and sugar cane leaves than in chars from wood. The structures of the chars obtained from birch, bagasse, sugar cane and banana leaves were observed by scanning electron microscope. Qualitative X-ray microanalysis of the chars was made using an electron microscope supplied with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Ca, K, S, Si, Al and Mg were visible on the surface of the chars.

  13. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  14. CFD modeling of space-time evolution of fast pyrolysis products in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model for the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed has been developed. In this study the unsteady constitutive transport equations for inert gas flow and decomposition kinetics were modeled using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT-12. The model system d...

  15. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of polypropylene waste with Brazilian heavy oil.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Luiz C F N; Carbonell, Montserrat M; Marques, Mônica R C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the chemical recycling of plastic residues, co-pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP) waste with Brazilian crude oil was evaluated varying the temperature (400°C to 500°C) and the amount of PP fed to the reactor. The co-pyrolysis of plastic waste in an inert atmosphere provided around 80% of oil pyrolytic, and of these, half represent the fraction of diesel oil. This study can be used as a reference in chemical recycling of plastics, specially associated with plastics co-pyrolysis.

  17. Method for preventing plugging in the pyrolysis of agglomerative coals

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1979-01-23

    To prevent plugging in a pyrolysis operation where an agglomerative coal in a nondeleteriously reactive carrier gas is injected as a turbulent jet from an opening into an elongate pyrolysis reactor, the coal is comminuted to a size where the particles under operating conditions will detackify prior to contact with internal reactor surfaces while a secondary flow of fluid is introduced along the peripheral inner surface of the reactor to prevent backflow of the coal particles. The pyrolysis operation is depicted by two equations which enable preselection of conditions which insure prevention of reactor plugging.

  18. Numberical studies of the radiant flash pyrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    When biomass particles are heated very rapidly (>1000/sup 0/ C/s) in an oxygen free environment, they undergo pyrolysis with the formation of little or no char. If concentrated solar energy is used to rapidly heat the particles their temperature may exceed that of the surrounding gaseous environment by several hundred degrees Celsius when pyrolysis occurs. This ''two temperature'' effect gives rise to the formation of high yields of syrups from the pyrolyzing biomass. Numberical exploration of the combined effects of heat and mass transfer on the radiative flash pyrolysis phenonmena are described in this paper. (5 tables, 8 figs, 12 refs.)

  19. Numerical studies of the radiant flash pyrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    When biomass particles are heated very rapidly (temperatures greater than 1000 degrees/s) in an oxygen free environment, they undergo pyrolysis with the formation of little or no char. If concentrated solar energy is used to rapidly heat the particles their temperature may exceed that of the surrounding gaseous environment by several hundred degrees Celsius when pyrolysis occurs. This two temperature effect gives rise to the formation of high yields of syrups from the pyrolyzing biomass. Numerical exploration of the combined effects of heat and mass transfer on the radiative flash pyrolysis phenonmena are described in this paper. 12 references.

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

    1996-07-01

    The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

  1. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch biomass pellets using multimode microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch pellets were subjected to pyrolysis in a multimode microwave (MW) system (1 kW and 2.45 GHz frequency) with and without the MW absorber, activated carbon. The ratio of biomass to MW absorber not only affected the temperature profiles of the EFB but also pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas. The highest bio-oil yield of about 21 wt.% was obtained with 25% MW absorber. The bio-oil consisted of phenolic compounds of about 60-70 area% as detected by GC-MS and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Ball lightning (plasma arc) occurred due to residual palm oil in the EFB biomass without using an MW absorber. The bio-char can be utilized as potential alternative fuel because of its heating value (25 MJ/kg).

  2. Integration of decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to produce green aromatics from coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li; Saffron, Christopher M; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongyu; Munro, Robert W; Kriegel, Robert M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to integrate decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to convert coffee grounds into the green aromatic precursors of terephthalic acid, namely benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). An economic analysis of this bioproduct system was conducted to examine BTEX yields, biomass costs and their sensitivities. Model predictions were verified experimentally using pyrolysis GC/MS to quantify BTEX yields for raw and torrefied biomass. The production cost was minimized when the torrefier temperature and residence time were 239°C and 34min, respectively. This optimization study found conditions that justify torrefaction as a pretreatment for making BTEX, provided that starting feedstock costs are below $58 per tonne.

  3. Integration of decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to produce green aromatics from coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li; Saffron, Christopher M; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongyu; Munro, Robert W; Kriegel, Robert M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to integrate decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to convert coffee grounds into the green aromatic precursors of terephthalic acid, namely benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). An economic analysis of this bioproduct system was conducted to examine BTEX yields, biomass costs and their sensitivities. Model predictions were verified experimentally using pyrolysis GC/MS to quantify BTEX yields for raw and torrefied biomass. The production cost was minimized when the torrefier temperature and residence time were 239°C and 34min, respectively. This optimization study found conditions that justify torrefaction as a pretreatment for making BTEX, provided that starting feedstock costs are below $58 per tonne. PMID:26684175

  4. Thermodynamic study on the formation of acetylene during coal pyrolysis in the arc plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, W.; Li, F.; Cai, G.; Lu, Y.; Chang, L.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the principle of minimizing the Gibbs free energy, the composition of C-H-O-N-S equilibrium system about acetylene formation during the pyrolysis in arc plasma jet for four kinds of different rank-ordered coals such as Datong, Xianfeng, Yangcheng, and Luan was analyzed and calculated. The results indicated that hydrogen, as the reactive atmosphere, was beneficial to the acetylene formation. The coal ranks and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur in coal all could obviously affect the acetylene yield. The mole fraction of acetylene is the maximum when the ratio value of atom H/C was 2. The content of oxygen was related to the acetylene yield, but it does not compete with CO formation. These agreed with the experimental results, and they could help to select the coal type for the production of acetylene through plasma pyrolysis process.

  5. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch biomass pellets using multimode microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch pellets were subjected to pyrolysis in a multimode microwave (MW) system (1 kW and 2.45 GHz frequency) with and without the MW absorber, activated carbon. The ratio of biomass to MW absorber not only affected the temperature profiles of the EFB but also pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas. The highest bio-oil yield of about 21 wt.% was obtained with 25% MW absorber. The bio-oil consisted of phenolic compounds of about 60-70 area% as detected by GC-MS and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Ball lightning (plasma arc) occurred due to residual palm oil in the EFB biomass without using an MW absorber. The bio-char can be utilized as potential alternative fuel because of its heating value (25 MJ/kg). PMID:23026320

  6. Semiempirical molecular orbital estimation of the relative stability of bianthryls produced by anthracene pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, J.A.; Mukherjee, J.; Wornat, M.J.; Sarofim, A.F.; Rutledge, G.C. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The pyrolysis of pure anthracene at temperatures between 1,200 and 1,500 K produced all six bianthryl isomers whose relative yields appear to be related to steric factors. To evaluate the hypothesis that thermodynamic factors govern the product distribution of bianthryls in this system, the relative enthalpies and entropies of biaryl isomers were estimated by molecular orbital modeling, using the semiempirical AM1 (Austin Model 1). Computational analysis of several isomer sets demonstrates that the relative stabilities of a large number of biaryl isomers are determined largely by steric interactions caused by structural features defined as bays, coves, and fjords. These steric factors affect both the degree of biaryl twist in the preferred conformation and the freedom of internal rotation. Molecular orbital modeling supports the hypothesis that a thermodynamic distribution of bianthryl isomers is produced by anthracene pyrolysis.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of wood biomass in an auger reactor using calcium-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Veses, A; Aznar, M; Martínez, I; Martínez, J D; López, J M; Navarro, M V; Callén, M S; Murillo, R; García, T

    2014-06-01

    Wood catalytic pyrolysis using calcium-based materials was studied in an auger reactor at 450°C. Two different catalysts, CaO and CaO·MgO were evaluated and upgraded bio-oils were obtained in both cases. Whilst acidity and oxygen content remarkable decrease, both pH and calorific value increase with respect to the non-catalytic test. Upgrading process was linked to the fact that calcium-based materials could not only fix the CO2-like compounds but also promoted the dehydration reactions. In addition, process simulation demonstrated that the addition of these catalysts, especially CaO, could favour the energetic integration since a lowest circulation of heat carrier between combustor and auger reactor should be needed. An energy self-sustained system was obtained where thermal energy required for biomass drying and for pyrolysis reaction was supplied by non-condensable gas and char combustion, respectively.

  8. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors.

  9. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. PMID:25725406

  10. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  11. Formation of NOx precursors during Chinese pulverized coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-ren Bao; Jin-cao Zhang; Fan Li; Li-ping Chang

    2007-08-15

    The formation of NOx precursors (HCN and NH{sub 3}) from the pyrolysis of several Chinese pulverized coals in an arc plasma jet was investigated through both thermodynamic analysis of the C-H-O-N system and experiments. Results of thermodynamic analysis show that the dominant N-containing gaseous species is HCN together with a small amount of ammonia above the temperature of 2000 K. The increase of H content advances the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3}, but the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are decreased with a high concentration of O in the system. These results are accordant with the experimental data. The increasing of input power promotes the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} from coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet. Tar-N is not formed during the process. The yield of HCN changes insignificantly with the changing of the residence time of coal particles in the reactor, but that of NH{sub 3} decreases as residence times increase because of the relative instability at high temperature. Adsorption and gasification of CO{sub 2} on the coal surface also can restrain the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} compare to the results in an Ar plasma jet. Yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are sensitive to the coal feeding rate, indicating that NOx precursors could interact with the nascent char to form other N-containing species. The formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} during coal pyrolysis in a H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet are not dependent on coal rank. The N-containing gaseous species is released faster than others in the volatiles during coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet, and the final nitrogen content in the char is lower than that in the parent coal, which it is independent of coal type. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fast pyrolysis of 13C-labeled cellobioses: gaining insights into the mechanisms of fast pyrolysis of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Degenstein, John C; Murria, Priya; Easton, Mckay; Sheng, Huaming; Hurt, Matt; Dow, Alex R; Gao, Jinshan; Nash, John J; Agrawal, Rakesh; Delgass, W Nicholas; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2015-02-01

    A fast-pyrolysis probe/tandem mass spectrometer combination was utilized to determine the initial fast-pyrolysis products for four different selectively (13)C-labeled cellobiose molecules. Several products are shown to result entirely from fragmentation of the reducing end of cellobiose, leaving the nonreducing end intact in these products. These findings are in disagreement with mechanisms proposed previously. Quantum chemical calculations were used to identify feasible low-energy pathways for several products. These results provide insights into the mechanisms of fast pyrolysis of cellulose.

  13. Pyrolysis of amino acids - Mechanistic considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, M. A., Jr.; Medley, E. E.; Simmonds, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    Pyrolysis of several structurally different amino acids in a column at 500 C showed differences in the mechanisms and final products. The aliphatic protein amino acids decompose mainly by simple decarboxylation and condensation reactions, while the beta amino acids undergo deamination to unsaturated acids. Alpha amino acids with alpha alkyl substituents undergo an unusual intramolecular SN1 reaction with the formation of an intermediate alpha lactone which decomposes to yield a ketone. The alpha alkyl substituents appear to stabilize the developing negative charge formed by partial heterolytic cleavage of the alpha carbon - NH3 bond. The gamma and delta amino acids give 2-pyrrolidinone and 2-piperidone respectively, while the epsilon acids yield mixed products.

  14. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  15. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  16. A Pyrolysis and Primary Migration Model

    1993-08-11

    PMOD-Version 1.6 is a copyrighted computer program for simulating oil generation, cracking, and other chemical reactions occurring during the pyrolysis of petroleum source rocks over a specified history of temperature and either depth or hydrostatic pressure. The chemical reaction mechanism is defined by the user and, within limits, can be as simple or complex as desired. The model also simulates compaction of the source rock and expulsion of a liquid water phase and a liquidmore » hydrocarbon phase. The expulsion is done by either a simple, constant-fluid-density model or by a more rigorous model using a modified Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state. The latter model also calculates overpressuring. An auxiliary program, PLOTPMOD, permits graphical display and hardcopy of the results, as well as preparation of ASCII-file subsets of the results for use with a spreadsheet or other graphics program.« less

  17. Fines in fluidized bed silane pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G.; Hogle, R.; Rohatgi, N.; Morrison, A.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon deposition on silicon seed particles by silane pyrolysis in a fluidized-bed reactor is investigated as a low-cost, high-throughput method to produce high-purity polysilicon for solar-cell applications. Studies of fines, particles 0.1-10 microns diam, initiated from homogeneous decomposition in the reactor were conducted using 2 and 6-in-diam fluidized beds. The studies show functional dependences of fines elutriation on silane feed concentration, temperature, gas velocity, and bubble size. The observation that the fines elutriation is generally below 10 percent of the silicon-in-silane feed is attributed to scavenging by large particles in an environment of less free space for homogeneous nucleation. Preliminary results suggest that, with proper conditions and distributor design, high-silane-concentration (over 50 percent SiH4 in H2) feed may be used.

  18. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  19. A critical view on catalytic pyrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Venderbosch, R H

    2015-04-24

    The rapid heating of biomass in an oxygen-free environment optimizes the yield of fast-pyrolysis liquids. This liquid comprises a mix of acids, (dehydrated) carbohydrates, aldehydes, ketones, lignin fragments, aromatics, and alcohols, limiting its use. Deoxygenation of these liquids to replace hydrocarbons represents significant challenges. Catalytic pyrolysis is seen as a promising route to yield liquids with a higher quality. In this paper, literature data on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass are reviewed and deoxygenation results correlated with the overall carbon yield. Evidence is given that in an initial stage of the catalytic process reactive components are converted to coke, gas, and water, and only to a limited extent to a liquid product. Catalysts are not yet good enough, and an appropriate combination of pyrolysis conditions, reactive products formed, and different reactions to take place to yield improved quality liquids may be practically impossible.

  20. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    PubMed

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery.

  1. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    PubMed

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery. PMID:27474954

  2. Fast pyrolysis of sweet soghum bagasse in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, M.; Peacocke, C.; Bridgewater, A.V.; Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-12-31

    Samples of Italian sorghum bagasse were dried and ground and then pyrolyzed in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis bench scale reactor unit. Results were typical of agricultural grasses of this kind, and resembled those obtained from similar tests of sugar cane bagasse. A maximum liquid yield (dry feed basis) of 68% by weight of dry feed was achieved, with a corresponding char yield (ash included) of 16%. The high ash content of the bagasse (9.2%) gave a char with a very high ash content ({approx}50%), with calcium as the most abundant cation. Yields of hydroxyacetaldehyde were comparable to those obtained from softwoods. Deionized bagasse gave significant yields of anhydrosugars on pyrolysis. Sorghum bagasse appears to be a suitable feedstock, either for pyrolysis to yield an alternative fuel oil, or after pretreatment and pyrolysis, to yield a solution of fermentable sugars.

  3. Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    SciTech Connect

    Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

    2010-12-17

    The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

  4. Influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of palm oil wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping; Zheng, Chuguang; Yan, Rong; Lee, Dong Ho; Liang, David Tee

    2006-09-15

    The influence of mineral matter on pyrolysis of biomass (including pure biomass components, synthesized biomass, and natural biomass) was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). First, the mineral matter, KCl, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was mixed respectively with the three main biomass components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) at a weight ratio (C/W) of 0.1 and its pyrolysis characteristics were investigated. Most of these mineral additives, except for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, demonstrated negligible influence. Adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} inhibited the pyrolysis of hemicellulose by lowering its mass loss rate by 0.3 wt%/{sup o}C, while it enhanced the pyrolysis of cellulose by shifting the pyrolysis to a lower temperature. With increased K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} added, the weight loss of cellulose in the lower temperature zone (200-315 {sup o}C) increased greatly, and the activation energies of hemicellulose and cellulose pyrolysis decreased notably from 204 to 42 kJ/mol. Second, studies on the synthetic biomass of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (as a representative of minerals) indicated that peaks of cellulose and hemicellulose pyrolysis became overlapped with addition of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (at C/W=0.05-0.1), due to the catalytic effect of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lowering cellulose pyrolysis to a lower temperature. Finally, a local representative biomass--palm oil waste (in the forms of original material and material pretreated through water washing or K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition)--was studied. Water washing shifted pyrolysis of palm oil waste to a higher temperature by 20 {sup o}C, while K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition lowered the peak temperature of pyrolysis by {approx}50{sup o}C. It was therefore concluded that the obvious catalytic effect of adding K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} might be attributed to certain fundamental changes in terms of chemical structure of

  5. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a 'waste-to-chemicals' perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

  7. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martin Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-15

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  8. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  9. Generate rigorous pyrolysis models for olefins production by computer

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Broadbelt, L.J.; Grittman, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    With recent advances in the automation of the model-building process for large networks of kinetic equations, it may become feasible to generate computer pyrolysis models for naphthas and gas oil feedstocks. The potential benefit of a rigorous mechanistic model for these relatively complex liquid feedstocks is great, due to diverse characterizations and yield spectrums. An ethane pyrolysis example is used to illustrate the computer generation of reaction mechanism models.

  10. Effects of Non-Equilibrium Chemistry and Darcy-Forchheimer Flow of Pyrolysis Gas for a Charring Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    The Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response code, FIAT, simulates pyrolysis and ablation of thermal protection materials and systems. The governing equations, which include energy conservation, a three-component decomposition model, and a surface energy balance, are solved with a moving grid. This work describes new modeling capabilities that are added to a special version of FIAT. These capabilities include a time-dependent pyrolysis gas flow momentum equation with Darcy-Forchheimer terms and pyrolysis gas species conservation equations with finite-rate homogeneous chemical reactions. The total energy conservation equation is also enhanced for consistency with these new additions. Parametric studies are performed using this enhanced version of FIAT. Two groups of analyses of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) are presented. In the first group, an Orion flight environment for a proposed Lunar-return trajectory is considered. In the second group, various test conditions for arcjet models are examined. The central focus of these parametric studies is to understand the effect of pyrolysis gas momentum transfer on PICA material in-depth thermal responses with finite-rate, equilibrium, or frozen homogeneous gas chemistry. Results are presented, discussed, and compared with those predicted by the baseline PICA/FIAT ablation and thermal response model developed by the Orion Thermal Protection System Advanced Development Project.

  11. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  12. Coupling DAEM and CFD for simulating biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Qingang; Zhang, Jingchao; Wiggins, Gavin; Daw, C. Stuart; Xu, Fei

    2015-12-03

    We report results from computational simulations of an experimental, lab-scale bubbling bed biomass pyrolysis reactor that include a distributed activation energy model (DAEM) for the kinetics. In this study, we utilized multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to account for the turbulent hydrodynamics, and this was combined with the DAEM kinetics in a multi-component, multi-step reaction network. Our results indicate that it is possible to numerically integrate the coupled CFD–DAEM system without significantly increasing computational overhead. It is also clear, however, that reactor operating conditions, reaction kinetics, and multiphase flow dynamics all have major impacts on the pyrolysis products exiting the reactor. We find that, with the same pre-exponential factors and mean activation energies, inclusion of distributed activation energies in the kinetics can shift the predicted average value of the exit vapor-phase tar flux and its statistical distribution, compared to single-valued activation-energy kinetics. Perhaps the most interesting observed trend is that increasing the diversity of the DAEM activation energies appears to increase the mean tar yield, all else being equal. As a result, these findings imply that accurate resolution of the reaction activation energy distributions will be important for optimizing biomass pyrolysis processes.

  13. Coupling DAEM and CFD for simulating biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized beds

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Qingang; Zhang, Jingchao; Wiggins, Gavin; Daw, C. Stuart; Xu, Fei

    2015-12-03

    We report results from computational simulations of an experimental, lab-scale bubbling bed biomass pyrolysis reactor that include a distributed activation energy model (DAEM) for the kinetics. In this study, we utilized multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to account for the turbulent hydrodynamics, and this was combined with the DAEM kinetics in a multi-component, multi-step reaction network. Our results indicate that it is possible to numerically integrate the coupled CFD–DAEM system without significantly increasing computational overhead. It is also clear, however, that reactor operating conditions, reaction kinetics, and multiphase flow dynamics all have major impacts on the pyrolysis products exiting themore » reactor. We find that, with the same pre-exponential factors and mean activation energies, inclusion of distributed activation energies in the kinetics can shift the predicted average value of the exit vapor-phase tar flux and its statistical distribution, compared to single-valued activation-energy kinetics. Perhaps the most interesting observed trend is that increasing the diversity of the DAEM activation energies appears to increase the mean tar yield, all else being equal. As a result, these findings imply that accurate resolution of the reaction activation energy distributions will be important for optimizing biomass pyrolysis processes.« less

  14. Rapid detection of bacteria with miniaturized pyrolysis-gas chromatographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowry, Curtis; Morgan, Catherine H.; Baca, Quentin; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-02-01

    Rapid detection and identification of bacteria and other pathogens is important for many civilian and military applications. The profiles of biological markers such as fatty acids can be used to characterize biological samples or to distinguish bacteria at the gram-type, genera, and even species level. Common methods for whole cell bacterial analysis are neither portable nor rapid, requiring lengthy, labor intensive sample preparation and bench-scale instrumentation. These methods chemically derivatize fatty acids to produce more volatile fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that can be separated and analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer. More recent publications demonstrate decreased sample preparation time with in situ derivatization of whole bacterial samples using pyrolysis/derivatization. Ongoing development of miniaturized pyrolysis/GC instrumentation by this department capitalizes on Sandia advances in the field of microfabricated chemical analysis systems ((mu) ChemLab). Microdevices include rapidly heated stages capable of pyrolysis or sample concentration, gas chromatography columns, and surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor arrays. We will present results demonstrating the capabilities of these devices toward fulfilling the goal of portable, rapid detection and early warning of the presence of pathogens in air or water.

  15. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis process of woody biomass mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosanić, Tijana R.; Ćeranić, Mirjana B.; Đurić, Slavko N.; Grković, Vojin R.; Milotić, Milan M.; Brankov, Saša D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of pyrolysis of woody biomass mixture. The mixture consists of oak, beech, fir, cherry, walnut and linden wood chips with equal mass fractions. During the experiment, the sample mass inside the reactor was 10 g with a particle diameter of 5-10 mm. The sample in the reactor was heated in the temperature range of 24-650°C. Average sample heating rates in the reactor were 21, 30 and 54 °C/min. The sample mass before, during and after pyrolysis was determined using a digital scale. Experimental results of the sample mass change indicate that the highest yield of pyrolytic gas was achieved at the temperature slightly above 650°C and ranged from 77 to 85%, while char yield ranged from 15 to 23%. Heating rate has significant influence on the pyrolytic gas and char yields. It was determined that higher pyrolysis temperatures and heating rates induce higher yields of pyrolytic gas, while the char mass reduces. Condensation of pyrolytic gas at the end of the pyrolysis process at 650°C produced 2.4-2.72 g of liquid phase. The results obtained represent a starting basis for determining material and heat balance of pyrolysis process as well as woody biomass pyrolysis equipment.

  16. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis productsmore » increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.« less

  17. Analyzing peat pyrolysis by in-situ FTIR

    SciTech Connect

    Fen, J.; Li, W.Y.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.

    1997-12-31

    Coal pyrolysis is complex process that includes many small reactions. Being complicated, it is difficult to study the pyrolysis mechanism with high rank coal directly. Peat is a rudimentary coal which has the most simple structure with lower polymerization. Some researchers think that the key to understanding coal structure is in an appreciation of the molecular components of the original peat swamp and how these might be modified. It is generally agreed that the chemical diversity of various coals will affect rate of coal combustion through the devolatilization process. Upon heating, some of the chemical bonds in coal undergo cracking and result in the release of light gases and the production of tar. Through analysis of peat which is best model compound of coal, some basic step reactions of coal can be understood. The objective of this study is to analyze peat pyrolysis using a in-situ pyrolysis-FTIR and to establish the pyrolysis model. The results show that during rapid peat pyrolysis, all the functional groups produced have almost the same activity energy; the difference among them is the degree of reaction.

  18. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  19. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  20. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  1. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. PMID:26773946

  2. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  3. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Cascade approach of red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis sustainable valorization by extraction of phycobiliproteins and pyrolysis of residue.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, M; Manara, P; Kamaterou, P; Monteleone, M; Zabaniotou, A

    2015-05-01

    Phycobiliproteins extraction (primary refining) from Gracilaria gracilis seaweed, harvested in Lesina Lagoon (Italy) and further valorization of the residual algal via pyrolysis (secondary refining), were investigated with a cascade biorefinery approach. R-phycoerythrin (7 mg/g d.w.), allophycocyanin (3.5 mg/g d.w.) and phycocyanin (2 mg/g d.w.) were the main phycobiliproteins extracted. Pyrolysis of G.gracilis residue followed, aiming to investigate the production of bio-oil and biochar within a pyrolysis temperature range of 400-600 °C. Results showed that the bio-oil yield is high (∼65 wt%) at pyrolysis temperature ∼500 °C, but its high content in nitrogenous compounds prevents its use as a biofuel, unless some further de-nitrogenation takes place. Biochar yield ranged between 33 wt% (400 °C) and 26.5 wt% (600 °C). Interestingly, inorganic nutrients including P, K, Ca, Fe and Mg were detected in biochar, suggesting its potential use as recovering system of natural mineral resources from the oceanic reservoir.

  5. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  6. Sustainability assessment of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis in the Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buller, Luz Selene; Ortega, Enrique; Bergier, Ivan; Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Salis, Suzana Maria; Luengo, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of naturally produced water hyacinth was assessed through Emergy accounting approach. Two analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of additional services and externalities on Emergy indicators for a pyrolysis plant unit able to process 1000 kg of dry biomass per hour. The initial approach was a traditional Emergy assessment in which financial fluxes and externalities were not considered. The second approach included taxes and fees of the Brazilian government, interests related to financing operations and assumes a reserve financial fund of 5% of the total investment as externalities cost. For the first evaluation, the renewability of 86% indicates that local and renewable resources mainly support the process and the Emergy Yield Ratio of 3.2 shows that the system has a potential contribution to the regional economy due to the local resources use. The inclusion of financial fluxes and externalities in the second evaluation reduces both renewability and Emergy Yield Ratio, whereas it increases the Emergy Investment Ratio which means a higher dependence on external resources. The second analysis allows portraying significant forces of the industrial and financial systems and the evaluation of the externalities' impact on the general system Emergy behavior. A comparison of the renewability of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis with other biofuels like soybean biodiesel and sugarcane ethanol indicates that the former is less dependent on fossil fuel resources, machinery and fertilizers. To complement the sustainability assessment provided by the Emergy method, a regular financial analysis for the second defined system was done. It shows that the system is financially attractive even with the accounting of additional costs. The results obtained in this study could be used as the maximum and minimum thresholds to subsidize regulatory policies for new economic activities in tropical wetlands involving natural resources exploitation and bio

  7. Sustainability assessment of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis in the Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buller, Luz Selene; Ortega, Enrique; Bergier, Ivan; Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Salis, Suzana Maria; Luengo, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of naturally produced water hyacinth was assessed through Emergy accounting approach. Two analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of additional services and externalities on Emergy indicators for a pyrolysis plant unit able to process 1000 kg of dry biomass per hour. The initial approach was a traditional Emergy assessment in which financial fluxes and externalities were not considered. The second approach included taxes and fees of the Brazilian government, interests related to financing operations and assumes a reserve financial fund of 5% of the total investment as externalities cost. For the first evaluation, the renewability of 86% indicates that local and renewable resources mainly support the process and the Emergy Yield Ratio of 3.2 shows that the system has a potential contribution to the regional economy due to the local resources use. The inclusion of financial fluxes and externalities in the second evaluation reduces both renewability and Emergy Yield Ratio, whereas it increases the Emergy Investment Ratio which means a higher dependence on external resources. The second analysis allows portraying significant forces of the industrial and financial systems and the evaluation of the externalities' impact on the general system Emergy behavior. A comparison of the renewability of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis with other biofuels like soybean biodiesel and sugarcane ethanol indicates that the former is less dependent on fossil fuel resources, machinery and fertilizers. To complement the sustainability assessment provided by the Emergy method, a regular financial analysis for the second defined system was done. It shows that the system is financially attractive even with the accounting of additional costs. The results obtained in this study could be used as the maximum and minimum thresholds to subsidize regulatory policies for new economic activities in tropical wetlands involving natural resources exploitation and bio

  8. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  9. Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report No. 1, October-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    UCC Research Corporation, along with most of the companies involved in coal development, initially was thinking in terms of high pressure systems, flash pyrolysis, and hydrogenation. Most goverment funding has also been provided for projects using these techniques. However, information from several sources, only recently available to UCC Research Corporation, has effected a change in our recommended direction on the subject project. First, information being obtained in-house at UCC Research on another project using low temperature/pressure pyrolysis looked very favorable. Secondly, the initial review of the design, cost and capabilities of the pyrolysis equipment originally proposed indicated that substantial advantages could be gained at only a modest increase in cost, by changing to a low pressure unit. Finally, it was discovered that a company in England, using almost identical pyrolysis conditions as those being used at UCC Research, was producing coal liquids commercially, and had been in business many years. In consideration of the above information, UCC Research is recommending that the pyrolysis system for the subject project be changed to a low pressure/temperature design, utilizing the information obtained via our in-house research and from the company in England.

  10. Pyrolysis characteristics of integrated circuit boards at various particle sizes and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Mei-Hsiu; Chen, Ting-Chien; Ma, Sen-Yi

    2007-10-01

    A pyrolysis method was employed to recycle the metals and brominated compounds blended into printed circuit boards. This research investigated the effect of particle size and process temperature on the element composition of IC boards and pyrolytic residues, liquid products, and water-soluble ionic species in the exhaust, with the overall goal being to identify the pyrolysis conditions that will have the least impact on the environment. Integrated circuit (IC) boards were crushed into 5-40 mesh (0.71-4.4mm), and the crushed particles were pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 degrees C. The thermal decomposition kinetics were measured by a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The composition of pyrolytic residues was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, the element compositions of liquid products were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Pyrolytic exhaust was collected by a water-absorption system in an ice-bath cooler, and IC analysis showed that the absorbed solution comprised 11 ionic species. Based on the pyrolytic kinetic parameters of TG analysis and pyrolytic residues at various temperatures for 30 min, the effect of particle size was insignificant in this study, and temperature was the key factor for the IC board pyrolysis. Two stages of decomposition were found for IC board pyrolysis under nitrogen atmosphere. The activation energy was 38-47 kcal/mol for the first-stage reaction and 5.2-9.4 kcal/mol for the second-stage reaction. Metal content was low in the liquid by-product of the IC board pyrolysis process, which is an advantage in that the liquid product could be used as a fuel. Brominate and ammonium were the main water-soluble ionic species of the pyrolytic exhaust. A plan for their safe and effective disposal must be developed if the pyrolytic recycling process is to be applied to IC boards

  11. Pyrolysis characteristics of integrated circuit boards at various particle sizes and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Mei-Hsiu; Chen, Ting-Chien; Ma, Sen-Yi

    2007-10-01

    A pyrolysis method was employed to recycle the metals and brominated compounds blended into printed circuit boards. This research investigated the effect of particle size and process temperature on the element composition of IC boards and pyrolytic residues, liquid products, and water-soluble ionic species in the exhaust, with the overall goal being to identify the pyrolysis conditions that will have the least impact on the environment. Integrated circuit (IC) boards were crushed into 5-40 mesh (0.71-4.4mm), and the crushed particles were pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 degrees C. The thermal decomposition kinetics were measured by a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The composition of pyrolytic residues was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, the element compositions of liquid products were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Pyrolytic exhaust was collected by a water-absorption system in an ice-bath cooler, and IC analysis showed that the absorbed solution comprised 11 ionic species. Based on the pyrolytic kinetic parameters of TG analysis and pyrolytic residues at various temperatures for 30 min, the effect of particle size was insignificant in this study, and temperature was the key factor for the IC board pyrolysis. Two stages of decomposition were found for IC board pyrolysis under nitrogen atmosphere. The activation energy was 38-47 kcal/mol for the first-stage reaction and 5.2-9.4 kcal/mol for the second-stage reaction. Metal content was low in the liquid by-product of the IC board pyrolysis process, which is an advantage in that the liquid product could be used as a fuel. Brominate and ammonium were the main water-soluble ionic species of the pyrolytic exhaust. A plan for their safe and effective disposal must be developed if the pyrolytic recycling process is to be applied to IC boards.

  12. Life cycle assessment of microalgae to biofuel: Thermochemical processing through hydrothermal liquefaction or pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennion, Edward P.

    Microalgae are currently being investigated as a renewable transportation fuel feedstock based on various advantages that include high annual yields, utilization of poor quality land, does not compete with food, and can be integrated with various waste streams. This study focuses on directly assessing the impact of two different thermochemical conversion technologies on the microalgae-to-biofuel process through life cycle assessment. A system boundary of a "well to pump" (WTP) is defined and includes sub-process models of the growth, dewatering, thermochemical bio-oil recovery, bio-oil stabilization, conversion to renewable diesel, and transport to the pump. Models were validated with experimental and literature data and are representative of an industrial-scale microalgae-to-biofuel process. Two different thermochemical bio-oil conversion systems are modeled and compared on a systems level, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and pyrolysis. The environmental impact of the two pathways were quantified on the metrics of net energy ratio (NER), defined here as energy consumed over energy produced, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Results for WTP biofuel production through the HTL pathway were determined to be 1.23 for the NER and GHG emissions of -11.4 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. WTP biofuel production through the pyrolysis pathway results in a NER of 2.27 and GHG emissions of 210 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. The large environmental impact associated with the pyrolysis pathway is attributed to feedstock drying requirements and combustion of co-products to improve system energetics. Discussion focuses on a detailed breakdown of the overall process energetics and GHGs, impact of modeling at laboratory-scale compared to industrial-scale, environmental impact sensitivity to engineering systems input parameters for future focused research and development, and a comparison of results to literature.

  13. Soot formation during pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A study combining experimental, empirical modeling, and detailed modeling techniques has been conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in soot formation during the high-temperature pyrolysis of aromatic and other unsaturated hydrocarbons. The experiments were performed behind reflected shock waves in a conventional shock-tube with soot formation monitored via attenuation of a laser beam at 633 nm. Soot-formation measurements were conducted with toluene-argon and benzene-argon mixtures. Detailed kinetic models of soot formation were developed for pyrolyzing acetylene, butadiene, ethylene and benzene. The computational results indicate the importance of compact, fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as soot intermediates and the importance of the reactivation of these intermediates by hydrogen atoms to form aromatic radicals. The overshoot by hydrogen atoms of their equilibrium concentration provides a driving kinetic force for soot formation. The results with ethylene and butadiene indicate that acetylene is an important growth species for soot formation for these fuels. The benzene model suggests that reactions between aromatic species may be important for soot formation from aromatic fuels.

  14. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  15. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; T'ien, James S.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY) ) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  16. Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  17. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  18. Analysis of photographic records of coal pyrolysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.D.

    1991-10-01

    Bituminous coals upon heating undergo melting and pyrolytic decomposition with significant parts of the coal forming an unstable liquid that can escape from the coal by evaporation. The transient liquid within the pyrolyzing coal causes softening or plastic behavior that can influence the chemistry and physics of the process. Bubbles of volatiles can swell the softened coal mass in turn affecting the combustion behavior of the coal particles. The swelling behavior of individual coal particles has to be taken into account both as the layout as well as for the operation of pyrolysis, coking and performance of coal-fired boilers. Increased heating rates generally increase the amount of swelling although it is also known that in some cases, even highly swelling coals can be transformed into char with no swelling if they are heated slowly enough. The swelling characteristics of individual coal particles have been investigated by a number of workers employing various heating systems ranging from drop tube and shock tube furnaces, flow rate reactors and electrical heating coils. Different methods have also been employed to determine the swelling factors. The following sections summarize some of the published literature on the subject and outline the direction in which the method of analysis will be further extended in the study of the swelling characteristics of hvA bituminous coal particles that have been pyrolyzed with a laser beam.

  19. Waste tyre pyrolysis: modelling of a moving bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Aylón, E; Fernández-Colino, A; Murillo, R; Grasa, G; Navarro, M V; García, T; Mastral, A M

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a new model for waste tyre pyrolysis in a moving bed reactor. This model comprises three different sub-models: a kinetic sub-model that predicts solid conversion in terms of reaction time and temperature, a heat transfer sub-model that calculates the temperature profile inside the particle and the energy flux from the surroundings to the tyre particles and, finally, a hydrodynamic model that predicts the solid flow pattern inside the reactor. These three sub-models have been integrated in order to develop a comprehensive reactor model. Experimental results were obtained in a continuous moving bed reactor and used to validate model predictions, with good approximation achieved between the experimental and simulated results. In addition, a parametric study of the model was carried out, which showed that tyre particle heating is clearly faster than average particle residence time inside the reactor. Therefore, this fast particle heating together with fast reaction kinetics enables total solid conversion to be achieved in this system in accordance with the predictive model.

  20. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  1. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  2. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  3. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass for renewable phenols and fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Quan

    Bio-oil is an unstable intermediate and needs to be upgraded before its use. This study focused on improving the selectivity of bio-oilby catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon (AC) catalysts. Firstly, the effects of process conditions on product quality and product yield were investigated by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using AC as a catalyst. The optimized reaction condition for bio-oil and volatile was determined. Chemical composition analysis by GC/MS showed that phenols rich bio-oils were obtained. Furthermore, the effects of different carbon sources based AC catalysts on products yield and chemical composition selectivity of obtained bio-oils were investigated during microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellet. The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the AC catalysts can be used for 3-4 times with high concentration of phenolic compounds. The individual surface polar/acidic oxygen functional groups analysis suggested the changes of functional groups in ACs explained the reaction mechanism of this process. In addition, the potential for production of renewable phenols and fuels by catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using lignin as a model compound was explored. The main chemical compounds of the obtained bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters. The thermal decomposition behaviors of lignin and kinetics study were investigated by TGA. The change of functional groups of AC catalyst indicated the bio-oil reduction was related to the reaction mechanism of this process. Finally, the effects of Fe-modified AC catalyst on bio-oil upgrading and kintic study of biomass pyrolysis were investigated. The catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using the Fe-modified AC catalyst may promote the occurrence of the fragmentation of cellulose, rather than repolymerization as in the non-catalytic pyrolysis which leads to partial of guaiacols derived from furans. Results showed that the main chemical compounds of bio

  4. Environmental impact of pyrolysis of mixed WEEE plastics part 1: Experimental pyrolysis data.

    PubMed

    Alston, Sue M; Clark, Allan D; Arnold, J Cris; Stein, Bridget K

    2011-11-01

    Growth in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is posing increasing problems of waste management, partly resulting from its plastic content. WEEE plastics include a range of polymers, some of which can be sorted and extracted for recycling. However a nonrecyclable fraction remains containing a mixture of polymers contaminated with other materials, and pyrolysis is a potential means of recovering the energy content of this. In preparation for a life cycle assessment of this option, described in part 2 of this paper set, data were collected from trials using experimental pyrolysis equipment representative of a continuous commercial process operated at 800 °C. The feedstock contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high impact polystyrene with high levels of additives, and dense polymers including polyvinylchloride, polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polymethyl methacrylate. On average 39% was converted to gases, 36% to oils, and 25% remained as residue. About 35% of the gas was methane and 42% carbon monoxide, plus other hydrocarbons, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The oils were almost all aromatic, forming a similar mixture to fuel oil. The residue was mainly carbon with inorganic compounds from the plastic additives and most of the chlorine from the feedstock. The results showed that the process produced around 70% of the original plastic weight as potential fuel. PMID:21939226

  5. Environmental impact of pyrolysis of mixed WEEE plastics part 1: Experimental pyrolysis data.

    PubMed

    Alston, Sue M; Clark, Allan D; Arnold, J Cris; Stein, Bridget K

    2011-11-01

    Growth in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is posing increasing problems of waste management, partly resulting from its plastic content. WEEE plastics include a range of polymers, some of which can be sorted and extracted for recycling. However a nonrecyclable fraction remains containing a mixture of polymers contaminated with other materials, and pyrolysis is a potential means of recovering the energy content of this. In preparation for a life cycle assessment of this option, described in part 2 of this paper set, data were collected from trials using experimental pyrolysis equipment representative of a continuous commercial process operated at 800 °C. The feedstock contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high impact polystyrene with high levels of additives, and dense polymers including polyvinylchloride, polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polymethyl methacrylate. On average 39% was converted to gases, 36% to oils, and 25% remained as residue. About 35% of the gas was methane and 42% carbon monoxide, plus other hydrocarbons, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The oils were almost all aromatic, forming a similar mixture to fuel oil. The residue was mainly carbon with inorganic compounds from the plastic additives and most of the chlorine from the feedstock. The results showed that the process produced around 70% of the original plastic weight as potential fuel.

  6. Flash pyrolysis of oil shale with various gases

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1983-10-01

    The flash pyrolysis of Colorado Oil Shale with methane at a temperature of 800/sup 0/C and pressure of 500 psi appears to give the highest yield of hydrocarbon gas and liquid followed by hydrogen and lowest with helium. In the methane pyrolysis over 54.5% of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to ethylene and benzene. The flash pyrolysis with hydrogen (flash hydropyrolysis) of the oil shale at increasing temperatures showed a rapidly increasing amount of methane formed and a decrease in ethane formation, while the BTX (benzene mainly) yield remained at approximately 10%. At 950/sup 0/C and 500 psi almost all (97.0%) of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Experiments with a mixture of a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal and oil shale under flash hydropyrolysis and methane pyrolysis conditions indicated higher yields of methane and ethylene and slightly lower yields of benzene than predicted by partial additive calculations. These exploratory experiments appear to be of sufficient interest to warrant a fuller investigation of the interaction of the natural resources, oil shale, coal and natural gas under flash pyrolysis conditions.

  7. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  8. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  9. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context. PMID:25451771

  10. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  11. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  12. Distribution of nitrogen species during vitrinite pyrolysis and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.Y.; Li, W.Y.; Chang, L.P.; Feng, J.; Zhao, W.; Xie, K.C.

    2006-08-15

    The formation of HCN and NH3 during pyrolysis in Ar and gasification in CO{sub 2} and steam/Ar was investigated. Vitrinites were separated and purified from different rank coal from lignite to anthracite. Pyrolysis and gasification were carried out in the drop-tube/fixed-bed reactor at temperatures of 600-900{sup o}C. Results showed that with increase of reaction temperature the yield of HCN increased significantly during pyrolysis and gasification. Decrease of coal rank also increased the yield of HCN. Vitrinite from lower rank of coal with high volatile content released more HCN. The yield of NH3 was the highest at 800 {sup o}C during pyrolysis and gasification. And the yield of NH3 from gasification in steam/Ar was far higher than that from gasification in CO{sub 2}, where the hydrogen radicals play a key role. Nitrogen retained in char was also investigated. The yield of char-N decreased with an increase of pyrolysis temperature. Vitrinite from lower rank coal had lower yield of char-N than that from the high rank coal.

  13. Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

    For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

  14. THE USE OF PYROLYSIS/GC/MS TO CHARACTERIZE THE ORGANIC QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS; SPECIAL APPLICATION TO DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND THE FORMATION OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural Organ Material (NOM) in aquatic systems controls the effectiveness of engineered treatment processes and the fate of metals and pollutants in natural systems. At present less than 20% of NOM components can be identified. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (P...

  15. Structural analysis of pyrolytic lignins isolated from switchgrass fast pyrolysis oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural characterization of lignin extracted from the bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is reported. This new information is important to understanding the utility of lignin as a chemical feedstock in a pyrolysis based biorefinery. Pyrolysis induces a variety of...

  16. Screening acidic zeolites for catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass and its components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zeolites have been shown to effectively promote cracking reactions during pyrolysis resulting in highly deoxygenated and hydrocarbon-rich compounds and stable pyrolysis oil product. Py/GC-MS was employed to study the catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass samples comprising oak, corn...

  17. Application of analytical pyrolysis-mass spectrometry in characterization of animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different analytical pyrolysis techniques have been used in characterizing natural organic matter and synthesized organic polymers. Most common ones are pyrolysis followed by direct detection using MS such as in Py-FIMS technique or pyrolysis followed by GC separation of pyrosates then detected by M...

  18. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  19. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on physicochemical properties of biochar obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Su; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties and structure of biochar. Biochar was produced by fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) using a fluidized bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400 and 500 °C). The produced biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle size distributions, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The yield of biochar decreased sharply from 60.7% to 14.4%, based on the oven-dried biomass weight, when the pyrolysis temperature rose from 300 °C to 500 °C. In addition, biochars were further carbonized with an increase in pyrolysis temperature and the char's remaining carbons were rearranged in stable form. The experimental results suggested that the biochar obtained at 400 and 500 °C was composed of a highly ordered aromatic carbon structure.

  20. Flash pyrolysis of biomass with reactive and nonreactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1982-10-01

    Studies were done on the flash pyrolysis of Douglas fir wood in the presence of reactive and nonreactive gases including hydrogen, methane, and helium. Pyrolysis and gasification of the wood particles was done in one step, without catalysts. Almost complete (98%) gasification of the carbon in Douglas fir wood was achieved at 1000/sup 0/C and 500-psi hydrogen pressure. The reaction products were methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide, BTX, and water. Flash hydropyrolysis produced a large yield of hydrocarbon gases (up to 78% C) comprising methane and ethane. High yields of ethylene (up to 21% C) and BTX (up to 12% C) were obtained via methane pyrolysis of fir wood; a free-radical mechanism is proposed to explain the enhanced yield of ethylene in a methane atmosphere.

  1. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to establish vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization-mass spectroscopy (MS) and VUV pulsed electron impact-MS as useful tools for a simpler and more accurate direct mass spectrometric measurement of a broad range of hydrocarbon compounds in complex mixtures for ultimate application to the study of the kinetics of coal hydrogenation and pyrolysis processes. The VUV-MS technique allows ionization of a broad range of species with minimal fragmentation. Many compounds of interest can be detected with the initial wavelength used (118 nm), but additional compound selectivity is achievable by tuning the wavelength of the photo-ionization source in the VUV. Techniques for scanning in the VUV are being investigated. In this project year, we are concentrating on the pyrolysis of C{sub 6} and C{sub 7} compounds starting with cyclohexane, benzene and toluene in order to move to compounds more representative of those in coal pyrolysis applications. 3 figs.

  2. Pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Selim; Topçu, Yıldıray

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at investigating physicochemical properties and pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk, an abundant agricultural waste in Turkey. The physicochemical properties were determined by bomb calorimeter, elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Physicochemical analysis results showed that hazelnut husk has a high calorimetric value and high volatile matter content. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer under inert conditions and operated at different heating rates (5, 10, 20°C/min). Three different kinetic models, the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models and Coats-Redfern method were applied on TGA data of hazelnut husk to calculate the kinetic parameters including activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order. Simulation of hazelnut husk pyrolysis using data obtained from TGA analysis showed good agreement with experimental data. Combining with physicochemical properties, it was concluded that this biomass can become useful source of energy or chemicals. PMID:24508656

  3. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  4. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  5. Ab initio and RRKM calculations of o-benzyne pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Qiao; Han, Ke-Li; Zhan, Ji-Ping; He, Guo-Zhong

    1998-05-01

    Recently, a new mechanism has been provided in the phenyl pyrolysis, that is, the phenyl dissociation favours the benzyne channel by losing an H atom [H. Wang, M. Frenklach, J. Phys. Chem., 98 (1994) 11465]. In this Letter, the dissociation of o-benzyne has been investigated by means of ab initio theory. The geometries and structures of o-benzyne with its pyrolysis products C 4H 2, C 2H 2 and also the transition state were optimized at the UHF/6-31G* level. The single point energies were refined by B3LYP/6-31G* calculations. The unimolecular rate constants for o-benzyne pyrolysis in different pressures were calculated by the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) method.

  6. Molecular Structure and Reactivity in the Pyrolysis of Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sias, Eric; Cole, Sarah; Sowards, John; Warner, Brian; Wright, Emily; McCunn, Laura R.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of alkyl chain structure on pyrolysis mechanisms has been investigated in a series of aldehydes. Isovaleraldehyde, CH_3CH(CH_3)CH_2CHO, and pivaldehyde, (CH_3)_3CCHO, were subject to thermal decomposition in a resistively heated SiC tubular reactor at 800-1200 °C. Matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify pyrolysis products. Carbon monoxide and isobutene were major products from each of the aldehydes, which is consistent with what is known from previous studies of unbranched alkyl-chain aldehydes. Other products observed include vinyl alcohol, propene, acetylene, and ethylene, revealing complexities to be considered in the pyrolysis of large, branched-chain aldehydes.

  7. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment.

  8. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 °C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ∼ 3000% at 670 °C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification).

  9. Presence of metals in biomass residues after pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guehenneux, G.; Varin, S.; Baussand, P.

    2003-05-01

    In contribution to research into renewable energy, pyrolysis tests are run to develop the process of pyrolysis of biomass allowing the production of Hydrogen. Various families of combustibles (oleaginous, lignocellulosics, and seeds) have been tested at different temperatures. The pyrolysis of biomass is hampered by technical problems such as the blockage of the furnace by tars. The residues are collected and treated in a solution of chloric and nitric acid, so that the mineral part is extracted and then analysed by ICP. The first results indicate the presence ofmetals: Ni, Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe... Various proposais for the use of these residues so as to avoid pollution due to their accumulation have been put forward. These ashes can be recombined with fuels, acting as catalysts to reduce the formation of tar and increase the production of hydrogen.

  10. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. PMID:27367811

  11. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  12. Pyrolysis of forestry biomass by-products in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Zabaniotou, A.A.

    1999-06-01

    This article summarizes the technical characteristics of a biomass pyrolysis pilot plant recently constructed in central Greece. It highlights the considerations involved in achieving successful pyrolysis technology and environmental and developmental goals, by reviewing technical and nontechnical barriers associated with biomass treatment technology in Greece. Data from the start-up phase of the plant operation are presented and some aspects of the process are outlined. The capacity of the plant is 1200--1450 kg/hr, based on wet biomass (Arbutus Unedo) and the pyrolysis temperature is approximately 400 C. Char yield is 14--18% weight on dry basis and is of good quality consisting of 76% C with heat content 6760 kcal/kg. Bio-oil includes 64% C and its heat content is 6250 kcal/kg.

  13. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 °C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ∼ 3000% at 670 °C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification). PMID:26133476

  14. Toxic potentiality of bio-oils, from biomass pyrolysis, in cultured cells and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nivedita; Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Joo-Sik; Choi, Jinhee

    2014-12-01

    Bio-oils, which are multicomponent mixtures, were produced from two different biomass (rice straw (rice oil) and sawdust of oak tree (oak oil)) by using the slow pyrolysis process, and chemical compositional screening with GC-MS detected several hazardous compounds in both bio-oil samples. The two bio-oils vary in their chemical compositional nature and concentrations. To know the actual hazard potentialities of these bio-oils, toxicological assessments were carried out in a comparative approach by using in vitro (Jurkat T and HepG2 cell) as well as in vivo (Caenorhabditis elegans) systems. A dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, cell death (apoptosis), and genotoxicity were observed in cultured cell systems. Similarly, the in vivo system, C. elegans also displayed a dose-dependent decrease in survival. It was found that in comparison with rice oil, oak oil displayed higher toxicity to all models systems, and the susceptibility order of the model systems were Jurkat T > HepG2 > C. elegans. Pursuing the study further toward the underlying mechanism by exploiting the C. elegans mutants screening assay, the bio-oils seem to mediate toxicity through oxidative stress and impairment of immunity. Taken together, bio-oils compositions mainly depend on the feedstock used and the pyrolysis conditions which in turn modulate their toxic potentiality.

  15. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery.

    PubMed

    Donaj, Pawel J; Kaminsky, W; Buzeto, F; Yang, W

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl(4)/MgCl(2) for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46%wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30%wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24%wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650°C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730°C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7%wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9%wt. at 650 and 730°C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5%wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8%wt. at 500 and 650°C, respectively. At 650°C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6%wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management. PMID:22093704

  16. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  17. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some foams and fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    A limited number of foams and fabrics was evaluated in the course of developing test procedures for determining the relative toxicity of materials. The principal variable studied, heating rate, did not affect the relative ranking of the materials tested. Two pyrolysis test procedures using the same basic approach but employing different sample weights, chamber volumes, laboratory animals, heating rates, and upper temperature limits, resulted in identical rankings of relative toxicity. The data obtained show that modification of conventional flexible polyurethane foams with flame retardants to comply with California upholstered furniture flammability regulations seems to consistently reduce toxicity under pyrolysis conditions.

  18. Pyrolysis and Combustion of Acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN)

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.

    2002-05-22

    Acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN) is formed from the thermal decomposition of a variety of cyclic, noncyclic, and polymeric nitrogen-containing compounds such as pyrrole and polyacrylonitrile. The pyrolysis and combustion of acetonitrile have been studied over the past 30 years to gain a more detailed understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in the release of nitrogen-containing compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in fires and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in coal combustion. This report reviews the literature on the formation of HCN and NOx from the pyrolysis and combustion of acetonitrile and discusses the possible products found in an acetonitrile fire.

  19. Development of a pyrolysis waste recovery model with designs, test plans, and applications for space-based habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Bobby J.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive literature searches revealed the numerous advantages of using pyrolysis as a means of recovering usable resources from inedible plant biomass, paper, plastics, other polymers, and human waste. A possible design of a pyrolysis reactor with test plans and applications for use on a space-based habitat are proposed. The proposed system will accommodate the wastes generated by a four-person crew while requiring solar energy as the only power source. Waste materials will be collected and stored during the 15-day lunar darkness periods. Resource recovery will occur during the daylight periods. Usable gases such as methane and hydrogen and a solid char will be produced while reducing the mass and volume of the waste to almost infinitely small levels. The system will be operated economically, safely, and in a non-polluting manner.

  20. One-Dimensional Ablation with Pyrolysis Gas Flow Using a Full Newton's Method and Finite Control Volume Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Blackwell, Ben F.; Edwards, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    The development and verification of a one-dimensional material thermal response code with ablation is presented. The implicit time integrator, control volume finite element spatial discretization, and Newton's method for nonlinear iteration on the entire system of residual equations have been implemented and verified for the thermochemical ablation of internally decomposing materials. This study is a continuation of the work presented in "One-Dimensional Ablation with Pyrolysis Gas Flow Using a Full Newton's Method and Finite Control Volume Procedure" (AIAA-2006-2910), which described the derivation, implementation, and verification of the constant density solid energy equation terms and boundary conditions. The present study extends the model to decomposing materials including decomposition kinetics, pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer, and a mixture (solid and gas) energy equation. Verification results are presented for the thermochemical ablation of a carbon-phenolic ablator which involves the solution of the entire system of governing equations.

  1. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  2. Life cycle assessment of biochar application in Vietnam using two pyrolysis technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Cowie, Annette; Mai, Thi Lan Anh; Anaya de la Rosa, Ruy; Kristiansen, Paul; Brandão, Miguel; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of biochar systems in Vietnam using household scale and district scale pyrolysis technologies. At the household scale, pyrolytic cook-stoves were assumed to be used by households to produce biochar. The pyrolytic cook-stoves burn pyrolysis gases and use the heat for cooking. At the district scale, the BIGchar 2200 unit, a continuous operation system, is utilised to convert rice husk to biochar. This unit allows for easy capture of produced gases, which can be used to generate energy products, adding value to biochar production and decreasing environmental costs through the displacement of fossil fuels. The biochar produced from each system was assumed to be applied to paddy rice fields. Results from Life Cycle Assessment showed that biochar production at the both scales for application to the soil significantly improved environmental performance of 1 Mg of rice husk relative to the reference scenario (open burning of husk) across a range of impacts including climate change (CC), particulate matter and non-renewable energy (NRE) use. Net carbon abatement of biochar systems ranged from 355 to 427 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 of spring rice husk at the household scale and district scale, respectively. The district scale offered greater carbon abatement primarily due to the higher rate of LPG displaced by this unit.

  3. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: energy balance and GHG accounting.

    PubMed

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used - eventually after upgrading - for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600-1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  4. Life cycle assessment of biochar application in Vietnam using two pyrolysis technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Cowie, Annette; Mai, Thi Lan Anh; Anaya de la Rosa, Ruy; Kristiansen, Paul; Brandão, Miguel; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of biochar systems in Vietnam using household scale and district scale pyrolysis technologies. At the household scale, pyrolytic cook-stoves were assumed to be used by households to produce biochar. The pyrolytic cook-stoves burn pyrolysis gases and use the heat for cooking. At the district scale, the BIGchar 2200 unit, a continuous operation system, is utilised to convert rice husk to biochar. This unit allows for easy capture of produced gases, which can be used to generate energy products, adding value to biochar production and decreasing environmental costs through the displacement of fossil fuels. The biochar produced from each system was assumed to be applied to paddy rice fields. Results from Life Cycle Assessment showed that biochar production at the both scales for application to the soil significantly improved environmental performance of 1 Mg of rice husk relative to the reference scenario (open burning of husk) across a range of impacts including climate change (CC), particulate matter and non-renewable energy (NRE) use. Net carbon abatement of biochar systems ranged from 355 to 427 kg CO2-eq Mg‑1 of spring rice husk at the household scale and district scale, respectively. The district scale offered greater carbon abatement primarily due to the higher rate of LPG displaced by this unit.

  5. Fixed-bed pyrolysis of cottonseed cake: Product yields and compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezbay, N.; Kockar, O.M.; Puetuen, E.

    1997-11-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of cottonseed cake to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of heating rate, pyrolysis atmosphere, and pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 27% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at pyrolysis temperature of 550 C and heating rate of 7 C/min. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from cottonseed cake was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil.

  6. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  7. Effects of pyrolysis temperature and heating time on biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of straw and lignosulfonate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jia; Liu, Rongle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of pyrolysis temperature and heating time on the yield and physicochemical and morphological properties of biochar obtained from straw and lignosulfonate were investigated. As pyrolysis temperature increased, pH, ash content, carbon stability, and total content of carbon increased while biochar yield, volatile matter, total content of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur decreased. The data from scanning electron microscope image and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated an increase in porosity and aromaticity of biochar produced at a high temperature. The results showed that feedstock types could also influence characteristics of the biochar with absence of significant effect on properties of biochar for heating time.

  8. Morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene/polypropylene plastics during pyrolysis and representative morphological signal characterizing pyrolysis stages.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chen, D; Yuan, G; Ma, X; Dai, X

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) plastics during their pyrolysis process were investigated, and based on their basic image changing patterns representative morphological signals describing the pyrolysis stages were obtained. PE and PP granules and films were used as typical plastics for testing, and influence of impurities was also investigated. During pyrolysis experiments, photographs of the testing samples were taken sequentially with a high-speed infrared camera, and the quantitative parameters that describe the morphological characteristics of these photographs were explored using the "Image Pro Plus (v6.3)" digital image processing software. The experimental results showed that plastics pyrolysis involved four stages: melting, two stages of decomposition which are characterized with bubble formation caused by volatile evaporating, and ash deposition; and each stage was characterized with its own phase changing behaviors and morphological features. Two stages of decomposition are the key step of pyrolysis since they took up half or more of the reaction time; melting step consumed another half of reaction time in experiments when raw materials were heated up from ambient temperatures; and coke-like deposition appeared as a result of decomposition completion. Two morphological signals defined from digital image processing, namely, pixel area of the interested reaction region and bubble ratio (BR) caused by volatile evaporating were found to change regularly with pyrolysis stages. In particular, for all experimental scenarios with plastics films and granules, the BR curves always exhibited a slowly drop as melting started and then a sharp increase followed by a deep decrease corresponding to the first stage of intense decomposition, afterwards a second increase - drop section corresponding to the second stage of decomposition appeared. As ash deposition happened, the BR dropped to zero or very low

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell waste in a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Bon Seok; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was investigated in a fluidized bed with zsm-5 and equilibrium FCC (Ecat) catalysts. Catalytic pyrolysis oil yields were remarkably reduced and gas yields were increased due to the higher catalytic reaction of primary volatiles compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis. Char yields were affected by temperature and the pore structure of the catalysts. The pyrolysis oil was characterized by lower H/C and O/C molar ratios due to aromatization and deoxygenation of volatiles by the catalysts. The catalytic pyrolysis oils contained more oxygen and nitrogen and less sulfur than petroleum oils. The oils had a high concentration of nitriles, with a carbon number distribution similar to fatty acids. The catalytic pyrolysis oils featured high nitriles yield with Ecat and high aromatics yield in the light fraction with zsm-5, due to characteristics of the catalyst. The catalytic pyrolysis oils showed potentials as feedstocks for bio-diesel and chemicals.

  10. Biomass pyrolysis for biochar or energy applications? A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jens F; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-04-21

    The application of biochar as a soil amendment is a potential strategy for carbon sequestration. In this paper, a slow pyrolysis system for generating heat and biochar from lignocellulosic energy crops is simulated and its life-cycle performance compared with that of direct biomass combustion. The use of the char as biochar is also contrasted with alternative use options: cofiring in coal power plants, use as charcoal, and use as a fuel for heat generation. Additionally, the influence on the results of the long-term stability of the biochar in the soil, as well as of biochar effects on biomass yield, is evaluated. Negative greenhouse gas emissions are obtained for the biochar system, indicating a significant carbon abatement potential. However, this is achieved at the expense of lower energy efficiency and higher impacts in the other assessed categories when compared to direct biomass combustion. When comparing the different use options of the pyrolysis char, the most favorable result is obtained for char cofiring substituting fossil coal, even assuming high long-term stability of the char. Nevertheless, a high sensitivity to biomass yield increase is found for biochar systems. In this sense, biochar application to low-quality soils where high yield increases are expected would show a more favorable performance in terms of global warming.

  11. Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: Hot-Gas Filtration; Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-333

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.

    2012-07-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this task was that separation of char, with its associated mineral matter from pyrolysis vapors before condensation, will lead to improved oil quality and stability with respect to storage and transportation. The metric used to evaluate stability in this case was a 10-fold reduction in the rate of increase of viscosity as determined by ASTM D445 (the accelerated aging test). The primary unit operation that was investigated for this purpose was hot-gas filtration. A custom-built heated candle filter system was fabricated by the Pall Corporation and furnished to NREL for this test campaign. This system consisted of a candle filter element in a containment vessel surrounded by heating elements on the external surface of the vessel. The filter element and housing were interfaced to NREL?s existing 0.5 MTD pyrolysis Process Development Unit (PDU). For these tests the pyrolysis reactor of the PDU was operated in the entrained-flow mode. The HGF test stand was installed on a slipstream from the PDU so that both hot-gas filtered oil and bio-oil that was not hot-gas filtered could be collected for purposes of comparison. Two filter elements from Pall were tested: (1) porous stainless steel (PSS) sintered metal powder; (2) sintered ceramic powder. An extremely sophisticated bio-oil condensation and collection system was designed and fabricated at NREL and interfaced to the filter unit.

  12. Pyrolysis behavior of weakly reductive coals from Northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Yunpeng Zhao; Haoquan Hu; Lijun Jin; Bo Wu; Shengwei Zhu

    2009-01-15

    Pyrolysis behaviors of three weakly reductive coals from Northwest China and one reductive Pingshuo (PS) coal were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed-bed reactor. The results show that the pyrolysis behaviors of the weakly reductive coals are obviously different from that of the reductive coal despite their similar elemental composition. Compared with PS coal, the weakly reductive coals exhibit a lower weight loss and a lower rate of weight loss, and the peaks corresponding to the maximum rate of weight loss shift to high temperature. During pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor, the conversion and tar and gas yields of all the coals increase with temperature. The weakly reductive coals have lower conversions and tar yields than PS coal in the temperature range investigated, which is accordant with the weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis. The tars from coal pyrolysis were characterized by FT-IR, ultimate analysis, and {sup 1}H NMR, and the combustion behavior of chars from different coals was compared on a thermogravimetric analyzer. 28 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  14. Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...

  15. Shock-tube pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons - Formation of soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, M.; Hsu, J. P.; Miller, D. L.; Matula, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Soot formation in pyrolysis of chlorinated methanes, their mixtures with methane, and chlorinated ethylenes were studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. An additional single-pulse shock-tube study was conducted for the pyrolysis of methane, methyl chloride, and dichloromethane. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1300-3000 K, pressures of 0.4-3.6 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations of 1-5 x 10 to the 17th atoms cu cm. The amounts of soot produced in the pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons are larger than that of their nonchlorinated counterparts. The sooting behavior and product distribution can be generally explained in terms of chlorine-catalyzed chemical reaction mechanisms. The pathway to soot from chlorinated methanes and ethylenes with high H:Cl ratio proceeds via the formation of C2H, C2H2, and C2H3 species. For chlorinated hydrocarbons with low H:Cl ratio, the formation of C2 and its contribution to soot formation at high temperatures becomes significant. There is evidence for the importance of CHCl radical and its reactions in the pyrolysis of dichloromethane.

  16. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  17. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  18. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  19. Fate of forms of arsenic in Yima coal during pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiqing Liu; Jianli Yang; Yong Xiao; Zhenyu Liu

    2009-04-15

    Forms of arsenic in a Chinese bituminous coal, Yima, and their transformation behaviors during coal pyrolysis were investigated. The chemical leaching method was used to characterize the forms of arsenic in the raw coal and the chars. The effect of minerals on arsenic release was also studied. It was found that about 72% arsenic in YM coal is bound to sulfide species; 16% to sulfates, phosphates, or oxides; 10% to organic species; and 2% to aluminosilicates. The organic-bound arsenic is the most releasable, while the aluminosilicates-bound arsenic is the least releasable. Aluminosilicates inhibit arsenic release due to the formation of aluminosilicates-bound arsenic during pyrolysis. Sulfides, sulfates, phosphates, or oxides may also restrain arsenic release. Carbonates and ion exchangeable minerals in Yima coal do not show any significant influence on the release of arsenic during coal pyrolysis. Secondary reactions between arsenic and the coal matrix should exist, as evidenced by significant increase in organic-bound arsenic in chars obtained from pyrolysis in a temperature range of 300-700{sup o}C. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. High-temperature pyrolysis mechanisms of coal model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, J.H.; Owens, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The degradation of the carboxylic acid group has been examined with respect to potential pretreatment strategies for fossil fuel conversion processes. In one potential pretreatment strategy involving cation exchange of the carboxylic acid group, a series of benzoic acid and stearic acid salts have been chosen to model the tight'' carboxylic acids of immature fossil fuel feedstocks and have been pyrolyzed with an entrained flow reactor. Our preliminary results indicate that Group I and II salts yield primarily the parent acid. Benzoate salts also yield small amounts of benzene while the stearic acid salts give no other detectable products. In two alternative treatment strategies, esterification and anhydride preparation have also been accomplished with these compounds being subjected to the entrained flow reactor conditions. The benzoate esters give a number of products, such as benzaldehyde, benzene, and low MW gases. The formation of these compounds is extremely dependent on pyrolysis conditions and alkoxy chain length. A xenon flashlamp and an entrained flow reactor have been used to heat organic substrates to varying temperatures using different heating rates. Ultrarapid flashlamp pyrolysis (heating rate>10{sup 50}C/s) has been performed. Since the ultrarapid pyrolysis products differ from those observed with traditional heating techniques and differ from the products formed photochemically, the flashlamp pyrolysis products are attributed to high temperature thermal activation.

  1. Characterization of char from slow pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Wu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The effects of final pyrolysis temperature Tend from 300 ºC to 550 ºC, heating rates β of 2 ºC/min, 3 ºC/min and 5 ºC/min, retention time RT from 45 min to 90 min, and the moisture content MC from 0 to 70% on characteristics of the pyrolysis char from sewage sludge were investigated using a tube furnace in this study. The resulting chars were characterized by sorption of nitrogen (surface area and pore volume). Their adsorption characteristics were evaluated via iodine value and methylene blue value. Either the pore structures or adsorption characteristics depend on the pyrolysis processing and moisture content of the sludge precursors. In terms of iodine value and surface area of the char, Tend of 450 ºC, RT of 75 min and β of 3 ºC/min proved the optimum combination of pyrolysis parameters. The chars have an undeveloped mesopore and macropore structure and a developed micropore structure. The sodium phenoxide adsorption equilibrium data fit well with the Langmuir model of adsorption, suggesting monolayer coverage of sodium phenoxide molecules at the surface of the char. Its adsorption mechanism is mainly physical in nature, enhanced by chemisorption. PMID:27191557

  2. Fast pyrolysis of biomass thermally pretreated by torrefaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Torrefied biomass samples were produced from hardwood and switchgrass pellets using the biochar experimenter’s kit (BEK) reactor and analyzed for their utility as pretreated feedstock for biofuels production via fast pyrolysis. The energy efficiency for the BEK torrefaction process with propane gas ...

  3. Applied thermal pyrolysis of cogongrass in twin screw reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promdee, K.; Vitidsant, T.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal pyrolysis by heat transfer model can be solved the control temperature in twin screw feeder for produce bio-oil from Cogongrass by novel continuous pyrolysis reactor. In this study, all yield were expressed on a dry and their values were taken as the average of the thermal controlled. Thermal of pyrolysis were carried out at 400-500°C. The products yield calculation showed that the liquid yield of Cogongrass by pyrolysis was higher than that solid and gas yield, as highest of 52.62%, at 500°C, and the other of liquid yield obtained from Cogongrass were 40.56, and 46.45%, at 400, and 450°C, respectively. When separate liquid phase be composed of the bio-oil was highest 37.39%, at 500°C. Indicated that biomass from Cogongrass had good received yields because of low solid yield average and gas yield and high liquid yield average. The compounds detected in bio-oil from Cogongrass showed the functional group, especially; Phenol, Phenol 2,5-dimethyl, Benzene 1-ethyl-4-methoxy, 2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2,3-dimethyl, Benzene 1-ethyl-3-methyl.

  4. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, S.V.; Coleman, D.D.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Brown, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (??13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and ??13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and ??13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pyrolysis of Carbonaceous Foundry Sand Additives: Seacoal and Gilsonite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seacoal and gilsonite are used by the foundry industry as carbonaceous additives in green molding sands. In this study, pyrolysis was used to simulate the heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience during metal casting. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to tent...

  6. Toxicity of the pyrolysis products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A number of spacecraft construction materials are evaluated for the toxic effects of their thermodegradation products on rats. Pyrolysis toxicity testing of pyrolysate fumes establish carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide as the most common intoxicating agents. Generally, COHb levels of animals expiring in the test chamber suggest higher concentrations of CO are produced with larger samples of most materials.

  7. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D.

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  8. Analytical Pyrolysis-Chromatography: Something Old, Something New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Nathan W.; Blanchet, Conor J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long history of use across multiple disciplines, analytical pyrolysis is rarely taught in undergraduate curricula. We briefly review some interesting applications and discuss the three types of analytical pyrolyzers available commercially. We also describe a low-cost alternative that can be used to teach the basic principles of…

  9. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-04-30

    Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200-500°C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)-MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25-28 mg/g, iron 1.3-1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8-1.0mg/g and magnesium 0.4-1.0mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68-73%, hydrogen was 10-14%, nitrogen was 4-5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500°C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  10. Solvent-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar: influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock.

    PubMed

    Keiluweit, Marco; Kleber, Markus; Sparrow, Margaret A; Simoneit, Bernd R T; Prahl, Fredrick G

    2012-09-01

    Despite the increasing agricultural use of biochar as a way of combining the utilization of biomass for energy production with the removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere, it is not known how variations in pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type affect concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that inevitably form and associate with biochar. To close this knowledge gap, we quantified 11 unsubstituted three- to five-ring PAHs as well as alkylated forms of phenanthrene and anthracene in grass and wood chars produced in 100 °C increments across a temperature range (100 to 700 °C). Our results show that solvent-extractable PAH concentrations in biochars produced at heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) of 400 and 500 °C greatly exceed those observed at higher and lower temperature, supporting a low HTT solid-phase formation mechanism operable at temperatures commonly used for industrial biochar production. The maximum extractable yield of 'pyrolytic' unsubstituted PAHs for grass (22 μg g(-1) at HTT = 500 °C) greatly exceeds the value for wood (5.9 μg g(-1)). Moreover, PAH signatures (e.g., total monomethylphenanthrene to phenanthrene ratios, MP/P ~2-3) at intermediate temperatures (400 °C) resemble those of fossil oils rather than that commonly attributed to pyrolytic products. Further research is needed to characterize the PAH evolution in modern pyrolysis reactors and assess the fate of biochar-bound PAHs in soils and sediments. Various commonly applied PAH ratios and indicator compounds show promise as markers for specific feedstock materials and pyrolysis conditions of biochars in environmental systems.

  11. Effects of temperature and composite alumina on pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Jin, Baosheng; Wu, Wei; Zuo, Wu; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    An interactive dual-circulating fluidized bed system has been proposed in which the pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and incineration of biomass proceed simultaneously, and alumina is used as the bed material and heat carrier. The alumina coated with biomass ash would mix with sewage sludge in the pyrolysis reactor of this device. It is important to know the influence of composite alumina (CA) on the pyrolysis progress. Sewage sludge was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor from 400 to 600°C using CA as catalyst. The effects of temperature and CA additive ratio on the products were investigated. The product yields and component distribution of non-condensable gas were more sensitive to the change of temperature, and the maximum liquid yield of 48.44 wt.% and maximum Useable Energy of Liquid of 3871 kJ/kg sludge were observed at 500°C with 1/5 CA/SS (mass ratio). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that the increase of temperature enhanced devolatilization of organic matter and promoted cyclization and aromatization of aliphatics. The presence of CA could strengthen secondary cracking and interaction among primary products from different organic compounds, such as acid-amine condensation, and reduce the content of oxygenated compounds. When the CA additive amount exceeded a certain proportion, the aromatization was clearly strengthened. The effects of CA on decomposition of fatty acids and formation of aromatics were similar to that of temperature. This means that the reaction temperature could be lowered by introducing CA, which has a positive effect on reducing energy consumption.

  12. Biomass-to-hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Czernik, S.

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming the pyroligneous oils is being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. Novel technologies for the rapid pyrolysis of biomass have been developed in the past decade. They provide compact and efficient systems to transform biomass into vapors that are condensed to oils, with yields as high as 75-80 wt.% of the anhydrous biomass. This {open_quotes}bio-oil{close_quotes} is a mixture of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, oligomers from the constitutive carbohydrates and lignin, and some water derived from the dehydration reactions. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming the bio-oil or its fractions with steam. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The reforming facility can be designed to handle alternate feedstocks, such as natural gas and naphtha, if necessary. Thermodynamic modeling of the major constituents of the bio-oil has shown that reforming is possible within a wide range of temperatures and steam-to-carbon ratios. Existing catalytic data on the reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. Tests performed on a microreactor interfaced with a molecular beam mass spectrometer showed that, by proper selection of the process variables: temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, gas hourly space velocity, and contact time, almost total conversion of carbon in the feed to CO and CO{sub 2} could be obtained. These tests also provided possible reaction mechanisms where thermal cracking competes with catalytic processes. Bench-scale, fixed bed reactor tests demonstrated high hydrogen yields from model compounds and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis oil fractions. Reforming bio-oil or its fractions required proper dispersion of the liquid to avoid vapor-phase carbonization of the feed in the inlet to the reactor. A special spraying nozzle injector was designed and successfully tested with an aqueous fraction of bio-oil.

  13. The gas-phase thermal chemistry of tetralin and related model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malandra, J.

    1993-05-01

    The thesis is divided into 5 papers: gas-phase thermal decomposition of tetralin; flash vacuum pyrolysis of 3-benzocycloheptenone and 1,3, 4,5-tetrahydro-2-benzothiepin-2,2-dioxide (model systems for gas-phase pyrolysis of tetralin); high-temperature gas-phase reactions of o-allylbenzyl radicals generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis of is(o-allylbenzyl) oxalate; flash vacuum pyrolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane; and flash vacuum pyrolysis of o-allyltoluene, o-(3-butenyl)toluene and o-(pentenyl)toluene were also used.

  14. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Donaj, Pawel J.; Kaminsky, W.; Buzeto, F.; Yang, W.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of mixed polyolefins in fluidized bed has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta catalyst (Z-N: TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst has a strong influence on product distribution, increasing gas fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% when the catalyst was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed the concept of treatment of mixed polyolefins without a need of separation. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2} for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46% wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30% wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24% wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3 kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7% wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9% wt. at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5% wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8% wt. at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C, respectively. At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6% wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained

  15. Pyrolysis, ignition and combustion of solid fuels for ramjet applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The utilization of the most attractive metal additive, boron powder, in ramjet application still remains in the development stages. On the other hand, the very popular metal additive, magnesium, has very good ignitability and high combustion efficiency, but has a low heating value. The scope of this study was concentrated on these two kinds of metal additive and three different types of polymeric binders - HTPB, PTFE, and high energy poly (BAMO/NMMO). Using various combinations of these ingredients, a total of 17 different solid fuels were investigated. The purpose of the present research was to study the pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion characteristics of the above mentioned fuel samples, using high-powered CO{sub 2} laser testing system, a windowed strand burning setup, and two cross-flow combustion facilities - a kerosene burner and a blowdown supersonic wind tunnel. A hypothesis based on absorptivity, thermal diffusivity, and reactivity was proposed to interpret the observed phenomena. The effects of four additives on ignition delay time of boron/HTPB fuels were measured, and CeF{sub 3} was found to be the most effective one. A sample composed of 20% Mg/30% B.50% PTFE exhibited a highly vigorous reaction, and it appears to be very promising for improving boron combustion efficiency. Mg/PTFE/Viton A fuel considered as a possible candidate for ramjet (solid ducted rocket) applications, exhibited a very unique burning phenomenon - ambient oxygen has an adverse effect on the ignition delay time and also on the burning rate. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that with the help of a highly energetic binder, an efficient combustion of boron can be expected.

  16. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations. PMID:24282966

  18. [Investigation of the pyrolysis behavior of 4-oxo-beta-damascone by on-line pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiqin; Yang, Liu; Liu, Fang; Miao, Mingming; Zhu, Hongyou; Mao, Deshou

    2007-05-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of an essence, 4-oxo-beta-damascone, was investigated using an on-line pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGC/MS). In helium atmosphere, the compound was pyrolyzed at 350, 450, 550, 650, 700, and 750 degrees C, separately. The pyrolysis products were directly introduced into GC/MS with 1.03 x 10(6) Pa He and were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. At the six pyrolysis temperatures mentioned above, 3, 7, 15, 33, 42 and 45 products were detected and their relative contents were 96.25%, 85.44%, 87.18%, 78.37%, 78.29% and 83.13%, respectively. The results indicated that the pyrolysis temperature directly affected the pyrolysis pattern and the relative content of the products. A total of 54 products were identified, including beta-damascone, 4-oxo-beta-ionone, 3,4,4-trimethyl-2-cyclohex-en-1-one and 2,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohex-3-en-1-one. At 550 degrees C, only a small portion of the parent compound was pyrolyzed. At 750 degrees C, the compound was completely pyrolyzed, with a conversion of 99.74% and 45 products were given. Moreover, with the elevation of the pyrolysis temperature, complex pyrolysis products were formed, and harmful substances, such as benzene, toluene, anthracene and phenanthrene were identified. According to the relative content and the category of the pyrolysis products, the pyrolysis mechanism of 4-oxo-beta-damascone is further discussed with the conclusion that the pyrolysis of this compound might take place via 4 different pathways. The investigation gave an exemplification for the transfer behavior of tobacco essence in the cigarette burning process, and provided a reliable theoretical foundation for the perfume reinforcement technology in tobacco products, contributing to the development of cigarette products with better aroma and taste.

  19. Pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shell: Quality of pyrolysis products and study on the preparation of activated carbon from biochar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Fu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar. In addition, it was noticed that the activation conditions had a significant effect on the yield and adsorption performance of the activated carbon. As a result, activated carbon with elevated specific surface area reaching 1057.8m(2)/g was obtained at the optimal conditions of 850°C activation temperature, 80min activation time, and 1.5 steam/biochar ratio.

  20. Pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shell: Quality of pyrolysis products and study on the preparation of activated carbon from biochar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Fu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar. In addition, it was noticed that the activation conditions had a significant effect on the yield and adsorption performance of the activated carbon. As a result, activated carbon with elevated specific surface area reaching 1057.8m(2)/g was obtained at the optimal conditions of 850°C activation temperature, 80min activation time, and 1.5 steam/biochar ratio. PMID:27289053

  1. Decoupling HZSM-5 catalyst activity from deactivation during upgrading of pyrolysis oil vapors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shaolong; Waters, Christopher; Stevens, Adam; Gumidyala, Abhishek; Jentoft, Rolf; Lobban, Lance; Resasco, Daniel; Mallinson, Richard; Crossley, Steven

    2015-02-01

    The independent evaluation of catalyst activity and stability during the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass is challenging because of the nature of the reaction system and rapid catalyst deactivation that force the use of excess catalyst. In this contribution we use a modified pyroprobe system in which pulses of pyrolysis vapors are converted over a series of HZSM-5 catalysts in a separate fixed-bed reactor controlled independently. Both the reactor-bed temperature and the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite are varied to evaluate catalyst activity and deactivation rates independently both on a constant surface area and constant acid site basis. Results show that there is an optimum catalyst-bed temperature for the production of aromatics, above which the production of light gases increases and that of aromatics decrease. Zeolites with lower Si/Al ratios give comparable initial rates for aromatics production, but far more rapid catalyst deactivation rates than those with higher Si/Al ratios. PMID:25504857

  2. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report 8, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  3. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  4. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 6, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degree}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degree}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  5. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 5, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. (1) Total station efficiency of at least 47 percent. (2) No more than: 0.15 lb NO{sub x} or 0.15 lb SO{sub x} or 0.0075 lb of particulates/10{sup 6} Btu fuel heat input. (3) All solid wastes must be benign. (4) Over 95 percent of the total heat input is ultimately from coal, with initial systems capable of using coal for at least 65 percent of the heat input. (5) Efficient and economic baseload power generation: Operation with a range of US coals, annual capacity factor of 65 percent, and load following with minimal degradation in efficiency. (6) 10-percent lower cost of electricity relative to a modern coal-fired plant conforming to NSPS. (7) Safety, reliability, and maintainability to meet or exceed conventional coal-fired power plants. (8) Amenable to construction using factory-assembled modular components based upon standard design. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degree}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degree}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  6. Flash pyrolysis of coal with reactive and non-reactive gases. [Methanolysis and flash pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to perform a systematic study of the yield and distribution of products on the flash or rapid pyrolysis of various ranks of coal with non-reactive (N/sub 2/, Ar, He) and with reactive gases (H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, CO, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O) in an entrained flow reactor. A body of information has been obtained on the flash hydropyrolysis of coals with the use of H/sub 2/ gas. Data is in the process of being obtained with the other gases. The use of methane as a pyrolyzing gas has indicated a reaction with coal and has led to developing the process of flash methanolysis of coal. The addition of steam leads to the flash hydrolysis of coal. In addition to obtaining a better understanding of the gasification of coal, the developed process chemistry data can be used to design and evaluate advanced gasification processes. 7 figs.

  7. Enhancing biochar yield by co-pyrolysis of bio-oil with biomass: impacts of potassium hydroxide addition and air pretreatment prior to co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; Zaman, Waheed; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-11-01

    The influence of KOH addition and air pretreatment on co-pyrolysis (600 °C) of a mixture of bio-oil and biomass (aspen wood) was investigated with the goal of increasing biochar yield. The bio-oil was produced as a byproduct of the pyrolysis of biomass and recycled in subsequent runs. Co-pyrolysis of the biomass with the recycled bio-oil resulted in a 16% mass increase in produced biochar. The yields were further increased by either air pretreatment or KOH addition prior to co-pyrolysis. Air pretreatment at 220 °C for 3 h resulted in the highest mass increase (32%) compared to the base case of pyrolysis of biomass only. No synergistic benefit was observed by combining KOH addition with air pretreatment. In fact, KOH catalyzed reactions that increased the bed temperature resulting in carbon loss via formation of CO and CO2.

  8. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  9. Recycling of Zinc- and Lead-Bearing Residues with Pyrolysis Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.

    2015-09-01

    Efforts in the metallurgical industry for an approximation to the zero waste concept has led to many different investigations. Together with the greenhouse effect, CO2 emissions have caused additional costs for different process steps in the industry. For this reason, alternative carbon carriers have been sought, and charcoal was found to be an ideal substitute, due to its CO2 neutrality. In order to use it in the metallurgical industry, an optimization of the charcoal production through a carbonization process must be carried out. Beside the charcoal, pyrolysis gas also occurs during the heating of wood or agricultural wastes under the exclusion of air. Because of combustible compounds in this gas, it is possible to use it as a reduction agent instead of fossil carbon carriers. Together with the idea of preventing landfilling of metallurgical by-products, an investigation was carried out to treat zinc- and lead-containing materials. For this issue a special process concept was designed and developed. The main aspect was to recycle the zinc- and lead-containing Waelz slag, which results from the processing of steel mill dusts, in a vertical retort. Two different sizes of facilities were constructed to perform the reaction system of the solid Waelz slag with the gaseous reduction agent of pyrolysis gas.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the high-temperature pyrolysis of pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, J.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PaHs) from solid fuels is a complicated phenomenon involving many physical and chemical processes. In order to gain a better understanding of the types of reactions taking place during high-temperature PAH productions, the authors carried out a pure compound pyrolysis program between 1,200 and 1,500 K. In this work, which deals with pyrene pyrolysis in a laminar flow drop tube furnace, they identified four classes of condensed phase reaction products -- bipyrenes, their condensation or cyclodehydrogenation products, pyrene fragmentation products and soot. Statistical and steric factors -- accounted for qualitatively by the molecular topology of the reaction products -- were used to rationalize the relative abundance of the different products in the first two categories. The absence of PAH species that might arise from a sequential acetylene addition pathway (like benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, etc.) leads the authors to conclude that in the system the most important molecular weight growth channel involves direct polymerization of aromatics. Fragmentation products like triphenylene, cyclopenta[hi]acephenanthrylenes, and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene were also detected; however, based on evidence adduced from parallel studies, they think that high amounts of CPP in this and other studies result from isomerization rather than acetylene addition.

  11. General synthesis of complex nanotubes by gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chaojiang; Meng, Jiashen; Wang, Xuanpeng; Han, Chunhua; Yan, Mengyu; Zhao, Kangning; Xu, Xiaoming; Ren, Wenhao; Zhao, Yunlong; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Qingjie; Zhao, Dongyuan; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes have been the focus of considerable efforts in energy storage and solar energy conversion because of their unique properties. However, owing to the limitations of synthetic methods, most inorganic nanotubes, especially for multi-element oxides and binary-metal oxides, have been rarely fabricated. Here we design a gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method to synthesize various controllable 1D nanostructures, including mesoporous nanotubes, pea-like nanotubes and continuous nanowires. The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process. This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides. Among them, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes exhibit ultrastable electrochemical performance when used in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively. We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems. PMID:26067281

  12. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Wild Reed Over Nanoporous SBA-15 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Yoo, Myung Lang; Park, Sung Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Wild reed was pyrolyzed over two nanoporous SBA-15 catalysts with different acid characteristics: Si-SBA-15 and Al-SBA-15. Al was grafted on Si-SBA-15 to increase the acidity and enhance the catalytic activity. Fast pyrolysis was carried out using a pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system at 550 degrees C for real-time analysis of the products. Significant improvement of the product bio-oil quality was attained by catalytic reforming over nanoporous Al-SBA-15. The fraction of total oxygenates was reduced because of the decrease in. the fraction of ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylates, which deteriorate the fuel quality of bio-oil. On the other hand, the fractions of furans and aromatics, which are the chemicals with high value-added, were increased by the catalytic reforming. The catalytic activity of Al-SBA-15 was considerably higher than that of Si-SBA-15 because the incorporation of Al increased the catalyst acidity. PMID:27483790

  14. General synthesis of complex nanotubes by gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chaojiang; Meng, Jiashen; Wang, Xuanpeng; Han, Chunhua; Yan, Mengyu; Zhao, Kangning; Xu, Xiaoming; Ren, Wenhao; Zhao, Yunlong; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Qingjie; Zhao, Dongyuan; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-06-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes have been the focus of considerable efforts in energy storage and solar energy conversion because of their unique properties. However, owing to the limitations of synthetic methods, most inorganic nanotubes, especially for multi-element oxides and binary-metal oxides, have been rarely fabricated. Here we design a gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method to synthesize various controllable 1D nanostructures, including mesoporous nanotubes, pea-like nanotubes and continuous nanowires. The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process. This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides. Among them, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes exhibit ultrastable electrochemical performance when used in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively. We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

  15. Flash pyrolysis of coal in reactive and non-reactive gases: Final report, October 1, 1982--September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile a process chemistry data base for the flash pyrolysis of several ranks of coal. The process of flash pyrolysis is defined in terms of reaction conditions as follows: (1) Rapidly heating coal particles to temperatures above approximately 400/degree/C at rates ranging from hundreds to thousands of degrees per second; (2) maintaining a relatively short residence time of the coal particles at reaction temperature and pressure, on the order of less than one second to tens of seconds; and (3) rapidly cooling the reaction system, at rates on the order of hundreds of degrees per second, to temperatures below about 300/degree/C. In this manner, yields of gases and lighter liquids tend to increase and the yields of heavier oils, tars, and chars decrease. A number of methods can be used to obtain the rapid heat up rate of the coal particles. The optimum method, from a process point of view, is by the use of a preheated gas stream which is rapidly mixed with the coal feed material. Thus, this report covers the flash pyrolysis of coal particles mixed and entrained with preheated reactive and non-reactive gases. 16 refs., 15 tabs., 27 figs.

  16. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  17. Separating and Recycling Plastic, Glass, and Gallium from Waste Solar Cell Modules by Nitrogen Pyrolysis and Vacuum Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-09-01

    Many countries have gained benefits through the solar cells industry due to its high efficiency and nonpolluting power generation associated with solar energy. Accordingly, the market of solar cell modules is expanding rapidly in recent decade. However, how to environmentally friendly and effectively recycle waste solar cell modules is seldom concerned. Based on nitrogen pyrolysis and vacuum decomposition, this work can successfully recycle useful organic components, glass, and gallium from solar cell modules. The results were summarized as follows: (i) nitrogen pyrolysis process can effectively decompose plastic. Organic conversion rate approached 100% in the condition of 773 K, 30 min, and 0.5 L/min N2 flow rate. But, it should be noted that pyrolysis temperature should not exceed 773 K, and harmful products would be increased with the increasing of temperature, such as benzene and its derivatives by GC-MS measurement; (ii) separation principle, products analysis, and optimization of vacuum decomposition were discussed. Gallium can be well recycled under temperature of 1123 K, system pressure of 1 Pa and reaction time of 40 min. This technology is quite significant in accordance with the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Principle" for solid waste, and provides an opportunity for sustainable development of photovoltaic industry.

  18. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks: An Integrated Study of the Fast Pyrolysis/Hydrotreating Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Daniel T.; Westover, Tyler; Carpenter, Daniel; Santosa, Daniel M.; Emerson, Rachel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Lukins, Craig D.

    2015-05-21

    Feedstock composition can affect final fuel yields and quality for the fast pyrolysis and hydrotreatment upgrading pathway. However, previous studies have focused on individual unit operations rather than the integrated system. In this study, a suite of six pure lignocellulosic feedstocks (clean pine, whole pine, tulip poplar, hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover) and two blends (equal weight percentages whole pine/tulip poplar/switchgrass and whole pine/clean pine/hybrid poplar) were prepared and characterized at Idaho National Laboratory. These blends then underwent fast pyrolysis at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and hydrotreatment at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Although some feedstocks showed a high fast pyrolysis bio-oil yield such as tulip poplar at 57%, high yields in the hydrotreater were not always observed. Results showed overall fuel yields of 15% (switchgrass), 18% (corn stover), 23% (tulip poplar, Blend 1, Blend 2), 24% (whole pine, hybrid poplar) and 27% (clean pine). Simulated distillation of the upgraded oils indicated that the gasoline fraction varied from 39% (clean pine) to 51% (corn stover), while the diesel fraction ranged from 40% (corn stover) to 46% (tulip poplar). Little variation was seen in the jet fuel fraction at 11 to 12%. Hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, a major factor in the economic feasibility of the integrated process, ranged from 0.051 g/g dry feed (tulip poplar) to 0.070 g/g dry feed (clean pine).

  19. Separating and Recycling Plastic, Glass, and Gallium from Waste Solar Cell Modules by Nitrogen Pyrolysis and Vacuum Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-09-01

    Many countries have gained benefits through the solar cells industry due to its high efficiency and nonpolluting power generation associated with solar energy. Accordingly, the market of solar cell modules is expanding rapidly in recent decade. However, how to environmentally friendly and effectively recycle waste solar cell modules is seldom concerned. Based on nitrogen pyrolysis and vacuum decomposition, this work can successfully recycle useful organic components, glass, and gallium from solar cell modules. The results were summarized as follows: (i) nitrogen pyrolysis process can effectively decompose plastic. Organic conversion rate approached 100% in the condition of 773 K, 30 min, and 0.5 L/min N2 flow rate. But, it should be noted that pyrolysis temperature should not exceed 773 K, and harmful products would be increased with the increasing of temperature, such as benzene and its derivatives by GC-MS measurement; (ii) separation principle, products analysis, and optimization of vacuum decomposition were discussed. Gallium can be well recycled under temperature of 1123 K, system pressure of 1 Pa and reaction time of 40 min. This technology is quite significant in accordance with the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Principle" for solid waste, and provides an opportunity for sustainable development of photovoltaic industry. PMID:27501125

  20. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis). PMID:24283272

  1. Thermal degradation behavior of waste video cards using thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Li, Jinhui

    2010-05-01

    The thermal degradation characteristics of a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA), specifically video cards from waste computers, was studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The video-card waste was dismantled into substrate, integrated circuits (ICs), and plastic slots for comparable investigation. The results by TGA revealed that the initial temperature at which degradation began was 300 degrees C for substrate, but it was 330 degrees C for ICs and plastic slots. For a given type of scrap, the initial temperature leading to degradation is the same under air and N2 atmosphere. However, the degradation rate was lower using air than N2 during the weight-loss stage. Further Py-GC/MS application revealed that pyrolysis products derived from substrate consisted mainly of acetone, bromotoluene, and phenol that came from the brominated epoxy resins present in substrate. Unlike substrate, the relative amounts of some products (e.g., phenol) were higher in the ICs, and cyclotetrasiloxane was released; these were released from the phenolic resins and Si mixture present in that type of waste. Benzoic acid, rather than acetone or phenol, was the main product released from plastic slots. It was proved that this scrap was a mixture of various polyesters, cracking of which predicatively generated aromatic products. The results will be useful in developing pyrolysis or starved-air incineration systems for thermosetting plastic and PCBA waste and helpful to control pollution during the treatment of this waste.

  2. Reactions of {sup 1}:CX{sub 2} during chlorofluorocarbon pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    DiFelice, J.J.; Ritter, E.R.

    1994-12-31

    Singlet carbenes are reactive intermediates which behave in a fashion quite different from radicals. In hydrocarbon and hydrochlorocarbon systems, radicals and radical chemistry typically dominate. However, in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) systems, formation of perhalogenated singlet carbenes ({sup 1}:CX{sub 2}) has been observed. While radicals undergo abstraction reactions and addition to double bonds, singlet carbenes can insert into single bonds. Singlet carbenes are species which have two paired nonbonded electrons; since paired electrons have opposite spin, singlet carbenes can insert into single bonds. Triplet carbenes, in contrast, contain unpaired electrons and behave essentially like radicals. Formation of perhalogenated triplet carbenes ({sup 3}:CX{sub 2}) is less favorable in CFC and HCFC systems since the :CX{sub 2} singlet state is as much as 56 kcal/mol lower in energy than the triplet state. This paper discusses the results of chlorofluorocarbon pyrolysis in helium at different temperatures and with carbene insertion.

  3. The characteristic and evaluation method of fast pyrolysis of microalgae to produce syngas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhifeng; Ma, Xiaoqian; Li, Longjun

    2013-07-01

    The fast pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris was carried out in a quartz tube reactor under different pyrolysis temperature levels. The product fractional yields, gaseous products and the evaluation method based on heating value and energy consumption were analyzed in order to obtain the optimal condition to produce syngas. The results indicated that the higher the pyrolysis temperature level was, the higher the bio-fuel yield was. 900°C is the best temperature to obtain the maximum bio-fuel yield (91.09 wt.%). And the highest emission of CO and H2 were achieved under the pyrolysis temperature of 800 and 900°C, respectively. According to the evaluation method based on heating value and energy consumption, there was a significant impact on the syngas production under different pyrolysis temperatures. Furthermore, the evaluation method based on energy consumption indicated that 800°C was the optimal pyrolysis temperature to produce syngas. PMID:23693148

  4. Flash pyrolysis of coal in non-reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Coal pyrolysis experiments were carried out with a New Mexico subbituminous coal in the presence of nonreactive He, N/sub 2/, and Ar gases in an entrained downflow tubular reactor. The percent carbon conversions to CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, BTX, CO and CO/sub 2/ were determined as a function of temperature and residence time at 50 psi. In helium atmosphere, the yields of methane and CO/sub x/ reached asymptotic values in about 1 sec and ethylene was produced throughout the length of the BNL reactor corresponding to a coal particle residence time of 1.7 sec. The relative yields of individual products were influenced by the pyrolysis atmosphere but the total carbon conversion remained almost unaffected. A reduction in the cationic content of coal by acid treatment enhanced the production of CO and CO/sub 2/ but inhibited the formation of ethylene. 13 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Comparison of Pyrolysis Characteristics of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaige; Wang, Shurong; Guo, Xiujuan; Luo, Zhongyang; Fransson, Torsten

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the influence of components' cross-interaction on biomass pyrolysis, research of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine (MP) was performed on a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the fast pyrolysis device. Compared with synthesized MP, the thermal behavior of degreased MP is much closer to the original and the degreased MP produces less aldehydes, alcohols or phenols and acids due to the cross-interactions of components. Synthesized MP has lower bio-oil yield and higher gas production than the degreased one. And the contents of furfural, acetic acid and levoglucosan change with the kind of samples obviously due to the intense cross-interactions of components.

  6. Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnes, Tom N.

    2015-12-29

    Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In one example, the method comprises of dividing a feedstock stream into first and second feedstock portions. The feedstock stream comprises the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil and has a temperature of about 60.degree. C. or less. The first feedstock portion is combined with a heated organic liquid stream to form a first heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The first heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form an intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent. The second feedstock portion is combined with the intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent to form a second heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The second heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a second deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form additional low-oxygen pyoil effluent.

  7. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal.

  8. CONVERTING PYROLYSIS OILS TO RENEWABLE TRANSPORT FUELS: PROCESSING CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, Jennifer; Nair, Prabhakar N.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Bain, Richard; Marinangelli, Richard

    2008-03-11

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. UOP, in partnership with U.S. Government labs, NREL and PNNL, is developing an alternate route using cellulosic feedstocks. The waste biomass is first subjected to a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  9. Effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose structural characteristics and pyrolysis behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shurong; Dai, Gongxin; Ru, Bin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoliu; Zhou, Jinsong; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-10-01

    The effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose characteristics and its pyrolysis behaviors were studied in detail. The oxygen content decreased significantly after torrefaction, leading to the increase of high heating value. Two-dimensional perturbation correlation analysis based on diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was performed to characterize the structural evolutions. It was found the dehydration of hydroxyls and the dissociation of branches were the main reactions at low torrefaction temperature. When the temperature further increased, the depolymerization of hemicellulose and the fragmentation of monosaccharide residues occurred. The distributed activation energy model with double Gaussian functions based on reaction-order model was used to investigate the pyrolysis kinetics. The results showed that torrefaction enhanced the activation energy for degradation reactions while lowered that for condensation reactions, and increased the devolatilization contribution of condensation reactions. Besides, torrefaction decreased the yields of typical pyrolytic products, such as acids, furans, alicyclic ketones and so on. PMID:27469091

  10. Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

    1995-08-01

    Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  11. Phenol and phenolics from lignocellulosic biomass by catalytic microwave pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zhang, Qin; Tang, Juming; Ruan, Roger

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of phenol and phenolics. The high concentrations of phenol (38.9%) and phenolics (66.9%) were obtained at the temperature of 589 K, catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 3:1 and retention time of 8 min. The increase of phenol and its derivatives compared to pyrolysis without catalysts has a close relationship with the decomposition of lignin under the performance of activated carbon. The concentration of esters was also increased using activated carbon as a catalyst. The high content of phenols obtained in this study can be used either directly as fuel after upgrading or as feedstock of biobased phenols for chemical industry.

  12. Relatively low-temperature pyrolysis of silane in free space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The continuous flow pyrolyzer is a free space reactor that is used to study the effects of concentration, flow rate and temperature in making solar-grade silicon by pyrolysis of silane gas. Work with the continuous flow pyrolyzer is within the DOE-sponsored Low-Cost Solar Array Project. The work has led to a new theoretical treatment of silane pyrolysis in free space at relatively low temperatures (550 C to 750 C). It involves a sequential, three-step mechanism of particle growth: first, silicon atom generation by homogeneous reaction; second, coagulation to a 0.1 micron particle due to Brownian motion and van der Waals forces; and finally, chemical vapor deposition by heterogeneous reaction to final particle size.

  13. Effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose structural characteristics and pyrolysis behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shurong; Dai, Gongxin; Ru, Bin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoliu; Zhou, Jinsong; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-10-01

    The effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose characteristics and its pyrolysis behaviors were studied in detail. The oxygen content decreased significantly after torrefaction, leading to the increase of high heating value. Two-dimensional perturbation correlation analysis based on diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was performed to characterize the structural evolutions. It was found the dehydration of hydroxyls and the dissociation of branches were the main reactions at low torrefaction temperature. When the temperature further increased, the depolymerization of hemicellulose and the fragmentation of monosaccharide residues occurred. The distributed activation energy model with double Gaussian functions based on reaction-order model was used to investigate the pyrolysis kinetics. The results showed that torrefaction enhanced the activation energy for degradation reactions while lowered that for condensation reactions, and increased the devolatilization contribution of condensation reactions. Besides, torrefaction decreased the yields of typical pyrolytic products, such as acids, furans, alicyclic ketones and so on.

  14. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  15. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  16. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  17. Hydrous pyrolysis of crude oil in gold-plated reactors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curiale, J.A.; Lundegard, P.D.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Crude oils from Iraq and California have been pyrolyzed under hydrous conditions at 200 and 300??C for time periods up to 210 days, in gold-plated reactors. Elemental (vanadium, nickel), stable isotopic (carbon), and molecular (n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes and aromatic steroid hydrocarbons) analyses were made on the original and pyrolyzed oils. Various conventional crude oil maturity parameters, including 20S/(20S + 20R)-24-ethylcholestane ratios and the side-chain-length distribution of aliphatic and aromatic steroidal hydrocarbons, were measured in an effort to assess the modification of molecular maturity parameters in clay-free settings, similar to those encountered in "clean" reservoirs. Concentrations of vanadium and nickel in the Iraq oil decrease significantly and the V/(V + Ni) ratio decreases slightly, with increasing pyrolysis time/temperature. Whole oil carbon isotope ratios remain fairly constant during pyrolysis, as do hopane/sterane ratios and carbon number distribution of 5??(H),14??(H),17??(H),20R steranes. These latter three parameters are considered maturity-invariant. The ratios of short side-chain components to long side-chain components of the regular steranes [C21/(C21 + C29R)] and the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons [C21/(C21 + C28)] vary systematically with increasing pyrolysis time, indicating that these parameters may be useful as molecular maturity parameters for crude oils in clay-free reservoir rocks. In addition, decreases in bisnorhopane/hopane ratio with increasing pyrolysis time, in a clay-free and kerogen-free environment, suggest that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by either differential thermal stabilities or preferential release from a higher-molecular weight portion of the oil. ?? 1992.

  18. Carbon Coating Of Copper By Arc-Discharge Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Jopek, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Adherent, abrasion-resistant coat deposited with existing equipment. Carbon formed and deposited as coating on copper substrate by pyrolysis of hydrocarbon oil in electrical-arc discharges. Technique for producing carbon deposits on copper accomplished with electrical-discharge-machining equipment used for cutting metals. Applications for new coating technique include the following: solar-energy-collecting devices, coating of metals other than copper with carbon, and carburization of metal surfaces.

  19. Cleavage and crosslinking of polymeric coal structures during pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ultimate objective of this project was to develop a better understanding of volatiles production to help optimize the yield and character of condensable coproducts during coal pyrolysis or mild gasification. The specific objectives were to (1) Develop pyrolysis procedures that minimize secondary reactions; and (2) Develop coal pretreatments that current knowledge suggests will prorate bond scission or prevent retrograde reactions. Our approach was to study the pyrolysis of coals and tar-loaded coals by using several techniques that span a range of heating rates and pressures. Slow-heating pyrolyses were performed at low pressures in the inlet of a field ionization mass spectrometer and at atmospheric pressures in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Moderately rapid-heating pyrolyses were performed in a vacuum TGA apparatus and in sealed silica ampules heated in a molten-salt bath. The fastest heating rates were achieved with laser pyrolysis at about 30,000 X/s. The high tar yield seen in this work where the entire volume of the coal particle becomes hot and fluid at very nearly the same time, taken together with the evident non-vapor transport of the tar under these conditions, emphasizes the importance of better understanding the development of fluidity during coal heating. This specifically includes the profound effects--long-recognized but poorly understood that mild oxidation has in suppressing coal fluidity. It also includes the more recently recognized fact that heating in the presence of an inert gas produced substantially greater fluidity than does heating in the presence of combustion gases, even if the conditions are very fuel rich and all the oxygen itself has already been consumed when the coal particles are encountered.

  20. Pyrolysis temperature influences ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qing; Yuan, Jin-Hua; Xu, Ren-Kou; Li, Xing-Hui

    2014-02-01

    The biochars were prepared from straws of canola, corn, soybean, and peanut at different temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C by means of oxygen-limited pyrolysis.Amelioration effects of these biochars on an acidic Ultisol were investigated with incubation experiments, and application rate of biochars was 10 g/kg. The incorporation of these biochars induced the increase in soil pH, soil exchangeable base cations, base saturation, and cation exchange capacity and the decrease in soil exchangeable acidity and exchangeable Al. The ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil increased with increase in their pyrolysis temperature. The contribution of oxygen-containing functional groups on the biochars to their ameliorating effects on the acidic soil decreased with the rise in pyrolysis temperature, while the contribution from carbonates in the biochars changed oppositely. The incorporation of the biochars led to the decrease in soil reactive Al extracted by 0.5mol/L CuCl2, and the content of reactive Al was decreased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature of incorporated biochars. The biochars generated at 300 °C increased soil organically complexed Al due to ample quantity of oxygen-containing functional groups such as carboxylic and phenolic groups on the biochars, while the biochars generated at 500 and 700 °C accelerated the transformation of soil exchangeable Al to hydroxyl-Al polymers due to hydrolysis of Al at higher pH. Therefore, the crop straw-derived biochars can be used as amendments for acidic soils and the biochars generated at relatively high temperature have great ameliorating effects on the soils. PMID:24078274

  1. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.

    1978-01-01

    Nine samples of synthetic polymers were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The materials were polyoxymethylene, polyethylene (five samples), polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate, and polystyrene. Of the five polyethylene samples, three contained known levels of chlorine. These test results were combined with earlier data to provide a comparison of 25 samples of synthetic polymers. Polyoxymethylene appeared to exhibit the greatest toxicity, and polystyrene the least toxicity, under these particular test conditions

  2. Lignin Sensor Based On Flash-Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, Eug Y.; Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy

    1990-01-01

    New lignin sensor takes only few minutes to measure lignin content of specimen of wood, pulp, paper, or similar material. Includes flash pyrolizer and ion-trap detector that acts as mass spectrometer. Apparatus measures amount of molecular fragments of lignin in pyrolysis products of samples. Helpful in controlling digestors in paper mills to maintain required lignin content, and also in bleaching plants, where good control of bleaching becomes possible if quick determination of lignin content made.

  3. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  4. Fluidized bed silicon deposition. [Si production via silane pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G.; Morrison, A.; Rohatgi, N.; Lutwack, R.; Macconnell, T.

    1984-01-01

    The growth of silicon on seed particles from the pyrolysis of silane in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was studied. The grown particles were shown to be crystalline and to have a structure which has been interpreted to indicate growth by chemical vapor deposition as well as by the collection (scavenging) of silicon clusters on seed particle surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the product morphology.

  5. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon from Silane Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praturi, A. K.; Lutwack, R.; Hsu, G.

    1977-01-01

    The four basic elements in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon from silane are analytically treated from a kinetic standpoint. These elements are mass transport of silane, pyrolysis of silane, nucleation of silicon, and silicon crystal growth. Rate expressions that describe the various steps involved in the chemical vapor deposition of silicon were derived from elementary principles. Applications of the rate expressions for modeling and simulation of the silicon CVD are discussed.

  6. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  7. CORROSIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF RAW AND TREATED PYROLYSIS OILS

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, Jim; Howell, Michael; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Sam; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-10-14

    Fast pyrolysis offers a relatively low cost method of processing biomass to produce a liquid product that has the potential for conversion to several types of liquid fuels. The liquid product of fast pyrolysis, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, contains a high oxygen content primarily in the form of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. These oils are typically very acidic with a Total Acid Number that is often in the range of 50 to 100, and previous studies have shown this material to be quite corrosive to common structural materials. Removal of at least some of the oxygen and conversion of this oil to a more useful product that is considerably less corrosive can be accomplished through a hydrogenation process. The product of such a treatment is considered to have the potential for blending with crude oil for processing in petroleum refineries. Corrosion studies and chemical analyses have been conducted using as produced bio-oil samples as well as samples that have been subjected to different levels of oxygen removal. Chemical analyses show treatment affected the concentrations of carboxylic acids contained in the oil, and corrosion studies showed a positive benefit of the oxygen removal. Results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  8. The pyrolysis of (-)-(S)-nicotine: racemization and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Peter; Lu, Annhelen; Bishop, Louise

    2010-05-01

    The pyrolytic behaviour of (-)-(S)-nicotine in methanol was investigated using on-line pyrolysis GC/MS to establish whether racemization to the R(+) antipode occurs and to identify other products of pyrolysis. The conditions used included pyrolysing the sample for 15 seconds in an atmosphere of 9% oxygen in nitrogen (275 ml/min total flow) across the temperature range of 200 degrees C-1000 degrees C. A chiral Cyclodex-B analytical column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm film thickness) was used to separate the enantiomers of nicotine, although the two enantiomer peaks were not baseline resolved. The results of the experiment shows that there is no increase in (+)-(R)-nicotine levels across a wide temperature range. This suggests that the elevated levels of (+)-R-nicotine observed in tobacco smoke (compared to tobacco leaf material) are not due to the pyrolytic auto-racemization of (-)-(S)-nicotine but are a result of more complex interactions between (-)-(S)-nicotine and other smoke components. The pyrolysis of isotopically labelled nicotine established that nicotine undergoes thermal decomposition to beta-nicotyrine which in turn may decompose to other products.

  9. Heterogeneous Ozonolysis of Surface Adsorbed Lignin Pyrolysis Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass combustion releases semi-volatile organic compounds into the troposphere, including many phenols and methoxyphenols as the result of lignin pyrolysis. Given their relatively low vapor pressures, these compounds readily adsorb on inorganic and organic aerosol substrates where they may alter aerosol properties and undergo heterogeneous chemistry. We use infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS and ATR-FTIR) to monitor the adsorption and subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis of model lignin pyrolysis products, including catechol, eugenol, and 4-propylguaiacol. Ozonolysis reaction kinetics were compared on various inorganic substrates - such as Al2O3 and NaCl, which serve as mineral and sea salt aerosol substrates, respectively - and as a function of ozone concentration and relative humidity. Following in situ FTIR analysis, the adsorbed organics were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify reaction products and quantify product branching ratios. Ozonolysis of catechol and 4-propylguaiacol readily resulted in ring cleavage forming dicarboxylic acids (e.g., muconic acid). Eugenol ozonolysis proceeded rapidly at the alkene side chain producing homovanillic acid and homovanillin in an approximate 2:1 branching ratio at 0% RH; ring cleavage was also observed. For all lignin pyrolysis products, heterogeneous ozonolysis was faster on NaCl versus Al2O3. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of semi-volatile methoxylphenols adsorbed on aerosol substrates will be discussed.

  10. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  11. Thermal and chemical effects of turkey feathers pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kluska, Jacek; Kardaś, Dariusz; Heda, Łukasz; Szumowski, Mateusz; Szuszkiewicz, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the thermal and chemical effects of the pyrolysis of turkey feathers. Research of feathers pyrolysis is important because of their increasing production and difficulties of their utilization. The experiments were carried out by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and two pyrolytic reactors. The experimental investigation indicated that the feather material liquefies at temperatures between 210 and 240°C. This liquefaction together with the agglomeration of various dispersed and porous elements of the feathers into larger droplets leads to the volume reduction. Moreover, this work presents characteristics of the composition of the solid, liquid and gaseous products of turkey feathers pyrolysis at different temperatures. The higher heating value (HHV) of gaseous products in temperature 900°C equals 19.28 MJ/Nm(3) making the gases suitable for use as a fuel. The thermochemical conversion of turkey feathers leads to the formation of poisonous compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the liquid (0.13%) and gaseous (88 mg/Nm(3)) products. The phenomenon of liquefaction of feathers is important because it can lead to rapid degradation of the walls of reactors, and the formation of deposits. PMID:26783100

  12. Pyrolysis kinetics of algal consortia grown using swine manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sharara, Mahmoud A; Holeman, Nathan; Sadaka, Sammy S; Costello, Thomas A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, pyrolysis kinetics of periphytic microalgae consortia grown using swine manure slurry in two seasonal climatic patterns in northwest Arkansas were investigated. Four heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40 °C min(-1)) were used to determine the pyrolysis kinetics. Differences in proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses reflected variability in growing substrate conditions, i.e., flocculant use, manure slurry dilution, and differences in diurnal solar radiation and air temperature regimes. Peak decomposition temperature in algal harvests varied with changing the heating rate. Analyzing pyrolysis kinetics using differential and integral isoconversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) showed strong dependency of apparent activation energy on the degree of conversion suggesting parallel reaction scheme. Consequently, the weight loss data in each thermogravimetric test was modeled using independent parallel reactions (IPR). The quality of fit (QOF) for the model ranged between 2.09% and 3.31% indicating a good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Impact of pyrolysis process on the chromium behavior of COPR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dalei; He, Shengbing; Dai, Luwei; Xie, Yaning; Wu, Deyi; Bu, Guanhua; Peng, Kangjin; Kong, Hainan

    2009-12-30

    The effect of pyrolysis process with sewage sludge on the chromium behavior of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) was examined in this study. The behavior of chromium was characterized in term of chromium oxidation test, pH-static leaching tests, column leaching test and sequential extraction test. As a sequence of pyrolysis process, the Cr(VI) in COPR was effectively reduced from 5057 mg kg(-1) for untreated COPR to 8.6 mg kg(-1) for treated COPR at temperature over 600 degrees C, which is far below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection regulatory limit of 240 mg kg(-1). As a result, the amount of exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cr fractions, the most mobile for the environment, were largely reduced. At the same time, the amount of the other three Cr fractions which are much less mobile become augmented. pH static test showed that the chromium in the treated COPR at pyrolysis temperature above 400 degrees C was quite stable at pH>7. Column study also indicated that only negligible amount of chromium of the treated COPR at above 600 degrees C can be released by the acid rain.

  14. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose in ionic liquid [bmim]OTf.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guangfei; He, Weiwei; Cai, Yingying; Huang, Xi; Ning, Ping

    2016-09-01

    This study discussed the catalytic cracking process of cellulose in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([bmim]OTF) under 180°C, 240°C and 340°C, found that [bmim]OTF is an effective catalyst which can effectively reduce the pyrolysis temperature(nearly 200°C) of the cellulose. FRIR, XRD and SEM were used to analyze the structure characterization of fiber before and after the cracking; GC-MS was used for liquid phase products analysis; GC was used to analyze gas phase products. The results showed that the cellulose pyrolysis in [bmim]OTf mainly generated CO2, CO and H2, also generated 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dimethyl-1,5-diallyl-3-alcohol, 1,4-butyrolactone, 5-methyl furfural, 4-hydroxy butyric acid, vinyl propionate, 1-acetoxyl group-2-butanone, furan formate tetrahydrofuran methyl ester liquid product, and thus simulated the evolution mechanism of cellulose pyrolysis products based on the basic model of cellulose monomer. PMID:27185153

  16. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  17. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2006-01-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

    The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  18. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    PubMed

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  20. Concentration-response data on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some natural and synthetic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration-response data are presented on the toxic effects of the pyrolysis gases from some natural and synthetic polymers, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The pyrolysis gases from wool, red oak, Douglas fir, polycaprolactam, polyether sulfone, polyaryl sulfone, and polyphenylene sulfide appeared to exhibit the concentration-response relationships commonly encountered in toxicology. Carbon monoxide seemed to be an important toxicant in the pyrolysis gases from red oak, Douglas fir, and polycaprolactam, but did not appear to have been the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone and polyphenylene sulfide.

  1. Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.

    PubMed

    Hao, Juan; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Shuhe; Cai, Bin; Ge, Linhan; Xia, Wencheng

    2014-10-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder.

  2. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1998-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  3. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on toxicity of gases from a polyethylene polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Kosola, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    A polyethylene polymer was evaluated for time of toxic effect to occur as the result of exposure to gases generated by pyrolysis at various temperatures, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Times to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 400 C to 800 C. Responses at a pyrolysis temperature of 350 C were more rapid than would be expected from the other data, and may indicate the predominance of different pyrolysis reactions in this particular temperature region.

  4. Biofuels from Pyrolysis: Catalytic Biocrude Production in a Novel, Short-Contact Time Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: RTI is developing a new pyrolysis process to convert second-generation biomass into biofuels in one simple step. Pyrolysis is the decomposition of substances by heating—the same process used to render wood into charcoal, caramelize sugar, and dry roast coffee and beans. RTI’s catalytic biomass pyrolysis differs from conventional flash pyrolysis in that its end product contains less oxygen, metals, and nitrogen—all of which contribute to corrosion, instability, and inefficiency in the fuel-production process. This technology is expected to easily integrate into the existing domestic petroleum refining infrastructure, making it an economically attractive option for biofuels production.

  5. Pyrolysis-high resolution gas chromatography and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of kerogens and kerogen precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van De Meent, D.; Brown, S. C.; Philp, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R. T.

    1980-01-01

    A series of kerogens and kerogen precursors isolated from DSDP samples, oil shales and recent algal mats have been examined by Curie point pyrolysis-high resolution gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study has shown that the three main types of kerogens (marine, terrestrial and mixtures of both) can be characterized using these techniques. The marine (algal) kerogens yield principally aliphatic products and the terrestrial kerogens yield more aromatic and phenolic products with some n-alkanes and n-alkenes. The yields of n-alkanes and n-alkenes increase and phenols decrease with increasing geologic age, however, pyrolysis-GC cannot be used to characterize the influence of short term diagenesis on the kerogen structure.

  6. Effects of volatile-char interactions on char during pyrolysis of rice husk at mild temperatures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhao, Yijun; Guo, Yangzhou; Feng, Dongdong; Wu, Jiangquan; Wang, Pengxiang; Sun, Shaozeng

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the sensitivity of volatile-char interactions to mild temperatures (600-800°C), in-situ rice husk char was prepared from fast pyrolysis (>10(3)Ks(-1)) on a fixed-bed reactor. Retention of K in char, changes in char structure and char reactivity were determined. The results showed that volatile-char interactions did not cause obvious effect on the char yield but showed an inhibitory effect on char reactivity. The inhibition began only above 650°C and intensified with temperature rise, but kept almost unchanged at 700-800°C. Char structure and retention of K have a combined effect on char reactivity. The decreased reactivity was caused by additional volatilization of K from char matrix and transformation of relatively smaller aromatic ring systems to large ring systems (>6 benzene rings) above 650°C. PMID:27544921

  7. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub.

  8. Pyrolysis of waste plastics to useful energy. Final report, August 29, 1983-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Elghossain, M.; Parr, T.R.

    1984-12-01

    This report covers the work completed under United States Department of Energy Contract No. AC01-83CE40639 entitled ''Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics to Useful Energy''. The objectives of this research and development program were to: determine the applicability of a specific coil pyrolysis process developed under DOE Contract No. AC01-83CE40639 to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste; determine the applicability of the same process to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste; determine the applicability of this process to mixed waste streams of industrial importance (specifically, the plastic wire insulation and PET beverage bottle streams); and establish the quality and consistency of quality of the pyrolysis products from this process for these applications. It was determined that the coil pyrolysis process is not applicable to PVC conversion to fuel. An alternative pyrolysis approach to PVC was considered and is regarded as potentially feasible. It was determined that the coil pyrolysis process is not applicable to PET conversion. While working on the PET coil pyrolysis process, a PET separation process was developed which offered a commercially feasible route from PET beverage bottles to reusable PET plastic. This development led to a commercial operation of 1500 lb/h plastics recovery in South Windsor, Connecticut. It was concluded that the coil pyrolysis process is applicable to the conversion of the HDPE bases of the PET plastic beverage bottles. It was concluded that the coil pyrolysis process was not applicable to the PET remainder of the beverage bottle or the waste wire stream. An alternate pyrolysis process was considered and is regarded as potentially feasible. It is recommended that development work be continued on these alternative pyrolysis processes.

  9. Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, A.D.; Selby, D.; Lewan, M.D.; Lillis, P.G.; Houzay, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of the 187Re–187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re–Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re–Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re–Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of high ligno-cellulosic biomass pyrolysis coupled with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Righi, Serena; Bandini, Vittoria; Marazza, Diego; Baioli, Filippo; Torri, Cristian; Contin, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment is conducted on pyrolysis coupled to anaerobic digestion to treat corn stovers and to obtain bioenergy and biochar. The analysis takes into account the feedstock treatment process, the fate of products and the indirect effects due to crop residue removal. The biochar is considered to be used as solid fuel for coal power plants or as soil conditioner. All results are compared with a corresponding fossil-fuel-based scenario. It is shown that the proposed system always enables relevant primary energy savings of non-renewable sources and a strong reduction of greenhouse gases emissions without worsening the abiotic resources depletion. Conversely, the study points out that the use of corn stovers for mulch is critical when considering acidification and eutrophication impacts. Therefore, removal of corn stovers from the fields must be planned carefully. PMID:27107341

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of high ligno-cellulosic biomass pyrolysis coupled with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Righi, Serena; Bandini, Vittoria; Marazza, Diego; Baioli, Filippo; Torri, Cristian; Contin, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment is conducted on pyrolysis coupled to anaerobic digestion to treat corn stovers and to obtain bioenergy and biochar. The analysis takes into account the feedstock treatment process, the fate of products and the indirect effects due to crop residue removal. The biochar is considered to be used as solid fuel for coal power plants or as soil conditioner. All results are compared with a corresponding fossil-fuel-based scenario. It is shown that the proposed system always enables relevant primary energy savings of non-renewable sources and a strong reduction of greenhouse gases emissions without worsening the abiotic resources depletion. Conversely, the study points out that the use of corn stovers for mulch is critical when considering acidification and eutrophication impacts. Therefore, removal of corn stovers from the fields must be planned carefully.

  12. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study on pyrolysis of representative medical waste composition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-feng; Wang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    To obtain detailed information on the pyrolysis characteristics, a thermogravimetric study on the pyrolysis of 14 typical medical waste compositions was carried out in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment using dynamic techniques in a stream of N2. An index representing pyrolysis reactivity of waste was presented. Kinetic parameters were obtained by Coats-Redfern method and used to model the TG curve. The results showed that: (a) Plastic, protein, cellulosic material, synthetic fibre, and rubber entered pyrolysis process in succession. (b) There was one decomposition stage in the pyrolysis of one-off medical glove, operating glove, cellulosic waste, absorbable catgut suture and adhesive plaster, while other components had two obvious weight loss stages. (c) The obtained apparent activation energy for second stage pyrolysis was comparably higher than that for first stage. (d) Each stage was controlled by only one kinetic mechanism, in which kinetic parameters were constant. (e) The degradation kinetics of medical waste may be affected by special physical and chemical treatment in the product manufacturing process. (f) Among 13 waste samples, the pyrolysis index of cellulosic matter was the highest, which indicated cellulosic matter had strong pyrolysis reactivity. (g) With increasing heating rate, TG curve and DTG peak shifted to high temperatures and main reaction interval of the sample became longer. PMID:17911006

  13. Accumulation of inorganic impurities on HZSM-5 during catalytic fast pyrolysis of switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of inorganic species present in switchgrass during fluidized bed catalytic pyrolysis over HZSM-5 catalysts was studied with emphasis on their accumulation on the catalyst. Five catalytic pyrolysis experiments were performed in two series, reusing the catalyst after each sample. Catalysts w...

  14. Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1995-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the feed stream with the catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide in the first temperature range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of the high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomer constituent of styrene; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis to a different derived high value product of polyphenylene oxide from the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of the plastic into a polyphenylene oxide derived product; and separating the different derived high value polyphenylene oxide product.

  15. Controlled catalystic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents.

  16. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-06-14

    A process is described using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents. 68 figs.

  17. A Comparative study of microwave-induced pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong; Xu, Jing; Huang, Feng; Mamaeva, Alisa

    2015-08-01

    Microwave (MW) pyrolysis of algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied using a modified domestic oven. The pyrolysis temperature was recorded continuously by inserting a thermocouple into the samples. Temperatures as high as 1170 and 1015°C were achieved for peanut shell and Chlorella vulgaris. The activation energy for MW pyrolysis was calculated by Coats-Redfern method and the values were 221.96 and 214.27kJ/mol for peanut shell and C. vulgaris, respectively. Bio-oil yields reached to 27.7wt.% and 11.0wt.% during pyrolysis of C. vulgaris and peanut shell, respectively. The bio-oil samples from pyrolysis were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bio-oil from lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis contained more phenolic compounds while that from microalgae pyrolysis contained more nitrogen-containing species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results showed that concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char samples decreased significantly after pyrolysis.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10579 - Carbon black derived from the pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). 721.10579 Section 721.10579 Protection of Environment... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... rubber tire shreds (PMN P-10-367) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. Effects of various reactive gas atmospheres on the properties of bio-oil using microwave pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass produces organic liquids (bio-oil), bio-char, water, and non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gas component typically contains syngas (H2, CO and CO2) as well as small hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, and C3H8). Tail Gas Reactive Pyrolysis (TGRP), a patent p...

  20. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  1. Nitrogen dioxide produced by self-sustained pyrolysis of nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabol, A. P.

    1965-01-01

    Apparatus is developed for achieving continuous self-sustaining pyrolysis reaction in the production of nitrogen dioxide from nitrous oxide. The process becomes self-sustaining because of the exothermic reaction and the regenerative heating of the gases in the pyrolysis chamber.

  2. Characterizing biomass fast pyrolysis oils by 13C-NMR and chemometric analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biomass fast pyrolysis oils were characterized by 13C and DEPT NMR analysis to determine chemical functional group compositions as related to their energy content. Pyrolysis oils were produced from a variety of feedstocks including energy crops, woods, animal wastes and oil seed presscakes,...

  3. Comparison of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part II: contaminants, char and pyrolysis oil properties.

    PubMed

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Ateş, Funda; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-09-01

    Pyrolysis of real wastes (MPW and MSW) has been investigated at 500°C, 550°C and 600°C using Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3 as catalysts. The viscosity of pyrolysis oils could be decreased by the using of catalysts, especially by β-zeolite and MoO3. Both carbon frame and double bound isomerization was found in case of thermo-catalytic pyrolysis. Char morphology and texture analysis showed more coke deposits on the catalyst surface using MSW raw material. Pyrolysis oils had K, S, P Cl, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cr, Br and Sb as contaminants; and the concentrations of K, S, P, Cl and Br could be decreased by the using of catalysts.

  4. Comparison of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part II: contaminants, char and pyrolysis oil properties.

    PubMed

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Ateş, Funda; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-09-01

    Pyrolysis of real wastes (MPW and MSW) has been investigated at 500°C, 550°C and 600°C using Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3 as catalysts. The viscosity of pyrolysis oils could be decreased by the using of catalysts, especially by β-zeolite and MoO3. Both carbon frame and double bound isomerization was found in case of thermo-catalytic pyrolysis. Char morphology and texture analysis showed more coke deposits on the catalyst surface using MSW raw material. Pyrolysis oils had K, S, P Cl, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cr, Br and Sb as contaminants; and the concentrations of K, S, P, Cl and Br could be decreased by the using of catalysts. PMID:23891947

  5. Novel incineration technology integrated with drying, pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of MSW and ashes vitrification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Liu, Yushan

    2005-05-15

    The conventional mass burn systems for municipal solid waste (MSW) emit large amount of acidic gases and dioxins as well as heavy metals due to the large excess air ratio. Additionally, the final process residues, bottom ash with potential leachability of heavy metals and fly ash with high level of heavy metals and dioxins, also constitute a major environmental problem. To deal with these issues more effectively, a novel MSW incineration technology was developed in this study. MSW drying, pyrolysis, gasification, incineration, and ash vitrification were achieved as a spectrum of combustion by the same equipment (primary chamber) in one step. In practice, the primary chamber of this technology actually acted as both gasifier for organic matter and vitrifying reactor for ashes, and the combustion process was mainly completed in the secondary chamber. Experiments were carried outto examine its characteristics in an industrial MSW incineration plant, located in Taiyuan, with a capability of 100 tons per day (TPD). Results showed that (1) the pyrolysis, gasification, and vitrification processes in the primary chamber presented good behaviors resulting in effluent gases with high contents of combustibles (e.g., CO and CH4) and bottom ash with a low loss-on-ignition (L.o.l), low leachability of heavy metals, and low toxicity of cyanide and fluoride. The vitrified bottom ash was benign to its environment and required no further processing for its potential applications. (2) Low stack emissions of dioxins (0.076 ng of TEQ m(-3)), heavy metals (ranging from 0.013 to 0.033 mg m(-3)), and other air pollutants were achieved. This new technology could effectively dispose Chinese MSW with a low calorific value and high water content; additionally, it also had a low capital and operating costs compared with the imported systems. PMID:15952396

  6. Geochemical changes and fracture development in Woodford Shale cores following hydrous pyrolysis under uniaxial confinement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael D.; Miller, Michael; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A uniaxial confinement clamp was used on Woodford Shale cores in hydrous pyrolysis experiments to study fracture development during thermal maturation. The clamp simulates overburden in that it prevents cores from expanding perpendicular to bedding fabric during the volume-increasing reactions associated with petroleum generation. Cores were cut from a slab of immature Woodford Shale and subjected to hydrous pyrolysis under confinement at 300, 330, and 365 °C for 72 hours to induce thermal maturities ranging from early bitumen to maximum expelled-oil generation. Two additional cores were used as experimental controls: (1) a confined core was saturated with water by heating it to 100 °C under hydrous pyrolysis conditions for 72 hours to use for characterization of the original rock, and (2) an unconfined core was heated at 365 °C for 72 hours to evaluate the effects of confinement on petroleum generation and expulsion. X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) imaging and other analyses identified five distinct beds within the cored interval. Using a tentative classification system, beds 1, 2, and 3 are described as dolomitic marlstone (DM) with total organic carbon (TOC) contents of 7.7, 5.8, and 7.7 wt. %, respectively; bed 4 is a cherty quartzose claystone (CQC) with TOC content of 5.5 wt. %; and bed 5 is a quartzose claystone with TOC content of 10.9 wt. %. Bed samples all had similar Rock-Eval hydrogen indices (600 ± 46 mg S2/g-TOC) and Tmax values (433 ± 2 °C), demonstrating organic matter uniformity and low thermal maturity. The X-CT scan of the core heated to 100 °C showed preexisting fractures that were nearly perpendicular to the bedding fabric primarily in the low-TOC DM bed 2 and CQC bed 4. Heating led to enhancement of preexisting fractures in the confined cores with the greatest enhancement occurring in CQC bed 4. The fractures increased in size and intensity with temperature. This is attributed to the internal pressure generated by volume

  7. Concentration-response data on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from six synthetic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration-response data are presented on the toxic effects of the pyrolysis gases from six synthetic polymers on Swiss Webster male mice, using a toxicity screening test method. The polymers consisted of one sample each of polycarbonate and polystyrene, and two samples each of polyethylene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). All six samples were evaluated using the rising temperature program, and three samples were evaluated using the fixed temperature program. The pyrolysis gases from polycarbonate, polyethylene, and ABS appeared to exhibit the concentration-response relationships commonly encountered in toxicology. The polystyrene sample gave variable results; probably due to poor reproducibility of the essentially anaerobic pyrolysis. Carbon monoxide seemed to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases from polycarbonate and polyethylene, but did not appear to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases from ABS.

  8. Coarse-pored ceramic supports for pyrolysis catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Potapova, L.L.; Cherches, B.Kh.; Egiazarov, Yu.G.

    1988-03-20

    One promising trend in improvement of pyrolysis of hydrocarbon feedstocks is the use of heterogeneous catalysts in the process. The industrial use of highly effective catalysts would result in substantially increased product yields and in decrease of energy consumption in comparison with the requirements of drastic thermal processes. The aims of the present work were to obtain a mechanically strong coarse-pored ceramic support for pyrolysis catalysts and to study the influence of various factors on formation of its structure. The support material was made from an industrial ceramic mass of the following composition (%): koalin 30, plastic refractory clay 21, quartz 32, pegmatite 17. Various additives were used for formation of a porous structure: noncombustible highly porous (pumice, claydite), partially combustible (shungite), and completely combustible (SKT) activated carbon). The authors results show that 15 mass % of SKT carbon (particle size 0.1-0.2 mm) and 1-2 mass % of sodium trimetaphosphate should be added to the ceramic mass. The crushing strength of the resultant support samples reaches 550-630 kg/cm/sup 2/, with 34-35% porosity. Under the optimal conditions of pyrolysis of a straight-run gasoline fraction the catalyst obtained by deposition of 12 mass % of In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 4% K/sub 2/O on the synthesized support gives a yield of 39-41 mass % of ethylene and 61-62 mass % of unsaturated C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, with 88-90 mass % gasification.

  9. Influence of charcoal burning induced pyrolysis on soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Nicolay, Alexander; Pötzsch, Bastian; Fritzsche, Marie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Lusatia, Northeastern Germany, the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kilns in the forests north of Cottbus. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained around Cottbus from several thousand charcoal kilns which had internal diameters up to 20 m. For the study site with 35 km2 area, the until now prospected total ground area below the charcoal kilns which was potentially affected by the pyrolysis is about 0,5 km2. Historic data indicates that the pyrolysis in the charcoal kiln took up to several weeks, for the kilns with a diameter of 20 m about 20 days. To characterize the depth of thermal alteration of soils below the kiln our current focus is on the differentiation of the iron hydroxides by small-scale vertical analysis of soil profiles. The study site is situated 16 km northeast of Cottbus at the opencast mine Jänschwalde. Field work was done during the archaeological rescue excavation of a charcoal kiln in a 50 m long trench crossing an about 15 m wide charcoal kiln. One vertical profile outside the charcoal kiln and two vertical profiles below the charcoal kiln were chosen for analysis. The magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ on the undisturbed profile and ex situ on stepwise heated samples (105, 350, 550, 750 and 950°C). The total iron content was quantified ex situ by x-ray fluorescence. Our first results indicate a change in the magnetic susceptibility in the contact area of the mineral soil and the charcoal kiln. The influence of the pyrolysis on the soil is restricted to areas where the soil was not shielded against the heat by ash or organic material.

  10. Investigation on coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lunbo Duan; Changsui Zhao; Wu Zhou; Chengrui Qu; Xiaoping Chen

    2009-07-15

    Considerable studies have been reported on the coal pyrolysis process and the formation of SO{sub 2} and NOx processors such as H{sub 2}S, COS, SO{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3} in inert atmospheres. Similar studies in CO{sub 2} atmosphere also need to be accomplished for better understanding of the combustion characteristics and the SO{sub 2}/NOx formation mechanism of oxy-fuel combustion, which is one of the most important technologies for CO{sub 2} capture. In this study, thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was employed to measure the volatile yield and gas evolution features during coal pyrolysis process in CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Results show that replacing N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} does not influence the starting temperature of volatile release but seems to enhance the volatile releasing rate even at 480{sup o}C. At about 760{sup o}C, CO{sub 2} prevents the calcite from decomposing. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the volatile yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. COS is monitored during coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere while there are only H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} formed in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The COS is most likely formed by the reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. No NH{sub 3} was monitored in this study. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the gasification of char elevates the conversion of char-N to HCN. The HCN yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. 20 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Mechanism of the pyrolysis of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Gryaznov, N.S.; Sulimov, G.I.

    1984-01-01

    The thermochemical transformation of coals during coking takes place through radical polycondensation initiated by thermal decomposition. The process takes place stagewise under the influence of a decrease in the isobaric-isothermal potential and is directed to an increase in the thermal stability of the condensed phase at each given temperature. The stagewise nature of the process is due to the genetic features of coals - to the system of polycondensation.

  12. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  13. Thermal History Of PMRs Via Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, Richard E.; Alston, William B.; Snyder, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (PY-GC) useful as analytical technique to determine extents of cure or postcure of PMR-15 polyimides and to lesser extent, cumulative thermal histories of PMR-15 polyimides exposed to high temperatures. Also applicable for same purposes to other PMR polyimides and to composite materials containing PMR polyimides. Valuable in reducing costs and promoting safety in aircraft industry by helping to identify improperly cured or postcured PMR-15 composite engine and airframe components and helping to identify composite parts nearing ends of their useful lives.

  14. Toxic pyrolysis products of solvents, paints, and polymer films.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J E

    1993-01-01

    The organic chemicals used for solvents, paint, and polymer films are resistant to heat, but if the temperature is raised sufficiently, all will pyrolyze or degrade thermally to form new, lower-molecular-weight chemical species. The solvents include nonhalogenated and halogenated varieties, and their possible occupational exposures and reaction products are described. Paint and paint-like coatings, when pyrolyzed, always produce smoke, but toxic metals included as pigment may produce hazardous fumes. The condition "meat wrapper's asthma" is described to illustrate the effects once believed due to PVC pyrolysis.

  15. A generalized methodology to characterize composite materials for pyrolysis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Mark B.

    The predictive capabilities of computational fire models have improved in recent years such that models have become an integral part of many research efforts. Models improve the understanding of the fire risk of materials and may decrease the number of expensive experiments required to assess the fire hazard of a specific material or designed space. A critical component of a predictive fire model is the pyrolysis sub-model that provides a mathematical representation of the rate of gaseous fuel production from condensed phase fuels given a heat flux incident to the material surface. The modern, comprehensive pyrolysis sub-models that are common today require the definition of many model parameters to accurately represent the physical description of materials that are ubiquitous in the built environment. Coupled with the increase in the number of parameters required to accurately represent the pyrolysis of materials is the increasing prevalence in the built environment of engineered composite materials that have never been measured or modeled. The motivation behind this project is to develop a systematic, generalized methodology to determine the requisite parameters to generate pyrolysis models with predictive capabilities for layered composite materials that are common in industrial and commercial applications. This methodology has been applied to four common composites in this work that exhibit a range of material structures and component materials. The methodology utilizes a multi-scale experimental approach in which each test is designed to isolate and determine a specific subset of the parameters required to define a material in the model. Data collected in simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry experiments were analyzed to determine the reaction kinetics, thermodynamic properties, and energetics of decomposition for each component of the composite. Data collected in microscale combustion calorimetry experiments were analyzed to

  16. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some cellular polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Various samples of cellular polymers were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The cellular polymer samples included polyimide, polymethacrylimide, polybismaleimide, polyurethane, polyisocyanurate, polyethylene, polychloroprene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polysiloxane, and polyphosphazene. The cellular polymers exhibited varying levels of toxicity under these test conditions. Among the rigid cellular polymers, times to death were shortest with the imide type foams and longest with polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene. Among the flexible cellular polymers, times to death were shortest with polyimide and polyester, and longest with polychloroprene and polysiloxane. Increased char yield was not necessarily associated with reduced toxicity.

  17. Novel sorbent materials for environmental remediation via Pyrolysis of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabaniotou, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    One of the major challenges facing society at this moment is the transition from a non-sustainable, fossil resources-based economy to a sustainable bio-based economy. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock. The high-value products enhance profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy needs, and the power production reduces costs and avoids greenhouse-gas emissions From pyrolysis, besides gas and liquid products a solid product - char, is derived as well. This char contains the non converted carbon and can be used for activated carbon production and/or as additive in composite material production. Commercially available activated carbons are still considered expensive due to the use of non-renewable and relatively expensive starting material such as coal. The present study describes pyrolysis as a method to produce high added value carbon materials such as activated carbons (AC) from agricultural residues pyrolysis. Olive kernel has been investigated as the precursor of the above materials. The produced activated carbon was characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, BET method and porosity estimation. Furthermore, its adsorption of pesticide compound in aqueous solution by was studied. Pyrolysis of olive kernel was conducted at 800 oC for 45min in a fixed reactor. For the production of the activated carbon the pyrolytic char was physically activated under steam in the presence of CO2 at 970oC for 3 h in a bench scale reactor. The active carbons obtained from both scales were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K, methyl-blue adsorption (MB adsorption) at room temperature and SEM analysis. Surface area and MB adsorption were found to increase with the degree of burn-off. The surface area of the activated carbons was found to increase up to 1500 m2/g at a burn-off level of 60-65wt.%, while SEM analysis

  18. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  19. Test plan for ISV laboratory-pyrolysis testing

    SciTech Connect

    McAtee, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the laboratory-pyrolysis studies is to obtain information on the high temperature (< 1200{degree}C) degradation and alteration of organic chemicals and materials similar to those found in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Pit 9. This test plan describes experimental procedures, sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, sample control, and document management. It addresses safety issues in the experimental apparatus and procedures, personal training, and hazardous waste disposal. Finally, it describes the data quality objectives using the EPA tiered approach to treatability studies to define where research/scoping tests fit into these studies and the EPA analytical levels required for the tests.

  20. An industrial approach to evaluation of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Waritz, R S

    1975-01-01

    In addition to the usual toxicology studies necessary for the safe manufacture and use of polymers at room temperature, special studies are needed for polymers which will be used at elevated temperatures. This paper discusses various areas to be investigated and principles for deciding on test materials, tests, and test conditions, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated polyethylene-propylene (PFEP) pyrolysis studies being used as an illustrative case history. Some limitations of animal testing also are mentioned. A toxicological spectrum relating toxicological determinants to PTFE temperature is developed. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:1175553