Science.gov

Sample records for landing area navigation

  1. Feasibility study of a lunar landing area navigation network deployed by impacting micro-probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P.; Yung, K. L.

    2010-05-01

    Exploration activities on the lunar surface will require precise knowledge of the position of a robotic or manned vehicle. This paper discusses the use of radio beacons as method to determine the position of a mobile unit on the surface. Previous concepts consider the installation of such equipment by the robot itself. A novel idea is discussed here, namely to use miniaturized radio beacons which are deployed (released) during the descent of the lander on the surface. This idea has three major advantages compared to previous proposals: (i) it avoids the time costly and energy consuming installation of the equipment by a rover. (ii) The impact velocities of the probes are in reasonable range since the probes are deployed at low altitude from the main lander that approaches its final landing site. (iii) The probes can take reconnaissance pictures during their free-fall to the surface. This method will therefore deliver charts of the proximity of the landing area with higher resolution than those done by orbital means. Such information will enable scientists and mission operators to precisely plan robotic excursions (and later Extra Vehicular Activity) through the identification of hazardous areas and spots of interest. The paper will study the feasibility of this system from different aspects. The first section will outline the application scenario and the potential outcome of such a system for the coming phase of lunar exploration. A technological readiness review was done to evaluate if the payload instrumentation for these high velocity impacting probes is available. The second section presents the simulation of the impact process of a preliminary probe model in nonlinear transient dynamic finite element analysis using the Lagrangian hydrocode LS-DYNA. The purpose of this simulation was to evaluate if the beacon is able to communicate with the mobile unit even when buried into the soil. The integration of this payload into coming lunar missions will contribute to

  2. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  3. Space Shuttle Orbiter entry through landing navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, J. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter navigation system must be capable of determining its position and velocity throughout a variety of operational regimes. The design and operation of the entry through landing navigation system is described as it operates during a nominal end of mission from the orbital coasting phase throughout atmospheric flight and landing. Design and operation of the Kalman filter is described. Stabilization of the altitude channel prior to acquisition of external measurement data is described. Utilization of the Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN), barometric altimeter, and Microwave Scan Beam Landing System external measurement data is described. A comparison is made between predicted performance and the navigation accuracy observed during flight.

  4. Testing Microwave Landing Systems With Satellite Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Less time and equipment needed to perform tests. Satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measures accuracy of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at airports used to support Shuttle landings. Provides time and three-dimensional information on position and velocity with unprecedented accuracy. Useful for testing other electronic navigation aids like LORAN, TACAN and microwave landing systems (MLS).

  5. Overview of Terrain Relative Navigation Approaches for Precise Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Montgomery, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The driving precision landing requirement for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology project is to autonomously land within 100m of a predetermined location on the lunar surface. Traditional lunar landing approaches based on inertial sensing do not have the navigational precision to meet this requirement. The purpose of Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) is to augment inertial navigation by providing position or bearing measurements relative to known surface landmarks. From these measurements, the navigational precision can be reduced to a level that meets the 100m requirement. There are three different TRN functions: global position estimation, local position estimation and velocity estimation. These functions can be achieved with active range sensing or passive imaging. This paper gives a survey of many TRN approaches and then presents some high fidelity simulation results for contour matching and area correlation approaches to TRN using active sensors. Since TRN requires an a-priori reference map, the paper concludes by describing past and future lunar imaging and digital elevation map data sets available for this purpose.

  6. Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance For Safe Moon Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Sasa, S.; Katayama, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Ninomiya, T.; Hamada, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    Introduction: In Japan, as the separation plan of the SELENE project, the following unmanned moon landing and geological exploration with a moon rover study plan, named SELENE-B, has been started from last April by NASDA, ISAS, and NAL team. The primary objectives of SELENE-B are the establishment of the safe and re- liable landing technology for the moon, and scientific exploration of the moon using a rover or other scientific mission payloads. Since the major requirement for the project SELENE separation is the lack and immaturity of the safe landing technology, landing safety and accuracy are the primary and hardest requirements for SELENE-B study. From the viewpoint of landing safety and technological reliability, landing site will tend to the Moon Ocean area, where the geographical features could be expected as flat, almost covered by soft regoris, and less large rocks. However, from the scientific viewpoint, such areas were already explored about 30 year ago, by Appolo, Surveyer, and Lunokhod, and are hard to be considered as the first Japanese moon exploration site. Thus the study target of the landing site is assumed as a central peak of a crater and/or the dome/cone area in a moon sea, by the strong motivation for the scientific requirements, since these areas are still unexplored by human being. To land on such severe terrain, the investigation results for high accurate navigation, obstacle detec- tion and avoidance using stereo camera system for autonomous moon landing will be described in the presentation. Unmanned Moon Lander: In the SELENE-B plan, the unmanned moon lander is as- sumed to be launched by H2-A rocket, as the 1/2 payload. It will be submitted into the circular orbit around the moon after 5 days flight to the moon. The orbit height is assumed as 50-100km to keep the lander safety from the moon mountain and moon gravity distortion. The size of the lander is assumed about 4 m in diameter and 5 m in height. On the lander, a small moon rover

  7. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  8. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  9. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  10. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  11. 33 CFR 165.10 - Regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated navigation areas. 165.10 Section 165.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  12. GPS/INS Enhancement for Land Navigation using Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaygisiz, Burak H.; Erkmen, Ismet; Erkmen, Aydan M.

    2004-05-01

    We propose in this paper a method to enhance the performance of a coupled global positioning/inertial navigation system (GPS/INS) for land navigation applications during GPS signal loss. Our method is based on the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) to intelligently aid the GPS/INS coupled navigation system in the absence of GPS signals. The proposed enhanced GPS/INS is tested in the dynamic environment of a land vehicle navigating around a closed path on the METU campus and we provide the results. Our GPS/INS+ANN system performance is thus demonstrated with a land trial.

  13. VOR area navigation - Techniques and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for deriving position from VOR (without DME) have been developed and evaluated in this study. These methods permit navigation to arbitrary waypoints using either two VOR's or one VOR and a clock. These algorithms have been tested in computer simulations and in flight tests. The single VOR method appears to be the most practical and is a candidate for an automated light plane area navigation system, called VORNAV.

  14. Space shuttle entry and landing navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Crawford, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    A navigation system for the entry phase of a Space Shuttle mission which is an aided-inertial system which uses a Kalman filter to mix IMU data with data derived from external navigation aids is evaluated. A drag pseudo-measurement used during radio blackout is treated as an additional external aid. A comprehensive truth model with 101 states is formulated and used to generate detailed error budgets at several significant time points -- end-of-blackout, start of final approach, over runway threshold, and touchdown. Sensitivity curves illustrating the effect of variations in the size of individual error sources on navigation accuracy are presented. The sensitivity of the navigation system performance to filter modifications is analyzed. The projected overall performance is shown in the form of time histories of position and velocity error components. The detailed results are summarized and interpreted, and suggestions are made concerning possible software improvements.

  15. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  16. Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between

  17. Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between

  18. Removing dust impact for visual navigation in Mars landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Cao, Yunfeng; Ding, Meng; Zhuang, Likui

    2016-01-01

    Visual navigation has received more and more attention in Mars landing. However, dust devils are active on Mars. The dust will make a great influence on visual navigation during the landing phase. In this paper, a simple but effective approach was proposed to remove the dust impact for visual navigation in Mars landing. This method was based on a model which was widely used to describe the scene radiance that was affected by different weather conditions. First the calculation method of transmission parameter was deduced from this model. Then the value of the global atmospheric light was estimated through the detection of most dust-opaque region. After all unknown variables were determined, the clear image was recovered by the corresponding formula and calculation method. For it is difficult to obtain the decent images that appear while the Mars rover enters the landing phase, a simulated dust environment was created in the lab and some images affected by dust were obtained to check the validity of this method. From the results of the experiments, the proposed approach can effectively eliminate the dust influences and provide clearer pictures. The clear images help to provide more precise data for visual navigation.

  19. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, LA'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 22722). No public... navigation area (RNA) to prohibit all vessels from being within the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal...

  20. Development of Navigation Doppler Lidar for Future Landing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    A coherent Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) sensor has been developed under the Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project to support future NASA missions to planetary bodies. This lidar sensor provides accurate surface-relative altitude and vector velocity data during the descent phase that can be used by an autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system to precisely navigate the vehicle from a few kilometers above the ground to a designated location and execute a controlled soft touchdown. The operation and performance of the NDL was demonstrated through closed-loop flights onboard the rocket-propelled Morpheus vehicle in 2014. In Morpheus flights, conducted at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, the NDL data was used by an autonomous GN&C system to navigate and land the vehicle precisely at the selected location surrounded by hazardous rocks and craters. Since then, development efforts for the NDL have shifted toward enhancing performance, optimizing design, and addressing spaceflight size and mass constraints and environmental and reliability requirements. The next generation NDL, with expanded operational envelope and significantly reduced size, will be demonstrated in 2017 through a new flight test campaign onboard a commercial rocketpropelled test vehicle.

  1. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  2. 75 FR 47713 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Navigation Area; Galveston Channel'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 18766). We received no comments on the... area (RNA) across the entire width of the Galveston Channel in the vicinity of Sector Field Office (SFO) Galveston, Texas. This RNA will require vessels to navigate at no wake speeds within this area....

  3. 75 FR 18776 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX AGENCY... a regulated navigation area across the entire width of the Galveston Channel in the vicinity...

  4. Functional connections between optic flow areas and navigationally responsive brain regions during goal-directed navigation.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Katherine R; Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Ross, Robert S; Erdem, Uğur M; Hasselmo, Michael E; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-09-01

    Recent computational models suggest that visual input from optic flow provides information about egocentric (navigator-centered) motion and influences firing patterns in spatially tuned cells during navigation. Computationally, self-motion cues can be extracted from optic flow during navigation. Despite the importance of optic flow to navigation, a functional link between brain regions sensitive to optic flow and brain regions important for navigation has not been established in either humans or animals. Here, we used a beta-series correlation methodology coupled with two fMRI tasks to establish this functional link during goal-directed navigation in humans. Functionally defined optic flow sensitive cortical areas V3A, V6, and hMT+ were used as seed regions. fMRI data was collected during a navigation task in which participants updated position and orientation based on self-motion cues to successfully navigate to an encoded goal location. The results demonstrate that goal-directed navigation requiring updating of position and orientation in the first person perspective involves a cooperative interaction between optic flow sensitive regions V3A, V6, and hMT+ and the hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. These functional connections suggest a dynamic interaction between these systems to support goal-directed navigation.

  5. 77 FR 45991 - Regulated Navigation Area; Buzzard's Bay, MA; Navigable Waterways Within the First Coast Guard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...) applicable to First Coast Guard District waters. (72 FR 50052; corrected by 72 FR 70780). The purpose of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 161 and 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Buzzard's Bay, MA; Navigable Waterways Within the First Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...

  6. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  7. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development. PMID:25819212

  8. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  9. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  10. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  11. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  12. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  13. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  14. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  15. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  16. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  17. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  18. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.730...

  19. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. 165.811 Section 165.811 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated...

  20. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a... REGULATIONS § 207.175a Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use,...

  1. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a... REGULATIONS § 207.175a Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  5. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  7. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  8. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District §...

  9. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District §...

  10. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  11. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  12. 33 CFR 207.175a - Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carlson's Landing Dam navigation lock, Withlacoochee River, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.175a Section 207.175a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  13. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX. 165.827 Section 165.827 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  14. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  15. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  16. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  17. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  18. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  19. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  20. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX. 165.827 Section 165.827 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  1. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  2. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  3. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  4. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  5. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area. 165.1402 Section 165.1402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  7. 33 CFR 165.101 - Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kittery, Maine-regulated navigation area. 165.101 Section 165.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  8. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  9. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area. 165.1402 Section 165.1402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  11. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  12. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  13. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  14. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  15. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  16. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  17. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  18. 33 CFR 165.752 - Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sparkman Channel, Tampa, Florida-regulated navigation area. 165.752 Section 165.752 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  19. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area. 165.806 Section 165.806 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  20. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  1. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  2. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  3. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  4. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  5. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  6. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  7. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  8. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  9. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  10. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... navigation area (RNA). The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) encompasses all of the navigable waters of... commercial vessel traffic in all locations within this RNA shall keep out of the way of the oncoming deep... provided by the COTP. (c) Enforcement. Violations of this RNA should be reported to the COTP...

  11. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

  12. Navigation systems for approach and landing of VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Mohr, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of navigation systems used for research investigations in the V/STOLAND avionics system are described. The navigation systems prove position and velocity in a cartestian reference frame aligned with the runway. They use filtering techniques to combine the raw position data from navaids (e.g., TACAN, MLS) with data from onboard inertial sensors. The filtering techniques which use both complementary and Kalman filters, are described. The software for the navigation systems is also described.

  13. Flight results from a study of aided inertial navigation applied to landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Carson, T. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Schmidt, S. F.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the approach and landing performance of a Kalman filter aided inertial navigation system using flight data obtained from a series of approaches and landings of the CV-340 aircraft at an instrumented test area. A description of the flight test is given, in which data recorded included: (1) accelerometer signals from the platform of an INS; (2) three ranges from the Ames-Cubic Precision Ranging System; and (3) radar and barometric altimeter signals. The method of system evaluation employed was postflight processing of the recorded data using a Kalman filter which was designed for use on the XDS920 computer onboard the CV-340 aircraft. Results shown include comparisons between the trajectories as estimated by the Kalman filter aided system and as determined from cinetheodolite data. Data start initialization of the Kalman filter, operation at a practical data rate, postflight modeling of sensor errors and operation under the adverse condition of bad data are illustrated.

  14. 33 CFR 165.838 - Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enforcement period, including intended mooring arrangements that comply with 33 CFR 165.803 and the mooring.... (a) Regulated Navigation Area. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): (1) The Inner... floating vessels are prohibited from entering or remaining in the RNA except pending approval of a...

  15. 33 CFR 165.838 - Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enforcement period, including intended mooring arrangements that comply with 33 CFR 165.803 and the mooring.... (a) Regulated Navigation Area. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): (1) The Inner... floating vessels are prohibited from entering or remaining in the RNA except pending approval of a...

  16. 33 CFR 165.838 - Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enforcement period, including intended mooring arrangements that comply with 33 CFR 165.803 and the mooring.... (a) Regulated Navigation Area. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): (1) The Inner... floating vessels are prohibited from entering or remaining in the RNA except pending approval of a...

  17. 33 CFR 165.838 - Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enforcement period, including intended mooring arrangements that comply with 33 CFR 165.803 and the mooring.... (a) Regulated Navigation Area. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): (1) The Inner... floating vessels are prohibited from entering or remaining in the RNA except pending approval of a...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the...

  20. Efficient occlusion-free visualization for navigation in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hao; Zhang, Liqiang; Han, Chunming; Ren, Yingchao; Zhang, Liang; Li, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) navigation, if mountainous terrain is displayed based on ordinary perspective projection, viewers often find that the features of interest are occluded, which prevents an overview of the features. This paper presents an approach for the automatic generation of consecutive non-perspective views of mountainous terrain. The proposed method can generate views without occlusions of important features, and allows viewers to navigate the landscape. The ray-tracing technique is employed to detect occlusions. The local elevations that occlude important features are transformed, while the resemblance and realism of the 3D landscape are maintained by solving global optimization problems. The approach maximizes the visibility of the features of interest on the deformed terrain. It also maintains a good balance between the elimination of occlusion and the preservation of resemblance. The occlusion-free visualization framework satisfies the demand for navigation and tour guidance in mountainous areas at interactive frame rates.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated navigation area encompasses all waters in Biscayne Bay...

  4. Lidar-Based Navigation Algorithm for Safe Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David M.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN) is to provide measurements to the Navigation Filter so that it can limit errors on the position estimate after hazards have been detected. The hazards are detected by processing a hazard digital elevation map (HDEM). The HRN process takes lidar images as the spacecraft descends to the surface and matches these to the HDEM to compute relative position measurements. Since the HDEM has the hazards embedded in it, the position measurements are relative to the hazards, hence the name Hazard Relative Navigation.

  5. Development of a computer program data base of a navigation aid environment for simulated IFR flight and landing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.; Haynie, A. T.; Mcdede, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A general aviation single pilot instrument flight rule simulation capability was developed. Problems experienced by single pilots flying in IFR conditions were investigated. The simulation required a three dimensional spatial navaid environment of a flight navigational area. A computer simulation of all the navigational aids plus 12 selected airports located in the Washington/Norfolk area was developed. All programmed locations in the list were referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system with the origin located at a specified airport's reference point. All navigational aids with their associated frequencies, call letters, locations, and orientations plus runways and true headings are included in the data base. The simulation included a TV displayed out-the-window visual scene of country and suburban terrain and a scaled model runway complex. Any of the programmed runways, with all its associated navaids, can be referenced to a runway on the airport in this visual scene. This allows a simulation of a full mission scenario including breakout and landing.

  6. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: the waters of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick Bay bounded on the northside from 2,000...

  7. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: the waters of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick Bay bounded on the northside from 2,000...

  8. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: the waters of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick Bay bounded on the northside from 2,000...

  9. Altair Navigation During Trans-Lunar Cruise, Lunar Orbit, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Heyne, Martin; Riedel, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair lunar lander navigation system is driven by a set of requirements that not only specify a need to land within 100 m of a designated spot on the Moon, but also be capable of a safe return to an orbiting Orion capsule in the event of loss of Earth ground support. These requirements lead to the need for a robust and capable on-board navigation system that works in conjunction with an Earth ground navigation system that uses primarily ground-based radiometric tracking. The resulting system relies heavily on combining a multiplicity of data types including navigation state updates from the ground based navigation system, passive optical imaging from a gimbaled camera, a stable inertial measurement unit, and a capable radar altimeter and velocimeter. The focus of this paper is on navigation performance during the trans-lunar cruise, lunar orbit, and descent/landing mission phases with the goal of characterizing knowledge and delivery errors to key mission events, bound the statistical delta V costs for executing the mission, as well as the determine the landing dispersions due to navigation. This study examines the nominal performance that can be obtained using the current best estimate of the vehicle, sensor, and environment models. Performance of the system under a variety sensor outages and parametric trades is also examined.

  10. Satellite images for land cover monitoring - Navigating through the maze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Künzer, Claudia; Fosnight, Gene

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this publication is satellite systems for land cover monitoring. On the reverse is a table that compares a selection of these systems, whose data are globally available in a form suitable for land cover analysis. We hope the information presented will help you assess the utility of remotely sensed image to meet your needs.

  11. 33 CFR 165.806 - Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas... § 165.806 Sabine Neches Waterway, Texas—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The Sabine Neches Waterway which includes the following waters: Sabine Pass Channel,...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1336 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and LockheedShipyard Superfund Sites, Elliott...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1336 Regulated...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1336 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and LockheedShipyard Superfund Sites, Elliott...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1336 Regulated...

  14. 33 CFR 165.838 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards. Title 33 CFR 165.803, United Facilities Criteria (UFC) 4-159 and American Society of the Civil... Federal Communications Commission regulations found in 47 CFR part 83; a continuous watch on the vessels... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  15. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Navigation Strategy for Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Telecommunication Relay Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jessica L.; Menon, Premkumar R.; Demcak, Stuart W.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is an orbiting asset that performs remote sensing observations in order to characterize the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars. To support upcoming NASA Mars Exploration Program Office objectives, MRO will be used as a relay communication link for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission during the MSL Entry, Descent and Landing sequence. To do so, MRO Navigation must synchronize the MRO Primary Science Orbit (PSO) with a set of target conditions requested by the MSL Navigation Team; this may be accomplished via propulsive maneuvers. This paper describes the MRO Navigation strategy for and operational performance of MSL EDL relay telecommunication support.

  16. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  17. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  18. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  19. 33 CFR 165.100 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 2.36, within the geographic boundaries of the First Coast Guard District, as defined in 33 CFR...: Navigable waters within the First Coast Guard District. 165.100 Section 165.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  20. Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the United States and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance.

  1. LIDAR-Aided Inertial Navigation with Extended Kalman Filtering for Pinpoint Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busnardo, David M.; Aitken, Matthew L.; Tolson, Robert H.; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA s Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project, an extended Kalman filter routine has been developed for estimating the position, velocity, and attitude of a spacecraft during the landing phase of a planetary mission. The proposed filter combines measurements of acceleration and angular velocity from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) with range and Doppler velocity observations from an onboard light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. These high-precision LIDAR measurements of distance to the ground and approach velocity will enable both robotic and manned vehicles to land safely and precisely at scientifically interesting sites. The filter has been extensively tested using a lunar landing simulation and shown to improve navigation over flat surfaces or rough terrain. Experimental results from a helicopter flight test performed at NASA Dryden in August 2008 demonstrate that LIDAR can be employed to significantly improve navigation based exclusively on IMU integration.

  2. 77 FR 67566 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area A... this temporary final rule on September 5, 2012 (77 FR 54495). We received two public comments on the... Coast Guard is temporarily establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1413 - Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii. 165.1413 Section 165.1413 Navigation and Navigable... Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1413 Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation... staging area is intended for use by all commercial vessels intended to remain in the RNA during a...

  4. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area that has operating restrictions in effect must contact the COTP at telephone number (718) 354-4356... River South of the Troy Locks, NY. 165.165 Section 165.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  6. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  7. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  8. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  9. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  10. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Register a final rule to establish RNAV route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area (75 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation... area navigation (RNAV) route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area, is being withdrawn. As a...

  11. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL...) Enforcement period. This rule will be in enforced annually on Columbus Day weekend, starting at 12:01 p.m....

  12. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL...) Enforcement period. This rule will be in enforced annually on Columbus Day weekend, starting at 12:01 p.m....

  13. 76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... the Troy Locks, NY'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 76943). We received no comments on the proposed... Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy... RNAs. Historically ice has been an impediment to navigation during certain times of the year on...

  14. 75 FR 22674 - Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of: (1) Loran-C navigation system Technical Standard Orders (TSO); and (2) the revocation of Loran-C navigation system TSO...

  15. 75 FR 42819 - Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT ACTION: Notice of cancellation of: (1) Loran-C navigation system Technical Standard Orders (TSO); and (2) the revocation of Loran-C navigation system TSO...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  20. Lidar Systems for Precision Navigation and Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Currently, NASA is developing novel lidar sensors aimed at needs of future planetary landing missions. These lidar sensors are a 3-Dimensional Imaging Flash Lidar, a Doppler Lidar, and a Laser Altimeter. The Flash Lidar is capable of generating elevation maps of the terrain that indicate hazardous features such as rocks, craters, and steep slopes. The elevation maps collected during the approach phase of a landing vehicle, at about 1 km above the ground, can be used to determine the most suitable safe landing site. The Doppler Lidar provides highly accurate ground relative velocity and distance data allowing for precision navigation to the landing site. Our Doppler lidar utilizes three laser beams pointed to different directions to measure line of sight velocities and ranges to the ground from altitudes of over 2 km. Throughout the landing trajectory starting at altitudes of about 20 km, the Laser Altimeter can provide very accurate ground relative altitude measurements that are used to improve the vehicle position knowledge obtained from the vehicle navigation system. At altitudes from approximately 15 km to 10 km, either the Laser Altimeter or the Flash Lidar can be used to generate contour maps of the terrain, identifying known surface features such as craters, to perform Terrain relative Navigation thus further reducing the vehicle s relative position error. This paper describes the operational capabilities of each lidar sensor and provides a status of their development. Keywords: Laser Remote Sensing, Laser Radar, Doppler Lidar, Flash Lidar, 3-D Imaging, Laser Altimeter, Precession Landing, Hazard Detection

  1. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  3. 78 FR 71495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History and... Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the Piscataqua River near Portsmouth, NH... Guard has the authority to establish RNAs in defined water areas that are determined to have...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  7. The Development of the MSL Guidance, Navigation, and Control System for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    San Martin, A. Miguel; Lee, Steven W.; Wong, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission successfully delivered the Curiosity rover to its intended target. It was the most complex and ambitious landing in the history of the red planet. A key component of the landing system, the requirements for which were driven by the mission ambitious science goals, was the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system. This paper will describe the technical challenges of the MSL GN&C system, the resulting architecture and design needed to meet those challenges, and the development process used for its implementation and testing.

  8. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.840 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840...

  9. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.840 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840...

  10. Area navigation implementation for a microcomputer-based LORAN-C receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguri, F.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering performed to make LORAN-C a more useful and practical navigation system for general aviation is described. Development of new software, and implementation of this software on a (MOS6502) microcomputer to provide high quality practical area navigation information directly to the pilot and considered. Flight tests were performed specifically to examine the efficacy of this new software. Final results were exceptionally good and clearly demonstrate the merits of this new LORAN-C area navigation system.

  11. Real-time Terrain Relative Navigation Test Results from a Relevant Environment for Mars Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Cheng, Yang; Montgomery, James; Trawny, Nikolas; Tweddle, Brent; Zheng, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) is an on-board GN&C function that generates a position estimate of a spacecraft relative to a map of a planetary surface. When coupled with a divert, the position estimate enables access to more challenging landing sites through pin-point landing or large hazard avoidance. The Lander Vision System (LVS) is a smart sensor system that performs terrain relative navigation by matching descent camera imagery to a map of the landing site and then fusing this with inertial measurements to obtain high rate map relative position, velocity and attitude estimates. A prototype of the LVS was recently tested in a helicopter field test over Mars analog terrain at altitudes representative of Mars Entry Descent and Landing conditions. TRN ran in real-time on the LVS during the flights without human intervention or tuning. The system was able to compute estimates accurate to 40m (3 sigma) in 10 seconds on a flight like processing system. This paper describes the Mars operational test space definition, how the field test was designed to cover that operational envelope, the resulting TRN performance across the envelope and an assessment of test space coverage.

  12. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... escorted vessel. LNG tankship means a vessel as described in 46 CFR 154. Made-up means physically attached... (LNG) shall: (A) Comply with the notice requirements of 33 CFR part 160. The COTP may delay the vessel....756 Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia. (a) Regulated Navigation Area (RNA)....

  13. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... escorted vessel. LNG tankship means a vessel as described in 46 CFR 154. Made-up means physically attached... (LNG) shall: (A) Comply with the notice requirements of 33 CFR part 160. The COTP may delay the vessel....756 Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia. (a) Regulated Navigation Area (RNA)....

  14. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... escorted vessel. LNG tankship means a vessel as described in 46 CFR 154. Made-up means physically attached... (LNG) shall: (A) Comply with the notice requirements of 33 CFR part 160. The COTP may delay the vessel....756 Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia. (a) Regulated Navigation Area (RNA)....

  15. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... escorted vessel. LNG tankship means a vessel as described in 46 CFR 154. Made-up means physically attached... (LNG) shall: (A) Comply with the notice requirements of 33 CFR part 160. The COTP may delay the vessel....756 Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia. (a) Regulated Navigation Area (RNA)....

  16. 77 FR 1407 - Regulated Navigation Area; Memorial Bridge Construction, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... comments. SUMMARY: The United States Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the... necessitates creation of a regulated navigation area (RNA) is scheduled to begin, and when the bridge is...

  17. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... escorted vessel. LNG tankship means a vessel as described in 46 CFR 154. Made-up means physically attached... (LNG) shall: (A) Comply with the notice requirements of 33 CFR part 160. The COTP may delay the vessel....756 Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia. (a) Regulated Navigation Area (RNA)....

  18. 75 FR 18449 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Bars Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Register (74 FR 59098), which established Regulated Navigation Areas covering each of the coastal bars in...: The Coast Guard proposes to change the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) covering the Umpqua River...

  19. 78 FR 28170 - Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel Evacuation; Honolulu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami...

  20. 77 FR 71492 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA... Register on October 29, 2012, that adds two waypoints to the description of area navigation (RNAV) route Q... 1 CFR part 51, subject to the annual revision of FAA Order 7400.9 and publication of...

  1. Differential GPS/inertial navigation approach/landing flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Scott; Schipper, Brian; Vallot, Larry; Parker, Nigel; Spitzer, Cary

    1992-01-01

    In November of 1990 a joint Honeywell/NASA-Langley differential GPS/inertial flight test was conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia. The test objective was to acquire a system performance database and demonstrate automatic landing using an integrated differential GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system) with barometric and radar altimeters. The flight test effort exceeded program objectives with over 120 landings, 36 of which were fully automatic differential GPS/inertial landings. Flight test results obtained from post-flight data analysis are discussed. These results include characteristics of differential GPS/inertial error, using the Wallops Island Laser Tracker as a reference. Data on the magnitude of the differential corrections and vertical channel performance with and without radar altimeter augmentation are provided.

  2. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3... ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee... for channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for...

  3. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  4. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  5. 77 FR 41717 - Regulated Navigation Area; Original Waldo-Hancock Bridge Removal, Penobscot River, Bucksport, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register MEDOT Maine Department of... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable...

  6. 75 FR 76943 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... Guard proposes to establish a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson... that established an RNA for that period. That rule established restrictions similar to those that...

  7. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13...

  8. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13...

  9. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13...

  10. 77 FR 1023 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Arthur Kill. An earlier TIR added the basic RNA regulation for that waterway: 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 (76 FR... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting within the... amending the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in the navigable waters of the Arthur Kill in New York and...

  11. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable...

  12. 76 FR 52569 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Arthur Kill in New York and New... the RNA is in place. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments identified by docket number USCG-...

  13. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13...

  14. 76 FR 42545 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chelsea Street Bridge Construction, Chelsea, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting in connection.... SUMMARY: The United States Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable... Guard to suspend all vessel traffic within the RNA for construction operations, both planned...

  15. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13...

  16. 75 FR 49843 - Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy Testing, Great Bay, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) in navigable waters... maritime public from hazards associated with the boom deployment exercise. While the RNA is in effect,...

  17. 78 FR 29648 - Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation..., Bucksport, ME, in the Federal Register (77 FR 41717). No comments were received. This TFR is the outgrowth... final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA)...

  18. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.556 Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware...

  19. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area:...

  20. Reactive Sequencing for Autonomous Navigation Evolving from Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher A.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is an award-winning advanced procedural sequencing language in use on NASA deep-space missions since 1997, and was used for the successful entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of the Phoenix spacecraft onto the surface of Mars. Phoenix EDL utilized a state-oriented operations architecture which executed within the constraints of the existing VML 2.0 flight capability, compatible with the linear "land or die" nature of the mission. The intricacies of Phoenix EDL included the planned discarding of portions of the vehicle, the complex communications management for relay through on-orbit assets, the presence of temporally indeterminate physical events, and the need to rapidly catch up four days of sequencing should a reboot of the spacecraft flight computer occur shortly before atmospheric entry. These formidable operational challenges led to new techniques for packaging and coordinating reusable sequences called blocks using one-way synchronization via VML sequencing global variable events. The coordinated blocks acted as an ensemble to land the spacecraft, while individually managing various elements in as simple a fashion as possible. This paper outlines prototype VML 2.1 flight capabilities that have evolved from the one-way synchronization techniques in order to implement even more ambitious autonomous mission capabilities. Target missions for these new capabilities include autonomous touch-and-go sampling of cometary and asteroidal bodies, lunar landing of robotic missions, and ultimately landing of crewed lunar vehicles. Close proximity guidance, navigation, and control operations, on-orbit rendezvous, and descent and landing events featured in these missions require elaborate abort capability, manifesting highly non-linear scenarios that are so complex as to overtax traditional sequencing, or even the sort of one-way coordinated sequencing used during EDL. Foreseeing advanced command and control needs for small body and lunar landing

  1. 33 CFR 165.815 - Ohio River at Louisville, KY; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., downstream to McAlpine Dam at Mile 604.4. (b) The general regulations governing regulated navigation area contained in 33 CFR part 165, subpart B apply. (c) No pleasure or fishing craft shall be operated within...

  2. 33 CFR 165.815 - Ohio River at Louisville, KY; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., downstream to McAlpine Dam at Mile 604.4. (b) The general regulations governing regulated navigation area contained in 33 CFR part 165, subpart B apply. (c) No pleasure or fishing craft shall be operated within...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1322 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  4. Summary of paper: Area navigation implementation for a microcomputer-based Loran-C receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguri, Fujiko

    1987-01-01

    The development of an area navigation program and the implementation of this software on a microcomputer-based Loran-C receiver to provide high-quality, practical area navigation information for general aviation are described. This software provides range and bearing angle to a selected waypoint, cross-track error, course deviation indication (CDI), ground speed, and estimated time of arrival at the waypoint. The range/bearing calculation, using an elliptical Earth model, provides very good accuracy; the error does not exceed more than -.012 nm (range) or 0.09 degree (bearing) for a maximum range to 530 nm. The alpha-beta filtering is applied in order to reduce the random noise on Loran-C raw data and in the ground speed calculation. Due to alpha-beta filtering, the ground speed calculation has good stability for constant or low-accelerative flight. The execution time of this software is approximately 0.2 second. Flight testing was done with a prototype Loran-C front-end receiver, with the Loran-C area navigation software demonstrating the ability to provide navigation for the pilot to any point in the Loran-C coverage area in true area navigation fashion without line-of-sight and range restriction typical of VOR area navigation.

  5. 78 FR 29615 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... altitude RNAV routes, designated T-291 and T-295, in the Washington, DC area (78 FR 10562, February 14... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Establishment of Area Navigation..., DC Metropolitan area airports. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC, August 22, 2013. The Director of...

  6. Simulation of a Doppler lidar system for autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance during planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Scott E.; Chester, David B.

    2016-05-01

    The latest mission proposals for exploration of solar system bodies require accurate position and velocity data during the descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. During landing maneuvers, the accuracy of the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU) may not be reliable due to drift over extended travel times to destinations. NASA has proposed an advanced Doppler lidar system with multiple beams that can be used to accurately determine attitude and position of the landing vehicle during descent, and to detect hazards that might exist in the landing area. In order to assess the effectiveness of such a Doppler lidar landing system, it is valuable to simulate the system with different beam numbers and configurations. In addition, the effectiveness of the system to detect and map potential landing hazards must be understood. This paper reports the simulated system performance for a proposed multi-beam Doppler lidar using the LadarSIM system simulation software. Details of the simulation methods are given, as well as lidar performance parameters such as range and velocity accuracy, detection and false alarm rates, and examples of the Doppler lidars ability to detect and characterize simulated hazards in the landing site. The simulation includes modulated pulse generation and coherent detection methods, beam footprint simulation, beam scanning, and interaction with terrain.

  7. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  8. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  9. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  10. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  11. A comparative analysis of area navigation systems in general aviation. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Radio navigation systems which offer the capabilities of area navigation to general aviation operators are discussed. The systems considered are: (1) the VORTAC system, (2) the Loran-C system, and (3) the Differential Omega system. The inital analyses are directed toward a comparison of the systems with respect to their compliance to specified performance parameters and to the cost effectiveness of each system in relation to those specifications. Further analyses lead to the development of system cost sensitivity charts, and the employment of these charts allows conclusions to be drawn relative to the cost-effectiveness of the candidate navigation system.

  12. A method for testing land resource area concepts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land Resource Units (LRUs) are defined by the National Soil Survey Handbook as aggregations of soil map units and subunits of Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs). In the USDA NRCS Land Resource Hierarchy, LRUs are defined as the level between MLRAs and STATSGO and are mapped at 1:1 million scale. They...

  13. A Long Distance Laser Altimeter for Terrain Relative Navigation and Spacecraft Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Barnes, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    A high precision laser altimeter was developed under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project at NASA Langley Research Center. The laser altimeter provides slant-path range measurements from operational ranges exceeding 30 km that will be used to support surface-relative state estimation and navigation during planetary descent and precision landing. The altimeter uses an advanced time-of-arrival receiver, which produces multiple signal-return range measurements from tens of kilometers with 5 cm precision. The transmitter is eye-safe, simplifying operations and testing on earth. The prototype is fully autonomous, and able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses experienced during test flights conducted aboard helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and Morpheus, a terrestrial rocket-powered vehicle developed by NASA Johnson Space Center. This paper provides an overview of the sensor and presents results obtained during recent field experiments including a helicopter flight test conducted in December 2012 and Morpheus flight tests conducted during March of 2014.

  14. 75 FR 6319 - Proposed Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by eliminating the...

  15. 76 FR 2827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) established by 33 CFR 165.921 for barges loaded with certain dangerous... requirements, or repeal the RNA. This suspension of the CDC reporting requirements in no way relieves towing vessel operators and fleeting area managers responsible for CDC barges in the RNA from their...

  16. 77 FR 14276 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the... establish RNAs in defined water areas that are determined to have hazardous conditions and in which...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i)...

  18. 77 FR 13971 - Regulated Navigation Area; MBTA Saugus River Railroad Drawbridge Rehabilitation Project, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA... Safety Act, the Coast Guard has the authority to establish RNAs in defined water areas that...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i)...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i)...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  3. 77 FR 1020 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... for comments. SUMMARY: The United States Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA..., the Coast Guard has the authority to establish RNAs in defined water areas that are determined to...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i)...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i)...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  9. 77 FR 19544 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR, in the Federal Register (76 FR 48070). We... Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) at the Zidell Waterfront Property located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. This RNA is necessary to preserve the integrity of an engineered sediment cap as part...

  10. [Land-use strategy in riverine area].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhenhua; Wang, Cheng

    2002-04-01

    The land near river is one kind of land zone that is inseparably related to the ecological process of river and lake, and directly affected or endangered by flood. Combined with ecological principles and the theory of forest eco-network system in China, the landscape security, the principles and directional thoughts, the theoretical basis and strategy were comprehensively studied in this paper. The landscape security should include three aspects of ecological benefit security, economical benefit security, and social benefit security. The land-use principles should be to find the best uniting section and ensure integration of the three principles together. The directional thoughts should be to combine management and development together, strengthen the landscape security by various measures, and carry out the near natural land-use and managing strategy by increasing the proportion of forest. Different development models should be selected in different rivers and regions. According to the risk grades of flood disturbance and spatial differentiation of lands near river, the different managing strategy with different disturbance degree should be carried out in different reach in upstream, midstream, and downstream based on the spatial differentiation of river and lands nearby in longitudinal direction, while based on the spatial differentiation and security during flood in cross direction, the utilization strategy should be classified and aimed at fragile use zone, stable use zone, and elastic use zone, respectively.

  11. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  16. Design and flight test of a differential GPS/inertial navigation system for approach/landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallot, Lawrence; Snyder, Scott; Schipper, Brian; Parker, Nigel; Spitzer, Cary

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Langley has conducted a flight test program evaluating a differential GPS/inertial navigation system's (DGPS/INS) utility as an approach/landing aid. The DGPS/INS airborne and ground components are based on off-the-shelf transport aircraft avionics, namely a global positioning/inertial reference unit (GPIRU) and two GPS sensor units (GPSSUs). Systematic GPS errors are measured by the ground GPSSU and transmitted to the aircraft GPIRU, allowing the errors to be eliminated or greatly reduced in the airborne equipment. Over 120 landings were flown; 36 of these were fully automatic DGPS/INS landings.

  17. Analysis and Testing of a LIDAR-Based Approach to Terrain Relative Navigation for Precise Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Ivanov, Tonislav I.

    2011-01-01

    To increase safety and land near pre-deployed resources, future NASA missions to the moon will require precision landing. A LIDAR-based terrain relative navigation (TRN) approach can achieve precision landing under any lighting conditions. This paper presents results from processing flash lidar and laser altimeter field test data that show LIDAR TRN can obtain position estimates less than 90m while automatically detecting and eliminating incorrect measurements using internal metrics on terrain relief and data correlation. Sensitivity studies show that the algorithm has no degradation in matching performance with initial position uncertainties up to 1.6 km

  18. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection into the RNA. (3) Navigation rules mean international and inland navigation rules in 33 CFR... of the COLREGS Demarcation as described in 33 CFR part 80. (3) Tanapag Harbor, Saipan—The waters from... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protection into the RNA. (3) Navigation rules mean international and inland navigation rules in 33 CFR... of the COLREGS Demarcation as described in 33 CFR part 80. (3) Tanapag Harbor, Saipan—The waters from... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protection into the RNA. (3) Navigation rules mean international and inland navigation rules in 33 CFR... of the COLREGS Demarcation as described in 33 CFR part 80. (3) Tanapag Harbor, Saipan—The waters from... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protection into the RNA. (3) Navigation rules mean international and inland navigation rules in 33 CFR... of the COLREGS Demarcation as described in 33 CFR part 80. (3) Tanapag Harbor, Saipan—The waters from... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  2. 33 CFR 165.T01-0329 - Regulated Navigation Area; Maine Kennebec Bridge Construction and Removal, Kennebec River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... between Richmond, ME and Dresden, ME. (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165... to the Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84—Subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules) remain in effect... Regulated Navigation Area (RNA): All navigable waters, surface to bottom, on the Kennebec River within a...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protection into the RNA. (3) Navigation rules mean international and inland navigation rules in 33 CFR... of the COLREGS Demarcation as described in 33 CFR part 80. (3) Tanapag Harbor, Saipan—The waters from... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T01-1125 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply in addition to those provisions... Rules of the Road (33 CFR subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules) remain in effect within the regulated... Navigation Area (RNA): All navigable waters of the Mystic River between Boston and Chelsea, MA, from...

  5. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply in addition to those provisions... Rules of the Road (33 CFR subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules) remain in effect within the regulated... Navigation Area (RNA): All navigable waters of the Mystic River between Boston and Chelsea, MA, from...

  6. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply in addition to those provisions... Rules of the Road (33 CFR subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules) remain in effect within the regulated... Navigation Area (RNA): All navigable waters of the Mystic River between Boston and Chelsea, MA, from...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  9. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara Sue; Sleeter, Benjamin Michael; Davis, Adam Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressures from land use coupled with future changes in climate will present unique challenges for California’s protected areas. We assessed the potential for future land use conversion on land surrounding existing protected areas in California’s twelve ecoregions, utilizing annual, spatially explicit (250 m) scenario projections of land use for 2006–2100 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios to examine future changes in development, agriculture, and logging. We calculated a conversion threat index (CTI) for each unprotected pixel, combining land use conversion potential with proximity to protected area boundaries, in order to identify ecoregions and protected areas at greatest potential risk of proximal land conversion. Our results indicate that California’s Coast Range ecoregion had the highest CTI with competition for extractive logging placing the greatest demand on land in close proximity to existing protected areas. For more permanent land use conversions into agriculture and developed uses, our CTI results indicate that protected areas in the Central California Valley and Oak Woodlands are most vulnerable. Overall, the Eastern Cascades, Central California Valley, and Oak Woodlands ecoregions had the lowest areal percent of protected lands and highest conversion threat values. With limited resources and time, rapid, landscape-level analysis of potential land use threats can help quickly identify areas with higher conversion probability of future land use and potential changes to both habitat and potential ecosystem reserves. Given the broad range of future uncertainties, LULC projections are a useful tool allowing land managers to visualize alternative landscape futures, improve planning, and optimize management practices.

  10. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas. 165.906 Section 165.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.906 Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH—regulated navigation... enforced during the following times: (1) 11:00 p.m. n Fridays to 7:00 a.m. on Saturdays. (2) 11:00 p.m....

  11. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas. 165.906 Section 165.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.906 Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH—regulated navigation... enforced during the following times: (1) 11:00 p.m. n Fridays to 7:00 a.m. on Saturdays. (2) 11:00 p.m....

  12. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas. 165.906 Section 165.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.906 Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH—regulated navigation... enforced during the following times: (1) 11:00 p.m. n Fridays to 7:00 a.m. on Saturdays. (2) 11:00 p.m....

  13. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas. 165.906 Section 165.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.906 Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH—regulated navigation... enforced during the following times: (1) 11:00 p.m. n Fridays to 7:00 a.m. on Saturdays. (2) 11:00 p.m....

  14. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas. 165.906 Section 165.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.906 Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH—regulated navigation... enforced during the following times: (1) 11:00 p.m. n Fridays to 7:00 a.m. on Saturdays. (2) 11:00 p.m....

  15. Robust Real-Time Wide-Area Differential GPS Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, Thomas P. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Lichten, Stephen M. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Muellerschoen, Ronald J. (Inventor); Wu, Sien-Chong (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device for providing superior differential GPS positioning data. The system includes a group of GPS receiving ground stations covering a wide area of the Earth's surface. Unlike other differential GPS systems wherein the known position of each ground station is used to geometrically compute an ephemeris for each GPS satellite. the present system utilizes real-time computation of satellite orbits based on GPS data received from fixed ground stations through a Kalman-type filter/smoother whose output adjusts a real-time orbital model. ne orbital model produces and outputs orbital corrections allowing satellite ephemerides to be known with considerable greater accuracy than from die GPS system broadcasts. The modeled orbits are propagated ahead in time and differenced with actual pseudorange data to compute clock offsets at rapid intervals to compensate for SA clock dither. The orbital and dock calculations are based on dual frequency GPS data which allow computation of estimated signal delay at each ionospheric point. These delay data are used in real-time to construct and update an ionospheric shell map of total electron content which is output as part of the orbital correction data. thereby allowing single frequency users to estimate ionospheric delay with an accuracy approaching that of dual frequency users.

  16. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters. [Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.; Bull, J. S.; Peach, L. L.; Demko, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a sensitivity analysis of the Decelerated Steep Approach and Landing (DSAL) maneuver to on-board and ground-based navigation system parameters. The Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) DSAL maneuver involves decelerating to zero range rate while tracking the localizer and glideslope. The considered study investigated the performance of the navigation systems using Constant Deceleration Profile (CDP) guidance and a six degrees glideslope trajectory. A closed-loop computer simulation of the UH1H helicopter DSAL system was developed for the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions on system performance parameter sensitivity are discussed.

  18. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt...

  3. 75 FR 22228 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY and VT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. You may submit a request for... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge... Lake Champlain Bridge between Crown Point, New York and Chimney Point, Vermont. This temporary...

  4. 77 FR 65253 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK AGENCY: Federal...

  5. 75 FR 18055 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Bars Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Areas; Bars Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington; Correction Correction In rule document 2010-4769 beginning on page 10687 in...

  6. 77 FR 65461 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  7. 75 FR 6095 - Revision of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-108; Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... final rule was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 65687), Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-17. This rule... published in the Federal Register December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65687), page 65688, beginning in column 1, is... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route...

  8. 77 FR 62437 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) entitled USCG-2012-0191 in the Federal Register (73 FR 2012... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day...

  9. 77 FR 43554 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day...

  10. 75 FR 76648 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV)...

  11. 78 FR 4788 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [USCG-2013-0019 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous Cargoes, Inland Rivers, Ninth Coast Guard District; Stay (Suspension) AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Commander, Ninth Coast...

  12. 78 FR 61183 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous Cargoes, Inland Rivers, Ninth Coast Guard District; Stay (Suspension) AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Commander, Ninth Coast...

  13. 76 FR 1360 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous Cargoes, Inland Rivers, Eighth Coast Guard District; Stay (Suspension) AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth...

  14. 75 FR 1706 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) covering the Hood Canal in Washington that will... the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines,...

  15. 75 FR 27638 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 1706). We received one comment on the proposed rule that was actually meant for a related interim rule published on the same date at (75 FR 1709). That comment is addressed... regulated navigation area (RNA) covering a portion of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington that will...

  16. 78 FR 12260 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is proposing to establish a regulated navigation area (RNA) on...

  17. 75 FR 20523 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., Portland, OR'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 69047). We received one comment on the proposed rule. There... establishing two Regulated Navigation Areas (RNA) at the Port of Portland Terminal 4 on the Willamette River in ] Portland, Oregon. The RNAs are necessary to preserve the integrity of engineered sediment caps...

  18. 78 FR 34255 - Regulated Navigation Area; Vessel Traffic in Vicinity of Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated... Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Illinois River. This Temporary Final Rule... transiting the Illinois River from Mile Marker 240.0 to Mile Marker 271.4. This RNA is necessary to...

  19. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in Boston Harbor, Reserved Channel, the Boston Marine Industrial... entry into the Reserved Channel and control the speed of all vessels transiting within the RNA. The RNA... without establishing an RNA, because this would unnecessarily jeopardize public safety during...

  20. 78 FR 53668 - Regulated Navigation Area; Maine Kennebec Bridge Construction Zone, Kennebec River, Richmond, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register MEDOT Maine Department... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on...

  1. 77 FR 21433 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Register (76 FR 45738). We received 2 comments on the proposed rule. No one requested a public meeting and... have been no changes to the proposed rule published in Federal Register August 1, 2011 (76 FR 45738...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on...

  2. 76 FR 45738 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... navigation area (RNA) on a portion of Elliott Bay in Seattle, Washington. The RNA would protect the seabed in... Resources (PSR) and Lockheed Shipyard superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA would...

  3. 78 FR 59237 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register RNA Regulated navigation area A. Regulatory History and... Quincy, MA'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 12260). No comments were received. No public meeting was... in the NPRM (78 FR 12260), the Coast Guard has consulted with J.F. White-Skanska Koch, the...

  4. 78 FR 1145 - Regulated Navigation Area; Housatonic River, Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register I-95 Interstate 95 LIS Long Island... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the...

  5. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public....O. 12777, sec. 2; E.O. 13286, sec. 34, 68 FR 10619; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No... regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones for deepwater liquefied natural gas...

  6. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) from Port Coeymans, New York on the Hudson..., 2010 through October 31, 2010. The RNA will be enforced from 3 a.m. on Monday, July 12, 2000, to...

  7. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... to establish a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland, on July 23, 2011. This RNA is necessary to provide for the safety of life,...

  8. 76 FR 49301 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... (NPRM) entitled USCG-2011-0044 in the Federal Register (76 FR 24837). We received no comments on the... establishing a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The RNA will be... Bank and the Rickenbacker Causeway Bridge. All vessels within the RNA are: required to transit the...

  9. 76 FR 48070 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Guard proposes the establishment of a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) at the Zidell Waterfront Property located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. This RNA is necessary to preserve the integrity of...

  10. 76 FR 24837 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Guard proposes to establish a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The RNA would be enforced annually on the Saturday and Sunday of the second week in...

  11. 75 FR 41987 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Bars Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington; Amendment'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 18449). We...; Bars Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 59098), which... is making a change to the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) covering the Umpqua River Bar in Oregon...

  12. 76 FR 52229 - Establishment of Area Navigation Route Q-37; Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...) to establish area navigation route Q-37 (74 FR 54943). Interested parties were invited to participate... Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  13. The impact of land use and land cover changes on land surface temperature in a karst area of China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Honglin; Weng, Qihao

    2007-10-01

    Satellite images have been used extensively to study temporal changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in China. However, few studies have been conducted in the karst areas despite the large area and population involved and the fragile ecosystem. In this study, LULC changes were examined in part of Guizhou Province of southern China from 1991 to 2001 based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of November 7, 1991, December 5, 1994, and December 19, 2001. Land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed based on LULC types. The results show that agricultural land decreased, while urban areas expanded dramatically, and forest land increased slightly. Barren land increased from 1991 to 1994, and then decreased from 1994 to 2001. These changes in LULC widened the temperature difference between the urban and the rural areas. The change in LST was mainly associated with changes in construction materials in the urban area and in vegetation abundance both in the urban and rural areas. Vegetation had a dual function in the temperatures of different LULC types. While it could ease the warming trend in the urban or built-up areas, it helped to keep other lands warmer in the cold weather. The study also reveals that due to the government's efforts on reforestation, rural ecosystems in some of the study area were being restored. The time required for the karst ecosystem to recover was shorter than previously thought.

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter descent navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montez, M. N.; Madden, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    The entry operational sequence (OPS 3) begins approximately 2 hours prior to the deorbit maneuver and continues through atmospheric entry, terminal area energy management (TAEM), approach and landing, and rollout. During this flight phase, the navigation state vector is estimated by the Space Shuttle Orbiter onboard navigation system. This estimate is computed using a six-element sequential Kalman filter, which blends inertial measurement unit (IMU) delta-velocity data with external navaid data. The external navaids available to the filter are tactical air navigation (TACAN), barometric altimeter, and microwave scan beam landing system (MSBLS). Attention is given to the functional design of the Orbiter navigation system, the descent navigation sensors and measurement processing, predicted Kalman gains, correlation coefficients, and current flights navigation performance.

  15. Analysis and Testing of a LIDAR-Based Approach to Terrain Relative Navigation for Precise Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Ivanov, Tonislav I.

    2010-01-01

    Capability for precise lunar landing is the goal for future NASA missions. A LIDAR-based terrain relative navigation (TRN) approach lets us achieve this goal and also land under any illumination conditions. Results from field test data showed that the LIDAR TRN algorithm obtained position estimates with mean error of about 20 meters and standard deviations of about 10 meters. Moreover, the algorithm was capable of providing 99 percent correct estimates by assessing the local terrain relief in the data. Also, the algorithm was able to handle initial position uncertainty of up to 1.6 kilometers without performance degradation.

  16. Fully Self-Contained Vision-Aided Navigation and Landing of a Micro Air Vehicle Independent from External Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  17. Projecting large-scale area changes in land use and land cover for terrestrial carbon analyses.

    PubMed

    Alig, Ralph J; Butler, Brett J

    2004-04-01

    One of the largest changes in US forest type areas over the last half-century has involved pine types in the South. The area of planted pine has increased more than 10-fold since 1950, mostly on private lands. Private landowners have responded to market incentives and government programs, including subsidized afforestation on marginal agricultural land. Timber harvest is a crucial disturbance affecting planted pine area, as other forest types are converted to planted pine after harvest. Conversely, however, many harvested pine plantations revert to other forest types, mainly due to passive regeneration behavior on nonindustrial private timberlands. We model land use and land cover changes as a basis for projecting future changes in planted pine area, to aid policy analysts concerned with mitigation activities for global climate change. Projections are prepared in two stages. Projected land use changes include deforestation due to pressures to develop rural land as the human population expands, which is a larger area than that converted from other rural lands (e.g., agriculture) to forestry. In the second stage, transitions among forest types are projected on land allocated to forestry. We consider reforestation, influences of timber harvest, and natural succession and disturbance processes. Baseline projections indicate a net increase of about 5.6 million ha in planted pine area in the South over the next 50 years, with a notable increase in sequestered carbon. Additional opportunities to expand pine plantation area warrant study of landowner behavior to aid in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change and attain other goals.

  18. 33 CFR 165.T01-0084 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA. In addition, the following... not limited to the Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84—Subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules) remain... Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated Navigation Area...

  19. 33 CFR 165.T09-1054 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arch). (2) Regulations. (i) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) All up-bound and down-bound... navigation area. (1) The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Chicago...

  20. 76 FR 20287 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... establish a regulated navigation area (RNA) prohibiting activities that disturb the ] seabed around the site. The proposed RNA would not affect transit or navigation of the area. DATES: Comments and...

  1. 33 CFR 165.T01-0084 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA. In addition, the following... not limited to the Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84—Subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules) remain... Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated Navigation Area...

  2. Overview of vision-based navigation for autonomous land vehicles 1986. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, S.; Davis, L.S.; Dementhon, D.; Dickenson, S.J.; Gajulapalli, S.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes research performed during the first two years on the project Vision-Based Navigation for Autonomous Vehicles being conducted under DARPA support. The report contains discussion of four main topics: (1) Development of a vision system for autonomous navigation of roads and road network. (2) Support of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, the integrating contractor on DARPA's ALV program. (3) Experimentation with the vision system developed at Maryland on the Martin Marietta ALV, and (4) Development and implementation of parallel algorithms for visual navigation on the parallel computers developed under the DARPA Strategic Computing Program--specifically, the WARP systolic array processor, the Butterfly, and the Connection Machine.

  3. 75 FR 41886 - Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan... order withdraws 1,278.09 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry under the United... made of National Forest System land, to protect the Inyan Kara area of the Black Hills National......

  4. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (b) Regulations. In addition to 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13, the following restrictions or conditions apply within this RNA: (1) No vessel may operate at a speed in excess of five knots. (2) All... of the regulated navigation area (RNA). All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the...

  5. 33 CFR 165.T01-0394 - Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, between Prospect and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA... regulations, including but not limited to the Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84—subchapter E, Inland... a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA): All navigable waters of Penobscot River between Prospect, ME...

  6. 33 CFR 165.T01-0824 - Regulated Navigation Area; Housatonic River Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983. (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and... contained in this rule, the Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84—Subchapter E, inland navigational rules) are... area (RNA): All navigable waters of the Housatonic River between Stratford and Milford, CT, from...

  7. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... Harbor Memorial Bridge (Interstate 95) Construction, in the Federal Register (77 FR 47331). One comment... navigation area in the navigable waters of New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current...

  8. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Regulations. In addition to 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13, the following restrictions or conditions apply within this RNA: (1) No vessel may operate at a speed in excess of five knots. (2) All... of the regulated navigation area (RNA). All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the...

  9. 33 CFR 165.T01-0824 - Regulated Navigation Area; Housatonic River Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983. (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and... contained in this rule, the Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84—Subchapter E, inland navigational rules) are... area (RNA): All navigable waters of the Housatonic River between Stratford and Milford, CT, from...

  10. 33 CFR 165.T01-0048 - Regulated Navigation Area; MBTA Saugus River Railroad Drawbridge rehabilitation project, Saugus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply in addition to those provisions outlined below. (2) In... relevant regulations, including but not limited to the Rules of the Road (33 CFR Subchapter E, Inland... a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA): All navigable waters, surface to bottom, on the Saugus...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  14. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.

  15. Impact of Land Reclamation on the Coastal Areas in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, Selmin; Kucukakca, Emrah

    2015-04-01

    Istanbul lies on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea which is an inland sea. The city is a large metropolis having more than 15 million of population that has been subjected to heavy and unplanned urbanization due to natural growth and immigration from the Eastern regions of Turkey, in particular. This resulted in loss of green areas and gave rise to land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea in order to provide ring roads along the seaside and substitute the lost green areas by newly generated recreational areas. Therefore heavy land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea has been the major environmental concern related to the damage caused to the coastal ecosystems during the last decade. The reclaimed land on the Northern shoreline of the Marmara Sea has reached 80% as of 2014. As widely known, coastal areas are the main housbandary and spawning areas for coastal ecosystems and pelagic species. Due to inappropriate reclamation processes, significant decrease in coastal ecosystems and species has been reported in several studies, Istanbul is no exception. Coastal zones are complex systems exhibiting specific environmental and socio-economic particularities. In recent years, many organizations, governments and policy-makers have pointed out the urgent need to develop global, regional, national and local strategies to ensure the protection and sustainable use of coastal zones. A long-term sustainable development of coastal areas cannot be achieved without the preservation of natural resources on which the development relies. The dilemma is to ensure the sustainable development of natural resources which is not the case as reported in several studies. Continuous exposure of the Istanbul coastal areas to uncontrolled, unplanned and inappropriate reclamation methods from past to present and recently experienced enhanced reclamation has been a major concern that is expressed by the scientific society. However

  16. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing Ground Stations, 1,500' to the south of the north end of Runway 17/35; 1,500' to the west of the east end of Runway 23/05; and 1,500' southwest of the northeast end of Runway 20/02., White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  17. Flight evaluation of three-dimensional area navigation for jet transport noise abatement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, D. G.; Bourquin, K. R.; White, K. C.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The NASA, working with American Airlines, has completed the first phase of research to evaluate the operational feasibility of two-segment approaches for noise abatement. For these tests, area navigation was used to establish the upper glide slope and an ILS was used to establish the lower. The flight director was modified to provide command information during the entire approach. Twenty-eight pilots representing the airlines, professional pilot associations, FAA, and NASA participated. With an ILS approach for comparison, the procedure gave a noise reduction of 18 EPNdB at the outer marker and 8 EPNdB 1.1 n. mi. from touchdown.

  18. Evapotranspiration and runoff from large land areas: Land surface hydrology for atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    A land surface hydrology parameterization for use in atmospheric GCM's is presented. The parameterization incorporates subgrid scale variability in topography, soils, soil moisture and precipitation. The framework of the model is the statistical distribution of a topography-soils index, which controls the local water balance fluxes, and is therefore taken to represent the large land area. Spatially variable water balance fluxes are integrated with respect to the topography-soils index to yield our large topography-soils distribution, and interval responses are weighted by the probability of occurrence of the interval. Grid square averaged land surface fluxes result. The model functions independently as a macroscale water balance model. Runoff ratio and evapotranspiration efficiency parameterizations are derived and are shown to depend on the spatial variability of the above mentioned properties and processes, as well as the dynamics of land surface-atmosphere interactions.

  19. Land area change in coastal Louisiana from 1932 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Barras, John A.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Sleavin, William; Fischer, Michelle; Beck, Holly; Trahan, Nadine; Griffin, Brad; Heckman, David

    2011-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands make up the seventh largest delta on Earth, contain about 37 percent of the estuarine herbaceous marshes in the conterminous United States, and support the largest commercial fishery in the lower 48 States. These wetlands are in peril because Louisiana currently undergoes about 90 percent of the total coastal wetland loss in the continental United States. Documenting and understanding the occurrence and rates of wetland loss are necessary for effective planning, protection, and restoration activities. The analyses of landscape change presented in this report use historical surveys, aerial data, and satellite data to track landscape changes. Summary data are presented for 1932-2010; trend data are presented for 1985-2010. These later data were calculated separately because of concerns over the comparability of the 1932 and 1956 datasets (which are based on survey and aerial data, respectively) with the later datasets (which are all based on satellite imagery). These analyses show that coastal Louisiana has undergone a net change in land area of about -1,883 square miles (mi2) from 1932 to 2010. This net change in land area amounts to a decrease of about 25 percent of the 1932 land area. Persistent losses account for 95 percent of this land area decrease; the remainder are areas that have converted to water but have not yet exhibited the persistence necessary to be classified as \\"loss.\\" Trend analyses from 1985 to 2010 show a wetland loss rate of 16.57 mi2 per year. If this loss were to occur at a constant rate, it would equate to Louisiana losing an area the size of one football field per hour. The use of 17 datasets plus the application of consistent change criteria in this study provide opportunities to better understand the timing and causal mechanisms of wetland loss that are critical for forecasting landscape changes in the future.

  20. 77 FR 60458 - Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills Training Area; MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Limestone Hills Training Area withdrawal will maintain the current... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills... laws, for a period of 5 years. This withdrawal will protect the Limestone Hills Training Area...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port....050″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.722″ N/122° 46′ 34.181″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.425″ N/122° 46′ 33.118″ W...″ N 122° 46′ 20.995″ W. (2) All waters of the Willamette River in Wheeler Bay between Slip 1 and...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port....050″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.722″ N/122° 46′ 34.181″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.425″ N/122° 46′ 33.118″ W...″ N 122° 46′ 20.995″ W. (2) All waters of the Willamette River in Wheeler Bay between Slip 1 and...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port....050″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.722″ N/122° 46′ 34.181″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.425″ N/122° 46′ 33.118″ W...″ N 122° 46′ 20.995″ W. (2) All waters of the Willamette River in Wheeler Bay between Slip 1 and...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port...′ 34.181″ W thence to 45°36′ 09.425″ N/122°46′ 33.118″ W thence to 45°36′ 08.960″ N/122°46′ 32.150″ W....483″ W thence to 45°36′ 01.795″ N/122°46′ 21.442″ W thence to 45°36′ 01.861″ N 122°46′ 20.995″ W....

  5. An Aerial–Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, Mario; Valente, João; Zapata, David; Barrientos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning) require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments. PMID:23337332

  6. An aerial–ground robotic system for navigation and obstacle mapping in large outdoor areas.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Mario; Valente, João; Zapata, David; Barrientos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning) require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments. PMID:23337332

  7. An aerial–ground robotic system for navigation and obstacle mapping in large outdoor areas.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Mario; Valente, João; Zapata, David; Barrientos, Antonio

    2013-01-21

    There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning) require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  8. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  9. Parking Lot and Public Viewing Area for STS-4 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This aerial photo shows the large crowd of people and vehicles that assembled to watch the landing of STS-4 at Edwards Air Force Base in California in July 1982. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also

  10. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells.

  11. Statistical Entry, Descent, and Landing Flight Reconstruction with Flush Air Data System Observations using Inertial Navigation and Monte Carlo Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Rafael Andres

    A method is introduced to consider flush air data system (FADS) pressures using a technique based on inertial navigation to reconstruct the trajectory of an atmospheric entry vehicle. The approach augments the recently-developed Inertial Navigation Statistical Trajectory and Atmosphere Reconstruction (INSTAR), which is an extension of inertial navigation that provides statistical uncertainties by utilizing Monte Carlo dispersion techniques and is an alternative to traditional statistical approaches to entry, descent, and landing trajectory and atmosphere reconstruction. The method is demonstrated using flight data from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle, which contained an inertial measurement unit and a flush air data system called the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS). An MSL trajectory and atmosphere solution that was updated using landing site location in INSTAR is first presented. This solution and corresponding uncertainties, which were obtained from Monte Carlo dispersions, are then used in a minimum variance algorithm to obtain aerodynamic estimates and uncertainties from the MEADS observations. MEADS-derived axial force coefficient and freestream density estimates and uncertainties are also derived from the minimum variance solutions independent of the axial force coefficients derived from computation fluid dynamics (CFD), which have relatively high a priori uncertainty. Results from probabilistic analyses of the solutions are also presented. This dissertation also introduces a method to consider correlated CFD uncertainties in INSTAR. From a priori CFD uncertainties, CFD force and pressure coefficients are dispersed in a Monte Carlo sense and carried over into the reconstructions. An analysis of the subsequent effects on the trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamic estimates and statistics is presented. Trajectory, atmospheric, and aerodynamic estimates compare favorably to extended Kalman filter solutions obtained by the MSL

  12. Re-Entry Simulation and Landing Area for YES2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzada, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The REST simulator includes many parameters: a) Inertial <-> Fix to Earth reference system; b) Geodetic <-> Geocentric coordinates; c) Rotational velocity of the Atmosphere; d) Effect of the rotation of the Earth; e) Bulge effect of the Earth; f) Spherical harmonic expansion for the Earth s gravitational potential, J2 (zonal); g) Heat flux, temperature in the wall; h) Drag coefficient for different regimes; i) Flow regime status; j) Density model NRLMSISE-00; k) Wind model HWM-93; l) G2S atmospheric model with the latest meteorological conditions and m) Landing area (Monte Carlo Simulations)

  13. Use of Cusp Catastrophe for Risk Analysis of Navigational Environment: A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Hao, Guozhu; Huang, Liwen; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    A water traffic system is a huge, nonlinear, complex system, and its stability is affected by various factors. Water traffic accidents can be considered to be a kind of mutation of a water traffic system caused by the coupling of multiple navigational environment factors. In this study, the catastrophe theory, principal component analysis (PCA), and multivariate statistics are integrated to establish a situation recognition model for a navigational environment with the aim of performing a quantitative analysis of the situation of this environment via the extraction and classification of its key influencing factors; in this model, the natural environment and traffic environment are considered to be two control variables. The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River is considered as an example, and six critical factors, i.e., the visibility, wind, current velocity, route intersection, channel dimension, and traffic flow, are classified into two principal components: the natural environment and traffic environment. These two components are assumed to have the greatest influence on the navigation risk. Then, the cusp catastrophe model is employed to identify the safety situation of the regional navigational environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The simulation results indicate that the situation of the navigational environment of this area is gradually worsening from downstream to upstream.

  14. Use of Cusp Catastrophe for Risk Analysis of Navigational Environment: A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guozhu

    2016-01-01

    A water traffic system is a huge, nonlinear, complex system, and its stability is affected by various factors. Water traffic accidents can be considered to be a kind of mutation of a water traffic system caused by the coupling of multiple navigational environment factors. In this study, the catastrophe theory, principal component analysis (PCA), and multivariate statistics are integrated to establish a situation recognition model for a navigational environment with the aim of performing a quantitative analysis of the situation of this environment via the extraction and classification of its key influencing factors; in this model, the natural environment and traffic environment are considered to be two control variables. The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River is considered as an example, and six critical factors, i.e., the visibility, wind, current velocity, route intersection, channel dimension, and traffic flow, are classified into two principal components: the natural environment and traffic environment. These two components are assumed to have the greatest influence on the navigation risk. Then, the cusp catastrophe model is employed to identify the safety situation of the regional navigational environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The simulation results indicate that the situation of the navigational environment of this area is gradually worsening from downstream to upstream. PMID:27391057

  15. Differential GPS/inertial navigation approach/landing flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Scott; Schipper, Brian; Vallot, Larry; Parker, Nigel; Spitzer, Cary

    1992-01-01

    Results of a joint Honeywell/NASA-Langley differential GPS/inertial flight test conducted in November 1990 are discussed focusing on postflight data analysis. The test was aimed at acquiring a system performance database and demonstrating automatic landing based on an integrated differential GPS/INS with barometric and radar altimeters. Particular attention is given to characteristics of DGPS/inertial error and the magnitude of the differential corrections and vertical channel performance with and without altimeter augmentation. It is shown that DGPS/inertial integrated with a radar altimeter is capable of providing a precision approach and autoland guidance of manned return space vehicles within the Space Shuttle accuracy requirements.

  16. Flight evaluation of two-segment approaches using area navigation guidance equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwind, G. K.; Morrison, J. A.; Nylen, W. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    A two-segment noise abatement approach procedure for use on DC-8-61 aircraft in air carrier service was developed and evaluated. The approach profile and procedures were developed in a flight simulator. Full guidance is provided throughout the approach by a Collins Radio Company three-dimensional area navigation (RNAV) system which was modified to provide the two-segment approach capabilities. Modifications to the basic RNAV software included safety protection logic considered necessary for an operationally acceptable two-segment system. With an aircraft out of revenue service, the system was refined and extensively flight tested, and the profile and procedures were evaluated by representatives of the airlines, airframe manufacturers, the Air Line Pilots Association, and the Federal Aviation Adminstration. The system was determined to be safe and operationally acceptable. It was then placed into scheduled airline service for an evaluation during which 180 approaches were flown by 48 airline pilots. The approach was determined to be compatible with the airline operational environment, although operation of the RNAV system in the existing terminal area air traffic control environment was difficult.

  17. Large scale land use cartography of special areas

    SciTech Connect

    Amico, F.D.; Maccarone, D.; Pandiscia, G.V.

    1996-11-01

    On 06 October 1993 an aerial remote sensing mission has been done on the {open_quote}Mounts of the Sila{close_quotes} area, using a DAEDALUS ATM multispectral scanner, in the framework of the TELAER project, supported by I.A.S.M. (Istituto per l`Assistenza e lo Sviluppo del Mezzogiorno). The study area is inside the National Park of Calabria, well known for its coniferous forests. The collected imagery were used to produce a large scale land use cartography, on the scale of 1 to 5000, extracting information on natural and anthropical vegetation from the multispectral images, with the aid of stereo photos acquired simultaneously. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Study of aircraft centered navigation, guidance, and traffic situation system concept for terminal area operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Will, R. W.; Grantham, C.

    1972-01-01

    A concept for automating the control of air traffic in the terminal area in which the primary man-machine interface is the cockpit is described. The ground and airborne inputs required for implementing this concept are discussed. Digital data link requirements of 10,000 bits per second are explained. A particular implementation of this concept including a sequencing and separation algorithm which generates flight paths and implements a natural order landing sequence is presented. Onboard computer/display avionics utilizing a traffic situation display is described. A preliminary simulation of this concept has been developed which includes a simple, efficient sequencing algorithm and a complete aircraft dynamics model. This simulated jet transport was flown through automated terminal-area traffic situations by pilots using relatively sophisticated displays, and pilot performance and observations are discussed.

  19. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  20. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  1. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  2. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  3. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (NAD 83). (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (2) All... requirements through VTS measures, as per 33 CFR 161.11. (9) Suspension of enforcement: the Captain of the Port... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  5. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (NAD 83). (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (2) All... requirements through VTS measures, as per 33 CFR 161.11. (9) Suspension of enforcement: the Captain of the Port... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  6. 78 FR 34894 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi... in the Gulf of Mexico. That document mistakenly listed incorrect coordinates for the center of that... damage, plumes containing crude oil and gas have been discharging into the Gulf of Mexico, creating...

  7. 33 CFR 165.T10-0693 - Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... all vessels and craft operating on the waters of the Mississippi in or near the RNA or approaching the RNA with intentions of transiting the RNA. (c) Effective dates. This rule is effective in the CFR from... regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Lower Mississippi River beginning at mile 528 and...

  8. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) All up-bound and down-bound barge tows that consist of barges carrying... following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

  9. 78 FR 59234 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Act (APA) (5 U.S.C.(b)) (78 FR 24987). This regulation was later amended on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 34894... Coast Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in the Mississippi Canyon Block 20 in...

  10. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-35... in 33 CFR 334.75(a). The U.S. Navy and other Federal, State and municipal agencies may assist the U.S... navigation area (RNA). (b) Applicability. This section applies to all vessels operating within the...

  11. 77 FR 69761 - Regulated Navigation Area; Recovery Operations, the Port of New York and New Jersey, NJ and NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms APA Administrative Procedure Act DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan... request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary Regulated Navigation Area...

  12. 77 FR 74814 - Regulated Navigation Area; Youngs Bay PacifiCorp Sediment Cap; Youngs Bay, Columbia River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes the establishment of a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) at...

  13. 75 FR 76280 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA in the Federal Register (75 FR 105). We... August 20, 2008, we published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM; 73 FR 162) to establish a regulated... rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on...

  14. 78 FR 59231 - Regulated Navigation Area-Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River surrounding the Tappan Zee Bridge....

  15. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-35... in 33 CFR 334.75(a). The U.S. Navy and other Federal, State and municipal agencies may assist the U.S... navigation area (RNA). (b) Applicability. This section applies to all vessels operating within the...

  16. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) All up-bound and down-bound barge tows that consist of barges carrying... following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

  17. 33 CFR 165.T10-0693 - Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... all vessels and craft operating on the waters of the Mississippi in or near the RNA or approaching the RNA with intentions of transiting the RNA. (c) Effective dates. This rule is effective in the CFR from... regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Lower Mississippi River beginning at mile 528 and...

  18. 78 FR 24987 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico; Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan on... comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in the...

  19. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-35... in 33 CFR 334.75(a). The U.S. Navy and other Federal, State and municipal agencies may assist the U.S... navigation area (RNA). (b) Applicability. This section applies to all vessels operating within the...

  20. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-35... in 33 CFR 334.75(a). The U.S. Navy and other Federal, State and municipal agencies may assist the U.S... navigation area (RNA). (b) Applicability. This section applies to all vessels operating within the...

  1. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-35... in 33 CFR 334.75(a). The U.S. Navy and other Federal, State and municipal agencies may assist the U.S... navigation area (RNA). (b) Applicability. This section applies to all vessels operating within the...

  2. 75 FR 67216 - Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River Mile 531.3, AR, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) for all waters of the Lower... allowed to meet or pass in the RNA and must proceed at a minimum safe speed. This RNA is needed to...

  3. 77 FR 67568 - Regulated Navigation Area; East River, Flushing and Gowanus Bays, and Red Hook and Buttermilk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Procedure Act DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register MTS New York City Department of... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... regulated navigation area (RNA) comprising all waters between the New York City Department of...

  4. 33 CFR 165.164 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Security Zones: Dignitary Arrival/Departure and United Nations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, no person or vessel may enter or move within a RNA or security... regulated navigation areas (RNA) or security zones: (1) Wall Street Heliport RNA. All waters of the East... northwest corner of Pier 2 North, Brooklyn (NAD 1983). (2) Randalls and Wards Islands RNA: All waters of...

  5. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) Vessels must be greater than 20 feet in length. (B) Vessels must not be a... following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): all waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

  6. 75 FR 30753 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... ] Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA'' in the Federal Register (73 FR 162, Aug. 20, 2008... proposed rule that would establish a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on portions of the Thea...

  7. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... navigation area unless the vessel has two separate and independent steering control systems with duplicate pilothouse steering gear control systems which meet the requirements of 46 CFR 58.25-70; (6) When anchored... cargoes listed in table 1 of 46 CFR part 153. Underway means that a vessel is not at anchor, made fast...

  8. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... navigation area unless the vessel has two separate and independent steering control systems with duplicate pilothouse steering gear control systems which meet the requirements of 46 CFR 58.25-70; (6) When anchored... cargoes listed in table 1 of 46 CFR part 153. Underway means that a vessel is not at anchor, made fast...

  9. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cargoes listed in table 1 of 46 CFR part 153. Underway means that a vessel is not at anchor, made fast to... pilothouse steering gear control systems which meet the requirements of 46 CFR 58.25-70; (6) When anchored within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than...

  10. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  11. [Difference of Karst Carbon Sink Under Different Land Use and Land Cover Areas in Dry Season].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-yi; Liang, Zuo-bing; Wang, Zun-bo; Yu, Zheng-liang; Jiang, Ze-li

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify the distinction of soil CO2 consumed by carbonate rock dissolution, Baishuwan spring, Lanhuagou spring and Hougou spring were selected as objects to monitor the hydrochemistry from November 2013 to May 2014. The results showed that the highest HCO3- concentration was observed in Baishuwan spring which is covered by pine forest, while the lowest HCO3- concentration was observed in Hougou spring which is mainly covered by cultivated land. In Baishuwan spring, HCO3- was mainly derived from carbonic acid dissolving carbonate rock and the molar ratio between Ca(2+) + Mg2+ and HCO3- was close to 0. 5; while the molar ratio between Ca(2+) + Mg2+ and HCO3- exceeded 0.5 because the carbonate rock in Lanhuagou spring and Hougou spring was mainly dissolved by nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Because of the input of litter and the fact that gas-permeability of soil was limited in Baishuwan spring catchment, most of soil CO2 was dissolved in infiltrated water and reacted with bedrock. However, in Lanhuagou spring catchment and Hougou spring catchment, porous soil made soil CO2 easier to return to the atmosphere in the form of soil respiration. Therefore, in order to accurately estimate karst carbon sink, it was required to clarify the distinction of CO2 consumption by carbonate rock dissolution under different land use and land cover areas. PMID:26314105

  12. The 4D area navigation system description and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. Q.; Neuman, F.; Hardy, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    A 4D area navigation system was designed to guide aircraft along a prespecified flight path (reference path) such that the aircraft would arrive at the approach gate at a time specified by the ATC controller. Key components to achieve this requirement were: (1) stored reference trajectories; (2) a continuously recomputed capture trajectory to a selected waypoint on the reference trajectory so as to achieve the desired time of arrival; (3) electronic situation displays; and (4) a control system to follow the overall trajectory in space and time. The system was implemented in a digital integrated avionics system (STOLAND) installed on a CV-340 airplane. Although the 4D system was designed primarily for automatic operation, it was flight tested in a flight director mode (the pilot follows the flight director commands), because the CV-340 autopilot servos were not tied to the avionics system. The flight test showed that, even in the flight director mode, the pilot did achieve the objectives of path tracking and time of arrival control with only moderate workload. The system also permitted controlled delay of the time of arrival by path stretching, which takes advantage of the continuously changing capture trajectory to predict the time of arrival. Simulations in the automatic and manual modes were used to complement the flight data.

  13. Civil air navigation using GNSS enhanced by wide area satellite based augmentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautermann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Advancement in augmented satellite navigation enables a new class of instrument approach procedures for aircraft. These approaches are based on regional augmentation systems which broadcast corrections via a geostationary satellite. The enhanced GNSS navigation solution using the corrections from the satellite provides the necessary accuracy and integrity to perform approaches with vertical and lateral angular guidance to a given runway threshold. This enables cost effective and simple procedure generation with low descent minima even for small airports. Moreover, it supports high precision en-route navigation and future high precision flight guidance applications.

  14. Accuracy assessment of land cover/land use classifiers in dry and humid areas of Iran.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Saleh; Khatami, Reza; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Mirzaee, Somayeh; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Tazeh, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Land cover/land use (LCLU) maps are essential inputs for environmental analysis. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to construct LCLU maps of large geographic areas in a timely fashion. Knowing the most accurate classification method to produce LCLU maps based on site characteristics is necessary for the environment managers. The aim of this research is to examine the performance of various classification algorithms for LCLU mapping in dry and humid climates (from June to August). Testing is performed in three case studies from each of the two climates in Iran. The reference dataset of each image was randomly selected from the entire images and was randomly divided into training and validation set. Training sets included 400 pixels, and validation sets included 200 pixels of each LCLU. Results indicate that the support vector machine (SVM) and neural network methods can achieve higher overall accuracy (86.7 and 86.6%) than other examined algorithms, with a slight advantage for the SVM. Dry areas exhibit higher classification difficulty as man-made features often have overlapping spectral responses to soil. A further observation is that spatial segregation and lower mixture of LCLU classes can increase classification overall accuracy.

  15. 75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... navigation and the environment. The formation of ice on the Hudson River contains many variables and is not..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices)...

  16. Land-use legacies from dry farming in the Park Valley area of Box Elder County

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Last fall in this newsletter, we reported on the initiation of a study on the land-use legacies of dry farming in the Park Valley area. Land-use legacies are the long lasting impacts of historic land uses; such as, cultivation for dry farming. The Park Valley area and Box Elder County experienced ...

  17. 25 CFR 150.4 - Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices. 150.4 Section 150.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... jurisdiction of the Aberdeen and Minneapolis Area Offices, except for Indian land on the White Earth,...

  18. Land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration program areas in China from 2000 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The grassland restoration areas in China, most of which was located in arid and semi-arid areas, are affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Using the 3S (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies, quantitative analysis method of landscape patterns and ecological simulation, this study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration areas in China from 2000 to 2010. We apply two parameters land use transfer matrix and land use dynamic degree to explore the speed and regional differentiation of land use change. We propose vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP), soil and water conservation capacity to assess the ecosystem functions. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape patterns at the class and landscape levels and explores the ecological effect of land use pattern and regional ecological processes. The results show that: (1) Grassland and others were the main landscape types in the study area in the past decade. The ecosystem structure was stable. About 0.37% of the total grassland area in 2000 experienced change in land use / land cover types. The area of woodlands, wetlands, farmlands, and built-up areas expanded. The area of others has declined. (2) The dynamic degree of regional land use was less than one percent in the recent ten years. The speed of land use and land cover change was low, and regional differentiation of change between the provinces was small. (3) The matrix of the landscape did not change in the study area. Landscape fragmentation index values decreased progressively; landscape diversity rose continuously; landscape aggregation and continuity decreased slightly; the landscape maintained relative integrity. (4) Ecosystem functions has increased as a whole. The vegetation coverages with significant increase (with a 1.99% yr-1 slope of regression) in the total study area; NPP has a fluctuating and increasing tendency, ranging from 218.23 g

  19. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process. PMID:25161275

  20. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  1. 33 CFR 165.817 - Arkansas River, Mile 118.2 to 125.4, Little Rock Arkansas-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... so as to avoid a meeting situation in the RNA. (d) Refer to 33 CFR 117.123 for drawbridge operation... navigation area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): The waters of the Arkansas River between mile 118.2 and mile 125.4. (b) Regulations. Transit of the RNA is limited during...

  2. 25 CFR 150.4 - Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... title services for Indian land located under the jurisdiction of the Billings Area Office. (e) Portland, Oregon Office provides title services for Indian land located under the jurisdiction of the Portland...

  3. 25 CFR 150.4 - Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... title services for Indian land located under the jurisdiction of the Billings Area Office. (e) Portland, Oregon Office provides title services for Indian land located under the jurisdiction of the Portland...

  4. Land development in and around protected areas at the wilderness frontier.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Kerr, Jeremy T

    2013-02-01

    Protected areas' chief conservation objectives are to include species within their boundaries and protect them from negative external pressures. Many protected areas are not achieving these goals, perhaps in part due to land development inside and outside protected areas. We conducted spatial analyses to evaluate the ability of Canadian protected areas to mitigate the effects of nearby land development. We investigated correlations of national patterns of land development in and around protected areas and then examined national patterns of roads, urban area, and croplands in protected areas. We calculated the amount of developed land in protected areas and within 25-100 km of protected-area borders, the density of roads, and extent of urban and cropland area in protected areas. We constructed logistic-regression models to test whether development in a protected area was associated with landscape and protected-area characteristics. Land development was far less extensive inside than outside protected areas. However, several protected areas, particularly small southern areas near small urban centers had substantial development inside their boundaries, and nearly half of protected areas had roads. The cumulative extent of development within 50 km of protected areas was the best predictor of the probability of land development in protected areas. Canadian First Nations, industries, government, and nongovernmental organizations are currently planning an unprecedented number of new protected areas. Careful management of areas beyond protected-area boundaries may prove critical to meeting their long-term conservation objectives.

  5. Research on matching area selection criteria for gravity gradient navigation based on principal component analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ling; Li, Kaihan; Tang, Jianqiao; Ma, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The matching area selection is the foundation of gravity gradient aided navigation. In this paper, a gravity gradient matching area selection criterion is proposed, based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Firstly, the features of gravity gradient are extracted and nine gravity gradient characteristic parameters are obtained. Secondly, combining PCA with AHP, a PA model is built and the nine characteristic parameters are fused based on it. At last, the gravity gradient matching area selection criterion is given. By using this criterion, gravity gradient area can be divided into matching area and non-matching area. The simulation results show that gravity gradient position effect in the selected matching area is superior to the matching area, and the matching rate is greater than 90%, the position error is less than a gravity gradient grid.

  6. Remote sensing study of land use and sedimentation in the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Jackson, Mississippi area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mealor, W. T., Jr.; Pinson, T. W.; Wertz, D. L.; Hoskin, C. M.; Williams, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    This multi-year study is aimed at focusing on the recognition of sediment and other affluents in a selected area of the Ross Barnett Reservoir. The principle objectives are the determination of land use types, effect of land use on erosion, and the correlation of sediment with land use in the area. The I2S multi-band imagery was employed in conjunction with ground truth data for both water and land use studies. The selected test site contains approximately forty square miles including forest, open land, and water in addition to residential and recreational areas.

  7. [Distribution characteristics of land use pattern on terrain gradient in Jiaodong mountainous areas at county level].

    PubMed

    Si, Jun-lang; Qi, Wei; Qu, Yan-bo; Li, Le

    2009-03-01

    Based on RS and GIS techniques, and combining with digital terrain index and land use degree composite index, this paper studied the changes of land use pattern in Qixia City of Shandong Province form 1987 to 2003, and quantitatively analyzed the land use degree on terrain gradient. The results indicated that in the City, construction land had obvious advantageous on lower terrain niche, the advantageous terrain niche section of orchard increased by six terrain niche and distributed from aggregation to uniformity, while the advantageous terrain niche of crop land, forest land, grass land, water area, and unutilized land generally remained stable during the study period. According to the quantitative expression of land use degree on terrain gradient, terrain niche was divided into three sections, i.e., 1-15, 16-30, and 31-50, which occupied 49.48%, 43.58%, and 6.94% of the total study area, respectively.

  8. Analysis of Land Deformation on Slope Area using PS InSAR. Case Study: Malang Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiana, Dodi; Rokhmatuloh; Rizkinia, Mia; Ardiansyah; Arief, Rahmat; Setiadi, Bambang; Bayuaji, Luhur; Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Josaphat

    2014-03-01

    The geographical position of Indonesia located between two continents and oceans is strategic, but at large risk of experiencing various disasters. Climate change and vulnerable location (surrounded by plates and geological faults in the Earth's crust) creates an earthquake-prone region and causes land/mudslides. In this paper, PS InSAR method (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) is implemented to Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data to study the potential damage caused by the earthquake or volcanic eruption in Malang vicinity. By comparing the amplitude images periodically, shifting soil can be determined using precise orbital information. The analysis showed a significant decrease of land deformation on slope area in Klojen district in Malang city, reached up to -7.128 mm/year.

  9. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  10. 76 FR 79137 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... southeast of Seattle and would enhance en route navigation within the National Airspace System (NAS)....

  11. 75 FR 76652 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION:...

  12. 78 FR 4353 - Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route T-266; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Alaska by removing two non-directional beacons (NDB) as the navigation signal source and replacing...

  13. 76 FR 12643 - Proposed Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... RNAV routes into the United States domestic Air Traffic Service (ATS) route structure to be used by suitably equipped helicopters having IFR- approved Global Positioning System (GPS)/Global Navigation..., Office of Airspace Services, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue, SW.,...

  14. 75 FR 32120 - Proposed Establishment and Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...) routes in Alaska. T and Q-routes are Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes, based on RNAV, for use by aircraft having instrument flight rules (IFR)-approved Global Positioning System (GPS)/ Global Navigation... examined during normal business hours at the office of the Alaskan Service Center, Federal...

  15. 75 FR 68701 - Establishment and Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...-routes are Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes, based on RNAV, for use by aircraft having instrument flight rules (IFR)-approved Global Positioning System (GPS)/Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) equipment..., Regulations and ATC Procedures Group, Office of Airspace Services, Federal Aviation Administration,...

  16. 76 FR 37261 - Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...: This action establishes helicopter RNAV routes as part of the U.S. air traffic service route (ATS...-approved Global Positioning System (GPS)/Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) equipment. The FAA is... CONTACT: Paul Gallant, Airspace, Regulations and ATC Procedures Group, Office of Airspace...

  17. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 47 CFR 80.331 on VHF-FM channel 13 at the following broadcast/reporting points: (1) Prior to... nature of any hazardous conditions as defined by 33 CFR 160.203. (d) Nothing in this section shall... (RNA): All the navigable waters of Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay, including...

  18. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with 47 CFR 80.331 on VHF-FM channel 13 at the following broadcast/reporting points: (1) Prior to... nature of any hazardous conditions as defined by 33 CFR 160.203. (d) Nothing in this section shall... (RNA): All the navigable waters of Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay, including...

  19. 33 CFR 165.T01-0220 - Regulated Navigation Area: Niantic Railroad Bridge Construction, Niantic, Connecticut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...″ N, 72°10′38.000″ W. (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11...-468-4401. (6) Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84, Inland Navigational Rules) remain in effect and must... enforcement of the RNA. If enforcement is suspended, the COTP will cause a notice of the suspension...

  20. 75 FR 38923 - Regulated Navigation Area: Niantic Railroad Bridge Construction, Niantic, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting in connection with the public... (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Niantic River Channel under and surrounding the Amtrak Railroad... the Coast Guard to suspend all vessel traffic within the RNA for construction operations, both...

  1. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 47 CFR 80.331 on VHF-FM channel 13 at the following broadcast/reporting points: (1) Prior to... nature of any hazardous conditions as defined by 33 CFR 160.203. (d) Nothing in this section shall... (RNA): All the navigable waters of Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay, including...

  2. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with 47 CFR 80.331 on VHF-FM channel 13 at the following broadcast/reporting points: (1) Prior to... nature of any hazardous conditions as defined by 33 CFR 160.203. (d) Nothing in this section shall... (RNA): All the navigable waters of Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay, including...

  3. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with 47 CFR 80.331 on VHF-FM channel 13 at the following broadcast/reporting points: (1) Prior to... nature of any hazardous conditions as defined by 33 CFR 160.203. (d) Nothing in this section shall... (RNA): All the navigable waters of Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay, including...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T01-0220 - Regulated Navigation Area: Niantic Railroad Bridge Construction, Niantic, Connecticut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...″ N, 72°10′38.000″ W. (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11...-468-4401. (6) Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84, Inland Navigational Rules) remain in effect and must... enforcement of the RNA. If enforcement is suspended, the COTP will cause a notice of the suspension...

  5. Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, W. J.; Rudd, R. P.; Farless, D. L.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Mitchell, R. T.; Rourke, K. H.; Euler, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the navigation of the Viking spacecraft throughout their flight from Earth launch to Mars landing is given. The flight path design, actual inflight control, and postflight reconstruction are discussed in detail. The preflight analyses upon which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based are discussed. The inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions and, finally, the results of any postflight analyses are presented.

  6. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  7. Analysis of land use/land cover changes using remote sensing data and GIS at an urban area, Tirupati, India.

    PubMed

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  8. Analysis of land use/land cover changes using remote sensing data and GIS at an urban area, Tirupati, India.

    PubMed

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003.

  9. A TRMM Rainfall Estimation Method Applicable to Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Oki, R.; Weinman, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing multi-spectral, dual-polarization Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) radiometer measurements, we have developed in this study a method to retrieve average rain rate, R(sub f(sub R)), in a mesoscale grid box of 2deg x 3deg over land. The key parameter of this method is the fractional rain area, f(sub R), in that grid box, which is determined with the help of a threshold on the 85 GHz scattering depression 0 deduced from the SSM/I data. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of this method, nine-months of R(sub f(sub R))are retrieved from SSM/I data over three grid boxes in the Northeastern United States. These retrievals are then compared with the corresponding ground-truth-average rain rate, R(sub g), deduced from 15-minute rain gauges. Based on nine months of rain rate retrievals over three grid boxes, we find that R(sub f(sub R)can explain about 64 % of the variance contained in R(sub g). A similar evaluation of the grid-box-average rain rates R(sub GSCAT) and R(sub SRL), given by the NASA/GSCAT and NOAA/SRL rain retrieval algorithms, is performed. This evaluation reveals that R(sub GSCAT) and R(sub SRL) can explain only about 42 % of the variance contained in R(sub g). In our method, a threshold on the 85 GHz scattering depression is used primarily to determine the fractional rain area in a mesoscale grid box. Quantitative information pertaining to the 85 GHz scattering depression in the grid box is disregarded. In the NASA/GSCAT and NOAA/SRL methods on the other hand, this quantitative information is included. Based on the performance of all three methods, we infer that the magnitude of the scattering depression is a poor indicator of rain rate. Furthermore, from maps based on the observations made by SSM/I on land and ocean we find that there is a significant redundancy in the information content of the SSM/I multi-spectral observations. This leads us to infer that observations of SSM/I at 19 and 37 GHz add only marginal information to that

  10. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  11. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  12. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  13. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  14. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prescribed under appendix A of 14 CFR part 150. Determination of land use must be based on professional... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  15. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  16. Exploring Land use and Land cover change in the mining areas of Wa East District, Ghana using Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basommi, Prosper Laari; Guan, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dandan

    2015-11-01

    Satellite imagery has been widely used to monitor the extent of environmental change in both mine and post mine areas. This study uses Remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques for the assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of mine related areas in Wa East District of Ghana. Landsat satellite imageries of three different time periods, i.e., 1991, 2000 and 2014 were used to quantify the land use/cover changes in the area. Supervised Classification using Maximum Likelihood Technique in ERDAS was utilized. The images were categorized into five different classes: Open Savannah, Closed Savannah, Bare Areas, Settlement and Water. Image differencing method of change detection was used to investigate the changes. Normalized Differential Vegetative Index valueswere used to correlate the state of healthy vegetation. The image differencing showed a positive correlation to the changes in the Land use and Land cover classes. NDVI values reduced from 0.48 to 0.11. The land use change matrix also showed conversion of savannah areas into bare ground and settlement. Open and close savannah reduced from 50.80% to 36.5% and 27.80% to 22.67% respectively whiles bare land and settlement increased. Overall accuracy of classified 2014 image and kappa statistics was 83.20% and 0.761 respectively. The study revealed the declining nature of the vegetation and the significance of using satellite imagery. A higher resolution satellite Imagery is however needed to satisfactorily delineate mine areas from other bare areas in such Savannah zones.

  17. Applicability of land use models for the Houston area test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersburg, R. K.; Bradford, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Descriptions of land use models are presented which were considered for their applicability to the Houston Area Test Site. These models are representative both of the prevailing theories of land use dynamics and of basic approaches to simulation. The models considered are: a model of metropolis, land use simulation model, emperic land use forecasting model, a probabilistic model for residential growth, and the regional environmental management allocation process. Sources of environmental/resource information are listed.

  18. Spatial configuration of land-use/land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyes Hernández, Humberto; Aguilar Robledo, Miguel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Fortanelli Martínez, Javier

    2008-07-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the configuration and spatial reorganization of land-use and land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, eastern San Luis Potosí, Mexico, as well as the relationship between these changes and the environmental conditions prevailing in the area. Land-use and land-cover changes were determined through the analysis and interpretation of satellite images from different dates. The changes identified in the different study periods were correlated with the prevailing physical factors. The results show that the spatial configuration of farming activities, initially induced by the implementation of a regional development project, is highly correlated to the presence of limiting factors such as soil type, slope, and climate. Particularly, the former represents the element that has led to the establishment of the current distribution pattern of farming activities.

  19. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  20. GPS-based navigation for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champetier, C.; Duhamel, T.; Frezet, M.

    1995-03-01

    We present in this paper a survey of the applications of the GPS (global positioning system) system for spacecraft navigation. The use of the GPS techniques for space missions is a striking example of dual-use of military technology; it can bring vast improvements in performances and, in some cases, for a reduced cost. We only deal in this paper with the functional aspects and performances of GPS uses without addressing the issues of hardware implementation where current developments are leading to an increased miniaturization of the GPS receiver hardware. We start this paper with a general overview of the GPS system and its various uses for space missions. We then focus on four areas where MATRA MARCONI Space has conducted detailed analyses of performances: autonomous navigation for geostationary spacecraft, relative navigation for space rendezvous, differential navigation for landing vehicles, absolute navigation for launchers and reentry vehicles.

  1. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  2. Land-use threats and protected areas: a scenario-based, landscape level approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic land use will likely present a greater challenge to biodiversity than climate change this century in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Even if species are equipped with the adaptive capacity to migrate in the face of a changing climate, they will likely encounter a human-dominated landscape as a major dispersal obstacle. Our goal was to identify, at the ecoregion-level, protected areas in close proximity to lands with a higher likelihood of future land-use conversion. Using a state-and-transition simulation model, we modeled spatially explicit (1 km2) land use from 2000 to 2100 under seven alternative land-use and emission scenarios for ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed scenario-based land-use conversion threats from logging, agriculture, and development near existing protected areas. A conversion threat index (CTI) was created to identify ecoregions with highest projected land-use conversion potential within closest proximity to existing protected areas. Our analysis indicated nearly 22% of land area in the Coast Range, over 16% of land area in the Puget Lowland, and nearly 11% of the Cascades had very high CTI values. Broader regional-scale land-use change is projected to impact nearly 40% of the Coast Range, 30% of the Puget Lowland, and 24% of the Cascades (i.e., two highest CTI classes). A landscape level, scenario-based approach to modeling future land use helps identify ecoregions with existing protected areas at greater risk from regional land-use threats and can help prioritize future conservation efforts.

  3. Hydrologic monitoring in the area of the proposed Yazoo River navigation project, west-central Mississippi, 1978-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data on ground-water levels collected from the area of the proposed Yazoo River Navigation Project for the years 1978-80 are presented without interpretation. These data were obtained as part of a hydrologic study to understand the hydrologic effects of construction and operation of a waterway on the Yazoo River. The data were collected in cooperation with the Vicksburg District, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. During the data collection period, water-level measurements were made on about a monthly schedule in 62 observation wells in the network. Three of the wells were equipped with continuous water-level recorders. (USGS)

  4. Planning In Rural Areas: Evaluation of The Land Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Steven A.; Denney, Evan

    A rural land use project originated in the early 1970s when a landowner approached the University of Montana's Department of Geography asking for assistance in planning the use of more than 10,000 acres. The planning process evolved into four phases; the first three phases (biophysical assessment, capability analysis, and master planning) have…

  5. Definition study of land/sea civil user navigational location monitoring systems for NAVSTAR GPS: User requirements and systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A low-cost GPS civil-user mobile terminal whose purchase cost is substantially an order of magnitude less than estimates for the military counterpart is considered with focus on ground station requirements for position monitoring of civil users requiring this capability and the civil user navigation and location-monitoring requirements. Existing survey literature was examined to ascertain the potential users of a low-cost NAVSTAR receiver and to estimate their number, function, and accuracy requirements. System concepts are defined for low cost user equipments for in-situ navigation and the retransmission of low data rate positioning data via a geostationary satellite to a central computing facility.

  6. Dynamic change analyses on the land use/land cover in arid areas of northwest China with RS and GIS: the case of Liangzhou County in Wuwei City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zengxiang; Tan, Wenbin; Dong, Tingting; Wei, Xianhu

    2008-12-01

    In a long period, arid area is in the special natural environment which is drought and lack of water. Land use/land cover pattern is formed stably with the arid area characteristics. Nowadays, in the arid area of northwest China, with the implementation of the great western development and the increased industrialization process, land use pattern is affected by human activities significantly and the evolution of the land use pattern accelerates ceaselessly. Liangzhou county of Wuwei city is one typical arid area of northwest China, so it is significant to choose it to be the research region to study land use temporal and spatial characteristics of China's western arid area for understanding the arid area's land use status and the national economy production by adopting remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies. The research plays a guiding role for the reasonable land use in the future.

  7. Remote sensing and GIS analyses for emergency manouvering and forced landing areas definition as a support for general aviation flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skocki, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    This paper summarizes the preliminary analyses of using existing remote sensing data, medium and high-resolution satellite and airborne data to define safe emergency landing and maneuvering areas to be used by small aircrafts operating from small airports and airfields in Poland. The pilots need to know such places in the interest of safe flight operations. In common practice, flying instructors typically show the student pilot fields around the airfield supposed to be suitable for emergency or precautionary landing (or ditching) in the initial phase of the training. Although it looks to cover the most basic needs, the problem still exists in relation to guest pilots. To fill this gap, the unified safety map document covering the safe emergency areas around the airfields is proposed in this research. Use of satellite high resolution data, as well as aerial photos, infrastructure information, with use of GIS tools (like buffer zones, distance, equal-time circles or position lines) enable to check the terrain around selected airfields and define possible areas suitable for emergency operations. In the second phase of work, selected areas will be described in terms of easy navigation, possible infrastructure around them, rescue possibilities, radio signal coverage, and others. The selected areas should be also checked for typical cover and surface hardness and stability (eg. with use of moisture estimation on the base of middle-resolution satellite data). Its planned to prepare one combined and separate sheets of the final map for various aircraft characteristics (`classes' of small Cessna-related, big Cessna-related, fast low-wing Diamond-like, two-engine Piper-like). The presented concept should highly increase the safety operations for small aviation in secondary airports and airfields, where the information available is limited. There is also a possibility to make a similar maps for `cruise', which means the areas with dense traffic between the airports/airfields.

  8. Land use changes and its driving forces in hilly ecological restoration area based on gis and RS of northern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Land use change is one of the important aspects of the regional ecological restoration research. With remote sensing (RS) image in 2003, 2007 and 2012, using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, the land use pattern changes in Yimeng Mountain ecological restoration area in China and its driving force factors were studied. Results showed that: (1) Cultivated land constituted the largest area during 10 years, and followed by forest land and grass land; cultivated land and unused land were reduced by 28.43% and 44.32%, whereas forest land, water area and land for water facilities and others were increased. (2) During 2003-2007, forest land change showed the largest, followed by unused land and grass land; however, during 2008-2012, water area and land for water facilities change showed the largest, followed by grass land and unused land. (3) Land use degree was above the average level, it was in the developing period during 2003-2007 and in the degenerating period during 2008-2012. (4) Ecological Restoration Projects can greatly change the micro topography, increase vegetation coverage, and then induce significant changes in the land use distribution, which were the main driving force factors of the land use pattern change in the ecological restoration area.

  9. Land use changes and its driving forces in hilly ecological restoration area based on gis and rs of northern china

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Land use change is one of the important aspects of the regional ecological restoration research. With remote sensing (RS) image in 2003, 2007 and 2012, using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, the land use pattern changes in Yimeng Mountain ecological restoration area in China and its driving force factors were studied. Results showed that: (1) Cultivated land constituted the largest area during 10 years, and followed by forest land and grass land; cultivated land and unused land were reduced by 28.43% and 44.32%, whereas forest land, water area and land for water facilities and others were increased. (2) During 2003–2007, forest land change showed the largest, followed by unused land and grass land; however, during 2008–2012, water area and land for water facilities change showed the largest, followed by grass land and unused land. (3) Land use degree was above the average level, it was in the developing period during 2003–2007 and in the degenerating period during 2008–2012. (4) Ecological Restoration Projects can greatly change the micro topography, increase vegetation coverage, and then induce significant changes in the land use distribution, which were the main driving force factors of the land use pattern change in the ecological restoration area. PMID:26047160

  10. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix Landing Area Looking Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of panoramic images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 15 (June 9, 2008), the 15th Martian day after landing. The panorama looks to the southeast and shows rocks casting shadows, polygons on the surface and as the image looks to the horizon, Phoenix's backshell gleams in the distance.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  12. 25 CFR 150.4 - Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and Oneida Indian Reservations. (b) Albuquerque, New Mexico Office provides title services for Indian... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices. 150.4 Section 150.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND...

  13. 25 CFR 150.4 - Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and Oneida Indian Reservations. (b) Albuquerque, New Mexico Office provides title services for Indian... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locations and service areas for land titles and records offices. 150.4 Section 150.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND...

  14. Simulation of Land-Cover Change in Taipei Metropolitan Area under Climate Change Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Thomas C. C.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change causes environment change and shows up on land covers. Through observing the change of land use, researchers can find out the trend and potential mechanism of the land cover change. Effective adaptation policies can affect pattern of land cover change and may decrease the risks of climate change impacts. By simulating land use dynamics with scenario settings, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between climate change and land-cover change through efficient adaptation polices. It involves spatial statistical model in estimating possibility of land-cover change, cellular automata model in modeling land-cover dynamics, and scenario analysis in response to adaptation polices. The results show that, without any control, the critical eco-areas, such as estuarine areas, will be destroyed and people may move to the vulnerable and important economic development areas. In the other hand, under the limited development condition for adaptation, people migration to peri-urban and critical eco-areas may be deterred.

  15. ACCURACY OF THE 1992 NATIONAL LAND COVER DATASET AREA ESTIMATES: AN ANALYSIS AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL EXTENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for poster presentation:

    Site-specific accuracy assessments evaluate fine-scale accuracy of land-use/land-cover(LULC) datasets but provide little insight into accuracy of area estimates of LULC

    classes derived from sampling units of varying size. Additiona...

  16. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  17. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Christopher M; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J; Radeloff, Volker C; Lewis, David J; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Heglund, Patricia J; Pidgeon, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our "restricted-urban-growth" scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  18. Current and Future Land Use around a Nationwide Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S. PMID:23383275

  19. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A; Echeverria, Cristian M; Moya, Danisa E

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others.

  20. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  1. Artificial neural network modeling of the water quality index using land use areas as predictors.

    PubMed

    Gazzaz, Nabeel M; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the design of an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the water quality index (WQI) using land use areas as predictors. Ten-year records of land use statistics and water quality data for Kinta River (Malaysia) were employed in the modeling process. The most accurate WQI predictions were obtained with the network architecture 7-23-1; the back propagation training algorithm; and a learning rate of 0.02. The WQI forecasts of this model had significant (p < 0.01), positive, very high correlation (ρs = 0.882) with the measured WQI values. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the relative importance of the land use classes to WQI predictions followed the order: mining > rubber > forest > logging > urban areas > agriculture > oil palm. These findings show that the ANNs are highly reliable means of relating water quality to land use, thus integrating land use development with river water quality management.

  2. IEEE PLANS '90 - Position Location and Navigation Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, Mar. 20-23, 1990, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on position, location, and navigation are presented. The general topics addressed include: space-based navigation systems; inertial sensor development; other radio navigation system technologies; surveying, mapping, and digital electronics technology; positioning, pointing, and stabilization of space systems; inertial systems development and applications; integrated communicaiton/navigration systems and standard avionics; application of statistical filtering to navigation technology; GPS applications and equipment in civil, governmental, and commercial areas. Also discussed are: integrated navigation and targeting systems; civil aviation and marine navigation/traffic control; geodesy, gravity measurement, and earth reference systems; GPS military applications and equipment; integrated aircraft navigation and flight control; land vehicle navigation, positioning, and information systems; differential GPS; GPS/inertial navigation; terrain aided air vehicle navigation.

  3. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  4. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  5. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  6. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  7. Mapping Land Use/Land Cover in the Ambos Nogales Study Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Ambos Nogales watershed, which surrounds the twin cities of Nogales, Arizona, United States and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, has a history of problems related to flooding. This paper describes the process of creating a high-resolution, binational land-cover dataset to be used in modeling the Ambos Nogales watershed. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool will be used to model the Ambos Nogales watershed to identify focal points for planning efforts and to anticipate ramifications of implementing detention reservoirs at certain watershed planes.

  8. 75 FR 8286 - Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-15; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... provide adequate separation from restricted area R-2508 Complex, CA. This action is necessary for...

  9. 77 FR 5733 - Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) serving the Chicago O'Hare International Airport, IL, terminal area...

  10. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... area (75 FR 6319). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  11. 78 FR 68777 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Establishment of Area...

  12. 77 FR 24157 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Establishment of Area...

  13. 78 FR 37104 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Federal Register establishing five RNAV routes in the Washington, DC area (78 FR 29615). Subsequent to... (78 FR 29615; FR Doc. 2013-11969) for RNAV routes T-291 and T-295, is corrected under the descriptions... points in radio communications and onboard Flight Management System data entry. To resolve this...

  14. 78 FR 53237 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... flow of air traffic to the west of the Washington-Dulles International Airport. Also, there is a name... area (82 FR 25006). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... circumnavigate the Washington-Dulles (IAD) arrival flows by using existing Victor airways; thus, pilots...

  15. Pigeon homing from unfamiliar areas: An alternative to olfactory navigation is not in sight.

    PubMed

    Wallraff, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    The conclusion that pigeons and other birds can find their way home from unfamiliar areas by means of olfactory signals is well based on a variety of experiments and supporting investigations of the chemical atmosphere. Here I argue that alternative concepts proposing other sources of geopositional information are disproved by experimental findings or, at least, are not experimentally supported and hardly realistic. PMID:25346789

  16. Land Area Change in Coastal Louisiana: A Multidecadal Perspective (from 1956 to 2006)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed changes in the configuration of land and water in coastal Louisiana by using a sequential series of 14 data sets summarizing land and water areas from 1956 to 2006. The purpose of this study is to provide a spatially and temporally consistent source of quantitative information on land area across coastal Louisiana, broken into three physiographic provinces (the term 'coastal Louisiana' is used to present data on the collective area). The land-water data sets used in this study are interpreted through spatial analysis and by linear regression analysis. The spatial depictions of land area change reveal a complex and interwoven mosaic of loss and gain patterns caused by natural and human-induced processes operating at varied temporal and spatial scales, resulting in fluctuating contributions to coastal loss. The linear regression analysis provides a robust estimate of recent change trends by comparing land area over time for all data sets from 1985 to 2004 and from 1985 to 2006 by physiographic province across coastal Louisiana. The 1956 to 2006 map showing multidecadal changes, along with the linear regressions of land area change presented in this study, provide a comprehensive and concise presentation of historical trends and rates of land area change in coastal Louisiana. Taking a broad historical view provides an in-depth understanding of land area changes over time. For example, one observation provided by our historical review is that the majority of the widespread, nontransitory land gains depicted on the map over the past 50 years, with the exception of the progradation of the Atchafafalaya River and Wax Lake deltas, are primarily related to sediment placement and landward migration of barrier islands. Another point revealed by our historical approach is that recent land losses caused by hurricanes sometimes commingled with or exacerbated older losses formed during the 1956 to 1978 period. Furthermore, our analyses

  17. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Linda J; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st) century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  18. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  19. Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2011-08-01

    Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

  20. Velocity, water-quality, and bathymetric surveys of the Grays Landing and Maxwell Navigation Pools, and Selected Tributaries to the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania, 2010–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Scott A.; Roland, Mark A.; Schalk, Luther F.; Fulton, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted velocity, water-quality, and bathymetric surveys from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in the Grays Landing and Maxwell navigation pools of the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania, and selected tributaries in response to elevated levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) recorded in early September 2009. Velocity data were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Water-quality surveys included the in-situ collection of specific-conductance, water-temperature, and turbidity data using a water-quality sonde. Additionally, discrete water samples were collected and analyzed for TDS, chloride, and sulfate. Bathymetric data were collected using an echo sounder, and the shoreline was delineated using a laser range finder and electronic compass. The data were geo-referenced using a differential global positioning system and navigational software. Horizontal (x, y) coordinates were referenced to the North American Datum of 1983. Depth (z) elevations were referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The data are provided in electronic format (appendix 1) and may be downloaded and can be used in a geographic information system for cartographic display and data analysis.

  1. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  2. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  3. Artificial neural network estimation of soil erosion and nutrient concentrations in runoff from land application areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport of sediment and nutrients from land application areas is an environmental concern. New methods are needed for estimating soil and nutrient concentrations of runoff from cropland areas on which manure is applied. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained with a Backpropagation (BP) algor...

  4. Land use analysis of US urban areas using high-resolution imagery from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.

  5. Factors of land abandonment in mountainous Mediterranean areas: the case of Montenegrin settlements.

    PubMed

    Kerckhof, Annelies; Spalevic, Velibor; Van Eetvelde, Veerle; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes have been investigated in the surroundings of 14 rural Montenegrin settlements in order to get specific information about trends in land abandonment since around 1950. Permanently, seasonally and less inhabited settlements with different geographic conditions were studied. This was done by interviewing local inhabitants, which enabled a holistic approach to reveal the underlying processes of land abandonment. According to the observed patterns of land use change, the study sites can be categorized into intensified, urbanized, extensified, overgrown and forested cases. The category of extensified settlements is characterized by a highly reduced agricultural management intensity, resulting in an increase in grasslands and fruit trees at the expense of cropland. This land use change is mainly related to emigrating and aging inhabitants, having less livestock. Such extensive land use is found in both permanently inhabited and abandoned villages. Only some studied settlements became largely overgrown by bushes and forest. The steep average slope gradients and a large distance to the nearest city are explanatory factors of such land abandonment. Land use intensification takes place in low-lying areas located nearby towns.

  6. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-08-28

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  7. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed.

  8. Hydrologic control on water trade in dry land areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water resource (and agriculture) in arid/semi arid areas, especially in developing countries, is increasingly under pressure in the face of global change. While expansion of physical infrastructure such as expansion of irrigation or dam structures can help, many (such as International Monetary Fund) have emphasized introduction of other adaptive mechanisms, such as the use of financial instruments, to smooth out fluctuations in water availability (or agricultural income) caused by (even increasing) erraticity in rainfall patterns. One such mechanism is water trade, where a downstream agent makes a payment to an upstream agent for additional natural flow and if the upstream agent agrees she releases additional flow by changing her landuse pattern. However, such a mechanism is fraught with questions ranging from region to region physical and financial viability of trade in water, role of hydrology in its viability, to the challenges of implementing it in developing countries. Answers to such questions are of utmost importance if water trade is to be considered as a serious coping mechanism. This paper delves on the role that hydrology, specifically hydrologic properties, plays in viability of water trade in a region. We consider water management at basin level, each of the agents (here a ‘representative’ water use, for eg. a farmer) occupies a sub-catchment within a basin and hydrology underlying each such agent is represented by a lumped single linear reservoir model. This allows us to consider non-steady state conditions at monthly scale while calculating prices of water trade securities between contiguous agents based on partial equilibrium modeling. A novel result from this innovative approach is that equilibrium pricing of water trade depends on “effective” hydraulic conductivity of the basin as well as erraticity in rainfall. We implement and present the results for basins in Gujarat and Rajasthan, two semi-arid states in western India that are most

  9. Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high-resolution remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, Silvania; Tokarczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas offer great recreational and economic opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover information provides a rapid and cost-effective means for monitoring and planning coastal area development. This study quantitatively describes spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover over the last four decades in a coastal area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Historical aerial photographs from 1976 and satellite images from 1990 and 2012 were classified and analyzed. We used supervised classification and machine learning techniques to classify the images. An accuracy assessment of results was performed. Land use change statistics for the period indicate that urban areas have increased to the detriment of dense vegetation, salines, and bare soil. The analysis provides a basis for better control of anthropogenic impacts and geoconservation activities in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro.

  10. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Register notice and request for comments at 70 FR 70052, under the heading ``Navigation and Waterways.... On May 26, 2006, we published a Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking at 71 FR 30108, under... Register at 71 FR 57893, under the heading ``Navigation and Waterways Management Improvements,...

  11. Land change in the Central Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion and hydrologic consequences in developed areas: 1939-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista; Shaver, David; Alexander, Randal; Over, Thomas; Soong, David T.

    2013-01-01

    This report emphasizes the importance of a multi-disciplinary understanding of how land use and land cover can affect regional hydrology by collaboratively investigating how increases in developed land area may affect stream discharge by evaluating land-cover change from 1939 to 2000, urban housing density data from 1940 to 2010, and changes in annual peak streamflow from water years 1945 to 2009. The results and methods crosscut two mission areas of the U.S. Geological Survey (Climate and Land Use, Water) and can be used to better assess developed land change and hydrologic consequences, which can be used to better assess future management and mitigation strategies.

  12. Land use changing and land use optimization of Lake Baikal basin on the example of two key areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodyankina, S.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Baikal contains roughly 20% of the world's unfrozen surface fresh water. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. Today levels of urbanization and economic stress on environmental resources is increasing on the shorts of the lake Baikal. The potential of economic development (industry, local tourism, and mining) of the Severobaykalsky and Sludyansky districts is rather high although they are characterized not only by beneficial features for local economy but also by considerable disadvantages for nature of this world valuable territory. This investigation show human-caused landscape changes during economic development of the two key areas in Baikal water catchment basin during 10 years (point of reference is 2000 year). Key areas are 1) the Baikalo-Patomskoe highland in the north of the Baikal catchment basin (Severobaykalsky district, Republic of Buryatia); 2) Khamar-Daban mountain system in the south of the Baikal catchment basin (Sludyansky districy, Irkutsk region). Since 2000 year land use of the territory has changed. Areas of agriculture were reduced but recreation activity on the bank of the lake was increased. Methods of GIS analysis and local statistic analysis of landscape characteristic were used. Nature, rural and urban areas ratio are estimated. Vegetation and soil condition assessment were made. The essence of this research is in helping to make decisions linked to upcoming problems: situation identification, evaluation and forecasting of the potential landscape condition, optimization of land use, mitigation of impact and mapping of territories and nature resources which have a high ecological value or endangered by industrial impact. For this purpose landscape maps of the territories on the base of the remote sensing information and field investigations were created. They used to calculate potential landscape functions of the territory without taking into account present impact of anthropogenic actions. Land use maps for years

  13. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  14. Composition of the seed bank in drawdown areas of navigation pool 8 of the upper Mississippi river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Lyon, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to enhance aquatic plant production and habitat diversity on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), resource managers considered water level reduction as a management tool to increase the area of emergent and submersed aquatic vegetation by natural seed germination. To quantify the availability of seed, we assessed the potential seed bank of selected areas of Navigation Pool 8 of the UMR from substrate samples collected in spring 2000. We tested these samples for viable seed content under four hydrologic conditions: dry, moist, shallow flooded and submerged. Forty-seven species were identified in the seed bank, including 27 obligate wetland, 10 facultative wetland and 7 upland species. Dominant taxa within the seed bank included Sagittaria spp., Lindernia dubia, Zosterella dubia, Cyperus spp., Eragrostis spp. and Leersia oryzoides. Of the four hydrologic treatments, moist substrates had the greatest species diversity and were the most productive, yielding an average density of 1420 seedlings m-2. Emergent and submersed aquatic species were widely distributed, each type occurring in more than 90% of the samples. Timing of seedling germination varied among species and has implications for scheduling drawdowns to promote establishment of desired species. Seed bank results were correlated with the vegetation response on substrates exposed during a reduction of water levels of Pool 8 during summer 2001. Experimentally determining the composition and viability of seed banks from drawdown areas provides information useful in predicting the types of vegetation that may develop on exposed substrates. Further, these findings provide resource managers a better understanding of the potential for achieving desired vegetation response through water level reductions.

  15. Land Area Change and Fractional Water Maps in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, following Hurricane Rita (2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the changes in land and water coverage of a 1,961-square-kilometer (km2) area in Louisiana's Chenier Plain. The study area is roughly centered on the Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, which was impacted by Hurricane Rita on September 24, 2005. The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to provide pre- and post-Hurricane Rita moderate-resolution (30-meter (m)) fractional water maps based upon multiple source images, and (2) to quantify land and water coverage changes due to Hurricane Rita.

  16. 77 FR 75850 - Regulated Navigation Area; Upper Mississippi River MM 0.0 to MM 185.0; Cairo, IL to St. Louis, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Automatic Identification System COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River between miles 0.0 and 185.0. This RNA is needed to protect persons,...

  17. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of land cover change and grassland degradation pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area].

    PubMed

    Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-Hong; Xue, Da-Yuan; Cai, Liang

    2012-05-01

    Based on field survey data, remote sensing images and statistical data, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal differentiation of land use and grassland degradation patterns in Yangtze River headwaters area in 1987-2007, and discussed the main natural factors (elevation, position and slope) leading to the changes of this area's grassland ecological environment. In 1987-2007, the fragmentation of this area' s landscape patterns had an increasing trend, and natural environment and climate change were the main driving forces of land use pattern change. There existed significant differences in the areas of grassland degradation at different altitudes. Grassland degradation mainly occurred at altitudes 4800-5100 m. The grassland degradation area tended to increase with increasing elevation, and the proportions of the degradation area varied greatly over different slopes and aspects. The climate in the study area became warm and dry, and the spatial structure of regional land cover changed obviously. The distribution patterns of grassland degradation at different elevation, position and slope coincided with alpine environment and human disturbances, suggesting that alpine environment and climatic change were the decisive factors to the grassland ecosystem pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area. PMID:22919830

  18. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Wu, Grace C.; Allen, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in “Compatible” areas. The majority of “Incompatible” USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  19. Solar Energy Development Impacts on Land-Cover Change and Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Wu, G. C.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land-cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type (photovoltaic [PV] vs. concentrating solar power [CSP]), area (km2), and capacity (MW) within the global solar hotspot of the state of California (USA). Additionally, we utilized the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility Model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Lastly, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrub- and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land-cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in compatible areas. The majority of incompatible USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure and all USSE installations average at most seven and five km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  20. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  1. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  2. LAND STREAMER SEISMIC DATA FROM NORTHERN DELAWARE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR IMAGING AQUIFERS IN SUBURBAN AREAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, C. C.; McLaughlin, P. P.; McGeary, S. E.; Sargent, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Potomac Formation includes the most important confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of northern Delaware. Development and a growing suburban population are increasing demand for groundwater in the area, making accurate assessment of groundwater water supply increasingly important. Previous studies of subsurface geology indicate that the Potomac Formation is characterized by laterally discontinuous fluvial sand bodies, making it difficult to precisely delineate the distribution and geometry of the aquifer facies based on well correlations alone. A 20-km high-resolution seismic reflection dataset was collected using a land-streamer system in 2008 to constrain subsurface stratigraphy between disparate well locations. The data were collected along roadways in an area of mixed development that includes suburban housing tracts, farmlands, and large industry. A 152-m-deep continuous-cored test hole was drilled in the summer of 2009 adjacent to one of the lines and a full suite of borehole geophysical logs obtained. The land-streamer data are compared to a 3-km dataset collected also in 2008 using conventional methods on farmland in the northern part of the study area. The land streamer system proved to be more effective than conventional seismic reflection methods in this area. Several advantages are evident for the land streamer: 1) overall, the conventional dataset has a higher S/N, 2) on average, collecting data with the land streamer system is four times faster, and 3) the land streamer lines can be longer and therefore more continuous than the conventional lines in a developed area. The land-streamer system has minor disadvantages: traffic control, traffic noise, and in some cases a need for larger crews. Regardless, the land streamer dataset is easier to process, of higher quality, and more cost effective. The final depth images from the land streamer data indicate that the minimum and maximum depths imaged are ~18 m and ~ 268m, with a resolution of ~4 m. This

  3. Monitoring of Land degradation in the mining impacted areas of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, T.; Renchin, T.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, environmental issue is very important and complicated problem in Mongolia. Mongolia has long suffered from poor mining legislation and almost no regulation of its production . There is a need to undertake analyses of land degradation and land use in Mongolia as an important factor of Environment. Land degradation has been identified as one the priority concerns. Causes of land degradation can be divided into two categories natural and human induced in Mongolia. The second hand level mining contributes to land degradation increased small to large-scale mining, as well as illicit activity resulting in exploitation of the country's mineral resources. In the last decade Mongolia has been developing the mining sector and due to the great number of exploitations the related territories were ecologically damaged. The rivers and lakes are drained, the earth is defiled and all these damages brought the environmental problems. This study aims to monitor land degradation processes in the study area Ongi River Basin of the central region of Mongolia. This area is affected by mining activities and desertification processes. The main reason of drying up Ongiriver and Ulaannuur is definitely changed the Onggi riverbed due to the mining of gold placer deposit and never making technical and biological reclamation. About 60 thousand people and over one million livestock who one living around Onggi river one getting defective of drink water and pasture because of Onggi river and UlaanLake's evaporation. We applied change detection technique and supervised classification using Satellite data. This study contributes to the research which involves policy makers and stakeholders to define and negotiate relevant scenarios in participatory approaches in the local area and to the studies about linking people to pixels. This case study will enable our researchers to plan for the future by making more educated decisions in issues stemming from mining, land degradation, water

  4. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-01-01

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N0. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N0. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area. PMID:26343683

  5. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF LAND USE IN RIPARIAN AREAS WITHIN THE CONTENTNEA WATERSHED OF NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of land use in riparian areas within the Contentnea watershed of North Carolina.

    Wright, C.J.,1 and S.W. Alberty.2 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605 USA; 2OAO Corporation, Athens, GA 30605 USA.

    Legislation mandating riparian bu...

  7. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  8. LARGE AREA LAND COVER MAPPING THROUGH SCENE-BASED CLASSIFICATION COMPOSITING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create definitive national and global data sets consisting of precision corrected Landsat MSS and TM scenes. One important application of these data is the derivation of large area land cover products spanning ...

  9. LandScape Command Set: Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Burchard, R.L.; Small, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment (LandScape) commands set that provides a Generic Device Subsystem Application Programmers Interface (API). These commands are implemented using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification with Orbix from Iona Technologies.

  10. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  11. Spatial-temporal variation of groundwater and land subsidence evolution in Beijing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, K.; Luo, Y.; Chen, B.; Guo, M.; Guo, G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, R.

    2015-11-01

    Precipitation is the main recharge source of groundwater in the plain of Beijing, China. Rapid expansion of urbanization has resulted in increased built-up area and decreased amount of effective recharge of precipitation to groundwater, indirectly leading to the long-term over-exploitation of groundwater, and induced regional land subsidence. Based on the combination of meteorological data, groundwater level data, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR; specifically persistent scatterer interferometry, PSI), geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis method and rainfall recharge theory, this paper presents a systematic analysis of spatial-temporal variation of groundwater level and land subsidence evolution. Results show that rainfall has been decreasing annually, while the exploitation of groundwater is increasing and the groundwater level is declining, which is has caused the formation and evolution of land subsidence. Seasonal and interannual variations exist in the evolution of land subsidence; the subsidence is uneven in both spatial and temporal distribution. In 2011, at the center of mapped subsidence the subsidence rate was greater than 120 mm a-1. The results revealed good correlation between the spatial distribution of groundwater level declines and subsidence. The research results show that it is beneficial to measure the evolution of land subsidence to dynamic variations of groundwater levels by combining InSAR or PSI, groundwater-level data, and GIS. This apprpach provides improved information for environmental and hydrogeologic research and a scientific basis for regional land subsidence control.

  12. Extraction of land-use information within rural residential area from high-resolution RS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Zeying; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Dan

    2008-12-01

    Extracting land-use information within rural residential area is one of the major applications in remote sensing today. In this paper, a new method, which is auxiliary land-use knowledge method, is presented for this requirement. With the abundant geographic knowledge in the thematic map, we first propose a simple and effective method to extract rural residential out-border from RS image by overlapping analysis, and take the result as the basic data for further interpretation. Secondly, the object-oriented approach is employed for further classification, whose basic cell isn't a single pixel any more, but rather an image object from image segmentation. During the process, land-use knowledge is also taken as auxiliary information to establish class system and class hierarchy, select feature presentation of image objects, and examine classification result. Finally, a high-resolution RS image of Hubei Province is taken as testing data to verify the above method. The experiment results are satisfying: the detailed land-use information is extracted and categories with similar spectrum feature are divided effectively. It is obvious that this method offers a good solution to extract land-use information within rural residential area.

  13. Assessing the use of global land cover data for guiding large area population distribution modelling.

    PubMed

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Tatem, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Gridded population distribution data are finding increasing use in a wide range of fields, including resource allocation, disease burden estimation and climate change impact assessment. Land cover information can be used in combination with detailed settlement extents to redistribute aggregated census counts to improve the accuracy of national-scale gridded population data. In East Africa, such analyses have been done using regional land cover data, thus restricting application of the approach to this region. If gridded population data are to be improved across Africa, an alternative, consistent and comparable source of land cover data is required. Here these analyses were repeated for Kenya using four continent-wide land cover datasets combined with detailed settlement extents and accuracies were assessed against detailed census data. The aim was to identify the large area land cover dataset that, combined with detailed settlement extents, produce the most accurate population distribution data. The effectiveness of the population distribution modelling procedures in the absence of high resolution census data was evaluated, as was the extrapolation ability of population densities between different regions. Results showed that the use of the GlobCover dataset refined with detailed settlement extents provided significantly more accurate gridded population data compared to the use of refined AVHRR-derived, MODIS-derived and GLC2000 land cover datasets. This study supports the hypothesis that land cover information is important for improving population distribution model accuracies, particularly in countries where only coarse resolution census data are available. Obtaining high resolution census data must however remain the priority. With its higher spatial resolution and its more recent data acquisition, the GlobCover dataset was found as the most valuable resource to use in combination with detailed settlement extents for the production of gridded population datasets

  14. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  15. Land use change and its effects on water quality in typical inland lake of arid area in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Zhou, Xiaode; Guo, Mengjing; Wei, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Land-use change is very important for determining and assessing the influence of human activity on aquatic environment of rivers and lakes. The present work with Bosten River basin as the subject, analyzes features of dynamic land-use change of the basin from 1993 to 2013, in order to study the influence of land-use pattern change on the basin water quality, according to the land-use/land-cover(LUCC) chart from 2000 to 2013 made by ArcGIS and ENVI. It shows cultivated land, wetland and forestland constitute most of Bosten River basin, taking up over 41.7% of the total; from 1993-2000, LUCC of the basin is relatively small, with an increase of cultivated land, residential-industry land, water wetlands by 15.09%-18.33%,most of which are transformed from forestland, grassland and unused land; from 2000-2013, LUCC of the basin is relatively significant, with a continuing and bigger increase of cultivated land and Residential-industry area, most of which are transformed from water wetlands and unused land. Based on analysis of landuse pattern and water quality index, it can be told that water pollution is positively correlated to cultivated land and residential-industry area and negatively correlated to water and grassland. Also, the influence of land-use pattern change on water quality has been discussed, whose finding can serve as the scientific evidence for land-use optimization and water pollution control. PMID:27498508

  16. Land use change and its effects on water quality in typical inland lake of arid area in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Zhou, Xiaode; Guo, Mengjing; Wei, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Land-use change is very important for determining and assessing the influence of human activity on aquatic environment of rivers and lakes. The present work with Bosten River basin as the subject, analyzes features of dynamic land-use change of the basin from 1993 to 2013, in order to study the influence of land-use pattern change on the basin water quality, according to the land-use/land-cover(LUCC) chart from 2000 to 2013 made by ArcGIS and ENVI. It shows cultivated land, wetland and forestland constitute most of Bosten River basin, taking up over 41.7% of the total; from 1993-2000, LUCC of the basin is relatively small, with an increase of cultivated land, residential-industry land, water wetlands by 15.09%-18.33%,most of which are transformed from forestland, grassland and unused land; from 2000-2013, LUCC of the basin is relatively significant, with a continuing and bigger increase of cultivated land and Residential-industry area, most of which are transformed from water wetlands and unused land. Based on analysis of landuse pattern and water quality index, it can be told that water pollution is positively correlated to cultivated land and residential-industry area and negatively correlated to water and grassland. Also, the influence of land-use pattern change on water quality has been discussed, whose finding can serve as the scientific evidence for land-use optimization and water pollution control.

  17. GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument): A New Airborne GNSS-R receiver for land surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument) is a new receiver dedicated to the airborne measurement of surface parameters such as soil moisture and biomass above ground and sea state (wave height and direction) above oceans. The instrument is based on the PARIS concept [Martin-Neira, 1993] using both the direct and surface-reflected L-band signals from the GPS constellation as a multistatic radar source. The receiver is based on one up-looking and one down-looking dual polarization hemispherical active antennas feeding a low-cost 4-channel SDR direct down-conversion receiver tuned to the GPS L1 frequency. The raw measurements are sampled at 16.368MHz and stored as 2-bit, IQ binary files. In post-processing, GPS acquisition and tracking are performed on the direct up-looking signal while the down-looking signal is processed blindly using tracking parameters from the direct signal. The obtained direct and reflected code-correlation waveforms are the basic observables for geophysical parameters inversion. The instrument was designed to be installed aboard the ATR42 experimental aircraft from the French SAFIRE fleet as a permanent payload. The long term goal of the project is to provide real-time continuous surface information for every flight performed. The aircraft records attitude information through its Inertial Measurement Unit and a commercial GPS receiver records additional information such as estimated doppler and code phase, receiver location, satellites azimuth and elevation. A series of test flights were performed over both the Toulouse and Gulf of Lion (Mediterranean Sea) regions during the period 17-21 Nov 2014 together with the KuROS radar [Hauser et al., 2014]. Using processing methods from the literature [Egido et al., 2014], preliminary results demonstrate the instrument sensitivity to both ground and ocean surface parameters estimation. A dedicated scientific flight campaign is planned at the end of second quarter 2015 with

  18. Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

    2005-08-01

    The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

  19. On Assessment and Estimation of Potential Losses due to Land Subsidence in Urban Areas of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh P.

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence is natural-anthropogenic hazard affecting several large urban areas in Indonesia, i.e. Jakarta, Bandung and Semarang. Geodetic based results from various techniques (e.g. Leveling, GPS and InSAR) show that land subsidence rates in all three cities generally have spatial and temporal variations, and their magnitude is in average about 5-10 cm/year. The impacts of subsidence in those cities can be seen in the field in various forms such as cracking of permanent constructions and roads, tilting of houses and buildings, 'sinking' of houses and buildings, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of coastal and/or inland flooding areas, and increased inland sea water intrusion. These impacts can be categorized into infrastructure, environmental, economic, and social impacts. The potential losses due to land subsidence in urban areas are actually quite significant. Related infrastructural, social and environmental costs due to direct and indirect impacts of land subsidence are economically quite significant, and can not be underestimated in sustainable urban development. The planning, development and maintenance costs of building and infrastructures in the affected areas are usually much higher than the normal situation. The collateral impact of coastal subsidence in Jakarta and Semarang, in the form of coastal flooding during high tides is also quite damaging. This repeated coastal flooding in several areas along the coast will deteriorate the structure and function of building and infrastructures, badly influences the quality of the living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition), and also disrupts economic and social activities in the affected areas. As in the case of Bandung, inland subsidence also has a quite significant impact on inland flooding phenomena, since it will theoretically lead to expanded coverage and deeper water depth of flooded (inundated) areas. Since the direct and indirect impacts of

  20. Classification and area estimation of land covers in Kansas using ground-gathered and LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A.; Holko, M. L.; Anderson, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-gathered data and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data from 1981 were analyzed to produce a classification of Kansas land areas into specific types called land covers. The land covers included rangeland, forest, residential, commercial/industrial, and various types of water. The analysis produced two outputs: acreage estimates with measures of precision, and map-type or photo products of the classification which can be overlaid on maps at specific scales. State-level acreage estimates were obtained and substate-level land cover classification overlays and estimates were generated for selected geographical areas. These products were found to be of potential use in managing land and water resources.

  1. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  2. Comparison Between AQUARIUS and SMOS brightness temperatures for Heterogeneous Land Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlloch, Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Tenjo, Carolina; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    Intercomparison between Aquarius and SMOS brightness temperatures (TBs) over land surfaces is more challenging than over oceans because land footprints are more heterogeneous. In this work we are comparing Aquarius and SMOS TBs under coherente conditions obtained both by considering similar areas, according to land uses and by stratifying by means of TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) that accounts for the dynamics of the vegetation instead of assuming static characteristics as in the previous approches. The area of study was chosen in central Spain where we could get a significant number of matches between both instruments. The study period corresponded to 2012-2014. SMOS level-3 data were obtained from the Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS (CATDS) and Aquarius' from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PODAAC). Land uses were obtained from the Spanish SIOSE facility (Sistema de Informacion de Ocupacion del Suelo en España) that uses a scale of 1:25.000 and polygon geometrical structure layer. SIOSE is based on panchromatic and multispectral 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 images together with Landsat-5 images and orthophotos from the Spanish Nacional Plan of Aerial Orthophotography (PNOA). TVDI values were obtained from MODIS operational products of land surface temperature and NDVI. SMOS ascending TBs were compared to inner-beam Aquarius descending half-orbit TBs coinciding over the study area at 06:00 h. The Aquarius inner beam has an incidence angle of 28,7º and SMOS data were considered for the 27,5º incidence angle. The SMOS products corresponded to version 2.6x (data before 31st Oct 2013) and version 2.7x (data after 1st Jan 2014). Intersections between both footprints were analysed under conditions of similar areas, land uses and TVDI values. For the latter (land uses/TVDI), a linear combination of SMOS land uses/TVDI was obtained to match the larger Aquarius footprint. A more physical approach is also under way

  3. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2013-12-01

    A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  4. [Spatial-temporal characteristics of land surface temperature in Tianshan Mountains area based on MODIS data].

    PubMed

    Guan, Yan-long; Wang, Rang-hui; Li, Cheng; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jian-ping

    2015-03-01

    Based on the MODIS/MOD11A2 data from 2001 to 2013, this paper researched the characteristics of land surface temperature (LST) of Tianshan Mountains area. The results indicated that the average of LST in the study area was 1.73 °C , and LST was much higher in the east than in the west. The inter-annual variation range of LST in the northwest was significantly large than in other regions, with the largest above 0.55 °C in some areas. The LST tended to slowly increase with time, and the increase rate was 0.147 °C . a-1. It showed a significant seasonal difference, and the fluctuation of winter was significantly larger than in other seasons with the coefficient of variation reaching 12.7%. The LST difference of day time was greater than that at night, and that in summer was greater than in other seasons. The LST differed with land use types, and the fitted results were inconsistent between the LST and NDVI. With the increase of NDVI of woodland and grassland, the LST decreased dramatically. The LST of construction land and cropland under the influence of human activities had higher sensitivity with NDVI than other land types. PMID:26211048

  5. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  6. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  7. A comparison of pixel-based and object-based approaches for land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, H. E.; Csaplovics, E.; Elhaja, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the comparison between application of pixel-based and object- based approaches in land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas in Sudan. The second aim is to assess the accuracy of classification for each approach. The study was conducted in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends. The study used ASTER L1B registered radiance at the sensor image acquired on (19.10.2010). The image was radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Subset with an area of (40880) ha was created. The image classification (pixel-based and object-based) and accuracy assessment were conducted. Total number of (47) GCPs were surveyed and used in accuracy assessment using ERDAS 9.1. Image segmentation process was implemented using Definiens eCognition 7.1 software. Segmentation level 4 of scale parameter 25 was selected for classification based on colour and form homogeneity. Land use land cover classes were derived by classification using the nearest neighbor classifier with membership functions (fuzzy logic) for each class. The land use land cover distribution in the area for forest dominated by Acacia Senegal is (20%) and for residential area is (1.50%) for the two methods of classification. While for bare and farm land, grass and bush land and mixed woodland classes are (6.69% and 1.63%), (18.62% and 15.16%) and (53% and 61%) for pixel based and object based methods, respectively. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic of the classification produced by the pixel-based and object-based were (72.92%, and 54.17%) and (0.6259 and 0.3810), respectively. The pixel based approach performed slightly better than the object-based approach in land use land cover classification in the semi-arid land in gum Arabic belt.

  8. Using CORINE land cover and the point survey LUCAS for area estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Javier; Bamps, Catharina

    2008-12-01

    CORINE land cover 2000 (CLC2000) is a European land cover map produced by photo-interpretation of Landsat ETM+ images. Its direct use for area estimation can be strongly biased and does not generally report single crops. CLC areas need to be calibrated to give acceptable statistical results. LUCAS (land use/cover area frame survey) is a point survey carried out in 2001 and 2003 in the European Union (EU15) on a systematic sample of clusters of points. LUCAS is especially useful for area estimation in geographic units that do not coincide with administrative regions, such as set of coastal areas defined with a 10 km buffer. Some variance estimation issues with systematic sampling of clusters are analysed. The contingency table obtained overlaying CLC and LUCAS gives the fine scale composition of CLC classes. Using CLC for post-stratification of LUCAS is equivalent to the direct calibration estimator when the sampling units are points. Stratification is easier to adapt to a scheme in which the sampling units are the clusters of points used in LUCAS 2001/2003.

  9. Analysis of urban area land cover using SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Digitally processed SEASAT synthetic aperture raar (SAR) imagery of the Denver, Colorado urban area was examined to explore the potential of SAR data for mapping urban land cover and the compatability of SAR derived land cover classes with the United States Geological Survey classification system. The imagery is examined at three different scales to determine the effect of image enlargement on accuracy and level of detail extractable. At each scale the value of employing a simplistic preprocessing smoothing algorithm to improve image interpretation is addressed. A visual interpretation approach and an automated machine/visual approach are employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing a semiautomated land cover classification from SAR data. Confusion matrices of omission and commission errors are employed to define classification accuracies for each interpretation approach and image scale.

  10. Application of remote sensing technology to land evaluation, planning utilization of land resources, and assessment of wildlife areas in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A soils map for land evaluation in Potter County (Eastern South Dakota) was developed to demonstrate the use of remote sensing technology in the area of diverse parent materials and topography. General land use and soils maps have also been developed for land planning LANDSAT, RB-57 imagery, and USGS photographs are being evaluated for making soils and land use maps. LANDSAT fulfilled the requirements for general land use and a general soils map. RB-57 imagery supplemented by large scale black and white stereo coverage was required to provide the detail needed for the final soils map for land evaluation. Color infrared prints excelled black and white coverage for this soil mapping effort. An identification and classification key for wetland types in the Lake Dakota Plain was developed for June 1975 using color infrared imagery. Wetland types in the region are now being mapped via remote sensing techniques to provide a current inventory for development of mitigation measures.

  11. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  12. Archaeopedological analysis of land use dynamics in marginal areas in SW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkner, Jessica; Ahlrichs, Jan; Scholten, Thomas; Knopf, Thomas; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A common theory to explain human migration is climate change triggering migration and the shift of farming places. Populated areas might have been relocated or extended because of changing resources like a warming climate, soil erosion or a change in demands. But it also has to be taken into account that altered trading relations or changing religious attitudes might have caused migration into and settlement of formerly not used areas. In the case of Southwest Germany it is assumed that people migrated from the favorable Baar (more even areas, soils on loess, lower elevations) to the unfavorable Black Forest and the Swabian Jura with harsher environmental conditions (small valleys, acidic soils, steep slopes, higher elevation). Soils are generally considered as being an important resource related to human activities, especially farming, but also for using wood, water or iron ore. Colluvial deposits as geoarchives reveal the formative impact of humans on their environment: on the development of soil, relief, vegetation, and land use. Land use and therefore settlement history are inscribed in colluvial deposits, which we use as proxies for the kind and intensity of human activities. Especially in marginal areas land use and settlement dynamics are not well investigated. Important questions are how and why did people use the unfavorable land during different times? Which resources were important for different phases of settlement? In this project, soil science methods are used together with archaeological approaches, which is an essential part of archaeopedology. Using colluvial deposits from three study areas it is possible to create pedological and chronological stratigraphies reflecting land use dynamics in favorable and unfavorable areas. First AMS radiocarbon dates from the western Baar in transition to the Black Forest point to human land use with different intensity for 5500 years. Thick lower colluvial layers date back to the third millennium BC. Above

  13. Researches on the Land-Use Change Detection of Mine Area Based on Tm/etm Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Liling, H.; Min, Y.; Yi, L.

    2013-07-01

    With the economic development and population growth, land use status is changing rapidly in Chinese urban. Since the remote sensing technology can analyze and detect the land use information quickly and accurately, it has been widely applied to obtain the land use/land cover change (LUCC) information today. The land surface destroy occurred in mineral resources exploration will result in a lot of environmental problems in coal mine areas. But there are few research in small and medium-sized cities and coal mine areas. So Peixian is used as the study area in the paper. The Landsat TM/ETM images spanning 3 years and thematic map are adopted to detect the land-use change of the area. In order to improve the classification results, we built an optimized classification model adapting classic SVM method, which was defined "a feature weighted SVM classifier using mixed kernel function". Based on geostatistic and multi-scale statistical knowledge, we calculated the transformation matrix and dynamic index of land-use types, from which we conducted quantitative analysis and the driving force on the mine land-use change of Peixian. Then, we can achieve resource dynamic change detection of four years in Peixian area, analyze the effect of the surface land-use change due to mineral exploration and obtain the causes of land-use change.

  14. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  15. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  16. Impact of pipelines on land use in rural areas in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alas, Birol

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether the parcelization of land through easement as a result of the construction of pipelines in rural areas in Turkey has any negative effects on productive land use. The current legislation in Turkey does not allow the division of land in most rural areas into parcels smaller than 5000 m(2). Therefore, the smallest parcel that can be productively used was considered as 5000 m(2). On the basis of the analysis of the data pertaining to the easement rights having two different widths and collected from three different regions having different parcel sizes, the research aims to find out the number of parcels with an area less than 5000 m(2) (excluding the easement) that were created by the construction of pipelines and to investigate whether a significant number of areas less than 5000 m(2) remain. This study also demonstrates a method that can be used in studies on this subject according to the various parcel sizes that were created by the allotment of parcels due to the easement of the construction of pipelines. PMID:27504254

  17. The maritime environment: a comparison with land-based remote area health care.

    PubMed

    Bull, R M; Boyle, A J

    1998-05-01

    The sea is not often considered when discussing remote area health care; however, when a comparison is made of the challenges posed by this and land-based remote areas and the experiences of people providing health care in both settings, the similarities are striking. Like people living in land-based remote areas, seafarers live in isolated communities, are often in remote geographical locations, and are required to be self-sufficient in the provision of health care, utilising limited medical resources and training in conjunction with radio medical advice. Given the large numbers of small, isolated floating communities that characterise the world shipping industry, some consideration of the quality of and access to health care needs to be made. This paper introduces the marine environment as a remote area, drawing comparisons between it and land-based environments. Issues pertinent to the people providing health care in both environments are discussed. These issues include limited educational preparation, sparse resources and the problems related to distance, isolation, communication, accessibility and weather.

  18. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  19. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  20. Land use and soil contamination with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Huan; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-10-15

    Because soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, in this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts in urban area of northeastern Mainland China. From April 2014 to May 2015, more than 9000 soil samples were collected. Detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed applying real-time quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates for each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 30.3% of all samples. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model was used to evaluate the effect of land use and intrinsic soil properties on the risk of contamination with oocysts. Jackknife analysis revealed that the likelihood for positive results is significantly enhanced in soil originating from foci of human habitation, wood land and grass land. Furthermore, soil temperature and humidity significantly influence the probability of contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Our findings indicate that land use may affect distribution of T. gondii oocysts in urban areas.