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Sample records for landing budgerigars melopsittacus

  1. Edge Detection in Landing Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavatula, Partha; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael; Srinivasan, Mandyam

    2009-01-01

    Background While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. Methodology/Principal Findings Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans) clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. Conclusions We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind. PMID:19809500

  2. Brightness Discrimination in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

  3. Somatotroph pituitary tumors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Langohr, I M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2012-05-01

    A series of 11 pituitary tumors in budgerigars were classified on the basis of their clinical, gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Affected birds were young to middle-aged. Clinically, neurologic signs--including difficulties flying, ataxia, and blindness--were most commonly reported. Additional clinical signs included weight loss, abnormal feathers or molting, increased respiratory efforts, and exophthalmos. Nine birds were diagnosed with chromophobic pituitary adenomas, and 2 birds had chromophobic pituitary carcinomas. Only 1 tumor was delimited to the pituitary gland; the other 10 variably invaded the brain, skull, and retrobulbar space. Distant metastases were identified in 2 birds. All tumors were immunohistochemically strongly positive for growth hormone, consistent with the diagnosis of somatotroph tumors. The common occurrence and early onset may suggest a genetic predisposition of budgerigars to develop somatotroph pituitary tumors with a high incidence of local invasion and with metastatic potential.

  4. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing.

  5. Keratoacanthoma causing beak deformity in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Owen, H C; Doneley, R J T; Schmidt, R E; Patterson-Kane, J C

    2007-12-01

    This report describes a keratoacanthoma causing abnormal maxillary beak growth in a 6-year-old male budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates). Although the bird was still capable of eating, it had recently been demonstrating signs of respiratory distress and euthanasia was recommended. On histological examination, the neoplasm was dramatically effacing the normal structure of the maxilla and infiltrating into the rostral nasal sinuses. The tumour consisted of many cyst-like proliferations of well-differentiated squamous epithelial cells with central keratinization. Contiguity of the tumour cells with the stratum germinativum of the beak was noted in one microscopic field. This tumour type has not previously been reported in the avian beak; however, this case shows some similarities to subungual keratoacanthomas occurring in human patients and nailbed keratoacanthomas occurring in dogs and cats.

  6. Sex Differences in Rhythmic Preferences in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): A Comparative Study with Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Bowling, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of parrot species have recently gained attention as members of a small group of non-human animals that are capable of coordinating their movements in time with a rhythmic pulse. This capacity is highly developed in humans, who display unparalleled sensitivity to musical beats and appear to prefer rhythmically organized sounds in their music. Do parrots also exhibit a preference for rhythmic over arrhythmic sounds? Here, we presented humans and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) – a small parrot species that have been shown to be able to align movements with a beat – with rhythmic and arrhythmic sound patterns in an acoustic place preference paradigm. Both species were allowed to explore an environment for 5 min. We quantified how much time they spent in proximity to rhythmic vs. arrhythmic stimuli. The results show that humans spent more time with rhythmic stimuli, and also preferred rhythmic stimuli when directly asked in a post-test survey. Budgerigars did not show any such overall preferences. However, further examination of the budgerigar results showed an effect of sex, such that male budgerigars spent more time with arrthymic stimuli, and female budgerigars spent more time with rhythmic stimuli. Our results support the idea that rhythmic information is interesting to budgerigars. We suggest that future investigations into the temporal characteristics of naturalistic social behaviors in budgerigars, such as courtship vocalizations and head-bobbing displays, may help explain the sex difference we observed. PMID:27757099

  7. Luminance-dependence of spatial vision in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii).

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Sunesson, Tony; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Kelber, Almut

    2012-01-01

    Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) are closely related birds with different activity patterns. Budgerigars are strictly diurnal while Bourke's parrots are active in dim twilight. Earlier studies show that the intensity threshold of colour vision is similar in both species while Bourke's parrots have larger eyes with a higher density of rods than budgerigars. In this study, we investigate whether this could be an adaptation for better spatial vision in dim light. We used two alternative forced-choice experiments to determine the spatial acuity of both species at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 73 cd/m(2). We also determined the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for bright light in Bourke's parrots and compare it to existing data for budgerigars. The spatial acuity of Bourke's parrots was found to be similar to that of budgerigars at all light levels. Also the CSF of Bourke's parrots is similar to that of budgerigars with a sensitivity peak located between 2.1 and 2.6 cycles/degree. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Bourke's parrots have superior spatial acuity in dim light compared to budgerigars and the adaptive value of the relatively rod-rich and large eyes of Bourke's parrots remains unclear.

  8. The direction and range of ambient temperature change influences yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Miller, Michael L; Clark, Anne B

    2010-05-01

    Comparative research suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior in homeotherms. Our previous experiments revealed that yawning increased in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as ambient temperature was raised toward body temperature (22-->34 degrees C). In this study, we identify the range of temperatures that triggers yawning to rule out the possible effect of changing temperature in any range. To corroborate its thermoregulatory function, we also related the incidence of yawning to other avian thermoregulatory behaviors in budgerigars (e.g., panting, wing venting). In a repeated measures design, 16 budgerigars were exposed to 4 separate 10-min periods of changing temperatures: (a) low-increasing (23-->27 degrees C), (b) high-increasing (27-->33 degrees C), (c) high-decreasing (34-->28 degrees C), and (d) low-decreasing (28-->24 degrees C). Birds yawned significantly more during the high-increasing temperature range, and yawning was positively correlated with ambient temperature across trials. Yawning was also positively correlated with other thermoregulatory behaviors. This research clarifies the previously demonstrated relationship between yawning rate and temperature by providing evidence that the physiological trigger for yawning is related to increasing body temperatures rather than the detection of changing external temperatures.

  9. Identification of auditory distance cues by zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Radziwon, Kelly E; Welch, Thomas E; Cone, Jarrod P; Dent, Micheal L

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined auditory distance perception cues in a non-territorial songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and in a non-songbird, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Using operant conditioning procedures, three zebra finches and three budgerigars were trained to identify 1- (Near) and 75-m (Far) recordings of three budgerigar contact calls, one male zebra finch song, and one female zebra finch call. Once the birds were trained on these endpoint stimuli, other stimuli were introduced into the operant task. These stimuli included recordings at intermediate distances and artificially altered stimuli simulating changes in overall amplitude, high-frequency attenuation, reverberation, and all three cues combined. By examining distance cues (amplitude, high-frequency attenuation, and reverberation) separately, this study sought to determine which cue was the most salient for the birds. The results suggest that both species could scale the stimuli on a continuum from Near to Far and that amplitude was the most important cue for these birds in auditory distance perception, as in humans and other animals.

  10. Experimental inoculation of BFDV-positive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.

    PubMed

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

  11. Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sapierzyński, Rafał; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

  12. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

    2012-03-01

    Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior.

  13. An outbreak of thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) with high mortality in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Murphy, Brian; Crossley, Beate M; Holser, Ian; Gomes, Lucy; Shivaprasad, H L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of goiter with high morbidity and mortality in a flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in California is described. Forty-five out of 400 adult birds exhibited signs of illness, weight loss, and enlargement in the crop area; 15 of the 45 birds died over a 2-3-month period. Diet consisted of a commercial mixture with the addition of broccoli, whole oats, and carrots, but no minerals or supplements. Six budgerigars were subjected to necropsy; all 6 birds had severely enlarged thyroid glands. Thyroid follicular hyperplasia was histologically observed in all birds examined, while granulomatous thyroiditis and microfollicular adenoma were observed in 2 birds, respectively. Virological, bacteriological, parasitological, and heavy metal analyses were negative or within normal limits. The total iodine in the thyroid glands of affected birds was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Following iodine supplementation and removal of broccoli from the diet, the owner reported weight gain and a reduced death rate among clinically affected birds; no additional birds became sick. The presence of broccoli with its iodine-binding ability and the complete lack of added minerals in the diet of these animals were thought to be the predisposing factors for the outbreak in the present study. Outbreaks of goiter accompanied by high mortality are rare in any species and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have not been described previously in any avian species. Recognition of this condition may help improve medical, welfare, and trade standards concerning this species.

  14. A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Christine R; Young, Anna M; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F

    2014-01-01

    In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender-receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four-member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds' calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds.

  15. Color vision of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): hue matches, tetrachromacy, and intensity discrimination.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Timothy H; Butler, Byron K

    2005-10-01

    Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were trained to discriminate monochromatic lights from mixtures of two comparison lights. The addition of small amounts of UV (365 nm) to blue or yellow lights dramatically changed the color for the birds. Hue matches showed the birds to be dichromatic both at long wavelengths (only P565 and P508 active) and at short wavelengths (only P370 and P445 active because of screening of P508 and P565 by cone oil droplets). In mid-spectrum (only P445 and P508 active), a hue match was achieved, but the results were more complicated because two opponent neural processes were activated. All observed hue matches were in quantitative agreement with calculations of relative quantum catch in the pairs of participating single cones and point to the presence of a minimum of three opponent neural processes. For the hue matches at mid- and short wavelengths, the calculations also predict peak values of absorbance of the cone oil droplets associated with P508 and P445. Relative intensity of the training light affected difficult matches at long but not short wavelengths, likely due to achromatic signals from the double cones. With suitable training, birds could make intensity discriminations at short wavelengths, where the double cones have diminished sensitivity.

  16. Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Clark, Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would be followed by the clustering of these behaviors in a group of birds, which may be facilitated both by a standard pattern of responding to a startling stressor and also contagion. In this study, we measured yawning and stretching in 4-bird groups following a nonspecific stressor (loud white noise) for a period of 1 hr, determining whether auditory disturbances alter the timing and frequency of these behaviors. Our results show that stretching, and to a lesser degree yawning, were nonrandomly clumped in time following the auditory disturbances, indicating that the temporal clustering is sensitive to, and enhanced by, environmental stressors while in small groups. No decrease in yawning such as found after handling stress was observed immediately after the loud noise but a similar increase in yawning 20 min after was observed. Future research is required to tease apart the roles of behavioral contagion and a time-setting effect following a startle in this species. This research is of interest because of the potential role that temporal clumping of yawning and stretching could play in both the collective detection of, and response to, local disturbances or predation threats.

  17. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolution of two parrot species: budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrot (Neopsephotus bourkii).

    PubMed

    Mitkus, Mindaugas; Chaib, Sandra; Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

    2014-05-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) isodensity maps indicate important regions in an animal's visual field. These maps can also be combined with measures of focal length to estimate the theoretical visual acuity. Here we present the RGC isodensity maps and anatomical spatial resolving power in three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and two Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii). Because RGCs were stacked in several layers, we modified the Nissl staining procedure to assess the cell number in the whole-mounted and cross-sectioned tissue of the same retinal specimen. The retinal topography showed surprising variation; however, both parrot species had an area centralis without discernable fovea. Budgerigars also had a putative area nasalis never reported in birds before. The peak RGC density was 22,300-34,200 cells/mm(2) in budgerigars and 18,100-38,000 cells/mm(2) in Bourke's parrots. The maximum visual acuity based on RGCs and focal length was 6.9 cyc/deg in budgerigars and 9.2 cyc/deg in Bourke's parrots. These results are lower than earlier behavioural estimates. Our findings illustrate that retinal topography is not a very fixed trait and that theoretical visual acuity estimations based on RGC density can be lower than the behavioural performance of the bird.

  18. Perception of warble song in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): evidence for special processing.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Dooling, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    The long, rambling warble song of male budgerigars is composed of a large number of acoustically complex elements uttered in streams lasting minutes a time and accompanied by various courtship behaviors. Warble song has no obvious sequential structure or patterned repetition of elements, raising questions as to which aspects of it are perceptually salient, whether budgerigars can detect changes in natural warble streams, and to what extent these capabilities are species-specific. Using operant conditioning and a psychophysical paradigm, we examined the sensitivity of budgerigars, canaries, and zebra finches to changes in long (>6 min) natural warble sequences of a male budgerigar. All three species could detect a single insertion of pure tones, zebra finch song syllables, budgerigar contact calls, or warble elements from another budgerigar's warble. In each case, budgerigars were more sensitive to these changes than were canaries or finches. When warble elements from the ongoing warble stream were used as targets and inserted, out of order, into the natural warble stream so that the only cue available was the violation of the natural ordering of warble elements, only budgerigars performed above chance. When the experiment was repeated with all the ongoing warble stream elements presented in random order, the performance of budgerigars fell to chance. These results show species-specific advantages in budgerigars for detecting acoustic changes in natural warble sequences and indicate at least a limited sensitivity to sequential rules governing the structure of their species-specific warble songs.

  19. Sexual dimorphism of vocal control nuclei in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) revealed with Nissl and NADPH-d staining.

    PubMed

    Brauth, Steven E; Liang, Wenru; Amateau, Stuart K; Roberts, Todd F; Robert, Todd F

    2005-03-28

    Nissl staining and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry were used to explore the existence of sexual dimorphism in vocal control nuclei of adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species capable of lifelong vocal learning. Behavioral studies indicate that adult males possess larger vocal repertoires than adult females and learn new calls more quickly. The results of the present study show that the volumes of all vocal nuclei, as measured using both Nissl-stained and NADPH-d-stained material, as well as the total numbers of NADPH-d neurons, were 35-110% greater in males. Furthermore, all vocal nuclei exhibit conspicuous NADPH-d staining compared to surrounding fields in both adult males and females. Nevertheless, there were no significant gender differences in either the intensity of neuropil staining or the densities of NADPH-d neurons in vocal nuclei. Moreover NADPH-d neuron somal shapes were similar in males and females. Diameters of NADPH-d neurons in vocal nuclei were 8.5-32% larger in males than in females. Greater size of NADPH-d neuronal somata in males may be a general property of this cell type in budgerigars because a similar gender difference was found in a visual nucleus, the entopallium, which is not directly associated with the vocal control system and does not exhibit sexual dimorphism in total volume or total NADPH-d neuron numbers. Taken together, the results of the present study favor the hypothesis that superior lifelong vocal learning ability in male budgerigars rests largely on larger volumes of vocal control nuclei in males rather than on sexual dimorphism in the internal composition of vocal nuclei.

  20. Bacteria Isolated From the Skin of Congo African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), Budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and Cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Stephanie; Sobczynski, Alicia; Starks, Darius; Sitinas, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the normal bacterial flora of the skin of birds. To identify the bacterial organisms that reside on the integument of companion psittacine birds in a normal physiologic state, skin cultures were taken from 75 psittacine birds comprising 25 Congo African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), 25 budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and 25 cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ). All birds were adults and in good health with no underlying identifiable diseases, had not been on antibiotics in the preceding 2 months or longer, and had no skin or feather abnormalities. Cultures were taken from the axillary region and incubated on bovine blood agar plates. Positive cultures were identified for 52 out of 75 birds, and a total of 89 bacterial colonies grew. The most frequently identified bacterial organisms belonged to the genus Staphylococcus followed by Corynebacterium. Several other genera of bacteria were also isolated. Of the 89 bacterial colonies, 25 were identified to the species level and 50 to the genus level, and 14 were identified as either a nonfermenter or coliform.

  1. Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) were recently discovered in the genomes of passerine birds. We mined six additional avian genomes and discovered multiple copies of endogenous HBVs in the budgerigar (order Psittaciformes), designated eBHBV. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that the endogenous hepadnaviruses are more diverse than their exogenous counterparts and that the endogenous and exogenous hepadnaviruses form distinct lineages even when sampled from the same avian order, indicative of multiple genomic integration events. PMID:22553337

  2. Observing real-time social interaction via telecommunication methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seki, Yoshimasa

    2016-07-01

    Humans communicate with one another not only face-to-face but also via modern telecommunication methods such as television and video conferencing. We readily detect the difference between people actively communicating with us and people merely acting via a broadcasting system. We developed an animal model of this novel communication method seen in humans to determine whether animals also make this distinction. We built a system for two animals to interact via audio-visual equipment in real-time, to compare behavioral differences between two conditions, an "interactive two-way condition" and a "non-interactive (one-way) condition." We measured birds' responses to stimuli which appeared in these two conditions. We used budgerigars, which are small, gregarious birds, and found that the frequency of vocal interaction with other individuals did not differ between the two conditions. However, body synchrony between the two birds was observed more often in the interactive condition, suggesting budgerigars recognized the difference between these interactive and non-interactive conditions on some level.

  3. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented.

  4. The effect of altered auditory feedback on control of vocal production in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Osmanski, Michael S.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Budgerigars learn their vocalizations by reference to auditory information and they retain the ability to learn new vocalizations throughout life. Auditory feedback of these vocalizations was manipulated in three experiments by training birds to produce vocalizations while wearing small earphones. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of background noise level (Lombard effect) and the effect of manipulating feedback level from self-produced vocalizations (Fletcher effect), respectively. Results show that birds exhibit both a Lombard effect and a Fletcher effect. Further analysis showed that changes in vocal intensity were accompanied by changes in call fundamental frequency and duration. Experiment 3 tested the effect of delaying or altering auditory feedback during vocal production. Results showed subsequent production of incomplete and distorted calls in both feedback conditions. These distortions included changes in the peak fundamental frequency, amplitude, duration, and spectrotemporal structure of calls. Delayed auditory feedback was most disruptive to subsequent calls when the delay was 25 ms. Longer delays resulted in fewer errors. PMID:19640055

  5. Budgie in the mirror: An exploratory analysis of social behaviors and mirror use in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Buckley, Daniel P; Duggan, Michael R; Anderson, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Despite their prevalent use amongst avian species, particularly in Budgerigars, the relationship between mirror use and social behaviors is in need of elucidation. After establishing social behavior measures (e.g., agonistic and pair-bond data) in a colony of Budgerigars, mirrors were introduced and subsequent use was documented. Results illustrated a significant relationship between mirror use and pair-bonds, such that mirror use increased with increasing pair-bond strength. The authors posit that individual differences in gregariousness may best account for the obtained results, with certain birds seeking more social stimulation than others, whether it be from a pair-bond or from its own reflected mirror image. Additionally, the trends observed within agonistic behaviors were consistent with previous avian literature such that those who initiated more encounters also won more encounters and that there was a preference to be closer to birds that win more encounters.

  6. Changing the average frequency of contact calls is associated with changes in other acoustic parameters in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanski, Michael; Dooling, Robert

    2004-05-01

    The most-often produced vocalization of the budgerigar, a small parrot native to Australia, is the short (100-150 ms) frequency-modulated contact call. These calls play a role in maintaining flock dynamics and are believed to act as vocal signatures in these birds. Previous findings in our lab have shown that budgerigars can control the intensity of their vocal behavior and exhibit a robust Lombard effect (Manabe et al., 1998). Recently, we have shown that there is a high degree of stereotypy in contact calls across a number of acoustic parameters (Osmanski and Dooling, 2004). Questions arise concerning the limits of plasticity in these calls and the relation or interdependence among the various parameters. As a first approach to answering these questions, four budgerigars were trained using operant conditioning methods to change the average peak frequency of their contact calls (both upward and downward in frequency) to obtain access to a food reward. Results show that these birds can both increase and decrease the average frequency of their contact calls. Such changes are associated with modifications in a number of other acoustic parameters, suggesting constraints on vocal plasticity. [Work supported by NIH DC-00198 to RJD and NIDCD Training Grant DC-00046.

  7. The molecular basis for UV vision in birds: spectral characteristics, cDNA sequence and retinal localization of the UV-sensitive visual pigment of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Wilkie, S E; Vissers, P M; Das, D; Degrip, W J; Bowmaker, J K; Hunt, D M

    1998-02-15

    Microspectrophotometric (msp) studies have shown that the colour-vision system of many bird species is based on four pigments with absorption peaks in the red, green, blue and UV regions of the spectrum. The existence of a fourth pigment (UV) is the major difference between the trichromacy of humans and the tetrachromacy of such birds, and recent studies have shown that it may play a determining role in such diverse aspects of behaviour as mate selection and detection of food. Avian visual pigments are composed of an opsin protein covalently bound via a Schiff-base linkage to the chromophore 11-cis-retinal. Here we report the cDNA sequence of a UV opsin isolated from an avian species, Melopsittacus undulatus (budgerigar or small parakeet). This sequence has been expressed using the recombinant baculovirus system; the pigment generated from the expressed protein on addition of 11-cis-retinal yielded an absorption spectrum typical of a UV photopigment, with lambdamax 365+/-3 nm. This is the first UV opsin from an avian species to be sequenced and expressed in a heterologous system. In situ hybridization of this sequence to budgerigar retinas selectively labelled a sub-set of UV cones, representing approx. 9% of the total cone population, that are distributed in a semi-regular pattern across the entire retina.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaojing; Xu, Jun; Smith, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the budgie's mitochondrial genome sequence, a resource that can facilitate this parrot's use as a model organism as well as for determining its phylogenetic relatedness to other parrots/Psittaciformes. The estimated total length of the sequence was 18,193 bp. In addition to the to the 13 protein and tRNA and rRNA coding regions, the sequence also includes a duplicated hypervariable region, a feature unique to only a few birds. The two hypervariable regions shared a sequence identity of about 86%.

  9. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2015-06-05

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints.

  10. Phonological perception by birds: budgerigars can perceive lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-05-01

    Metrical phonology is the perceptual "strength" in language of some syllables relative to others. The ability to perceive lexical stress is important, as it can help a listener segment speech and distinguish the meaning of words and sentences. Despite this importance, there has been little comparative work on the perception of lexical stress across species. We used a go/no-go operant paradigm to train human participants and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to distinguish trochaic (stress-initial) from iambic (stress-final) two-syllable nonsense words. Once participants learned the task, we presented both novel nonsense words, and familiar nonsense words that had certain cues removed (e.g., pitch, duration, loudness, or vowel quality) to determine which cues were most important in stress perception. Members of both species learned the task and were then able to generalize to novel exemplars, showing categorical learning rather than rote memorization. Tests using reduced stimuli showed that humans could identify stress patterns with amplitude and pitch alone, but not with only duration or vowel quality. Budgerigars required more than one cue to be present and had trouble if vowel quality or amplitude were missing as cues. The results suggest that stress patterns in human speech can be decoded by other species. Further comparative stress-perception research with more species could help to determine what species characteristics predict this ability. In addition, tests with a variety of stimuli could help to determine how much this ability depends on general pattern learning processes versus vocalization-specific cues.

  11. Organization of the avian basal forebrain: chemical anatomy in the parrot (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Todd Freeman; Hall, William Sterling; Brauth, Steven Earle

    2002-12-23

    Hodological, electrophysiological, and ablation studies indicate a role for the basal forebrain in telencephalic vocal control; however, to date the organization of the basal forebrain has not been extensively studied in any nonmammal or nonhuman vocal learning species. To this end the chemical anatomy of the avian basal forebrain was investigated in a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Immunological and histological stains, including choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP)-32, the calcium binding proteins calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, iron, substance P, methionine enkephalin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphotase diaphorase, and arginine vasotocin were used in the present study. We conclude that the ventral paleostriatum (cf. Kitt and Brauth [1981] Neuroscience 6:1551-1566) and adjacent archistriatal regions can be subdivided into several distinct subareas that are chemically comparable to mammalian basal forebrain structures. The nucleus accumbens is histochemically separable into core and shell regions. The nucleus taeniae (TN) is theorized to be homologous to the medial amygdaloid nucleus. The archistriatum pars ventrolateralis (Avl; comparable to the pigeon archistriatum pars dorsalis) is theorized to be a possible homologue of the central amygdaloid nucleus. The TN and Avl are histochemically continuous with the medial aspects of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventromedial striatum, forming an avian analogue of the extended amygdala. The apparent counterpart in budgerigars of the mammalian nucleus basalis of Meynert consists of a field of cholinergic neurons spanning the basal forebrain. The budgerigar septal region is theorized to be homologous as a field to the mammalian septum. Our results are discussed with regard to both the evolution of the basal forebrain and its role in vocal

  12. Differential FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in a vocal learning nucleus of the developing budgerigar

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Osceola; Voyles, Tawni; Hara, Erina; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A.; Wright, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    The forkhead domain FOXP2 and FOXP1 transcription factors are implicated in several cognitive disorders with language deficits, notably autism, and thus play a central role in learned vocal motor behavior in humans. Although a similar role for FoxP2 and FoxP1 is proposed for other vertebrate species, including songbirds, the neurodevelopmental expression of these genes are unknown in a species with lifelong vocal learning abilities. Like humans, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) learn new vocalizations throughout their entire lifetime. Like songbirds, budgerigars have distinct brain nuclei for vocal learning, which include the magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), a basal ganglia region that is considered developmentally and functionally analogous to Area X in songbirds. Here we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the MMSt of juvenile and adult budgerigars. We found FoxP2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the MMSt that were lower than the surrounding striatum throughout development and adulthood. In contrast, FoxP1 mRNA and protein had an elevated MMSt/striatum expression ratio as birds matured, regardless of their sex. These results show that life-long vocal plasticity in budgerigars is associated with persistent low-level FoxP2 expression in the budgerigar MMSt, and suggests the possibility that FoxP1 plays an organizational role in the neurodevelopment of vocal motor circuitry. Thus, developmental regulation of the FoxP2 and FoxP1 genes in the basal ganglia appears essential for vocal mimicry in a range of species that possess this relatively rare trait. PMID:25407828

  13. Differential FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in a vocal learning nucleus of the developing budgerigar.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Osceola; Voyles, Tawni; Hara, Erina; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-07-01

    The forkhead domain FOXP2 and FOXP1 transcription factors are implicated in several cognitive disorders with language deficits, notably autism, and thus play a central role in learned vocal motor behavior in humans. Although a similar role for FoxP2 and FoxP1 is proposed for other vertebrate species, including songbirds, the neurodevelopmental expression of these genes are unknown in a species with lifelong vocal learning abilities. Like humans, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) learn new vocalizations throughout their entire lifetime. Like songbirds, budgerigars have distinct brain nuclei for vocal learning, which include the magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), a basal ganglia region that is considered developmentally and functionally analogous to Area X in songbirds. Here, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the MMSt of juvenile and adult budgerigars. We found FoxP2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the MMSt that were lower than the surrounding striatum throughout development and adulthood. In contrast, FoxP1 mRNA and protein had an elevated MMSt/striatum expression ratio as birds matured, regardless of their sex. These results show that life-long vocal plasticity in budgerigars is associated with persistent low-level FoxP2 expression in the budgerigar MMSt, and suggests the possibility that FoxP1 plays an organizational role in the neurodevelopment of vocal motor circuitry. Thus, developmental regulation of the FoxP2 and FoxP1 genes in the basal ganglia appears essential for vocal mimicry in a range of species that possess this relatively rare trait.

  14. Prevalence and genetic characterization of avian polyomavirus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qingye; Chen, Jiming; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Chen, Jie; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guangyu; Li, Jinping; Huang, Baoxu; Jiang, Wenming

    2012-01-01

    Budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), respectively. These diseases frequently infect psittacine birds and result in similar clinical manifestations. In this study, we observed the prevalence of PBFDV infection and a dual infection of APV and PBFDV in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Mainland China for the first time. One PBFDV isolate and two APV isolates were harvested using chicken embryos. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of the two APV isolates revealed nucleotide similarity ranging from 99.0% to 99.6% to other sequences in GenBank, and a 14-bp insertion was observed in the genome of one APV isolate. The results of complete genome analysis of the PBFDV isolate showed nucleotide similarity ranging from 83.0% to 95.0% with other PBFDV sequences in GenBank. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the APV and PBFDV strains isolated in this study indicated that the isolates from China were closely related to their Japanese counterparts. The results of this study will help to identify molecular determinants and will aid further research on the prevention and control of APV and PBFD infection.

  15. Working Scientifically with Budgerigars in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Nobile, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to promote the study of budgerigars in aviary settings in order to engage primary students in working scientifically. Studying budgerigars provides an opportunity for students to learn inquiry skills and develop deeper understandings of living things.

  16. Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-04-15

    Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit down-regulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt.

  17. Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M.; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A.; Wright, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit downregulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt. PMID:25601574

  18. Megabacteriosis in a flock of budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Christensen, N H; Hunter, J E; Alley, M R

    1997-10-01

    Megabacteriosis was diagnosed as the cause of depression and wasting in a flock of breeding budgerigars in the Manawatu. Large numbers of megabacteria were detected in direct smears from mucosal scrapings of the proventriculus of two birds and in the faeces of live birds. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating a chronic proventriculitis histologically associated with megabacterial organisms. Treatment of seven individuals with amphotericin B resulted in clinically sustained weight gain over a 10-week period. Treatment of the whole flock resulted in the resumption of normal condition, behaviour and activity.

  19. Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allowing cones to discriminate UV-rich signals, such as bird plumage colours, against UV-poor natural backgrounds. PMID:25376799

  20. Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Stefanie E P; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M; Pinxten, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue) remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on structural color.

  1. Nuclear factor Y regulates ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus core promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses.

  2. Behavioral Lateralization and Optimal Route Choice in Flying Budgerigars

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavatula, Partha S.; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2014-01-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly - and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered - the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called ‘population’ bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

  3. Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Bhagavatula, Partha S; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2014-03-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly--and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered--the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called 'population' bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment.

  4. Investigations of the precedence effect in budgerigars: Effects of stimulus type, intensity, duration, and location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2003-04-01

    Auditory experiments on the localization of sounds in the presence of reflections, or echoes, that arrive later and from different directions are important to understanding hearing in natural environments. The perceived location of the auditory image can change with the time delay between the presentations of a leading and lagging sound. These changes in perceived location, encompassing the precedence effect, have been examined behaviorally or physiologically in humans and a number of animals. Here, these results are extended to include budgerigars. Behavioral methods were used to measure the discrimination performance between a stimulus presented at + and -90° azimuth with a delay (left-), from the same two stimuli presented with the opposite delay (right-left). At short delays, where humans experience summing localization, budgerigars have difficulty discriminating between the two presentation types. With increasing delays, where humans experience localization dominance, budgerigars show improved discrimination performance. At even longer delays, where echo thresholds are found in humans, discrimination performance worsens again. The shapes of the discrimination functions are affected by the intensity, locations, and durations of the stimuli, and are subject to a buildup effect. These results show that budgerigars exhibit the phases of the precedence effect similar to humans and other animals.

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  6. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment

    PubMed Central

    Spierings, Michelle J.; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning. PMID:27325756

  7. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Michelle J; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-07-05

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning.

  8. Purification of recombinant budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 capsid protein and its ability for in vitro capsid assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. E.; Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant system for the major capsid VP1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus has been established. The VP1 gene was inserted into a truncated form of the pFlag-1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 protein was purified to near homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography. Fractions containing highly purified VP1 were pooled and found to constitute 3.3% of the original E. coli-expressed VP1 protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the VP1 protein was isolated as pentameric capsomeres. Electron microscopy also revealed that capsid-like particles were formed in vitro from purified VP1 capsomeres with the addition of Ca2+ ions and the removal of chelating and reducing agents.

  9. Absorbance of retinal oil droplets of the budgerigar: sex, spatial and plumage morph-related variation.

    PubMed

    Knott, Ben; Bowmaker, James K; Berg, Mathew L; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in photoreceptor physiology is known in several vertebrate taxa, but is currently unknown in birds, despite many avian traits varying intraspecifically, and avian visual ecology encompassing a wide range of environments and visual stimuli, which might influence spectral sensitivity. Avian retinal photoreceptors contain light absorbing carotenoid-rich oil droplets that affect vision. Carotenoids are also important plumage components. However, our understanding of the regulation of carotenoids in oil droplets remains rudimentary. Among birds, Melopsittacus undulatus has probably the best-studied colour vision, shows profound intraspecific variation in plumage colour, and increased plasma carotenoids during moult. We used microspectrophotometry to determine whether a relationship exists between oil droplet carotenoid concentration and plumage pigmentation, and tested for sex and spatial variation in droplet absorbance across the retina. Absorbance of one variety of P-type droplets was higher in males. No relationship was found between droplet absorbance and plumage colour. We found a spatial pattern of droplets absorbance across the retina that matched a pattern found in another parrot, and other avian species. Our work provides insights into the development and maintenance of retinal oil droplets and suggests a common mechanism and function for carotenoid deposition in the retina across bird species.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Exotic Parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Wajid, Abdul; Basharat, Asma; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Wasim, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain isolated from an exotic parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) is described here. The virulent strain parakeet/Pak/R-Pindi/SFR-16/2016 was isolated from a bird reared as a pet in the province of Punjab in the northern region of Pakistan in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, subgenotype VIIi, in genotype VII. PMID:28183762

  11. Phosphorylation of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The structural proteins of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus, the first known nonmammalian polyomavirus, were analyzed by isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The major capsid protein VP1 was found to be composed of at least five distinct species having isoelectric points ranging from pH 6.45 to 5.85. By analogy with the murine polyomavirus, these species apparently result from different modifications of an initial translation product. Primary chicken embryo cells were infected in the presence of 32Pi to determine whether the virus structural proteins were modified by phosphorylation. SDS-PAGE of the purified virus structural proteins demonstrated that VP1 (along with both minor capsid proteins) was phosphorylated. Two-dimensional analysis of the radiolabeled virus showed phosphorylation of only the two most acidic isoelectric species of VP1, indicating that this posttranslational modification contributes to VP1 species heterogeneity. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled VP1 revealed that phosphoserine is the only phosphoamino acid present in the VP1 protein.

  12. Hot or Not: The Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Female Attractiveness to Male Conspecifics in the Budgerigar

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work. PMID:23951365

  13. Comparative gene expression analysis among vocal learners (bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-learners (quail and ring dove) reveals variable cadherin expressions in the vocal system.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds) have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and a non-learner (quail and ring dove). The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning.

  14. Land Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  15. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  16. The intensity threshold of colour vision in two species of parrot.

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

    2009-11-01

    We have used behavioural tests to determine the intensity thresholds of colour vision in Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). We have also examined the relationship between these thresholds and the optical sensitivities of single photoreceptors using morphological methods. Bourke's parrots lose colour vision in brighter light (0.4 cd m(-2)) than budgerigars (0.1 cd m(-2)) and both birds lose colour vision in brighter light (;end of civil twilight') than humans (0.02 cd m(-2), ;moonlight'). The optical sensitivities of single cones are similar in both birds (budgerigar 0.27 microm(2) sr, Bourke's parrot 0.25 microm(2) sr) but Bourke's parrots have more (cone to rod ratio, 1.2:1.0), thinner (2.8 microm) and longer rods (18.5 microm) than budgerigars (2.1:1.0, 3.4 microm, 13.3 microm). Bourke's parrots thus have an eye type that, with a flexible pooling mechanism, allows for high resolution or high absolute sensitivity depending on the light conditions. The results nicely agree with the activity patterns of the birds, Bourke's parrots being active during the day and in twilight while budgerigars are not normally active before sunrise and after sunset. However, Bourke's parrots have fewer cones than budgerigars, which implies that a smaller number of cones are pooled within each retinal integration area. That could explain why Bourke's parrots have a higher intensity threshold of colour vision than budgerigars. Furthermore, the study emphasises the need to expand the sensitivity measure so that photoreceptor integration units are used rather than single receptors.

  17. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  18. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  19. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  20. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  1. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  2. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  3. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  4. [Susceptibility of birds other than chickens to infectious laryngotracheitis].

    PubMed

    Hilbink, F W

    1985-06-01

    Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory.

  5. Land Revitalization Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA created the Land Revitalization Initiative to promote cross-program coordination on land reuse and revitalization projects to ensure that contaminated property is appropriately put back into productive use.

  6. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  7. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  8. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  9. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  10. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  11. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  12. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  13. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  14. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  15. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  16. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  17. Pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.

  18. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  19. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  20. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  1. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  2. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  3. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  4. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  5. 78 FR 32214 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... of regulations governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land...'s decision to take the land into trust. The Supreme Court has since held that the Quiet Title...

  6. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  7. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  8. [Complexity of land ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Chen, Meiqiu

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, complexity studies has become a new research region and been widely applied in engineering, biology, economy, management, military, police and sociology. In this paper, from the view of complex science, the main complexity characteristics of land ecosystem were described, furthermore, the application of fractal, chaos, and artificial neural network on the complexity of land ecosystem were also discussed.

  9. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  10. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  11. Land Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    LAND COMBAT SYSTEMS It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. — Charles ... Darwin ABSTRACT: The Land Combat Systems (LCS) industry has significantly changed over the last decade. The days when production lines and factories

  12. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  13. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  14. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  15. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  16. Yankee Lands: A Land Use Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, NH.

    In response to issues surrounding the acquisition and planning of Pisgah State Park, New Hampshire, the Antioch/New England Graduate School has produced this set of activities related to land use decisions. Contained are learning experiences designed to help students appreciate New England's natural and cultural history in order to encourage a…

  17. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegeas, Robin G.; Claire, Robert W.; Guptill, Stephen C.; Anderson, K. Eric; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changesthat center on the emerging influence ofdigital manipulation and analysis ofdata for the preparation of cartographic materials and for use in geographic information systems. Operational requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been edited and assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced. This chapter 895-E, describes the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System that is used in conjunction with the USGS land use and land cover classification system to encode, edit, manipuate, and analyze land use and land cover digital data.

  18. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  19. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... applications to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. This document makes corrections to the...

  20. Land Use and land cover and associated maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    The Geological Survey is compiling land use and land cover and associated maps for the entire United States. Land use refers to man's activities which are directly related to the land. Land cover describes the vegetation, water, natural surface, and artificial constructions at the land surface. These maps will help satisfy a longstanding need for a consistent level of detail, standardization of categories, and appropriate use of scales of compilation for a type of data frequently used by land use planners, land managers, resource management planners, and others.

  1. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  2. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  3. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  4. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  5. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  7. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  8. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  9. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  10. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  11. Land Reuse Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rebekah Buckles

    1997-09-22

    The intent of this cooperative agreement was to establish a conduit and infrastructure that would allow for the transfer of DOE developed environmental technologies within land restoration activities first in the State of California and ultimately nationwide.

  12. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  13. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  14. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land in trust. The public... articulating the process for issuing decisions to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. The...

  15. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  16. Land Use and Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, D. T.; Simpson, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    From the standpoint of technology, the most encouraging thing about ERTS has been the level of land-use identification. Land-use detail has exceeded the expectations of the Interagency Steering Committee and the requirements of land-use classification proposed by the Department of Interior. Whereas in the latter instance it was anticipated that only nine classes of land use would probably be identifiable, in fact some 14 to 18 classes have been identified. The success in the level of land-use identification results primarily from the various attributes of the ERTS system. These include the ability to provide repetitive coverage, and in particular seasonal coverage; the ability to image in four bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (green, red, and two near-infrared), which allows for manipulation of various combinations of bands; and the provision by the ERTS system of computer-compatible tapes for machine processing of data. Furthermore, the resolution of ERTS imagery has been better than expected. Although there is some question as to its exact resolving power, it is safe to say objects as small as 100 meters (300 feet) in diameter have been identified. Linear features as narrow as 16 meters (50 feet) can be detected (Figure 1).

  17. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  18. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  19. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  20. Anticipating land surface change.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J

    2013-04-09

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify "near misses," close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management.

  1. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  2. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  3. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  4. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  5. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  6. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  7. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  8. Global Land Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

  9. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  10. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  11. The Mayflower Landed Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

    This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

  12. Land Combat Systems Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    communication equipment, and maintains power train components, starters , alternators , and generators. MCLB Barstow, Barstow, CA is the Marine Corps...protectionism became dominant themes. Other heavy industries, such as locomotive and food machinery companies, also were converted to production of land...implications for national defense. Domestic LCS companies’ market share may decrease as foreign companies with cheaper alternatives become more competitive and

  13. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  14. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  15. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  16. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  17. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  18. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  19. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Living off the Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  1. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  2. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  3. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  4. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  5. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  6. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  7. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  8. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  9. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  10. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  11. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  12. The Land-Grant Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862, 1890 and 1994. The original…

  13. Agriculture in Gloria Land.

    PubMed

    Pal, M

    1993-01-01

    A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable.

  14. OPAL Land Condition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    occur under specified weather conditions and land uses typical for grassland military installations (train- ing, controlled burn, and mowing/haying...CENTURY is a computer model of plant-soil ecosystems that simulates the dynamics of grasslands , forest, crops, and savannas with a focus on nutri...Army Regulation 350-19. Washington DC: HQDA. Knapp, A. K., J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett, and S. L. Collins. 1998. Grassland dynamics: Long- term

  15. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, with a crew of six NASA Astronauts aboard, touches down on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, completing a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  16. Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

  17. STS-95 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Orbiter Discovery is riding on its main landing gear as it lowers its nose wheel after touching down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown was at 12:04 p.m. EST, landing on orbit 135. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The crew includes mission commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; pilot Steven W. Lindsey, mission specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, with the European Space Agency (ESA); payload specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); and payload specialist John H. Glenn, Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  18. Land Use Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

  19. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  20. Modeling land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

  1. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  2. The USGS Land Cover Institute

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Institute (LCI) is located at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides a focal point for advancing USGS land cover studies and applications. Satellite images and other remotely sensed data play an important role in this research. Land Cover scientists investigate new ways to use satellite images and other data to map land cover. They assess national and global land cover characteristics and monitor how - and how rapidly - land cover changes. They also study the economic impacts of land cover as well as its effects on water quality, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, climate variability, and other environmental factors.

  3. Specifications for updating USGS land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1983-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for up-to-date land use and land cover information, a primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national land use and land cover mapping program is to provide for periodic updating of maps and data in a timely and uniform manner. The technical specifications for updating existing USGS land use and land cover maps that are presented here cover both the interpretive aspects of detecting and identifying land use and land cover changes and the cartographic aspects of mapping and presenting the change data in conventional map format. They provide the map compiler with the procedures and techniques necessary to then use these change data to update existing land use and land cover maps in a manner that is both standardized and repeatable. Included are specifications for the acquisition of remotely sensed source materials, selection of compilation map bases, handling of data base corrections, editing and quality control operations, generation of map update products for USGS open file, and the reproduction and distribution of open file materials. These specifications are planned to become part of the National Mapping Division's Technical Instructions.

  4. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  5. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  6. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  7. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions...

  8. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  9. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  10. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  11. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  12. 7 CFR 701.205 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.205 Section 701.205 Agriculture... § 701.205 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, it must be nonindustrial private forest land... or endanger the natural resources on the land and would materially affect future use of the land;...

  13. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions...

  14. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and...

  15. 43 CFR 3475.4 - Land description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land description. 3475.4 Section 3475.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.4 Land description. Compliance with § 3471.1 of this title is required....

  16. 43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land descriptions. 3901.10 Section 3901.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions...

  17. To Land on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

    2005-01-01

    The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

  18. Landing impact of seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, Wilhelm

    1931-01-01

    The theory of landing impact is briefly stated and the applicability of a previously suggested formula is extended. Theoretical considerations regarding impact measurements on models and actual seaplanes are followed by a brief description of the instruments used in actual flight tests. The report contains a description of the strength conditions and deals exhaustively with force measurements on the float gear of an "HE 9a" with flat-bottom and with V-bottom floats. The experimental data are given and compared with the theoretical results.

  19. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  20. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  1. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The drag chute for the Space Shuttle Discovery is deployed as NASA's most-heavily flown spacecraft completes a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Discovery, with a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, fired its de-orbit engine at 1:14 p.m. (PDT), September 21, 1994. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  2. Arid Lands Biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  3. Arizona land use experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Schumann, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Utilization of new sources of statewide remote sensing data, taken from high-altitude aircraft and from spacecraft is discussed along with incorporation of information extracted from these sources into on-going land and resources management programs in Arizona. Statewide cartographic applications of remote sensor data taken by NASA high-altitude aircraft include the development of a statewide semi-analytic control network, the production of nearly 1900 orthophotoquads (image maps) that are coincident in scale and area with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7. 5 minute topographic quadrangle map series, and satellite image maps of Arizona produced from LANDSAt multispectral scanner imagery. These cartographic products are utilized for a wide variety of experimental and operational earth resources applications. Applications of the imagery, image maps, and derived information discussed include: soils and geologic mapping projects, water resources investigations, land use inventories, environmental impact studies, highway route locations and mapping, vegetation cover mapping, wildlife habitat studies, power plant siting studies, statewide delineation of irrigation cropland, position determination of drilling sites, pictorial geographic bases for thematic mapping, and court exhibits.

  4. Land subsidence session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers were presented on topics that ranged from evaluations of the suitability of the new satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to theoretical analyses of land subsidence.T. N. Narasimhan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.) introduced the general subject of subsidence with a review of relevant physical processes. Compaction, although conceptually simple, involves several complexities, including plastic deformation and translation of deep-seated deformation through the overburden. Sashi Mathur (Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex.), in a paper coauthored with M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York, New York), analyzed deformation in the unsaturated zone above a falling water table. Their theoretical formulation was able to reproduce results from laboratory studies of sand columns.

  5. Rosetta Lander - Philae: Landing preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Sierks, Holger; Witte, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Rosetta and Philae have been in hibernation until January 20, 2014. After the successful wakeup they underwent a post-hibernation commissioning. The orbiter instruments (like e.g. the OSIRIS cameras, VIRTIS, MIRO, Alice and ROSINA) characterized the target comet and its environment to allow landing site selection and the definition of a separation, descent and landing (SDL) strategy for the Lander. By September 2014 our previously poor knowledge of the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet has increased drastically and the nominal and backup landing could be selected. The nominal site, as well as the corresponding descent strategy have been confirmed in mid-October, one month before the landing. The paper summarizes the selection process for a landing site and the planning for Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL).

  6. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  7. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  8. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  9. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  10. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  11. 76 FR 18244 - Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6839, which modified Public Land Order No. 2344, as amended,...

  12. 76 FR 61737 - Public Land Order No. 7782; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6880; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7782; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6880; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6880, as corrected by Public Land Order...

  13. 78 FR 22281 - Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY. AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6960, as corrected by Public Land Order No....

  14. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  15. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  16. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  17. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  18. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  19. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  20. Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  1. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  2. Global land and water grabbing

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  3. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  4. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  5. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  6. Global land and water grabbing.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land).

  7. Sustainable land application: an overview.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, G A; Elliott, H A; Basta, N T; Bastian, R K; Pierzynski, G M; Sims, R C; Smith, J E

    2005-01-01

    Man has land-applied societal nonhazardous wastes for centuries as a means of disposal and to improve the soil via the recycling of nutrients and the addition of organic matter. Nonhazardous wastes include a vast array of materials, including manures, biosolids, composts, wastewater effluents, food-processing wastes, industrial by-products; these are collectively referred to herein as residuals. Because of economic restraints and environmental concerns about land-filling and incineration, interest in land application continues to grow. A major lesson that has been learned, however, is that the traditional definition of land application that emphasizes applying residuals to land in a manner that protects human and animal health, safeguards soil and water resources, and maintains long-term ecosystem quality is incomplete unless the earning of public trust in the practices is included. This overview provides an introduction to a subset of papers and posters presented at the conference, "Sustainable Land Application," held in Orlando, FL, in January 2004. The USEPA, USDA, and multiple national and state organizations with interest in, and/or responsibilities for, ensuring the sustainability of the practice sponsored the conference. The overriding conference objectives were to highlight significant developments in land treatment theory and practice, and to identify future research needs to address critical gaps in the knowledge base that must be addressed to ensure sustainable land application of residuals.

  8. Humanitarian Consequences of Land Mines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Ken

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the human and economic consequences of the continuing use and abandonment of land mines. Discusses the reasons for the worldwide proliferation (over 85 million uncleared mines in at least 62 countries) and the legal complexities in curtailing their use. Includes a brief account by a land-mine victim. (MJP)

  9. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  10. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  11. Landing characteristics of an autogiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, William C

    1934-01-01

    An investigation to determine the rate of descent, the horizontal velocity, and the attitude at contact of an autogiro in landings was made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Bureau of Air Commerce, Department of Commerce. The investigation covered various types of landings. The results of the investigation disclosed that the maximum rate of descent at contact with the ground (10.6 feet per second) was less than the minimum rate of descent attainable in a steady glide (15.8 feet per second); that the rates of descent at contact were of the same order of magnitude as those experienced by conventional airplanes in landings; that flared landings resulted in very low horizontal velocities at contact. Also that unexpectedly high lift and drag force coefficients were developed in the latter stages of the flared landings.

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  15. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  16. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  17. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  18. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  19. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  20. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  2. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  3. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.105 Section 701.105 Agriculture... Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect...

  4. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  5. 43 CFR 3191.5 - Delegation for Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation for Indian lands. 3191.5 Section 3191.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... lands....

  6. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  7. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  8. Land reclamation research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy has assigned its Office of Environment the task of developing methods that will prevent or reduce damages caused by surface mining. Before that task can be accomplished, more must be learned about the functioning of organisms and their surroundings-the ecosystems threatened by disruptions from surface mining. While new federal and state laws require the full reclamation of mine sites, there is no assurance now that reclaimed areas can be self-sustaining, especially in the arid and semiarid West. To these ends, the Ecological Research Division within the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department's Office of Environment has begun a number of related programs aimed at understanding more clearly soils, plants, animals, and other components of the ecosystem so that ways may be found to improve environmental quality or to prevent damage from mining. Another aim is to produce efficient and cost-effective techniques for returning to productive use land that has been scarred by mining. Two national laboratories and six universities carry out these research programs. The work extends from broadly based studies, such as the effects of mining on the hydrologic balance, to very specific studies, such as evaluation of the reproductive cycle of a native grass.

  9. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  10. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  11. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  12. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  13. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  14. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  15. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  16. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  17. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  18. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  19. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  20. 76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6865 for an additional 20-year period....

  1. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6856 for an additional 20-year period....

  2. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6947 for an additional 20-year period....

  3. 76 FR 76179 - Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6912 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  4. 76 FR 61738 - Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6881 for an additional 20-year period....

  5. 77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This Order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6928 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  6. 76 FR 62831 - Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6886 for an additional 20-year period....

  7. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6861 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  8. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6857 for an additional 20-year period....

  9. 78 FR 22281 - Public Land Order No. 7810; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6963; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7810; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6963; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6963, as amended, for an additional...

  10. 77 FR 66479 - Public Land Order No. 7805; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6952; WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7805; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6952; WA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6952 as corrected by Public Land Order No. 6962, for...

  11. 77 FR 47665 - Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6941 for an additional 20-year period....

  12. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order (PLO) No. 6965 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  13. 76 FR 12131 - Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6833 for an additional 20-year period....

  14. 75 FR 57061 - Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6797 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  15. 76 FR 59736 - Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6876 for an additional 20-year period....

  16. 78 FR 40498 - Public Land Order No. 7817; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6986; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7817; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6986; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6986, which was issued effective July 1,...

  17. 75 FR 63856 - Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order further extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 7464 for an additional...

  18. 75 FR 77658 - Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6818 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  19. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-8 Land subject to disposition. (a) Land that may be entered as desert land. (1) As the desert-land law requires the artificial irrigation of any land entered thereunder, lands...

  20. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  1. X-15 landing on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    In this 17-second video clip, the X-15 is shown in flight and then landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. It is followed by an F-104A chase aircraft, whose pilot provided a second set of eyes to the X-15 pilot on landing in case of any problems. The video shows the skids on the back of the X-15 contacting the lakebed, with the aircraft's nose then rotating downward until the nose landing gear was on the lakebed.

  2. The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2008-05-01

    When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

  3. Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.; Tritton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

  4. Biofuel on contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  5. Christmas in Physics Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage

  6. Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.

    PubMed

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  7. Hearing and vocalizations in the orange-fronted conure (Aratinga canicularis).

    PubMed

    Wright, Timothy F; Cortopassi, Kathryn A; Bradbury, Jack W; Dooling, Robert J

    2003-03-01

    The auditory sensitivities of the orange-fronted conure (Aratinga canicularis) were examined in relation to the spectral characteristics of its vocalizations. Absolute thresholds, masked thresholds, frequency difference limens, and intensity difference limens for pure tones were obtained using psychoacoustic techniques. In general, hearing abilities are similar to those found in many avian auditory generalists. One exception is the unusually low critical ratio (masked threshold) between 2.0 and 4.0 kHz, similar to that previously found in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). These auditory sensitivities were compared with average spectra for (a) contact calls and (b) a general sample of vocalizations recorded from wild birds. The spectral regions of both greatest vocal energy and best auditory sensitivity were between 2.0 and 5.0 kHz.

  8. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  9. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  10. Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands.

  11. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  12. RE-Powering America's Land

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes how contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites can be reused as renewable energy installations. Also supplies best practices, tools and resources for screening properties for renewable energy potential.

  13. Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy

    NASA Video Gallery

    A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

  14. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

  15. Expedition 28 Crew Lands Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan land their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft in Kazakhstan. Russian recovery teams were on hand to help the c...

  16. STS-135 Landing: Runway Remarks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-135 astronauts get a close-up look at space shuttle Atlantis, hear from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and speak to assembled employees, guests and media after landing at Kennedy Space C...

  17. Deafy Glade Land Exchange Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2009-08-04

    04/28/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Global Land Information System (GLIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for scientists seeking sources of information about the Earth's land surfaces. GLIS contains "metadata," that is, descriptive information about data sets. Through GLIS, scientists can evaluate data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for products. GLIS is more, however, than a mere list of products. It offers online samples of earth science data that may be ordered through the system.

  19. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  20. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-05-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth

  1. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget

  2. STS-113 landing guests after landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Mrs. Daniel R. Mulville shakes hands with Kent V. Rominger, Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations, on the runway of the Shuttle Landing Facility following the landing of Endeavour. Mrs. Mulville is the wife of Dr. Daniel R. Mulville, NASA Associate Deputy Administrator. In the group, from left are KSC Director Roy D. Bridges; Mrs. Mulville; Dr. Mulville (back to camera); James D. Halsell Jr., Manager of Launch Integration at KSC, Space Shuttle Program; Rominger; and STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee. Commander Wetherbee earlier guided Space Shuttle Endeavour to a flawless touchdown on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility after completing the 13-day, 18-hour, 48-minute, 5.74-million mile STS-113 mission to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown was at 2:37:12 p.m. EST, nose gear touchdown was at 2:37:23 p.m., and wheel stop was at 2:38:25 p.m. Poor weather conditions thwarted landing opportunities until a fourth day, the first time in Shuttle program history that a landing has been waved off for three consecutive days. The orbiter also carried the other members of the STS-113 crew, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, as well as the returning Expedition Five crew, Commander Valeri Korzun, ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The installation of the P1 truss on the International Space Station was accomplished during the mission.

  3. X-31 landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. The X-31 aircraft shown on approach with a high angle of attack, touches down with its speed brakes, which can be seen extended just above and behind the wing. The aircraft then begins to rotate the nosegear down to runway contact and deploys a braking parachute that assists in slowing the aircraft after landing.

  4. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position, except... wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23.73(b). (c...; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in §...

  15. You Can Accurately Predict Land Acquisition Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigan, Richard

    1967-01-01

    Land acquisition costs were tested for predictability based upon the 1962 assessed valuations of privately held land acquired for campus expansion by the University of Wisconsin from 1963-1965. By correlating the land acquisition costs of 108 properties acquired during the 3 year period with--(1) the assessed value of the land, (2) the assessed…

  16. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  17. 12 CFR 161.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land loan. 161.26 Section 161.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State lands. 13.1406 Section....1406 State lands. The National Park Service administers certain state-owned lands and waters within the... chapter does not apply to the lawful taking of wildlife on these State-owned lands and waters....

  19. 7 CFR 634.20 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible land. 634.20 Section 634.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.20 Eligible land. RCWP is only applicable to privately owned land. Land owned by corporations whose ownership is...

  20. 7 CFR 634.20 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible land. 634.20 Section 634.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.20 Eligible land. RCWP is only applicable to privately owned land. Land owned by corporations whose ownership is...

  1. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State lands. 13.1406 Section....1406 State lands. The National Park Service administers certain state-owned lands and waters within the... chapter does not apply to the lawful taking of wildlife on these State-owned lands and waters....

  3. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include the original cost of all land held in fee and of easements, and similar rights in land having a...

  4. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  5. 77 FR 72813 - Information Collection; Land Exchanges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Land Exchanges AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... with no revision of a currently approved information collection, OMB 0596-0105, Land Exchanges. DATES... notice should be addressed to Vicky Wessling, National Land Adjustment Program Manager, Lands, 1601...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include the original cost of all land held in fee and of easements, and similar rights in land having a...

  7. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  8. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  9. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  10. 12 CFR 161.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land loan. 161.26 Section 161.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  11. 7 CFR 634.20 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible land. 634.20 Section 634.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.20 Eligible land. RCWP is only applicable to privately owned land. Land owned by corporations whose ownership is...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State lands. 13.1406 Section....1406 State lands. The National Park Service administers certain state-owned lands and waters within the... chapter does not apply to the lawful taking of wildlife on these State-owned lands and waters....

  13. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  14. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include the original cost of all land held in fee and of easements, and similar rights in land having a...

  15. 7 CFR 634.20 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible land. 634.20 Section 634.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.20 Eligible land. RCWP is only applicable to privately owned land. Land owned by corporations whose ownership is...

  16. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include the original cost of all land held in fee and of easements, and similar rights in land having a...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State lands. 13.1406 Section....1406 State lands. The National Park Service administers certain state-owned lands and waters within the... chapter does not apply to the lawful taking of wildlife on these State-owned lands and waters....

  18. 7 CFR 701.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land eligibility. 701.5 Section 701.5 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.5 Land eligibility. (a) For land to be eligible, the Deputy Administrator must determine that land that is the subject of the cost share: (1) Will have new conservation...

  19. 7 CFR 634.20 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible land. 634.20 Section 634.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.20 Eligible land. RCWP is only applicable to privately owned land. Land owned by corporations whose ownership is...

  20. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  1. 12 CFR 161.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land loan. 161.26 Section 161.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State lands. 13.1406 Section....1406 State lands. The National Park Service administers certain state-owned lands and waters within the... chapter does not apply to the lawful taking of wildlife on these State-owned lands and waters....

  3. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  4. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include the original cost of all land held in fee and of easements, and similar rights in land having a...

  6. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section 3101.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal...

  7. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  8. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  9. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section 3101.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal...

  10. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  11. 43 CFR 3101.5-2 - Coordination lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordination lands. 3101.5-2 Section 3101.5-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3101.5-2 Coordination lands. (a) Coordination lands are those lands withdrawn or acquired by the...

  12. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  13. West Africa land use land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Cushing, W. Matthew; Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.; Hutchinson, John A.; Dalsted, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project provides AGRHYMET and its 17 participating countries a comprehensive two-kilometer (2-km) resolution land use land cover (LULC) dataset of the region for three time periods; 1975, 2000, and 2013. Hundreds of Landsat images were visually interpreted to develop a 2-km LULC dataset for each of the three time periods. To assist in validating the interpretations, thousands of aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images were used. From the initial datasets produced by national teams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an independent, detailed review of the interpretations. In concurrence with the respective country teams, the data have been revised to produce an accurate and consistent LULC assessment from within the countries and respective transboundary areas. This West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project represents an effort to document and quantify the impacts of change in both time and space, of the environmental and land resource trends across West Africa. The project was carried out through the AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, in partners from 17 participating countries, the Sahel Institute (INSAH), the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), and with major support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) West Africa Regional Program. The overarching goal of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project is to promote the awareness of the trends and use of spatial information about natural resource trends among national and regional decision-makers. For a complete description of project visit https://eros.usgs.gov/westafrica

  14. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  15. Precision Autonomous Landing Adaptive Control Experiment (PALACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    auto -land system requiring specially prepared and instrumented landing sites. These technologies often preclude UAVs from landing autonomously or...approach developed to achieve autonomous landing capabilities first uses passive stereo ranging to build a 3D terrain profile of the potential...landing site. The stereo ranging algorithm uses a pair of images from digital cameras mounted on the helicopter to build the 3D profile of the terrain

  16. 76 FR 23335 - Public Land Order No. 7761; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6849; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management [LLNVW00000.L14300000.ET0000 241A; NEV-051742; 11-08807; MO 4500012855; TAS: 14X1109] Public Land Order No. 7761; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6849; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of...

  17. 75 FR 443 - Public Land Order No. 7738; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6760, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-50818; 10-08807; MO:4500011433; TAS:14X1109] Public Land Order No. 7738; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6760, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends a withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6760 for an additional 20-year...

  18. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  19. Land use classification in Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E.; Brooner, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Bolivian LANDSAT Program is an integrated, multidisciplinary project designed to provide thematic analysis of LANDSAT, Skylab, and other remotely sensed data for natural resource management and development in Bolivia, is discussed. Among the first requirements in the program is the development of a legend, and appropriate methodologies, for the analysis and classification of present land use based on landscape cover. The land use legend for Bolivia consists of approximately 80 categories in a hierarchical organization which may be collapsed for generalization, or expanded for greater detail. The categories, and their definitions, provide for both a graphic and textual description of the complex and diverse landscapes found in Bolivia, and are designed for analysis from LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Procedures and example products developed are described and illustrated, for the systematic analysis and mapping of present land use for all of Bolivia.

  20. Land degradation analysis based on the land use changes and land degradation evaluation in the Huan Beijing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xudong; Wang, Jing; Xie, Junqi; He, Ting; Lian, Gang; Lv, Chunyan

    2005-10-01

    Using remote sensing data of TM and ETM+ in 1992 and 2002, land degradation based on land use changes, especially sand changes were analyzed and land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated in the Huan Beijing Area. The area of sand in 2002 is 6669.6 km2, increased 716.2 km2 compared to that in 1991, and most of the newly-produced sand came from grassland. Land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated by the combination of vegetation, soil and topography information and the region was divided by 1km ×1km cell as the evaluation unit by the application of the GIS. The indicators of land degradation evaluation included soil organic, soil depth, vegetation cover (NDVI) and slope. Land degradation index (DI) was computed, considering the contribution of different indicators to land degradation. The land degradation status was divided into four types according to DI, no-degradation (DI > = 55), slight degradation (50 = < DI < 55), moderate degradation (40 = < DI < 50) and severe degradation (DI < 40). The results showed that the area of degraded land is 132900 km2, which occupied the percent 58.2 of the whole Huan Beijing Area and the proportion of slightly-degraded land to degraded land is about 0.47. The political county taken as an evaluation unit, the partition of land degradation in this area was also analyzed based on land degradation area proportion and degree. Six types of land degradation partition were got.

  1. Sentinel-3 For Land Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Philippe; Gobron, Nadine; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Donlon, Craig; Bouvet, Marc; Buongiorno, Alessandra; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in a routine, long-term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The launch of Sentinel-3 was successful last February 2016. The Sentinel-3 missions are jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT on the marine products and the satellite monitoring and control. All facilities supporting the Sentinel-3 operations are in place. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products to the users. For a detailed description of the core data products please see https://earth.esa.int/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-3/data-products. On request from the European Commission, ESA and EUMETSAT are presently assessing the possibility to include further core data products, in particular on aerosol optical depth, fire monitoring and synergistic products over land. This paper will provide an update on the status of the mission operations after the initial months in orbit and provide in particular an overview on the status of the Sentinel-3

  2. The Emergency Landing Planner Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.

    2011-01-01

    In previous work, we described an Emergency Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best emergency landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to evaluate the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.

  3. Arid lands of the Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.; Scoppettone, G.G.; Gadomski, D.; Becker, D.

    2005-01-01

    When thinking about plants and animals that inhabit hot arid lands of the southwestern U.S., fish are easily overlooked by most people. However, these desert lands often contain isolated springs or cienegas (a Spanish term referring to permanently saturated 'seep wetlands') and streams supporting native fishes that occur no where else in the world. These aquatic remnants from the last Ice Age have survived for thousands of years due to an amazing ability to tolerate harsh environmental conditions, especially extremely high water temperatures, high salinities, and unpredictable water flows.

  4. Land Use Control Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Andrew Scott

    2015-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of Building M7-505 of institutional controls that have been implemented at the site. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with Building M7-505, institutional land use controls (LUCs) are necessary to prohibit the use of groundwater from the site. LUCs are also necessary to prevent access to soil under electrical equipment in the northwest portion of the site. Controls necessary to prevent human exposure will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  5. 78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... issues the decision under this part, the decision is a ``final agency determination,'' and the decision... decision under the APA. If a BIA official issues the decision under this part, the decision is subject to... Secretary's decision if the United States held title to the land at issue. Id. The Supreme Court has...

  6. High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

  7. Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, C.

    1981-01-01

    Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

  8. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

  9. Systems Analysis of Amphibious Landing Craft: Comparisons of Revised Designs of Advanced Landing Craft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AALC(AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT LANDING CRAFT), AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT LANDING CRAFT, DEBARKING, GAMUT MODEL, GENERAL PURPOSE SIMULATION SYSTEM, GPSS(GENERAL PURPOSE SIMULATION SYSTEM), IBM 360 COMPUTERS, LANDING CRAFT MIXES.

  10. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  11. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  12. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  13. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  14. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  15. Bountiful City Land Consolidation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Rob [R-UT-1

    2009-01-16

    02/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.146, which became Public Law 111-11 on 3/30/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Oregon Coastal Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2013-07-31

    11/20/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-342. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Fruit Heights Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Rob [R-UT-1

    2013-03-06

    07/30/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. This Land Is Our Land? This Land Is Your Land: The Decolonizing Journeys of White Outdoor Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Across Canada, many Aboriginal peoples and communities are actively resisting environmental destruction and communicating to settler-Canadians traditions of respect for the land. Moreover, some Indigenous scholars and educators are calling for a foregrounding of Indigenous ways of knowing in environmental education for all students. However,…

  19. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  20. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  1. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  2. Vocal control area-related expression of neuropilin-1, plexin-A4, and the ligand semaphorin-3A has implications for the evolution of the avian vocal system.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The avian vocal system is a good model for exploring the molecular basis of neural circuit evolution related to behavioral diversity. Previously, we conducted a comparative gene expression analysis among two different families of vocal learner, the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica), a songbird, and the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot; and a non-learner, the quail (Coturnix coturnix), to identify various axon guidance molecules such as cadherin and neuropilin-1 as vocal control area-related genes. Here, we continue with this study and examine the expression of neuropilin and related genes in these species in more detail. We found that neuropilin-1 and its coreceptor, plexin-A4, were expressed in several vocal control areas in both Bengalese finch and budgerigar brains. In addition, semaphorin-3A, the ligand of neuropilin-1, expression was not detected in vocal control areas in both species. Furthermore, there was some similar gene expression in the quail brain. These results suggest the possibility that a change in the expression of a combination of semaphorin/neuropilin/plexin was involved in the acquisition of vocal learning ability during evolution.

  3. Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Imagawa, Takuya; Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2012-01-01

    Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

  4. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.2 Lands subject to leasing. The Secretary may issue coal leases on all Federal lands...

  5. 43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2541.4 Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  6. 43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands subject to sale. 2710.0-8 Section 2710.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY...

  7. 43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  8. 43 CFR 3584.1 - Lands to which applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands to which applicable. 3584.1 Section 3584.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Lands Patented to the State of California for Park or Other Public Purposes § 3584.1 Lands to...

  9. 43 CFR 3585.1 - Lands to which applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands to which applicable. 3585.1 Section 3585.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.1 Lands to which applicable. The lands subject to the...

  10. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have...

  11. 43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  12. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  13. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  14. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  15. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  16. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of...

  17. 43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  18. 43 CFR 3140.6 - Use of additional lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of additional lands. 3140.6 Section 3140.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... additional lands. (a) The authorized officer may noncompetitively lease additional lands for...

  19. 43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands subject to sale. 2710.0-8 Section 2710.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY...

  20. 43 CFR 3585.1 - Lands to which applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands to which applicable. 3585.1 Section 3585.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.1 Lands to which applicable. The lands subject to the...

  1. 43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2541.4 Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  2. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of...

  3. 43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  4. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of...

  5. 43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  6. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1 Section 3862.8-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8-1 Land descriptions in patents. The land description in a patent...

  7. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of...

  8. 43 CFR 3422.3-3 - Unsurveyed lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unsurveyed lands. 3422.3-3 Section 3422.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... lands. If the land is unsurveyed, the successful bidder shall not be given notice to comply with...

  9. 43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands subject to selection. 2623.0-8 Section 2623.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS School Land Grants...

  10. 43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  11. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land subject to disposition. 2520.0-8 Section 2520.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES...

  12. 43 CFR 4110.4-1 - Additional land acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional land acreage. 4110.4-1 Section 4110.4-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.4-1 Additional land acreage. When lands outside designated allotments...

  13. 43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to selection. 2623.0-8 Section 2623.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS School Land Grants...

  14. 43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands subject to selection. 2623.0-8 Section 2623.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS School Land Grants...

  15. 43 CFR 3422.3-3 - Unsurveyed lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unsurveyed lands. 3422.3-3 Section 3422.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... lands. If the land is unsurveyed, the successful bidder shall not be given notice to comply with...

  16. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land subject to disposition. 2520.0-8 Section 2520.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES...

  17. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.2 Lands subject to leasing. The Secretary may issue coal leases on all Federal lands...

  18. 43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2541.4 Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  19. 43 CFR 3584.1 - Lands to which applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands to which applicable. 3584.1 Section 3584.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Lands Patented to the State of California for Park or Other Public Purposes § 3584.1 Lands to...

  20. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land subject to disposition. 2520.0-8 Section 2520.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES...

  1. 43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to sale. 2710.0-8 Section 2710.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY...

  2. 43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2541.4 Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  3. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3110.5-3 Section 3110.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. (a) If the lands applied for lie within and conform to the rectangular system of...

  4. 43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  5. 43 CFR 3422.3-3 - Unsurveyed lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unsurveyed lands. 3422.3-3 Section 3422.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... lands. If the land is unsurveyed, the successful bidder shall not be given notice to comply with...

  6. 43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  7. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3110.5-3 Section 3110.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. (a) If the lands applied for lie within and conform to the rectangular system of...

  8. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3110.5-3 Section 3110.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. (a) If the lands applied for lie within and conform to the rectangular system of...

  9. 43 CFR 3422.3-3 - Unsurveyed lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unsurveyed lands. 3422.3-3 Section 3422.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... lands. If the land is unsurveyed, the successful bidder shall not be given notice to comply with...

  10. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3110.5-3 Section 3110.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Acquired lands. (a) If the lands applied for lie within and conform to the rectangular system of...

  11. 43 CFR 3581.1 - Lands to which applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands to which applicable. 3581.1 Section 3581.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.1 Lands to which applicable. The regulations in...

  12. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Its shadow precedes it as Space Shuttle Atlantis drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  13. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis casts a needle-shaped shadow as it drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  14. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis kicks up dust as it touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  15. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  16. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Its drag chute deployed, Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop after touchdown on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  17. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  18. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis is close to touchdown at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  19. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  20. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A fire rescue truck stands by for safety reasons as Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  1. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis stirs up dust as it touches down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  2. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions☆

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  3. Integrating multisource land use and land cover data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Tait, Mike; Lins, K.F.; Crawford, J.S.; Benjamin, S.P.; Brown, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) land use and land cover (LULC) program, the USGS in cooperation with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) is collecting and integrating LULC data for a standard USGS 1:100,000-scale product. The LULC data collection techniques include interpreting spectrally clustered Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images; interpreting 1-meter resolution digital panchromatic orthophoto images; and, for comparison, aggregating locally available large-scale digital data of urban areas. The area selected is the Vancouver, WA-OR quadrangle, which has a mix of urban, rural agriculture, and forest land. Anticipated products include an integrated LULC prototype data set in a standard classification scheme referenced to the USGS digital line graph (DLG) data of the area and prototype software to develop digital LULC data sets.This project will evaluate a draft standard LULC classification system developed by the USGS for use with various source material and collection techniques. Federal, State, and local governments, and private sector groups will have an opportunity to evaluate the resulting prototype software and data sets and to provide recommendations. It is anticipated that this joint research endeavor will increase future collaboration among interested organizations, public and private, for LULC data collection using common standards and tools.

  4. GEWEX-RFA Land-Ocean Mask

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-20

    ... for the Radiative Flux Assessment. It can be used as a filter for creating global, regional, or zonal time series for land or ocean. ... where coastal pixels have at least 10% of both land and water. Download file . ...

  5. Characterizing the relationship between land use land cover change and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Duy X.; Pla, Filiberto; Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Myint, Soe W.; Caetano, Mario; Kieu, Hoan V.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring changes in land use land cover (LULC) to understand the urban heat island (UHI) effect is valuable for both communities and local governments in cities in developing countries, where urbanization and industrialization often take place rapidly but where coherent planning and control policies have not been applied. This work aims at determining and analyzing the relationship between LULC change and land surface temperature (LST) patterns in the context of urbanization. We first explore the relationship between LST and vegetation, man-made features, and cropland using normalized vegetation, and built-up indices within each LULC type. Afterwards, we assess the impacts of LULC change and urbanization in UHI using hot spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics) and urban landscape analysis. Finally, we propose a model applying non-parametric regression to estimate future urban climate patterns using predicted land cover and land use change. Results from this work provide an effective methodology for UHI characterization, showing that (a) LST depends on a nonlinear way of LULC types; (b) hotspot analysis using Getis Ord Gi∗ statistics allows to analyze the LST pattern change through time; (c) UHI is influenced by both urban landscape and urban development type; (d) LST pattern forecast and UHI effect examination can be done by the proposed model using nonlinear regression and simulated LULC change scenarios. We chose an inner city area of Hanoi as a case-study, a small and flat plain area where LULC change is significant due to urbanization and industrialization. The methodology presented in this paper can be broadly applied in other cities which exhibit a similar dynamic growth. Our findings can represent an useful tool for policy makers and the community awareness by providing a scientific basis for sustainable urban planning and management.

  6. ALHAT: Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2015-01-01

    The ALHAT project was chartered by NASA HQ in 2006 to develop and mature to TRL 6 an autonomous lunar landing GN&C and sensing system for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The multi-center ALHAT team was tasked with providing a system capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real time to enable safe precision landing to within tens of meters of a designated planetary landing site under any lighting conditions.

  7. Major Land Clearing Fires, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    These many and intense land clearing fires in the Kalimantan region of the island of Borneo, Indonesia (3.5S, 113.5E) are indicative of the many deforestation activities on a worldwide scale. In order to feed and house ever increasing populations, more cleared land is required for agriculture to feed ever increasing populations. More pasture lands are needed for livestock. And, more cleared lands are needed for housing.

  8. Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

  9. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  10. Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuseth, Owen J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)

  11. Forming Weld Lands On Metal Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Forming shoe pounds edge of newly inserted plate workpiece. After many passes of shoe and advances of plate, thick land builds up at edge. Workpiece heated to enable metal to flow without strain hardening. Proposed upset-forming process replaces relatively expensive, time-consuming, and wasteful process in which integral weld lands created by machining metal away from plates everywhere except at lands.

  12. NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is a unique facility with the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A brief historical overview of the original Landing Loads Track (LLT) is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  17. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing requirements. 234.2 Section 234.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.2 Landing requirements. (a) Place of landing....

  18. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  19. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized landings... experiences an inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior authorization (approved...

  20. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized landings... experiences an inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior authorization (approved...

  1. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized landings... experiences an inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior authorization (approved...

  2. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized landings... experiences an inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior authorization (approved...

  3. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized landings... experiences an inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior authorization (approved...

  4. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing...; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23... gear extended; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as...

  5. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing...; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23...; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in §...

  6. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing...; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23... gear extended; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as...

  7. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing...; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23...; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in §...

  8. 14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the landing surface must be determined, for standard temperatures at each weight and altitude within... tests that a maximum steady approach gradient steeper than 5.2 percent, down to the 50-foot height, is... conditions that exist at the 50 foot height, at maximum landing weight, or at the maximum landing weight...

  9. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility. (a... determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland (including improved... historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the State Conservationist, with advice from...

  10. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility. (a... determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs, or shrubland (including improved... historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the State Conservationist, with advice from...

  11. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility. (a... determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland (including improved... historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the State Conservationist, with advice from...

  12. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility. (a... determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland (including improved... historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the State Conservationist, with advice from...

  13. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility. (a... determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland (including improved... historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the State Conservationist, with advice from...

  14. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing requirements. 234.2 Section 234.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.2 Landing requirements. (a) Place of landing....

  15. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing requirements. 234.2 Section 234.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.2 Landing requirements. (a) Place of landing....

  16. THE SHADOW BOX OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A simple replacement for the Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS) was designed and built at NRL for use as a research tool in the experimental...transport, and simple to maintain. Experimental evaluation of two proposed landing systems, the Laterally Compounded Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System

  17. Black Rural Land Decline in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

  18. 7 CFR 1450.204 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible land. 1450.204 Section 1450.204 Agriculture... Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.204 Eligible land. (a) For the purposes of this subpart, eligible land must be physically and legally capable of producing an eligible crop and must be: (1) Agricultural...

  19. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  20. 7 CFR 623.4 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible land. 623.4 Section 623.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.4 Eligible land. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, land is eligible for enrollment in the EWRP only if NRCS determines that the...

  1. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  2. 7 CFR 1410.6 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible land. 1410.6 Section 1410.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.6 Eligible land. (a) In order to be eligible to be placed in the CRP, land must be one of the following: (1) Cropland that...

  3. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  4. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  5. 7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible land. 623.5 Section 623.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible land. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, the following land is not eligible for enrollment in the EWRP: (a)...

  6. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  7. 7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible land. 623.5 Section 623.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible land. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, the following land is not eligible for enrollment in the EWRP: (a)...

  8. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law...

  9. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law...

  10. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law...

  11. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law...

  12. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  13. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  14. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  15. 12 CFR 390.294 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land loan. 390.294 Section 390.294 Banks and... Associations § 390.294 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon which all..., so that it is entirely prepared for the erection of structures; (b) To finance the purchase of...

  16. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  17. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  18. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  19. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  20. 7 CFR 623.4 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible land. 623.4 Section 623.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.4 Eligible land. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, land is eligible for enrollment in the EWRP only if NRCS determines that the...

  1. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  2. 7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible land. 623.5 Section 623.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible land. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, the following land is not eligible for enrollment in the EWRP: (a)...

  3. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  4. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  5. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  6. 50 CFR 80.20 - Land control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land control. 80.20 Section 80.20 Wildlife... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.20 Land control. The State must control lands or waters on which capital improvements are made with Wildlife and Sport Fish...

  7. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  8. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  9. 7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible land. 623.5 Section 623.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible land. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, the following land is not eligible for enrollment in the EWRP: (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 1450.204 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible land. 1450.204 Section 1450.204 Agriculture... Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.204 Eligible land. (a) For the purposes of this subpart, eligible land must be physically and legally capable of producing an eligible crop and must be: (1) Agricultural...

  11. 7 CFR 1410.6 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible land. 1410.6 Section 1410.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.6 Eligible land. (a) In order to be eligible to be placed in the CRP, land must be one of the following: (1) Cropland that...

  12. 7 CFR 623.4 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible land. 623.4 Section 623.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.4 Eligible land. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, land is eligible for enrollment in the EWRP only if NRCS determines that the...

  13. 77 FR 39724 - Land Acquisitions: 19 Pueblos

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-16412] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions: 19... land into trust. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs made a final agency determination to acquire approximately 8.43 acres of land into trust for the 19 pueblos on January 31, 2012. FOR...

  14. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  15. 76 FR 5397 - Bureau of Land Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; California AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and...

  16. 7 CFR 623.4 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible land. 623.4 Section 623.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.4 Eligible land. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, land is eligible for enrollment in the EWRP only if NRCS determines that the...

  17. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  18. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  19. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  20. 7 CFR 623.4 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible land. 623.4 Section 623.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.4 Eligible land. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, land is eligible for enrollment in the EWRP only if NRCS determines that the...