Science.gov

Sample records for landing operational risk

  1. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  2. Risk evaluation of land subsidence and its application to metro safety operation in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, H.; Yan, X.

    2015-11-01

    Based on sufficiently investigating characteristics and risk connotation of land subsidence, a risk evaluation index system for land subsidence disaster is established, which is combined with the sensitivity feature of the hazard bearing body to land subsidence. An appropriate evaluation method system is established by using an improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method. So risk evaluation is developed for providing theoretical basis and technical support for the regional management of land subsidence prevention and control. On this basis, as a case of Shanghai metro, firstly, the paper studies the identifying risk sources of the metro. According to metro linear characteristics, external indexes of representing subsidence risk are obtained. Studying the subsidence risk of the metro, relevant achievement has provided the technical basis for daily main monitoring, early warning and work arrangement.

  3. Terra Incognita: Absence of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations from the National Land Cover Database and Implications for Environmental Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, K. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Vose, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Although important to food supplies, CAFOs may present significant risks to human health and environmental quality. The National land cover database (NLCD) is a publically available database of land cover whose purpose is to provide assessment of ecosystem health, facilitate nutrient modeling, land use planning, and developing land management practices. However, CAFOs do not align with any existing NLCD land cover classes. This is especially concerning due to their distinct nutrient loading characteristics, potential for other environmental impacts, and given that individual CAFOs may occupy several NLCD pixels worth of ground area. Using 2011 NLCD data, we examined the land cover classification of CAFO sites in North Carolina (USA). Federal regulations require CAFOs with a liquid waste disposal system to obtain a water quality permit. In North Carolina, there were 2679 permitted sites as of 2015, primarily in the southeastern part of the state. As poultry operations most frequently use dry waste disposal systems, they are not required to obtain a permit and thus, their locations are undocumented. For each permitted CAFO, we determined the mode of the NLCD land uses within a 50m buffer surrounding point coordinates. We found permitted CAFOS were most likely to be classified as hay/pasture (58%). An additional 13% were identified as row crops, leaving 29% as a non-agricultural land cover class, including wetlands (12%). This misclassification of CAFOs can have implications for environmental management and public policy. Scientists and land managers need access to better spatial data on the distribution of these operations to monitor the environmental impacts and identify the best landscape scale mitigation strategies. We recommend adding a new land cover class (concentrated animal operations) to the NLCD database.

  4. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  5. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  6. The land management and operations database (LMOD)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper presents the design, implementation, deployment, and application of the Land Management and Operations Database (LMOD). LMOD is the single authoritative source for reference land management and operation reference data within the USDA enterprise data warehouse. LMOD supports modeling appl...

  7. Operational Logistics: Lessons from the Inchon Landing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    logistics at the strategic, operational, or tactical levels. An analysis of Operation Chromite , the amphibious landing at Inchon, reveals that logistical...commander’s intent, and define the logistics focus of effort demonstrate that operational logistics was a key enabler in Operation Chromite . This analysis

  8. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  9. 43 CFR 3733.1 - Financial risk of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial risk of operation. 3733.1... WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Risk of Operation § 3733.1 Financial risk of operation. The Act in section 3 provides in... resources authorized in this act shall be entered into or continued at the financial risk of the individual...

  10. Command and Control for Joint Land Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding...Force Land Component deployment data (TPFDD). Based on the Service and functional component recommendations, the JFC develops the integrated TPFDD and...in planning air supporting and support requirements. The ACCE interface includes exchanging current intelligence and operational data , support

  11. Lunar launch and landing facilities and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Florida Institute of Technology established an Interdisciplinary Design Team to design a lunar based facility whose primary function involves launch and landing operations for future moon missions. Both manned and unmanned flight operations were considered in the study with particular design emphasis on the utilization (or reutilization) of all materials available on the moon. This resource availability includes man-made materials which might arrive in the form of expendable landing vehicles as well as in situ lunar minerals. From an engineering standpoint, all such materials are considered as to their suitability for constructing new lunar facilities and/or repairing or expanding existing structures. Also considered in this design study was a determination of the feasibility of using naturally occurring lunar materials to provide fuel components to support lunar launch operations. Conventional launch and landing operations similar to those used during the Apollo Program were investigated as well as less conventional techniques such as rail guns and electromagnetic mass drivers. The Advanced Space Design team consisted of students majoring in Physics and Space Science as well as Electrical, Mechanical, Chemical and Ocean Engineering.

  12. Microwave landing system requirements for STOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C. N.; Brown, S. C.; Goka, T.; Park, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    The operational/functional requirements for the new Microwave Landing System (MLS) are examined for STOL operations. The study utilizes a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom simulation of a De Havilland Buffalo C-8A aircraft and automatic flight control system to assess the MLS/STOL accuracy, coverage, and data rate requirements for the azimuth, DME, primary elevation, and flare elevation functions. The aircraft performance is statistically determined for representative curved flight paths through touchdown. A range of MLS errors and coverages, environmental disturbances, and navigation filtering are investigated. The study indicates that STOL applications do not place any unique requirements on the MLS.

  13. Operating The Copernicus Global Land Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, B.; Lacaze, R.; Freitas, S. C.; Jann, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Camacho, F.; Baret, F.; Paulik, C.; d'Andrimont, R.; Tansey, K.; Verger, A.

    2013-12-01

    From 1st January 2013, the Copernicus Global Land Service is operational, providing continuously a set of biophysical variables describing the vegetation conditions, the energy budget at the continental surface and the water cycle over the whole globe. Essential Climate Variables like the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), the surface albedo, the Land Surface Temperature, the soil moisture, the burnt areas, the areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices, dry matter productivity and TOC reflectance, are generated every hour, every day or every 10 days on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. The service and its products are continuously checked on technical and scientific quality. In view of service continuity, the existing retrieval methodologies are being adapted to new sensors (e.g. Proba-V and the Sentinels), taking the benefit of the increased resolution.

  14. Flood risk assessment of land pollution hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Matteo; Arrighi, Chiara; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Among the risks caused by extreme events, the potential spread of pollutants stored in land hotspots due to floods is an aspect that has been rarely examined with a risk-based approach. In this contribution, an attempt to estimate pollution risks related to flood events of land pollution hotspots was carried out. Flood risk has been defined as the combination of river flood hazard, hotspots exposure and vulnerability to contamination of the area, i.e. the expected severity of the environmental impacts. The assessment was performed on a geographical basis, using geo-referenced open data, available from databases of land management institutions, authorities and agencies. The list of land pollution hotspots included landfills and other waste handling facilities (e.g., temporary storage, treatment and recycling sites), municipal wastewater treatment plants, liquid waste treatment facilities and contaminated sites. The assessment was carried out by combining geo-referenced data of pollution hotspots with flood hazard maps. We derived maps of land pollution risk based on geographical and geological properties and source characteristics available from environmental authorities. These included information about soil particle size, soil hydraulic conductivity, terrain slope, type of stored pollutants, the type of facility, capacity, size of the area, land use, etc. The analysis was carried out at catchment scale. The case study of the Arno river basin in Tuscany (central Italy) is presented.

  15. Crew procedures for microwave landing system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify crew procedures involved in Microwave Landing System (MLS) operations and to obtain a preliminary assessment of crew workload. The crew procedures were identified for three different complements of airborne equipment coupled to an autopilot. Using these three equipment complements, crew tasks were identified for MLS approaches and precision departures and compared to an ILS approach and a normal departure. Workload comparisons between the approaches and departures were made by using a task-timeline analysis program that obtained workload indexes, i.e., the radio of time required to complete the tasks to the time available. The results showed an increase in workload for the MLS scenario for one of the equipment complements. However, even this workload was within the capacity of two crew members.

  16. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and shall...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and shall...

  18. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  19. Risk assessment in international operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-11-15

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently.

  20. Operational Land Imager relative radiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.

    2015-09-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI), on board the Landsat-8 satellite, is a pushbroom sensor with nearly 7000 detectors per band, divided between 14 separate modules. While rigorously characterized prior to launch, the shear number of individual detectors presents a challenge to maintaining the on-orbit relative calibration, such that stripes, bands and other artifacts are minimized in the final image products. On-orbit relative calibration of the OLI is primarily monitored and corrected by observing an on-board primary solar diffuser panel. The panel is the most uniform target available to the OLI, though as observed but the OLI, it has a slope across the field of view due to view angle effects. Just after launch, parameters were derived using the solar diffuser data, to correct for the angular effects across the 14 modules. The residual discontinuities between arrays and the detector-to-detector uniformity continue to be monitored on a weekly basis. The observed variations in the responses to the diffuser panel since launch are thought to be due to real instrument changes. Since launch, the Coastal/Aerosol (CA) and Blue bands have shown the most variation in relative calibration of the VNIR bands, with as much as 0.14% change (3-sigma) between consecutive relative gain estimates. The other VNIR bands (Green, Red and NIR) initially had detectors showing a slow drift of about 0.2% per year, though this stopped after an instrument power cycle about seven months after launch. The SWIR bands also exhibit variability between collects (0.11% 3-sigma) but the larger changes have been where individual detectors' responses change suddenly by as much as 1.5%. The mechanisms behind these changes are not well understood but in order to minimize impact to the users, the OLI relative calibration is updated on a quarterly basis in order to capture changes over time.

  1. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  2. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  3. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  4. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  5. 12 CFR 1010.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risks of buying land. 1010.107 Section 1010.107 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and...

  6. Lunar landing and launch facilities and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility (LLLF or Complex 391) has been formulated. A Phase 3 lunar base is considered. Without specifying specific lunar base scenarios, three traffic levels are envisioned: 6, 12, and 24 landings/launches per year. A single, multipurpose vehicle for the lunar module is assumed. The design and specification of the vehicle and of the lunar base are outside the scope of this study. However, these two items will impact those items considered within the scope of this study because of interactions at the system boundaries. The scope of this study is graphically portrayed with the systems diagram. Based upon this diagram, nine major design items or areas are considered. These items are: (1) landing/launch site considerations; (2) structure, shelter, safety, and environmental needs; (3) landing/launch guidance, communications, and computing needs; (4) lunar module surface transport system; (5) heavy cargo unloading/loading systems; (6) personnel unloading/loading systems; (7) propellant unloading/loading systems; (8) vehicle storage; and (9) maintenance, repair, test and check-out requirements. Initially, a general, conceptual description of each of these items is given. Then, preliminary sizes, capacities, and other relevant design data for some of these items are identified. The Earth-Moon transportation infrastructure and the baseline lunar module design are summarized.

  7. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System:Capabilities for Operational Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, C. W.; Schneider, S.; Murphy, R.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. NPOESS will transform today's short-term, space-based ocean research missions into a sustained, operational ocean remote sensing observation program. Land measurements comprise seven of the fifty-five user-validated requirements for geophysical measurements that will be made by NPOESS sensors. In 1997, the IPO initiated a robust sensor risk reduction effort for early development of the critical sensor suites and algorithms necessary to support NPOESS. In 2001, preliminary design efforts were completed for the last of five critical imaging/sounding instruments for NPOESS. Land requirements have directly and substantially "driven" the design of two NPOESS sensors: the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS). Compared to the predecessor operational systems, NPOESS will deliver higher resolution (spatial and temporal

  8. Lunar landing and launch facilities and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lunar landing and launch facility for a Phase 3 lunar base is formulated. A single multipurpose vehicle for the lunar module is assumed. Three traffic levels are envisioned: 6, 12, and 24 landings/launches per year. The facility is broken down into nine major design items. A conceptual description of each of these items is included. Preliminary sizes, capacities, and/or other relevant design data for some of these items are obtained. A quonset hut tent-like structure constructed of aluminum rods and aluminized mylar panels is proposed. This structure is used to provide a constant thermal environment for the lunar modules. A structural design and thermal analysis is presented. Two independent designs for a bridge crane to unload/load heavy cargo from the lunar module are included. Preliminary investigations into cryogenic propellant storage and handling, landing/launch guidance and control, and lunar module maintenance requirements are performed. Also, an initial study into advanced concepts for application to Phase 4 or 5 lunar bases has been completed in a report on capturing, condensing, and recycling the exhaust plume from a lunar launch.

  9. Models for estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurenkov, Vladimir I.; Kucherov, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency. Appropriate mathematical models have been developed. Some results obtained with the help of the software worked out in Delphi programming support environment are presented.

  10. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107... § 1710.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and shall... Property Report portion, the following statement shall be added beneath the “Risks of Buying Land” under a...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107... § 1710.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and shall... Property Report portion, the following statement shall be added beneath the “Risks of Buying Land” under a...

  12. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107... § 1710.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and shall... Property Report portion, the following statement shall be added beneath the “Risks of Buying Land” under a...

  13. 12 CFR 1010.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risks of buying land. 1010.107 Section 1010.107... Requirements § 1010.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and... Risks of Buying Land. (b) Warnings. If the instructions of the Director require any warnings to be...

  14. 12 CFR 1010.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risks of buying land. 1010.107 Section 1010.107... Requirements § 1010.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and... Risks of Buying Land. (b) Warnings. If the instructions of the Director require any warnings to be...

  15. LOLA: The lunar operations landing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Mike; Argeles, Fernando; Stewart, Chris; Turner, Charles; Rivas, Gavino

    1992-01-01

    Because the President of the United States has begun the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), which entails a manned mission to Mars by the year 2016, it is necessary to use the Moon as a stepping stone to this objective. In support of this mission, unmanned scientific exploration of the Moon will help re-establish man's presence there and will serve as a basis for possible lunar colonization, setting the stage for a manned Mars mission. The lunar landing platform must provide support to its payload in the form of power, communications, and thermal control. The design must be such that cost is held to a minimum, and so that a wide variety of payloads may be used with the lander. The objectives of this mission are (1) to further the SEI by returning to the moon with unmanned scientific experiments, (2) to demonstrate to the public that experimental payload missions are feasible, (3) to provide a common lunar lander platform so select scientific packages could be targeted to specific lunar locales, (4) to enable the lander to be built from off-the-shelf hardware, and (5) to provide first mission launch by 1996.

  16. LOLA: The lunar operations landing assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Mike; Argeles, Fernando; Stewart, Chris; Turner, Charles; Rivas, Gavino

    1992-05-01

    Because the President of the United States has begun the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), which entails a manned mission to Mars by the year 2016, it is necessary to use the Moon as a stepping stone to this objective. In support of this mission, unmanned scientific exploration of the Moon will help re-establish man's presence there and will serve as a basis for possible lunar colonization, setting the stage for a manned Mars mission. The lunar landing platform must provide support to its payload in the form of power, communications, and thermal control. The design must be such that cost is held to a minimum, and so that a wide variety of payloads may be used with the lander. The objectives of this mission are (1) to further the SEI by returning to the moon with unmanned scientific experiments, (2) to demonstrate to the public that experimental payload missions are feasible, (3) to provide a common lunar lander platform so select scientific packages could be targeted to specific lunar locales, (4) to enable the lander to be built from off-the-shelf hardware, and (5) to provide first mission launch by 1996.

  17. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  18. Defining land degradation and desertification risk using simple indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairis, Or.

    2012-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for defining land degradation and desertification risk by using simple indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation, social economic, and land management characteristics. A number of 72 candidate indicators have been identified and analyzed for assessing land desertification risk under various processes and causes of degradation. Data were collected from 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites located in various environmental, social and economical conditions. The main processes or causes of land degradation and desertification identified in the study field sites were soil erosion, soil salinization, water stress, overgrazing, and forest fires. The number of candidate indicators defined for each process or cause of land degradation was ranged from 16 to 50. Classes have been defined for each indicator and numbers have been assigned for each class according to its importance on desertification. After creating the appropriate data basis, a forward stepwise statistical analysis was conducted for all indicators corresponding to each process or cause of land degradation and the sensitivity of each indicator to desertification risk was identified. Algorithms were derived for each process or cause that can be easily used for identifying land degradation and desertification risk at farm level. The performance of the derived methodology was assessed using the independent indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter content, and soil aggregate stability. The analysis of the data have shown that the used candidate indicators were significantly reduced to a number of effective indicators ranging from 8 to 17 in the various processes or causes of land degradation and desertification. Among the most important indicators identified as affecting land degradation and desertification risk were rain seasonality, soil depth, slope gradient, plant cover, rate of burned area, grazing control, rate of land abandonment, land use intensity, population

  19. Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations (LLEGO) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    LLEGO is a model for understanding recurring launch and landing operations costs at Kennedy Space Center for human space flight. Launch and landing operations are often referred to as ground processing, or ground operations. Currently, this function is specific to the ground operations for the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System within the Space Shuttle Program. The Constellation system to follow the Space Shuttle consists of the crewed Orion spacecraft atop an Ares I launch vehicle and the uncrewed Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation flight and ground systems build upon many elements of the existing Shuttle flight and ground hardware, as well as upon existing organizations and processes. In turn, the LLEGO model builds upon past ground operations research, modeling, data, and experience in estimating for future programs. Rather than to simply provide estimates, the LLEGO model s main purpose is to improve expenses by relating complex relationships among functions (ground operations contractor, subcontractors, civil service technical, center management, operations, etc.) to tangible drivers. Drivers include flight system complexity and reliability, as well as operations and supply chain management processes and technology. Together these factors define the operability and potential improvements for any future system, from the most direct to the least direct expenses.

  20. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  1. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  2. Rosetta lander Philae: Flight Dynamics analyses for landing site selection and post-landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Eric; Martin, Thierry; Canalias, Elisabet; Blazquez, Alejandro; Garmier, Romain; Ceolin, Thierry; Gaudon, Philippe; Delmas, Cedric; Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan; Remetean, Emile; Torres, Alex; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Dolives, Benoit; Herique, Alain; Rogez, Yves; Kofman, Wlodek; Jorda, Laurent; Zakharov, Vladimir; Crifo, Jean-François; Rodionov, Alexander; Heinish, P.; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-08-01

    On the 12th of November 2014, The Rosetta Lander Philae became the first spacecraft to softly land on a comet nucleus. Due to the double failure of the cold gas hold-down thruster and the anchoring harpoons that should have fixed Philae to the surface, it spent approximately two hours bouncing over the comet surface to finally come at rest one km away from its target site. Nevertheless it was operated during the 57 h of its First Science Sequence. The FSS, performed with the two batteries, should have been followed by the Long Term Science Sequence but Philae was in a place not well illuminated and fell into hibernation. Yet, thanks to reducing distance to the Sun and to seasonal effect, it woke up at end of April and on 13th of June it contacted Rosetta again. To achieve this successful landing, an intense preparation work had been carried out mainly between August and November 2014 to select the targeted landing site and define the final landing trajectory. After the landing, the data collected during on-comet operations have been used to assess the final position and orientation of Philae, and to prepare the wake-up. This paper addresses the Flight Dynamics studies done in the scope of this landing preparation from Lander side, in close cooperation with the team at ESA, responsible for Rosetta, as well as for the reconstruction of the bouncing trajectory and orientation of the Lander after touchdown.

  3. PSOLA: A Heuristic Land-Use Allocation Model Using Patch-Level Operations and Knowledge-Informed Rules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Peng, Jinjin; Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing land-use allocation is important to regional sustainable development, as it promotes the social equality of public services, increases the economic benefits of land-use activities, and reduces the ecological risk of land-use planning. Most land-use optimization models allocate land-use using cell-level operations that fragment land-use patches. These models do not cooperate well with land-use planning knowledge, leading to irrational land-use patterns. This study focuses on building a heuristic land-use allocation model (PSOLA) using particle swarm optimization. The model allocates land-use with patch-level operations to avoid fragmentation. The patch-level operations include a patch-edge operator, a patch-size operator, and a patch-compactness operator that constrain the size and shape of land-use patches. The model is also integrated with knowledge-informed rules to provide auxiliary knowledge of land-use planning during optimization. The knowledge-informed rules consist of suitability, accessibility, land use policy, and stakeholders’ preference. To validate the PSOLA model, a case study was performed in Gaoqiao Town in Zhejiang Province, China. The results demonstrate that the PSOLA model outperforms a basic PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) in the terms of the social, economic, ecological, and overall benefits by 3.60%, 7.10%, 1.53% and 4.06%, respectively, which confirms the effectiveness of our improvements. Furthermore, the model has an open architecture, enabling its extension as a generic tool to support decision making in land-use planning. PMID:27322619

  4. PSOLA: A Heuristic Land-Use Allocation Model Using Patch-Level Operations and Knowledge-Informed Rules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaolin; Peng, Jinjin; Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing land-use allocation is important to regional sustainable development, as it promotes the social equality of public services, increases the economic benefits of land-use activities, and reduces the ecological risk of land-use planning. Most land-use optimization models allocate land-use using cell-level operations that fragment land-use patches. These models do not cooperate well with land-use planning knowledge, leading to irrational land-use patterns. This study focuses on building a heuristic land-use allocation model (PSOLA) using particle swarm optimization. The model allocates land-use with patch-level operations to avoid fragmentation. The patch-level operations include a patch-edge operator, a patch-size operator, and a patch-compactness operator that constrain the size and shape of land-use patches. The model is also integrated with knowledge-informed rules to provide auxiliary knowledge of land-use planning during optimization. The knowledge-informed rules consist of suitability, accessibility, land use policy, and stakeholders' preference. To validate the PSOLA model, a case study was performed in Gaoqiao Town in Zhejiang Province, China. The results demonstrate that the PSOLA model outperforms a basic PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) in the terms of the social, economic, ecological, and overall benefits by 3.60%, 7.10%, 1.53% and 4.06%, respectively, which confirms the effectiveness of our improvements. Furthermore, the model has an open architecture, enabling its extension as a generic tool to support decision making in land-use planning.

  5. Function Flow Analysis of the Land Force Operations Planning Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    perform an historical/organizational analysis of the Land Force Operations Planning Process (OPP) with a focus on the brigade level. Specifically...outlining background information, the purpose of the project, tasks to be performed , and the approach taken in this report. In the second section...the methodology used to perform the historical/organizational analysis is described. The results of this analysis are presented in the third

  6. Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility (SFOC; SWMU 081; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the SFOC, an institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to antimony-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  7. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  8. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  9. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  10. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  11. Managing risks and hazardous in industrial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Almaula, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that it makes good business sense to identify risks and hazards of an operation and take appropriate steps to manage them effectively. Developing and implementing an effective risk and hazard management plan also contibutes to other industry requirements and standards. Development of a risk management system, key elements of a risk management plan, and hazards and risk analysis methods are outlined. Comparing potential risk to the cost of prevention is also discussed. It is estimated that the cost of developing and preparing the first risk management plan varies between $50,000 to $200,000. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Rosetta Lander - Philae: First Landing and Operations on a Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Soffys, Aurélie; Salatti, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Philae is a comet Lander, part of Rosetta which is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. In August 2014 Rosetta did rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) after a 10 year cruise. Both its nucleus and coma have been studied allowing the selection of a landing site for Philae. Philae was separated from the Rosetta main spacecraft on November 12, 2014 and touched the comet surface after seven hours of descent. After several bounces it came to rest and continued to send scientific data to Earth. All ten instruments of its payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the Lander could not be anchored, the originally planned first scientific sequence had to be modified. Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, after its primary battery ran out of energy. Re-activation of the Lander is expected in spring/summer 2015 when CG is closer to the sun and the solar generator of Philae will provide more power. The paper will give an overview of separation, descent and landing, the search for the final landing spot as well as Lander operations after separation. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  13. Land based crane operator training and licensing program

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, R. van der; Dingman, S.

    1995-12-31

    Working safely and having a healthy respect for safety has always been important to the Corps of Engineers. Because we recognize the increased importance of safety to crane operations, we have developed this Training and Licensing program for all crane operators. What the guidelines and this program intends is, think before you act and thinking requires a knowledge base. We feel the following program strengthens the guidelines to enable competent as well as confident crane operations by our personnel. This document outlines the Corps of Engineer`s Land Based Crane Training and Licensing Program for Class I, II, and III operators. The Corps of Engineer`s Portland District Operation`s Division melded guidelines from industry with specific Corps regulations to produce this program. The Crane Licensing and Training program includes three crane operator classes. Each class discusses licensing, physical and academic requirements and performance evaluations. Other related personnel and their responsibilities are also discussed. These include rigger/signalmen, maintenance staff, and inspectors. A section on testing requirements for specific needs follows with a glossary at the end of this document.

  14. A Risk Assessment Architecture for Enhanced Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sharp. Lauren M.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    On very rare occasions, in-flight emergencies have occurred that required the pilot to utilize the aircraft's capabilities to the fullest extent possible, sometimes using actuators in ways for which they were not intended. For instance, when flight control has been lost due to damage to the hydraulic systems, pilots have had to use engine thrust to maneuver the plane to the ground and in for a landing. To assist the pilot in these situations, research is being performed to enhance the engine operation by making it more responsive or able to generate more thrust. Enabled by modification of the propulsion control, enhanced engine operation can increase the probability of a safe landing during an inflight emergency. However, enhanced engine operation introduces risk as the nominal control limits, such as those on shaft speed, temperature, and acceleration, are exceeded. Therefore, an on-line tool for quantifying this risk must be developed to ensure that the use of an enhanced control mode does not actually increase the overall danger to the aircraft. This paper describes an architecture for the implementation of this tool. It describes the type of data and algorithms required and the information flow, and how the risk based on engine component lifing and operability for enhanced operation is determined.

  15. Land Use Adaptation Strategies Analysis in Landslide Risk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chin-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2013-04-01

    In order to respond to the impact of climate and environmental change on Taiwanese mountain region, this study used GTZ (2004) Risk analysis guidelines to assess the landslide risk for 178 Taiwanese mountain towns. This study used 7 indicators to assess landslide risk, which are rainfall distribution, natural environment vulnerability (e.g., rainfall threshold criterion for debris flow, historical disaster frequency, landslide ratio, and road density), physicality vulnerability (e.g., population density) and socio-economic vulnerability (e.g., population with higher education, death rate and income). The landslide risk map can be obtained by multiplying 7 indicators together and ranking the product. The map had 5 risk ranges, and towns within the range of 4 to 5, which are high landslide risk regions, and have high priority in reducing risk. This study collected the regions with high landslide risk regions and analyzed the difference after Typhoon Morakot (2009). The spatial distribution showed that after significant environmental damage high landslide risk regions moved from central to south Taiwan. The changeable pattern of risk regions pointed out the necessity of updating the risk map periodically. Based on the landslide risk map and the land use investigation data which was provided by the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center in 2007, this study calculated the size of the land use area with landslide disaster risk. According to the above results and discussion, this study can be used to suggest appropriate land use adaptation strategies provided for reducing landslide risk under the impact of climate and environmental change.

  16. Operational Concept for the Smart Landing Facility (SLF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, S. D.; Bussolari, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an operational concept for the Smart Landing Facility (SLF). The SLF is proposed as a component of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) and is envisioned to utilize Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies to support higher-volume air traffic operations in a wider variety of weather conditions than are currently possible at airports without an Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) or Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON). In order to accomplish this, the SLF will provide aircraft sequencing and separation within its terminal airspace (the SLF traffic area) and on the airport surface. The approach taken in this report is to first define and describe the SLF environment and the type of operations and aircraft that must be supported. Services currently provided by an ATCT and TRACON are reviewed and assembled into a set of high-level operational functions. A description of the applicable CNS/ATM technologies that have been deployed in the NAS (National Airspace System) or have been demonstrated to be operationally feasible is presented. A candidate SLF system concept that employs the CNS/ATM technologies is described. This is followed by SLF operational scenarios for minimally-equipped aircraft and for aircraft fully-equipped to make full use of SLF services. An assessment is made of the SLF technology and key research issues are identified.

  17. LANDSAT-8 Operational Land Imager Change Detection Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, W.; Khan, S. A.; Hussain, E.; Amir, F.; Maud, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigated the potential utility of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) for change detection analysis and mapping application because of its superior technical design to previous Landsat series. The OLI SVM classified data was successfully classified with regard to all six test classes (i.e., bare land, built-up land, mixed trees, bushes, dam water and channel water). OLI support vector machine (SVM) classified data for the four seasons (i.e., spring, autumn, winter, and summer) was used to change detection results of six cases: (1) winter to spring which resulted reduction in dam water mapping and increases of bushes; (2) winter to summer which resulted reduction in dam water mapping and increase of vegetation; (3) winter to autumn which resulted increase in dam water mapping; (4) spring to summer which resulted reduction of vegetation and shallow water; (5) spring to autumn which resulted decrease of vegetation; and (6) summer to autumn which resulted increase of bushes and vegetation . OLI SVM classified data resulted higher overall accuracy and kappa coefficient and thus found suitable for change detection analysis.

  18. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.

  19. Spatially disaggregated disease transmission risk: land cover, land use and risk of dengue transmission on the island of Oahu

    PubMed Central

    Vanwambeke, Sophie O.; Bennett, Shannon N.; Kapan, Durrell D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Vector-borne diseases persist in transmission systems that usually comprise heterogeneously distributed vectors and hosts leading to a highly heterogeneous case distribution. In this study, we build on principles of classical mathematical epidemiology to investigate spatial heterogeneity of disease risk for vector-borne diseases. Land cover delineates habitat suitability for vectors, and land use determines the spatial distribution of humans. We focus on the risk of exposure for dengue transmission on the Hawaiian island of Oahu, where the vector Aedes albopictus is well established and areas of dense human population exist. In Hawai'i, dengue virus is generally absent, but occasionally flares up when introduced. It is therefore relevant to investigate risk, but difficult to do based on disease incidence data. Based on publicly available data (land cover, land use, census data, surveillance mosquito trapping), we map the spatial distribution of vectors and human hosts, and finally overlay them to produce a vector-to-host ratio map. The resulting high-resolution maps indicate a high spatial variability in vector-to-host ratio suggesting that risk of exposure is spatially heterogeneous and varies according to land cover and land use. Introduction The distribution of vector-borne diseases tends to be highly spatially heterogeneous, varying according to the often-heterogeneous spatial distribution of transmission systems components: vectors, pathogens, and hosts. Vectors and hosts depend on spatially diverse environmental conditions, including land cover. Different land uses modify contact of susceptible humans with infectious vectors (Vanwambeke et al., 2007a), and modify human cases distribution (Vanwambeke et al., 2006, Linard et al., 2007, Norris, 2004). Heterogeneity in the risk of disease transmission results from spatial heterogeneity in both land cover and land use. Understanding sources of spatial heterogeneity can contribute to disease prevention and

  20. Using risk maps to link land value damage and risk as basis of flexible risk management for brownfield redevelopment.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-chun; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-02-01

    Brownfield redevelopment involves numerous uncertain financial risks associated with market demand and land value. To reduce the uncertainty of the specific impact of land value and social costs, this study develops small-scale risk maps to determine the relationship between population risk (PR) and damaged land value (DLV) to facilitate flexible land reutilisation plans. This study used the spatial variability of exposure parameters in each village to develop the contaminated site-specific risk maps. In view of the combination of risk and cost, risk level that most affected land use was mainly 1.00×10(-6) to 1.00×10(-5) in this study area. Village 2 showed the potential for cost-effective conversion with contaminated land development. If the risk of remediation target was set at 5.00×10(-6), the DLV could be reduced by NT$15,005 million for the land developer. The land developer will consider the net benefit by quantifying the trade-off between the changes of land value and the cost of human health. In this study, small-scale risk maps can illuminate the economic incentive potential for contaminated site redevelopment through the adjustment of land value damage and human health risk.

  1. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  2. Spatially disaggregated disease transmission risk: land cover, land use and risk of dengue transmission on the island of Oahu.

    PubMed

    Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Bennett, Shannon N; Kapan, Durrell D

    2011-02-01

    Vector-borne diseases persist in transmission systems that usually comprise heterogeneously distributed vectors and hosts leading to a highly heterogeneous case distribution. In this study, we build on principles of classical mathematical epidemiology to investigate spatial heterogeneity of disease risk for vector-borne diseases. Land cover delineates habitat suitability for vectors, and land use determines the spatial distribution of humans. We focus on the risk of exposure for dengue transmission on the Hawaiian island of Oahu, where the vector Aedes albopictus is well established and areas of dense human population exist. In Hawai'i, dengue virus is generally absent, but occasionally flares up when introduced. It is therefore relevant to investigate risk, but difficult to do based on disease incidence data. Based on publicly available data (land cover, land use, census data, surveillance mosquito trapping), we map the spatial distribution of vectors and human hosts and finally overlay them to produce a vector-to-host ratio map. The resulting high-resolution maps indicate a high spatial variability in vector-to-host ratio suggesting that risk of exposure is spatially heterogeneous and varies according to land cover and land use.

  3. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, Levi D.; Maurer, Edwin P.; Anderson, Jamie D.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Townsley, Edwin S.; Harrison, Alan; Pruitt, Tom

    2009-04-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios.

  4. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussey, Ben; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a process to identify and discuss candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the Martian surface. These locations are referred to as Exploration Zones (EZs). Given current mission concepts, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains a landing site and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. These candidate EZs will be used by NASA as part of a multi-year process of determining where and how humans could explore Mars. In the near term this process includes: (a) identifying locations that would maximize the potential science return from future human exploration missions, (b) identifying locations with the potential for resources required to support humans, (c) developing concepts and engineering systems needed by future human crews to conduct operations within an EZ, and (d) identifying key characteristics of the proposed candidate EZs that cannot be evaluated using existing data sets, thus helping to define precursor measurements needed in advance of human missions. Existing and future robotic spacecraft will be tasked to gather data from specific Mars surface sites within the representative EZs to support these NASA activities. The proposed paper will describe NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate EZs and ROIs. This includes plans for the "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" to be held in October 2015 at which proposals for EZs and ROIs will be presented and discussed. It will also include a discussion of how these considerations are (or will be) taken into account as future robotic Mars missions are

  6. Operation Dragoon: Unified Land Operations and Elements of Operational Art in Southern France

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    successful operations conducted by the Allies on the Western front during World War II. Operation Dragoon was a supporting operation to the Allies’ main...forces access to the vital port facilities at Marseilles and Toulon. Operation Dragoon achieved far more success than anticipated. The Germans failed to...methods employed in making Operation Dragoon a success , this monograph identifies ways in which the success of the operation can inform future

  7. Cost, capability, and risk for planetary operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.; Deutsch, Marie J.; Miller, Lanny J.; Wolff, Donna M.; Zawacki, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    The three key factors for flight projects - cost, capability, and risk - are examined with respect to their interplay, the uplink process, cost drivers, and risk factors. Scientific objectives are translated into a computer program during the uplink process, and examples are given relating to the Voyager Interstellar Mission, Galileo, and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby. The development of a multimission sequence system based on these uplinks is described with reference to specific subsystems such as the pointer and the sequence generator. Operational cost drivers include mission, flight-system, and ground-system complexity, uplink traffic, and work force. Operational risks are listed in terms of the mission operations, the environment, and the mission facilities. The uplink process can be analyzed in terms of software development, and spacecraft operability is shown to be an important factor from the initial stages of spacecraft development.

  8. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation. 8.1 Section 8.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for... access to the maximum flowage line as described in paragraph (b) of this section, or for operation and...

  9. Integrated Display System for Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.

  10. Integrating groundwater into land planning: a risk assessment methodology.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Roxane; Joerin, Florent; Vansnick, Jean-Claude; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-05-01

    Generally, groundwater is naturally of good quality for human consumption and represents an essential source of drinking water. In Canada, small municipalities and individuals are particularly reliant on groundwater, since they cannot afford complex water treatment installations. However, groundwater is a vulnerable resource that, depending on its characteristics, can be contaminated by almost any land use. In recent decades, governments have launched programs to acquire more information on groundwater, in order to better protect it. Nevertheless, the data produced are rarely adequate to be understood and used by land planners. The aim of this study was to develop a method that helps planners interpret hydrogeological data in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Based on the requests and needs of planners during semi-directed interviews, a methodology was developed to qualitatively evaluate groundwater contamination risk by land uses. The method combines land planning data and hydrogeological data through the MACBETH multicriteria analysis method, to obtain maps of groundwater contamination risk. The method was developed through group and individual meetings with numerous hydrogeology, land planning, water's economics and drinking water specialists. The resulting maps allow planners to understand the dynamics of groundwater within their territory, identify problem areas where groundwater is threatened and analyse the potential impact of planning scenarios on the risk of groundwater contamination.

  11. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussey, Ben; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. Studies related to Mars surface operations and related system capabilities have led to the current definition of an EZ as well as ROIs. An EZ is a collection of ROIs that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Workshop results will be used to prepare for

  12. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussey, Ben; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. Studies related to Mars surface operations and related system capabilities have led to the current definition of an EZ as well as ROIs. An EZ is a collection of ROIs that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Workshop results will be used to prepare for

  13. Risk propensity assessment in military special operations.

    PubMed

    Sicard, B; Jouve, E; Blin, O

    2001-10-01

    Risk taking, decision making, and stress factors are strongly associated in military operations. The authors used the Bond and Lader mood and alertness scale and a new scale, Evaluation of Risks (EVAR), to assess risk proneness in a maritime counter-terrorism exercise. EVAR items are distributed among five factors: self-control, danger seeking, energy, impulsiveness, and invincibility. In the study, 10 pilots were submitted to strenuous night flights with limited sleep deprivation. Compared with baseline data, pilots reported an increase in impulsiveness, whereas EVAR factors were consistent in a control group composed of 9 navy crew member. Correlations were observed between mood and alertness and risk factors. These results illustrate how EVAR can be used to evaluate change in risk proneness in individuals submitted to various stressors. But further studies are required to weigh stress factors and environmental conditions in risk propensity with a larger population of various age and personality traits.

  14. Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training. 2014.

  15. Operational Risk Management and Military Aviation Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    accidents has caused the leadership to seek to reduce its mishap rate. The Army’s Class A aviation mishap rate declined after it implemented risk management (RM...principles in 1987. This reduction caught the attention of Air Force leadership who have since stated that the application of operational risk ... management (ORM) is how the Air Force will reduce, even eliminate, mishaps. With current budget constraints, ORM is considered to be the most cost

  16. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  17. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  18. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  19. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  20. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  1. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  2. Excess Material Support: The Unrecognized Operational Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-17

    Lawrence D. Moreland 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Colonel Ronda Urey ...UNRECOGNIZED OPERATIONAL RISK by Colonel Lawrence D. Moreland United States Army Reserve Colonel Ronda Urey Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial

  3. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible.

  4. Using Vision System Technologies to Enable Operational Improvements for Low Visibility Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Severance, Kurt; Le Vie, Lisa R.; Comstock, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Flight deck-based vision systems, such as Synthetic and Enhanced Vision System (SEVS) technologies, have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable the implementation of operational improvements for low visibility surface, arrival, and departure operations in the terminal environment with equivalent efficiency to visual operations. To achieve this potential, research is required for effective technology development and implementation based upon human factors design and regulatory guidance. This research supports the introduction and use of Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (SVS/EFVS) as advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. Twelve air transport-rated crews participated in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Three monochromatic, collimated head-up display (HUD) concepts (conventional HUD, SVS HUD, and EFVS HUD) and two color head-down primary flight display (PFD) concepts (conventional PFD, SVS PFD) were evaluated in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare terminal environment. Additionally, the instrument approach type (no offset, 3 degree offset, 15 degree offset) was experimentally varied to test the efficacy of the HUD concepts for offset approach operations. The data showed that touchdown landing performance were excellent regardless of SEVS concept or type of offset instrument approach being flown. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness indicated that making offset approaches in low visibility conditions with an EFVS HUD or SVS HUD may be feasible.

  5. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Bussey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. An EZ is a collection of ROIs located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Several important findings resulted from this Workshop including: (a) a strong consensus that, at a scale of 100 km (radius), multiple places on Mars exist that have both sufficient scientific interest

  6. Bias estimation for the Landsat 8 operational land imager

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a pushbroom sensor that will be a part of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). This instrument is the latest in the line of Landsat imagers, and will continue to expand the archive of calibrated earth imagery. An important step in producing a calibrated image from instrument data is accurately accounting for the bias of the imaging detectors. Bias variability is one factor that contributes to error in bias estimation for OLI. Typically, the bias is simply estimated by averaging dark data on a per-detector basis. However, data acquired during OLI pre-launch testing exhibited bias variation that correlated well with the variation in concurrently collected data from a special set of detectors on the focal plane. These detectors are sensitive to certain electronic effects but not directly to incoming electromagnetic radiation. A method of using data from these special detectors to estimate the bias of the imaging detectors was developed, but found not to be beneficial at typical radiance levels as the detectors respond slightly when the focal plane is illuminated. In addition to bias variability, a systematic bias error is introduced by the truncation performed by the spacecraft of the 14-bit instrument data to 12-bit integers. This systematic error can be estimated and removed on average, but the per pixel quantization error remains. This paper describes the variability of the bias, the effectiveness of a new approach to estimate and compensate for it, as well as the errors due to truncation and how they are reduced.

  7. Examining Acquisition Leaders Readiness to Support Future LandCyber Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-15

    cyberspace-educated and trained Armed Forces to use advanced technology such as fiber optic, electromagnetic, and laser to pass information. The LandCyber...then vulnerabilities in the cyberspace will overcome the advantage and become a double-edged sword that is self-defeating. Rafferty referred to...support the LandCyber operations. LandCyber operations and advanced technology can be a dream team or a double-edged sword depending on how well the

  8. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of the...

  9. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of the...

  10. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of the...

  11. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of the...

  12. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of the...

  13. Land cover as an important factor for landslide risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promper, C.; Glade, T.; Puissant, A.; Malet, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Landcover change is a crucial component of hazard and vulnerability in terms of quantification of possible future landslide risk, and the importance for spatial planners but also individuals is obvious. Damage of property, losses of agricultural land, loss of production but also damaged infrastructures and fatalities may be the result of landslide hazards. To avoid these economic damages as well as possible fatalities in the future, a method of assessing spatial but also temporal patterns of landslides is necessary. This study represents results of landcover modeling as a first step to the proposition of scenario of landslide risk for the future. The method used for future land cover analysis is the CLUE modeling framework combining past and actual observed landcover conditions. The model is based on a statistical relationship between the actual land cover and driving forces. The allocation of landcover pixel is modified by possible autonomous developments and competition between land use types. (Verburg et al. 1999) The study area is located in a district in the alpine foreland of Lower Austria: Waidhofen/Ybbs, of about 130km2. The topography is characterized by narrow valleys, flat plateau and steep slopes. The landcover is characterized by region of densely populated areas in the valley bottom along the Ybbs River, and a series of separated farm houses on the top of the plateau. Population density is about 90 persons / km2 which represent the observed population density of Austria. The initial landcover includes forest, grassland, culture, built-up areas and individual farms. Most of the observed developments are controlled by the topography (along the valleys) and the actual road network. The results of the landcover model show different scenarios of changes in the landslide prone landcover types. These maps will be implemented into hazard analysis but also into vulnerability assessment regarding elements at risk. Verburg, P.H., de Koning, G.H.J., Kok, K

  14. Asteroid Threat Assessment: Land versus Water Impact Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Register, P.; Aftosmis, M.; Berger, M. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Robertson, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Asteroid Threat Assessment Project (ATAP) team at NASA Ames Research Center has created a physics-based impact risk model to quantify the risk that asteroid impacts pose to Earth's population. The model uses Monte Carlo sampling to produce stochastic sets of potential impact scenarios based on uncertainty distributions characterizing key asteroid parameters. For each impact case, the entry and fragmentation process is modeled to compute the energy deposited in the atmosphere, determine airburst altitude or surface impact, and estimate the resulting damage areas and affected populations. Damage due to blast overpressure and thermal radiation is assessed for land impacts, and tsunami generation is assessed for impacts over the oceans. This presentation will describe the physics-based impact risk model, the generation of damage regions based on energy deposition profiles, and the adaptation of engineering tsunami inundation models for the current analysis. Modeling assumptions that have a strong impact on the integrated results will be discussed and compared to results from high-fidelity simulations. The overall probabilistic risks of water versus land impacts will be compared to quantify the relative hazard posed by each.

  15. Incompatible land uses and the topology of cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    Lejano, Raul P; Smith, C Scott

    2006-02-01

    The extensive literature on environmental justice has, by now, well defined the essential ingredients of cumulative risk, namely, incompatible land uses and vulnerability. Most problematic is the case when risk is produced by a large aggregation of small sources of air toxics. In this article, we test these notions in an area of Southern California, Southeast Los Angeles (SELA), which has come to be known as Asthmatown. Developing a rapid risk mapping protocol, we scan the neighborhood for small potential sources of air toxics and find, literally, hundreds of small point sources within a 2-mile radius, interspersed with residences. We also map the estimated cancer risks and noncancer hazard indices across the landscape. We find that, indeed, such large aggregations of even small, nondominant sources of air toxics can produce markedly elevated levels of risk. In this study, the risk profiles show additional cancer risks of up to 800 in a million and noncancer hazard indices of up to 200 in SELA due to the agglomeration of small point sources. This is significant (for example, estimates of the average regional point-source-related cancer risk range from 125 to 200 in a million). Most importantly, if we were to talk about the risk contour as if they were geological structures, we would observe not only a handful of distinct peaks, but a general "mountain range" running all throughout the study area, which underscores the ubiquity of risk in SELA. Just as cumulative risk has deeply embedded itself into the fabric of the place, so, too, must intervention seek to embed strategies into the institutions and practices of SELA. This has implications for advocacy, as seen in a recently initiated participatory action research project aimed at building health research capacities into the community in keeping with an ethic of care.

  16. Incompatible Land Uses and the Topology of Cumulative Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejano, Raul P.; Smith, C. Scott

    2006-02-01

    The extensive literature on environmental justice has, by now, well defined the essential ingredients of cumulative risk, namely, incompatible land uses and vulnerability. Most problematic is the case when risk is produced by a large aggregation of small sources of air toxics. In this article, we test these notions in an area of Southern California, Southeast Los Angeles (SELA), which has come to be known as Asthmatown. Developing a rapid risk mapping protocol, we scan the neighborhood for small potential sources of air toxics and find, literally, hundreds of small point sources within a 2-mile radius, interspersed with residences. We also map the estimated cancer risks and noncancer hazard indices across the landscape. We find that, indeed, such large aggregations of even small, nondominant sources of air toxics can produce markedly elevated levels of risk. In this study, the risk profiles show additional cancer risks of up to 800 in a million and noncancer hazard indices of up to 200 in SELA due to the agglomeration of small point sources. This is significant (for example, estimates of the average regional point-source-related cancer risk range from 125 to 200 in a million). Most importantly, if we were to talk about the risk contour as if they were geological structures, we would observe not only a handful of distinct peaks, but a general “mountain range” running all throughout the study area, which underscores the ubiquity of risk in SELA. Just as cumulative risk has deeply embedded itself into the fabric of the place, so, too, must intervention seek to embed strategies into the institutions and practices of SELA. This has implications for advocacy, as seen in a recently initiated participatory action research project aimed at building health research capacities into the community in keeping with an ethic of care.

  17. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desao, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2006-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the Stardust Mission Navigation Operations Phase upon final approach to Earth is described. In addition, how the predicted landing location and the resulting overall 99 percentile landing footprint ellipse obtained from a Monte Carlo analysis changed over the final days and hours prior to entry is also presented. The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area.

  18. Women's land ownership and risk of HIV infection in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muchomba, Felix M; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Agosta, Laura Maria

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that land ownership empowers women to avoid HIV acquisition by reducing their reliance on risky survival sex and enhancing their ability to negotiate safer sex. However, this prediction has not been tested empirically. Using a sample of 5511 women working in the agricultural sector from the 1998, 2003 and 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys, we examined the relationship between women's land ownership and participation in transactional sex, multiple sexual partnerships and unprotected sex, and HIV infection status. We controlled for demographic characteristics and household wealth, using negative binomial and logistic regression models. Women's land ownership was associated with fewer sexual partners in the past year (incidence rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.00) and lower likelihood of engaging in transactional sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99), indicators of reduced survival sex, but was not associated with unprotected sex with casual partners (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.35-1.18) or with unprotected sex with any partner among women with high self-perceived HIV risk (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.57-1.84), indicating no difference in safer sex negotiation. Land ownership was also associated with reduced HIV infection among women most likely to engage in survival sex, i.e., women not under the household headship of a husband (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89), but not among women living in husband-headed households, for whom increased negotiation for safer sex would be more relevant (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.92-3.29). These findings suggest that reinforcing women's land rights may reduce reliance on survival sex and serve as a viable structural approach to HIV prevention, particularly for women not in a husband's household, including unmarried women and female household heads.

  19. [WBV risk in maritime and port operators].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Stacchini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is the shaking or jolting of the human body through a supporting surface, usually a seat or floor. The risk from vibration is related to the overall time the operator or driver is exposed to the vibration and the number of shocks and jolts they experience each day. In the 27 countries of Europe the EC Physical Agents Directive, effective 6th July 2010, requires all employers to control exposure to a number of hazards including noise and vibration. The EC Vibration Directive sets out regulations for the control of health and safety risks from the exposure of workers to hand arm vibration (HAV) and whole body vibration (WBV) in the workplace. The maritime sector needs to comply: high exposure WBV levels can be found when operating RIBs and High Speed Craft. Marine sectors affected by Whole Body Vibration (WBV) include military, search & rescue, government agencies, local authorities, police, water sports, oil & gas, thrill ride, charter and all organisations operating boats, RIBs (Rigid Inflatable Boat) and High Speed Craft.

  20. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  1. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...

  2. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours

  3. A risk-based approach to land-use planning.

    PubMed

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2005-10-17

    The Seveso II-Directive requires that the objectives of preventing major accidents and limiting their consequences be taken into account by the Member States in their land-use policies and/or other relevant policies. This is to be achieved by ensuring adequate distances between industrial establishments and residential areas, areas of public use and areas of particular natural sensitivity or interest. A risk-based framework implemented in a computer program is presented which enables one to calculate adequate distances. The criterion used is a limit on the individual risk of death. The method is a simplified risk analysis which represents the plant, whose characteristics are normally unknown at the stage of land-use planning, by generic frequencies of release for process units and storage tanks. Their number depends on the size of the site to be allotted. The procedure is capable of addressing the siting of new establishments and, with due regard to the simplifications used, modifications to and new developments in the vicinity of existing establishments. Given the numerous assumptions, which have to be made, the framework represents a convention.

  4. Does urban land-use increase risk of asthma symptoms?

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Kim, Ho; Bell, Michelle L

    2015-10-01

    Global urbanization is increasing rapidly, especially in Asian countries. The health impacts of this unprecedented rate of urbanization are not well understood. Prevalence of asthma is also increasing, especially in cities. We explored the effects of urbanicity, based on urban land-use and traffic-related air pollutants (NO2, PM10), on asthma symptoms and diagnosis at a nationally representative level, using individual-level data from the 2008-2010 Community Health Survey data in Korea. We applied logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, education, smoking status, and household income. To investigate whether different levels of urban intensity (i.e., degree of urbanization) affected the association, we stratified analysis by urban intensity for the subject's residential district: high (≥30% urban), medium (10-30%), and low intensity (<10%). Increased urban land-use was significantly associated with increased risk of asthma symptoms and diagnosis. A 10% increase of urban land-use of a subject's residential district was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.04) for self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. However, increased urbanicity is associated with higher risk of asthma in areas with a baseline of low urbanicity, but not in areas with a baseline of high urbanicity. Significant positive associations were also observed for air pollution (PM10 and NO2) with asthma symptoms and diagnosis. Our findings suggest that increases in urbanicity or air pollution are associated with increased risk of asthma, and that the level of urban intensity affected the associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rosetta Lander - Landing and operations on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Fantinati, Cinzia; Maibaum, Michael; Geurts, Koen; Biele, Jens; Jansen, Sven; Küchemann, Oliver; Cozzoni, Barbara; Finke, Felix; Lommatsch, Valentina; Moussi-Soffys, Aurelie; Delmas, Cedric; O´Rourke, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    The Rosetta Lander Philae is part of the ESA Rosetta Mission which reached comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a 10 year cruise in August 2014. Since then, Rosetta has been studying both its nucleus and coma with instruments aboard the Orbiter. On November 12th, 2014 the Lander, Philae, was successfully delivered to the surface of the comet and operated for approximately 64 h after separation from the mother spacecraft. Since the active cold gas system aboard the Lander as well as the anchoring harpoons did not work, Philae bounced after the first touch-down at the planned landing site "Agilkia". At the final landing site, "Abydos", a modified First Scientific Sequence was performed. Due to the unexpectedly low illumination conditions and a lack of anchoring the sequence had to be adapted in order to minimize risk and maximize the scientific output. All ten instruments could be activated at least once, before Philae went into hibernation. In June 2015, the Lander contacted Rosetta again having survived successfully a long hibernation phase. This paper describes the Lander operations around separation, during descent and on the surface of the comet. We also address the partly successful attempts to re-establish contact with the Lander in June/July, when the internal temperature & power received were sufficient for Philae to become active again.

  6. Risk analysis for Arctic offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Slomski, S.; Vivatrat, V.

    1986-04-01

    Offshore exploration for hydrocarbons is being conducted in the near-shore regions of the Beaufort Sea. This activity is expected to be intensified and expanded into the deeper portions of the Beaufort, as well as into the Chukchi Sea. The ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea are very variable, particularly in the deeper water regions. This variability greatly influences the probability of success or failure of an offshore operation. For example, a summer exploratory program conducted from a floating drilling unit may require a period of 60 to 100 days on station. The success of such a program depends on: (a) the time when the winter ice conditions deteriorate sufficiently for the drilling unit to move on station; (b) the number of summer invasions by the arctic ice pack, forcing the drilling unit to abandon station; (c) the rate at which first-year ice grows to the ice thickness limit of the supporting icebreakers; and (d) the extent of arctic pack expansion during the fall and early winter. In general, the ice conditions are so variable that, even with good planning, the change of failure of an offshore operation will not be negligible. Contingency planning for such events is therefore necessary. This paper presents a risk analysis procedure which can greatly benefit the planning of an offshore operation. A floating drilling program and a towing and installation operation for a fixed structure are considered to illustrate the procedure.

  7. Influence of land-use dynamics on natural hazard risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Giacomo; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past the magnitude and frequency of natural hazard events has increased notably worldwide, along with global GDP. A higher number of elements are exposed to natural events, therefore the risk is higher. Both estimated losses and understanding about natural hazards have increased during the past decades, which is contradictory as we may logically think. Risk is increasing, due to climate change and societal change: more severe hazards are happening due to changing climatic patterns and conditions, while society is concentrating assets and people in punctual places leading to a higher exposure. Increasing surface of settled area and the concentration of highly valuable assets (e.g. technology) in exposed areas lead to higher probability of losses. Human use of land resources, namely landuse, is the product of human needs and biophysical characteristics of the land. Landuse involves arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it. These changes are due to many reasons, or driving factors: socio-economical, environmental, accessibility to land, land-tenure, etc. The change of those factors may cause many effects and impacts, at various levels and at different time spans. The relation between driving factors and impacts is not straight. It is although a complex interrelation that turns around two central questions: (1) what drives landuse changes and why and (2) what are the impacts on the environment and on the human society of these changes, regarding to natural hazards. The aim of this paper is to analyse the spatio-temporal environmental changes referring to exposure as well as to test the possibilities and limitations of the land use change model Dyna-CLUEs in a mountain region taking parts of the Republic of Austria as an example, and simulating the future landuse dynamics until 2030. We selected an area composed by eighteen municipalities in the Ill-Walgau in the Austrian federal

  8. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS...

  9. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS...

  10. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS...

  11. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Anatomic location of injury, cause of injury, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. The frequency of injuries was 0.025 per Operator per month. Most injuries involved the upper extremity (38.1% of injuries). Frequent anatomic sublocations for injuries were the shoulder (23.8%) and lumbopelvic region of the spine (12.7%). Lifting was the cause of 7.9% of injuries. Subjects were participating in training when 38.1% of injuries occurred and recreational activity/sports when 12.7% of injuries occurred. Frequent injury types were strain (20.6%), pain/spasm/ache (19.0%), fracture (11.1%), and sprain (11.1%). The results of this analysis underscore the need to investigate the risk factors, especially of upper extremity and physical activity related injuries, in this population of Operators. There is a scope for development of a focused, customized injury prevention program, targeting the unique injury profile of this population.

  12. Planning of the First Gallipoli Amphibious Landings: An Operational Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-17

    CULMINATING POINT; OPER. SUSTAINMENT 19 A-ST-J..CT (Co-.,nue on reverse f necessy , dentfy by bWock number) FOCUSING ON THE OPERATIONAL LEVEL OF WAR, THIS...Herein lies the crux of the entire paper: an operational commander must do more than develop a winning operational scheme; he must also do everything in...of Action Development ............................................. 8 O perational Idea ............................................................ 9

  13. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  14. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25.119 Section 25.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing...

  15. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25.119 Section 25.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing...

  16. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25.119 Section 25.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing...

  17. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25.119 Section 25.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing...

  18. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25.119 Section 25.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing...

  19. COBALT CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M. III; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Robertson, Edward A.; Seubert, Carl R.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    COBALT is a terrestrial test platform for development and maturation of GN&C (Guidance, Navigation and Control) technologies for PL&HA (Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance). The project is developing a third generation, Langley Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) for ultra-precise velocity and range measurements, which will be integrated and tested with the JPL Lander Vision System (LVS) for Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) position estimates. These technologies together provide navigation that enables controlled precision landing. The COBALT hardware will be integrated in 2017 into the GN&C subsystem of the Xodiac rocket-propulsive Vertical Test Bed (VTB) developed by Masten Space Systems (MSS), and two terrestrial flight campaigns will be conducted: one open-loop (i.e., passive) and one closed-loop (i.e., active).

  20. Imaging sensor fusion and enhanced vision for helicopter landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebel, Marcus; Bers, Karlheinz; Jäger, Klaus

    2006-05-01

    An automatic target recognition system has been assembled and tested at the Research Institute for Optronics and Pattern Recognition in Germany over the last years. Its multisensorial design comprises off-the-shelf components: an FPA infrared camera, a scanning laser radar und an inertial measurement unit. In the paper we describe several possibilities for the use of this multisensor equipment during helicopter missions. We discuss suitable data processing methods, for instance the automatic time synchronization of different imaging sensors, the pixel-based data fusion and the incorporation of collateral information. The results are visualized in an appropriate way to present them on a cockpit display. We also show how our system can act as a landing aid for pilots within brownout conditions (dust clouds caused by the landing helicopter).

  1. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  2. A Complex and Volatile Environment: The Doctrinal Evolution from Full Spectrum Operations in Unified Land Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    phrases and words; for instance, the definition of FSO emphasized ideas such as the “interdependent joint force,” “accepting prudent risk,” and the...Action In addition to ULO replacing FSO as the Army’s operational concept, the phrase “decisive action” replaced FSO as the term that described how...the new doctrinal approach for successfully accomplishing missions within ULO. By doing so, the Army removed FSO twice from the Army’s vocabulary

  3. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  4. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  5. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  6. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  7. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  8. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of microwave landing system (MLS) equipment are reviewed and the flight performance of the terminal configured vehicle B-737 airplane during nearly five years of flight experience with MLS is summarized. Most of these flights involved curved, descending flight paths with automatic landings and final approaches as short as 0.44 n. mi. Possible uses to solve noise abatement problems with MLS equipment of varying degrees of complexity are discussed. It is concluded that altitude derived from MLS is superior to other sources near the airport traffic pattern.

  9. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.

    2005-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the entry capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the Mission Operations Phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Preliminary reconstruction analyses indicate that the actual entry trajectory was very close to the pre-entry prediction.

  10. Air Quality Operating Permits Programs Which Apply to Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Flight evaluation of the STOL flare and landing during night operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Simulated instrument approaches were made to Category 1 minimums followed by a visual landing on a 100 x 1700 ft STOL runway. Data were obtained for variations in the aircraft's flare response characteristics and control techniques and for different combinations of aircraft and runway lighting and a visual approach slope indication. With the complete aircraft and runway lighting and visual guidance no degradation in flying qualities or landing performance was observed compared to daylight operations. elimination of the touchdown zone floodlights or the aircraft landing lights led to somewhat greater pilot workload; however, the landing could still be accomplished successfully. Loss of both touchdown zone and aircraft landing lights led to a high workload situation and only a marginally adequate to inadequate landing capability.

  12. Operational Risk Management: Increasing Mission Effectiveness Through Improved Planning and Execution of Joint Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    operation plans. This deficiency should be remedied with the adoption of Operational Risk Management (ORM), an existing process which would provide...operations plans. The paper concludes that Operational Risk Management should be formally adopted into the deliberate and crisis action joint planning

  13. Risk-Assessment for Equipment Operating on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. C.; Kusiak, A.; Ramachandran, N.

    2008-01-01

    Particle-size distribution of lunar dust simulant is evaluated using scanning electron spectroscopy in order to consider approaches to evaluating risk to individual mechanical components operating on the lunar surface. Assessing component risk and risk-mitigation during actual operations will require noninvasive continuous data gathering on numerous parameters. Those data sets would best be evaluated using data-mining algorithms to assess risk, and recovery from risk, of individual mechanical components in real-time.

  14. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  15. Reuse of concentrated animal feed operation wastewater on agricultural lands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal areas, further lim...

  16. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  17. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital requirement...

  18. Comparing erosion risks from forest operations to wildfire

    Treesearch

    William J. Elliot; Peter R. Robichaud

    2001-01-01

    Wildfire and forest operations remove vegetation and disturb forest soils. Both of these effects can lead to an increased risk of soil erosion. Operations to reduce forest fuel loads, however, may reduce the risk of wildfire. This paper presents research and modeling results which show that under many conditions, carefully planned operations with adequate buffers,...

  19. Considerations For Distributed Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    Access Concept. The concept is currently in its infancy , and analysis indicates that it places the preponderance of its planning at the tactical level...enabler for the JFC’s larger Joint Operational Access Concept. The concept is currently in its infancy , and analysis indicates that it places the...will undoubtedly arise. While the DSO concept is in its doctrinal infancy , Marine Corps leadership is looking for ways to make it more lethal

  20. Application of receptor-specific risk distribution in the arsenic contaminated land management.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-chun; Ng, Shane; Wang, Gen-shuh; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-11-15

    Concerns over health risks and financial costs have caused difficulties in the management of arsenic contaminated land in Taiwan. Inflexible risk criteria and lack of economic support often result in failure of a brownfields regeneration project. To address the issue of flexible risk criteria, this study is aimed to develop maps with receptor-specific risk distribution to facilitate scenario analysis of contaminated land management. A contaminated site risk map model (ArcGIS for risk assessment and management, abbreviated as Arc-RAM) was constructed by combining the four major steps of risk assessment with Geographic Information Systems. Sampling of contaminated media, survey of exposure attributes, and modeling of multimedia transport were integrated to produce receptor group-specific maps that depicted the probabilistic spatial distribution of risks of various receptor groups. Flexible risk management schemes can then be developed and assessed. In this study, a risk management program that took into account the ratios of various land use types at specified risk levels was explored. A case study of arsenic contaminated land of 6.387 km(2) has found that for a risk value between 1.00E-05 and 1.00E-06, the proposed flexible risk management of agricultural land achieves improved utilization of land. Using this method, the investigated case can reduce costs related to compensation for farmland totaling approximately NTD 5.94 million annually.

  1. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine

    2007-07-01

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  2. Supporting the risk management process with land information: a case study of Australia.

    PubMed

    Potts, Katie Elizabeth; Rajabifard, Abbas; Bennett, Rohan Mark

    2017-04-01

    It is frequently argued that, at the parcel level, stakeholders are capable of and well supported in managing their land-related risks. Yet, evidence from the contemporary Australian context suggests otherwise: numerous large-scale disaster events have revealed that citizens are ill-prepared to respond and recover adequately. This paper begins with the premise that information, specifically land information, could better support parcel-level risk preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery. State land administration organisations in Australia primarily maintain this information and make it accessible. Land information is used regularly across all levels of government to support risk management activities; however, such application has not always occurred at the parcel and citizen level. Via a case study approach, this paper initially explores the land information available in Australia to stakeholders interested in parcel-level detail, and then goes on to propose how the utilisation of parcel-level land information could serve to enhance risk management practices.

  3. Analysis of Army Operational Requirements for the Tactical Microwave Landing System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    reflections, or multiple propagation paths (multipath), limit the service category of the landing facility. Because multipath effects are environment or...near grazing angles. f. Multiple Paths A sizable number of propagation paths can exist in the typical airfield environment. Reflections can stem...landing-aids, operational requirements, multipath, propagation 20. AB\\f RACT (Continue on reverie tide if necaiiary and identify by block number

  4. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  5. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  6. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point (L1) collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the sample return capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the mission operations phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.002 deg (which was the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma error of +/-0.0274 deg (a third of the requirement). The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from deep space and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  7. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2008-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the mission operations phase upon final approach to Earth is described. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.21 deg (the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma uncertainty of +/-0.0017 deg (2% of the requirement). The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from an interplanetary trajectory and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  8. Logistical Support of AirLand Operations: Myth or Magic?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    AD-A258 295 111l 1111111 0 i DIll l LOGISTICAL SUPPORT OF AIRLAND OPERATIONS: EETM Y T H R M A G IC S E L E C 2 1 9•DEC2 3 1992• C I A thesis...ng b~ude.. 104f bhn codIeCto~ Of .nfO~maI.Of ,t .~enIal41 (0 a ..rag. I hQ~. ee Nr 9Ow •tQl.Ad,dlflg (be linet foe IOVtw•f~ ,AIIIU(¶I~ r . ,eacbAqIh...inerati,,,: Myth or Magic. Aprroved by: .Theq is Comni tt-t- fTh~airrnan; J ),I i .5 . a rria A.n . T.T! 3:•, J!. Pnwe r . M’. P. A . " ,ý) VoD" Member

  9. Probabilistic Modeling of Settlement Risk at Land Disposal Facilities - 12304

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin C.; Soong, Te-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass (caused by inconsistent compaction, void space distribution, debris-soil mix ratio, waste material stiffness, time-dependent primary compression of the fine-grained soil matrix, long-term creep settlement of the soil matrix and the debris, etc.) at most land disposal facilities. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties which control differential settlement. An alternative, probabilistic solution is to use random fields to model the waste and sub-grade properties. The modeling effort informs the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of land disposal facilities. A probabilistic method to establish design criteria for waste placement and compaction is introduced using the model. Random fields are ideally suited to problems of differential settlement modeling of highly heterogeneous foundations, such as waste. Random fields model the seemingly random spatial distribution of a design parameter, such as compressibility. When used for design, the use of these models prompts the need for probabilistic design criteria. It also allows for a statistical approach to waste placement acceptance criteria. An example design evaluation was performed, illustrating the use of the probabilistic differential settlement simulation methodology to assemble a design guidance chart. The purpose of this design evaluation is to enable the designer to select optimal initial combinations of design slopes and quality control acceptance criteria that yield an acceptable proportion of post-settlement slopes meeting some design minimum. For this specific

  10. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix lander was launched August 4, 2007 and remained in cruise for ten months before landing in the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. The one-month Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) operations phase prior to entry consisted of daily analyses, meetings, and decisions necessary to determine if trajectory correction maneuvers and environmental parameter updates to the spacecraft were required. An overview of the Phoenix EDL trajectory simulation and analysis that was performed during the EDL approach and operations phase is described in detail. The evolution of the Monte Carlo statistics and footprint ellipse during the final approach phase is also provided. The EDL operations effort accurately delivered the Phoenix lander to the desired landing region on May 25, 2008.

  11. A flight investigation of piloting techniques and crosswind limitations during visual STOL-type landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Champine, R. A.; Deal, P. L.; Patton, J. M., Jr.; Hall, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A flight research program was undertaken to investigate problems concerned with landing a STOL airplane in crosswind conditions. The program included a study of piloting techniques and crosswind limitations during visual STOL type landing operations. The results indicated that the crosswind was more limiting during the ground roll out than during the airborne phases. The pilots estimated that the crosswind limit for commercial STOL type operations with the test aircraft would be approximately 15 to 20 knots. The pilots thought that the crosswind limits for ground operation might be extended by incorporating wing-lift spoilers, improved nose gear steering, and improved engine response. The pilots agreed that a crosswind landing gear would also be beneficial.

  12. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Latham, A David M; Latham, M Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate ('1080') delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10-15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30-35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93-94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy.

  13. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Latham, A. David M.; Latham, M. Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate (‘1080’) delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10–15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30–35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93–94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  14. A Land-Use Perspective for Birdstrike Risk Assessment: The Attraction Risk Index

    PubMed Central

    Coccon, Francesca; Zucchetta, Matteo; Bossi, Giulia; Borrotti, Matteo; Torricelli, Patrizia; Franzoi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between aircraft and birds, birdstrikes, pose a serious threat to aviation safety. The occurrence of these events is influenced by land-uses in the surroundings of airports. Airports located in the same region might have different trends for birdstrike risk, due to differences in the surrounding habitats. Here we developed a quantitative tool that assesses the risk of birdstrike based on the habitats within a 13-km buffer from the airport. For this purpose, we developed Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) with binomial distribution to estimate the contribution of habitats to wildlife use of the study area, depending on season. These GLMs predictions were combined to the flight altitude of birds within the 13-km buffer, the airport traffic pattern and the severity indices associated with impacts. Our approach was developed at Venice Marco Polo International airport (VCE), located in northeast Italy and then tested at Treviso Antonio Canova International airport (TSF), which is 20 km inland. Results from the two airports revealed that both the surrounding habitats and the season had a significant influence to the pattern of risk. With regard to VCE, agricultural fields, wetlands and urban areas contributed most to the presence of birds in the study area. Furthermore, the key role of distance of land-uses from the airport on the probability of presence of birds was highlighted. The reliability of developed risk index was demonstrated since at VCE it was significantly correlated with bird strike rate. This study emphasizes the importance of the territory near airports and the wildlife use of its habitats, as factors in need of consideration for birdstrike risk assessment procedures. Information on the contribution of habitats in attracting birds, depending on season, can be used by airport managers and local authorities to plan specific interventions in the study area in order to lower the risk. PMID:26114958

  15. Validation and Verification of the Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, M.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cetola, J.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization of land surface modeling can be clear upon considering the wide range of performance characteristics of numerical land surface models realizable through various combinations of factors. Such factors might include model physics and numerics, resolution, and forcing datasets used in operational implementation versus those that might have been involved in any prior development benchmarking. Of course, decisions concerning operational implementation may be better informed through more effective benchmarking of performance under various blends of such aforementioned operational factors. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) - a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community - and the land information system (LIS) Verification Toolkit (LVT) - developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) - have been adapted to the operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities in order to compare the performance of new land modeling and related activities with that of previous activities as well as observational or analyzed datasets. In this talk, three examples of adaptations of MET and LVT to evaluation of LIS-related operations at AFWA will be presented. One example will include comparisons of new surface rainfall analysis capabilities, towards forcing of AFWA's LIS, with previous capabilities. Comparisons will be relative to retrieval-, model-, and measurement-based precipitation fields. Results generated via MET's grid-stat, neighborhood, wavelet, and object based evaluation (MODE) utilities adapted to AFWA's needs will be discussed. This example will be framed in the context of better informing optimal blends of land surface model (LSM) forcing data sources - namely precipitation data- under

  16. Synthesis and summary: land use decisions and fire risk

    Treesearch

    Theodore E. Jr. Adams

    1989-01-01

    Rapidly chancing land use patterns are having a significant impact on watershed management and the included elements of fuel management and fire protection. The complexity of watershed management was defined in the Watershed Management Council's publication prepared for the first conference. This publication, California's Watersheds, emphasized that all land...

  17. Fatiguing effect of multiple take-offs and landings in regional airline operations.

    PubMed

    Honn, Kimberly A; Satterfield, Brieann C; McCauley, Peter; Caldwell, J Lynn; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is a risk factor for flight performance and safety in commercial aviation. In US commercial aviation, to help to curb fatigue, the maximum duration of flight duty periods is regulated based on the scheduled start time and the number of flight segments to be flown. There is scientific support for regulating maximum duty duration based on scheduled start time; fatigue is well established to be modulated by circadian rhythms. However, it has not been established scientifically whether the number of flight segments, per se, affects fatigue. To address this science gap, we conducted a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study with 24 active-duty regional airline pilots. Objective and subjective fatigue was compared between a 9-hour duty day with multiple take-offs and landings versus a duty day of equal duration with a single take-off and landing. To standardize experimental conditions and isolate the fatiguing effect of the number of segments flown, the entire duty schedules were carried out in a high-fidelity, moving-base, full-flight, regional jet flight simulator. Steps were taken to maintain operational realism, including simulated airplane inspections and acceptance checks, use of realistic dispatch releases and airport charts, real-world air traffic control interactions, etc. During each of the two duty days, 10 fatigue test bouts were administered, which included a 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) assessment of objective fatigue and Samn-Perelli (SP) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) assessments of subjective sleepiness/fatigue. Results showed a greater build-up of objective and subjective fatigue in the multi-segment duty day than in the single-segment duty day. With duty start time and duration and other variables that could impact fatigue levels held constant, the greater build-up of fatigue in the multi-segment duty day was attributable specifically to the difference in the number of flight segments flown. Compared to findings in

  18. Pilot Susan L. Still greets KSC post-landing operations workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Pilot Susan L. Still greets KSC post-landing operations workers on Runway 33 at the space center's Shuttle Landing Facility after the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia landed at 2:33:11 p.m. EDT, April 8, to conclude the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission. At main gear touchdown, the STS-83 mission duration was 3 days, 23 hours, 12 minutes. The planned 16-day mission was cut short by a faulty fuel cell. This is only the third time in Shuttle program history that an orbiter was brought home early due to mechanical problems. This was also the 36th KSC landing since the program began in 1981.

  19. A challenge for land and risk managers: differents stakeholders, differents definitions of the risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Ruegg, J.

    2012-04-01

    In developing countries, mountain populations and territories are subject to multiple risks and vulnerabilities. In addition, they face even greater challenges than developed countries due to lack of knowledge, resources and technology. There are many different types of actors in society that manage risk at various scales and levels (i.e. engineers, geologists, administrators, land use planners, merchants and local indigenous and non-indigenous people). Because of limited resources and possibilities to reduce all types of risk, these different actors, or 'risk managers' have to choose and compete to prioritize which types of risks to address. This paper addresses a case study from San Cristobal Altaverapaz, Guatemala where a large landslide "Los Chorros", a catastrophic collapse of 6 millions cubic meters of rock, is affecting several communities and one of the country's main west-east access highways. In this case, the government established that the "primary" risk is the landslide, whereas other local stakeholders consider the primary risks to be economic This paper, situated at the cross section between political science, geography and disaster risk management, addresses the social conflict and competition for priorities and solutions for risk management, depending on the group of actors based on the on-going Los Chorros, Guatemala landslide mitigation process. This work is based on the analysis of practices, (Practical Science), policies and institutions in order to understand how the inclusion of multiple stakeholders in determining risk priorities can lead to more sustainable risk management in a given territory. The main objective of this investigation is first to identify and understand the juxtaposition of different readings of the risk equation, usually considered the interface between vulnerability, exposure and hazards. Secondly, it is to analyze the mechanisms of actions taken by various stakeholders, or risk managers. The analysis focuses on the

  20. Hurricane risk mitigation - Emergency Operations Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-29

    Construction work on a new Emergency Operations Center at Stennis Space Center is nearing completion. Construction is expected to be complete by February 2009, with actual occupancy of the building planned for later that year. The new building will house fire, medical and security teams and will provide a top-grade facility to support storm emergency responder teams and emergency management operations for the south Mississippi facility.

  1. Preparing Safety Cases for Operating Outside Prescriptive Fatigue Risk Management Regulations.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; Mangie, Jim; Wu, Lora; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, Leigh; Phillips, Adrienne

    2017-07-01

    Transport operators seeking to operate outside prescriptive fatigue management regulations are typically required to present a safety case justifying how they will manage the associated risk. This paper details a method for constructing a successful safety case. The method includes four elements: 1) scope (prescriptive rules and operations affected); 2) risk assessment; 3) risk mitigation strategies; and 4) monitoring ongoing risk. A successful safety case illustrates this method. It enables landing pilots in 3-pilot crews to choose the second or third in-flight rest break, rather than the regulatory requirement to take the third break. Scope was defined using a month of scheduled flights that would be covered (N = 4151). These were analyzed in the risk assessment using existing literature on factors affecting fatigue to estimate the maximum time awake at top of descent and sleep opportunities in each break. Additionally, limited data collected before the new regulations showed that pilots flying at landing chose the third break on only 6% of flights. A prospective survey comparing subjective reports (N = 280) of sleep in the second vs. third break and fatigue and sleepiness ratings at top of descent confirmed that the third break is not consistently superior. The safety case also summarized established systems for fatigue monitoring, risk assessment and hazard identification, and multiple fatigue mitigation strategies that are in place. Other successful safety cases have used this method. The evidence required depends on the expected level of risk and should evolve as experience with fatigue risk management systems builds.Gander P, Mangie J, Wu L, van den Berg M, Signal L, Phillips A. Preparing safety cases for operating outside prescriptive fatigue risk management regulations. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):688-696.

  2. Risk-based approach to analyzing operating events

    SciTech Connect

    Marchese, A.R.; Neogy, P.

    1996-02-01

    Existing programs for the analysis of operating events at the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities do not determine risk measures for the events. An approach for the risk based analysis of operating events has been developed, and applied to two events. The approach utilizes the data now being collected in existing data programs and determines risk measures for the events which are not currently determined. Such risk measures allow risk appropriate responses to be made to events, and provide a means for comparing the safety significance of dissimilar events at different facilities.

  3. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... risk capital requirement if: (1) The Bank provides an alternative methodology for assessing and... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  4. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... risk capital requirement if: (1) The Bank provides an alternative methodology for assessing and... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  5. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... risk capital requirement if: (1) The Bank provides an alternative methodology for assessing and... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  6. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operated at an altitude that allows it to reach land in the case of engine failure; (b) It is necessary for..., with the critical engine inoperative, at least 50 feet a minute, at an altitude of 1,000 feet above...

  7. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operated at an altitude that allows it to reach land in the case of engine failure; (b) It is necessary for..., with the critical engine inoperative, at least 50 feet a minute, at an altitude of 1,000 feet above...

  8. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operated at an altitude that allows it to reach land in the case of engine failure; (b) It is necessary for..., with the critical engine inoperative, at least 50 feet a minute, at an altitude of 1,000 feet above...

  9. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operated at an altitude that allows it to reach land in the case of engine failure; (b) It is necessary for..., with the critical engine inoperative, at least 50 feet a minute, at an altitude of 1,000 feet above...

  10. STS-38 Atlantis, OV-104, during safing operations after KSC SLF landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-11-20

    Spotlights illuminate Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during safing operations at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). OV-104 parked on runway 33 is serviced by KSC ground crews. STS-38, a Department of Defense (DOD)-devoted mission, came to an end (with complete wheel stop) at 4:43:37 pm (Eastern Standard Time (EST)).

  11. Risk of blood contamination and injury to operating room personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Quebbeman, E J; Telford, G L; Hubbard, S; Wadsworth, K; Hardman, B; Goodman, H; Gottlieb, M S

    1991-01-01

    The potential for transmission of deadly viral diseases to health care workers exists when contaminated blood is inoculated through injury or when blood comes in contact with nonintact skin. Operating room personnel are at particularly high risk for injury and blood contamination, but data on the specifics of which personnel are at greater risk and which practices change risk in this environment are almost nonexistent. To define these risk factors, experienced operating room nurses were employed solely to observe and record the injuries and blood contaminations that occurred during 234 operations involving 1763 personnel. Overall 118 of the operations (50%) resulted in at least one person becoming contaminated with blood. Cuts or needlestick injuries occurred in 15% of the operations. Several factors were found to significantly alter the risk of blood contamination or injury: surgical specialty, role of each person, duration of the procedure, amount of blood loss, number of needles used, and volume of irrigation fluid used. Risk calculations that use average values to include all personnel in the operating room or all operations performed substantially underestimate risk for surgeons and first assistants, who accounted for 81% of all body contamination and 65% of the injuries. The area of the body contaminated also changed with the surgical specialty. These data should help define more appropriate protection for individuals in the operating room and should allow refinements of practices and techniques to decrease injury. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1953115

  12. Military movement training program improves jump-landing mechanics associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Duffey, Michele L; Vargas, Donna; Duffey, Michael J; Mountcastle, Sally B; Padua, Darin; Nelson, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    As part of the physical education program at the United States Military Academy, all cadets complete a movement training course designed to develop skills and improve performance in military-related physical tasks as well as obstacle navigation. The purpose of this study was to determine if completion of this course would also result in changes in jump-landing technique that reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Analysis of landing mechanics on a two-footed jump landing from a height of 30 cm with a three-dimensional motion capture system synchronized with two force plates revealed both positive and negative changes. Video assessment using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) revealed an overall improved landing technique (p=.001) when compared to baseline assessments. The studied military movement course appears to elicit mixed but overall improved lower extremity jump-landing mechanics associated with risk for ACL injury.

  13. Ecological risk assessment of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-14

    Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long - 58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005 - respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation.

  14. Ecological Risk Assessment of Land Use Change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long—58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005—respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation. PMID:23343986

  15. Efficacy of ACL injury risk screening methods in identifying high-risk landing patterns during a sport-specific task.

    PubMed

    Fox, A S; Bonacci, J; McLean, S G; Saunders, N

    2016-06-12

    Screening methods sensitive to movement strategies that increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loads are likely to be effective in identifying athletes at-risk of ACL injury. Current ACL injury risk screening methods are yet to be evaluated for their ability to identify athletes' who exhibit high-risk lower limb mechanics during sport-specific maneuvers associated with ACL injury occurrences. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of two ACL injury risk screening methods in identifying high-risk lower limb mechanics during a sport-specific landing task. Thirty-two female athletes were screened using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) and Tuck Jump Assessment. Participants' also completed a sport-specific landing task, during which three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping was used to examine the relationships between screening method scores, and the three-dimensional hip and knee joint rotation and moment data from the sport-specific landing. Higher LESS scores were associated with reduced knee flexion from 30 to 57 ms after initial contact (P = 0.003) during the sport-specific landing; however, no additional relationships were found. These findings suggest the LESS and Tuck Jump Assessment may have minimal applicability in identifying athletes' who exhibit high-risk landing postures in the sport-specific task examined.

  16. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  17. Land subsidence risk assessment and protection in mined-out regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, A.; Tang, A.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence due to underground mining is an important hazard that causes large damages and threatens to social and economic activities. The China government has started a national project to estimate the risk of land subsidence in the main coal production provinces, such as Heilongjiang, Anhui and Shanxi Provinces. Herein, the investigation methods for land subsidence identification were reported, some types of land settlement are summarized, and some successful engineering measures to mitigate the subsidence are discussed. A Geographical Information System (GIS) for land subsidence risk assessment is developed and is based on site investigations and numerrical simulation of the subsidence process. In this system, maps of mining intensity and risk ranks are developed.

  18. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  19. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  20. Operational 333m Biophysical Products of the Copernicus Global Land Service for Agriculture Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, R.; Smets, B.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Ramon, D.; Montersleet, B.; Wandrebeck, L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Roujean, J.-L.; Camacho, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously a set of bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. These generic products serve numerous applications including agriculture and food security monitoring. The portfolio of the Copernicus Global Land service contains Essential Climate Variables like the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), the surface albedo, the Land Surface Temperature, the soil moisture, the burnt areas, the areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices. They are generated every hour, every day or every 10 days on a reliable automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. Beside this timely production, the available historical archives have been processed, using the same innovative algorithms, to get consistent time series as long as possible. All products are accessible, free of charge after registration through FTP/HTTP (land.copernicus.eu/global/>http://land.copernicus.eu/global/) and through the GEONETCast satellite distribution system. The evolution of the service towards the operations at 333m resolution is partly supported by the FP7/ImagineS project which focuses on the retrieval of LAI, FAPAR, fraction of vegetation cover and surface albedo from PROBA-V sensor data. The paper presents the innovations of the 333m biophysical products, make an overview of their current status, and introduce the next steps of the evolution of the Copernicus Global Land service.

  1. Skin antiseptics and the risk of operating theatre fires.

    PubMed

    Spigelman, Allan D; Swan, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Following press reports of patients catching fire or receiving chemical burns in the operating theatre, a review was conducted on the flammability of skin antiseptics. The purpose of the paper was to clarify confusion regarding povidine-iodine (Betadine), which had been reported as being flammable, and also to determine the use of alcohol-based solutions in the Hunter Area Health Service. A risk assessment was conducted and risk reduction strategies outlined. Risk assessment was made following a literature review and an audit of 10 operating theatres in the Hunter Area Health Service. Risk for operating room fires from alcohol-based skin antiseptics was confirmed. Antiseptics in aqueous solutions only smoulder. The Hunter Health survey indicated that although alcohol-based solutions were not used in operating theatres, they were used in anaesthetic bays for insertion of epidural and central line catheters. Strategies to reduce the risk of fire include discontinuation of use of alcohol-based skin antiseptics in operating theatres; using fire retardant surgical drapes; installing over-current protection devices on electrical equipment; minimizing flammable conditions by avoiding nitrous oxide and using the lowest required concentration of inspired oxygen; use of non-flammable cuffed endotracheal tubes; education and training of operating theatre personnel in fire hazards. Operating theatre fires continue to be a major risk for patient safety. In order to reduce this risk, the strategies outlined here should be followed.

  2. Operational Risk Management of Fatigue Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Caffeine promotes wakefulness, enhances vigilance performance and lessens feelings of weariness. * The half- life for caffeine metabolism is typically...ability to perform such functions as logical reasoning and mental arithmetic. 20 Appendix B ORM Assessment Guidelines Definition of Terms * Risk...effect is that of alcohol. Even after alcohol has been eliminated from the body, there may be undesired effects on cognitive performance and mood

  3. Effects of Stretch Shortening Cycle Exercise Fatigue on Stress Fracture Injury Risk during Landing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. Roger; Dufek, Janet S.; Bates, Barry T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in landing performance during fatigue that could result in increased stress fracture injury risk. Five participants performed nonfatigued and fatigued drop landings (0.60 m), while ground reaction force (GRF), electromyographic (EMG) activity, and kinematics were recorded. Fatigue was defined as a…

  4. Effects of Stretch Shortening Cycle Exercise Fatigue on Stress Fracture Injury Risk during Landing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. Roger; Dufek, Janet S.; Bates, Barry T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in landing performance during fatigue that could result in increased stress fracture injury risk. Five participants performed nonfatigued and fatigued drop landings (0.60 m), while ground reaction force (GRF), electromyographic (EMG) activity, and kinematics were recorded. Fatigue was defined as a…

  5. Land Cover as a Framework For Assessing the Risk of Water Pollution

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Robert V. O' Neill; Kenneth H. Reckhow; Timothy G. Wade; K. Bruce Jones

    2000-01-01

    A survey of numerous field studies shows that nitrogen and phosphorous export coefficients are significantly different across forest, agriculture, and urban land-cover types. We used simulations to estimate the land-cover composition at which there was a significant risk of nutrient loads representative of watersheds without forest cover. The results suggest that at...

  6. Climate change, land slide risks and sustainable development, risk analysis and decision support process tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson-sköld, Y. B.; Tremblay, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is in most parts of Sweden expected to result in increased precipitation and increased sea water levels causing flooding, erosion, slope instability and related secondary consequences. Landslide risks are expected to increase with climate change in large parts of Sweden due to increased annual precipitation, more intense precipitation and increased flows combined with dryer summers. In response to the potential climate related risks, and on the commission of the Ministry of Environment, the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) is at present performing a risk analysis project for the most prominent landslide risk area in Sweden: the Göta river valley. As part of this, a methodology for land slide ex-ante consequence analysis today, and in a future climate, has been developed and applied in the Göta river valley. Human life, settlements, industry, contaminated sites, infrastructure of national importance are invented and assessed important elements at risk. The goal of the consequence analysis is to produce a map of geographically distributed expected losses, which can be combined with a corresponding map displaying landslide probability to describe the risk (the combination of probability and consequence of a (negative) event). The risk analysis is GIS-aided in presenting and visualise the risk and using existing databases for quantification of the consequences represented by ex-ante estimated monetary losses. The results will be used on national, regional and as an indication of the risk on local level, to assess the need of measures to mitigate the risk. The costs and environmental and social impacts to mitigate the risk are expected to be very high but the costs and impacts of a severe landslide are expected to be even higher. Therefore, civil servants have pronounced a need of tools to assess both the vulnerability and a more holistic picture of impacts of climate change adaptation measures. At SGI a tool for the inclusion of sustainability

  7. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  8. Eyewear contamination levels in the operating room: infection risk.

    PubMed

    Lange, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    We investigated eyewear contamination levels in the operating room to assess infection risk and inform protocol development. Microbial contamination after use was found in 37.7% of disposable and 94.9% of reusable eyewear pieces. After disinfection, 74.4% of reusable eyewear also cultured positive. Disposable eyewear may reduce intercase contamination risk. Reusable eyewear may carry ongoing bioburden and, thus, contribute to operating room environment risk. Eyewear with antimicrobial material or components could reduce risk. Alternative decontamination methods for reusable eyewear should be evaluated.

  9. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  10. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  11. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  12. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  13. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  14. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How do I prevent unnecessary or undue... Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.415 How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? You prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting...

  15. Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.; Babendreier, J.; Cherry, D.

    1999-07-01

    As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site.

  16. An index of risk as a measure of biodiversity conservation achieved through land reform.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan; Price, Robbie; Stephens, R T Theo

    2008-02-01

    We measured the net progress of land reform in achieving a national policy goal for biodiversity conservation in the context of ongoing clearing of native vegetation and additions of land to a highly nonrepresentative (residual) reserve network, interior South Island, New Zealand. We used systematic conservation-planning approaches to develop a spatially explicit index of risk of biodiversity loss (RBL). The index incorporated information from national data sets that describe New Zealand's remaining indigenous land cover, legal protection, and land environments and modeled risk to biodiversity on the basis of stated assumptions about the effects of past habitat loss and legal protection. The index identified irreplaceable and vulnerable native habitats in lowland environments as the most at risk of biodiversity loss, and risk was correlated with the density of threatened plant records. To measure achievement, we used changes in the index that reflected gains made and opportunity costs incurred by legal protection and privatization. Application of the index to measure the difference made by land reform showed it had caused a net increase in the risk of biodiversity loss because most land vulnerable to habitat modification and rich in threatened plant species was privatized and land at least risk of biodiversity loss was protected. The application revealed that new high-elevation reserves did little to mitigate biodiversity decline, that privatization of low-elevation land further jeopardized the most vulnerable biodiversity in lowland native habitats, and that outcomes of land reform for biodiversity deteriorated over time. Further development of robust achievement measures is needed to encourage more accountable biodiversity conservation decisions.

  17. The Atrophy of Land Power: A Strategic Risk?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    and exercising of control. 17 In his article, “The Utility of Land power”, Lukas Milevski framed it this way: “ the aim of grand strategy is to...acquire and exercise it by oneself.18 Milevski goes on to say that sea and air power are limited to the denial of control and land power alone is...General Raymond T. Odierno, ADP 1, The Army,(Washington, DC, Headquarters, Department of the Army, September 2012), 1-4. 10 Ibid. 11 Lucas Milevski

  18. Stardust Entry: Landing and Population Hazards in Mission Planning and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P.; Wawrzyniak, G.

    2006-01-01

    The 385 kg Stardust mission was launched on Feb 7, 1999 on a mission to collect samples from the tail of comet Wild 2 and from interplanetary space. Stardust returned to Earth in the early morning of January 15, 2006. The sample return capsule landed in the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) southwest of Salt Lake City. Because Stardust was landing on Earth, hazard analysis was required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, UTTR, and the Stardust Project to ensure the safe return of the landing capsule along with the safety of people, ground assets, and aircraft. This paper focuses on the requirements affecting safe return of the capsule and safety of people on the ground by investigating parameters such as probability of impacting on UTTR, casualty expectation, and probability of casualty. This paper introduces the methods for the calculation of these requirements and shows how they affected mission planning, site selection, and mission operations. By analyzing these requirements before and during entry it allowed for the selection of a robust landing point that met all of the requirements during the actual landing event.

  19. [An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Yu; He, Yan-Bo; Wang, Jian-Lin; Tian, Guo-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km x 8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and "VI-Ts" (vegetation index-land surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i. e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images.

  20. Operational monitoring of land-cover change using multitemporal remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogan, John

    2005-11-01

    Land-cover change, manifested as either land-cover modification and/or conversion, can occur at all spatial scales, and changes at local scales can have profound, cumulative impacts at broader scales. The implication of operational land-cover monitoring is that researchers have access to a continuous stream of remote sensing data, with the long term goal of providing for consistent and repetitive mapping. Effective large area monitoring of land-cover (i.e., >1000 km2) can only be accomplished by using remotely sensed images as an indirect data source in land-cover change mapping and as a source for land-cover change model projections. Large area monitoring programs face several challenges: (1) choice of appropriate classification scheme/map legend over large, topographically and phenologically diverse areas; (2) issues concerning data consistency and map accuracy (i.e., calibration and validation); (3) very large data volumes; (4) time consuming data processing and interpretation. Therefore, this dissertation research broadly addresses these challenges in the context of examining state-of-the-art image pre-processing, spectral enhancement, classification, and accuracy assessment techniques to assist the California Land-cover Mapping and Monitoring Program (LCMMP). The results of this dissertation revealed that spatially varying haze can be effectively corrected from Landsat data for the purposes of change detection. The Multitemporal Spectral Mixture Analysis (MSMA) spectral enhancement technique produced more accurate land-cover maps than those derived from the Multitemporal Kauth Thomas (MKT) transformation in northern and southern California study areas. A comparison of machine learning classifiers showed that Fuzzy ARTMAP outperformed two classification tree algorithms, based on map accuracy and algorithm robustness. Variation in spatial data error (positional and thematic) was explored in relation to environmental variables using geostatistical interpolation

  1. Screening and prioritisation of chemical risks from metal mining operations, identifying exposure media of concern.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jilang; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    Metals have been central to the development of human civilisation from the Bronze Age to modern times, although in the past, metal mining and smelting have been the cause of serious environmental pollution with the potential to harm human health. Despite problems from artisanal mining in some developing countries, modern mining to Western standards now uses the best available mining technology combined with environmental monitoring, mitigation and remediation measures to limit emissions to the environment. This paper develops risk screening and prioritisation methods previously used for contaminated land on military and civilian sites and engineering systems for the analysis and prioritisation of chemical risks from modern metal mining operations. It uses hierarchical holographic modelling and multi-criteria decision making to analyse and prioritise the risks from potentially hazardous inorganic chemical substances released by mining operations. A case study of an active platinum group metals mine in South Africa is used to demonstrate the potential of the method. This risk-based methodology for identifying, filtering and ranking mining-related environmental and human health risks can be used to identify exposure media of greatest concern to inform risk management. It also provides a practical decision-making tool for mine acquisition and helps to communicate risk to all members of mining operation teams.

  2. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  3. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  4. Spatial risk assessment across large landscapes with varied land use: lessons from a conservation assessment of military lands.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mark C; Thompson, Bruce; Boykin, Kenneth

    2004-10-01

    Spatial decision-support tools are necessary for assessment and management of threats to biodiversity, which in turn is necessary for biodiversity conservation. In conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Division's Species at Risk program, we developed a GIS-based spatial decision-support tool for relative risk assessments of threats to biodiversity on the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss (New Mexico and Texas) due to land uses associated with military missions of the two bases. The project tested use of spatial habitat models, land-use scenarios, and species-specific impacts to produce an assessment of relative risks for use in conservation planning on the 1.2 million-hectare study region. Our procedure allows spatially explicit analyses of risks to multiple species from multiple sources by identifying a set of hazards faced by all species of interest, identifying a set of feasible management alternatives, assigning scores to each species for each hazard, and mapping the distribution of these hazard scores across the region of interest for each combination of species/management alternatives. We illustrate the procedure with examples. We demonstrate that our risk-based approach to conservation planning can provide resource managers with a useful tool for spatial assessment of threats to species of concern.

  5. Flight results from a study of aided inertial navigation applied to landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Carson, T. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Schmidt, S. F.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the approach and landing performance of a Kalman filter aided inertial navigation system using flight data obtained from a series of approaches and landings of the CV-340 aircraft at an instrumented test area. A description of the flight test is given, in which data recorded included: (1) accelerometer signals from the platform of an INS; (2) three ranges from the Ames-Cubic Precision Ranging System; and (3) radar and barometric altimeter signals. The method of system evaluation employed was postflight processing of the recorded data using a Kalman filter which was designed for use on the XDS920 computer onboard the CV-340 aircraft. Results shown include comparisons between the trajectories as estimated by the Kalman filter aided system and as determined from cinetheodolite data. Data start initialization of the Kalman filter, operation at a practical data rate, postflight modeling of sensor errors and operation under the adverse condition of bad data are illustrated.

  6. Description of a landing site indicator (LASI) for light aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, H. V.; Outlaw, B. K. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental cockpit mounted head-up type display system was developed and evaluated by LaRC pilots during the landing phase of light aircraft operations. The Landing Site Indicator (LASI) system display consists of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and indicated airspeed images superimposed on the pilot's view through the windshield. The information is made visible to the pilot by means of a partially reflective viewing screen which is suspended directly in frot of the pilot's eyes. Synchro transmitters are operated by vanes, located at the left wing tip, which sense angle of attack and sideslip angle. Information is presented near the center of the display in the form of a moving index on a fixed grid. The airspeed is sensed by a pitot-static pressure transducer and is presented in numerical form at the top center of the display.

  7. Statistical Measurements of Contact Conditions of 478 Transport-airplane Landings During Routine Daytime Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S

    1955-01-01

    Statistical measurements of contact conditions have been obtained, by means of a special photographic technique, of 478 landings of present-day transport airplanes made during routine daylight operations in clear air at the Washington National Airport. From the measurements, sinking speeds, rolling velocities, bank angles, and horizontal speeds at the instant before contact have been evaluated and a limited statistical analysis of the results has been made and is reported in this report.

  8. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-11-09

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution-severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  9. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems. PMID:26569270

  10. Influence of friction forces on the motion of VTOL aircraft during landing operations on ships at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.; Chin, D. O.

    1981-01-01

    Equations describing the friction forces generated during landing operations on ships at sea were formulated. These forces depend on the platform reaction and the coefficient of friction. The platform reaction depends on the relative sink rate and the shock absorbing capability of the landing gear. The friction coefficient varies with the surface condition of the landing platform and the angle of yaw of the aircraft relative to the landing platform. Landings by VTOL aircraft, equipped with conventional oleopneumatic landing gears are discussed. Simplifications are introduced to reduce the complexity of the mathematical description of the tire and shock strut characteristics. Approximating the actual complicated force deflection characteristic of the tire by linear relationship is adequate. The internal friction forces in the shock strut are included in the landing gear model. A set of relatively simple equations was obtained by including only those tire and shock strut characteristics that contribute significantly to the generation of landing gear forces.

  11. New Zealand land search and rescue operations: an analysis of medical and traumatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Visser, Jenny T; Campbell, Adam F R

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the range and types of medical and traumatic conditions encountered in land search and rescue operations in New Zealand. Twenty months (May 2010 to December 2011) of land search and rescue operations were analyzed. Data on medical and traumatic conditions were extracted from the New Zealand Police search and rescue database. During the period audited, New Zealand Police coordinated 1490 land-based search and rescue operations, from which 611 persons fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. Males accounted for 60.5% of the subjects, and a trauma-related injury was the most commonly encountered condition (37.3% of all). The lower limb was the most commonly injured body site, and most injuries occurred as the result of a slip or fall. Medical conditions were recorded in 11.6% of operations and included a wide spread of conditions, with cardiovascular events being seen most frequently. Hypothermia was diagnosed in 9.3% of all operations, and fatalities made up 5.6% of the sample. Thirty percent of all operations were for persons with cognitive impairment who had wandered away from their usual place of residence. These were almost entirely urban searches and concentrated in districts with large populations. Search and rescue personnel are exposed to a broad range of medical and traumatic conditions. In New Zealand, they include preexisting cognitive impairment that results in persons lost in urban environments. Notwithstanding this, many subjects will also need to be managed in remote, resource-limited environments for extended periods. First aid training and field equipment should reflect these demands. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of types of landings after blocking in volleyball associated with risk of ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, David; Jandacka, Daniel; Farana, Roman; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Landing with a low knee flexion angle after volleyball block jumps may be associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of volleyball landings after blocks where the knee flexion angle is found to be under a critical knee flexion angle value of 30° at the instant of the first peak of the ground reaction force (GRF). Synchronized kinematic and kinetic data were collected for each trial. T-tests were used to determine if each knee flexion angle at the instant of the peak GRF was significantly different from the critical value of 30°. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare knee flexion angle, time to first peak and the magnitude of the first peak of the resultant GRF and knee stiffness. Significantly lower knee flexion angles were found in the "go" landing (p = .01, ES = 0.6) and the "reverse" landing (p = .02, ES = 0.6) only. The results for knee flexion angle and GRF parameters indicated a significant difference between a "reverse" and "go" and other types of landings, except the "side stick" landing for GRF. The "reverse" and "go" landings may present a risk for ACL injury due to the single-leg landing of these activities that have an associated mediolateral movement.

  13. Operative mortality and complication risk model for all major cardiovascular operations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Motomura, Noboru; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    The Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD) is a nationwide benchmarking project to improve the quality of cardiovascular surgery in Japan. This study aimed to develop new JACVD risk models not only for operative mortality but also for each postoperative complication for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations, valve operations, and thoracic aortic operations. We analyzed 24,704 isolated CABG operations, 26,137 valve operations, and 18,228 thoracic aortic operations. Risk models were developed for each operation for operative death, permanent stroke, renal failure, prolonged ventilation (>24 hours), deep sternal wound infection, and reoperation for bleeding. The population was divided into an 80% development sample and a 20% validation sample. The statistical model was constructed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Model discrimination was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (C index). The 30-day mortality rates for isolated CABG, valve, and thoracic aortic operations were 1.5%, 2.5%, and 6.0%, respectively, and operative mortality rates were 2.4%, 3.8%, and 8.4%, respectively. The C indices for the end points of isolated CABG, valve, and aortic thoracic operations were 0.6358 for (deep sternal infection) to 0.8655 (operative mortality), 0.6114 (reoperation for bleeding) to 0.8319 (operative death), and 0.6311 (gastrointestinal complication) to 0.7591 (operative death), respectively. These risk models increased the discriminatory power of former models. Thus, our models can be said to reflect the current state of Japan. With respect to major complications, useful feedback can now be provided through the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database Web-based system. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation Risk to the Fluoroscopy Operator and Staff.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Cosette M; Meisinger, Quinn C; Andre, Michael P; Kinney, Thomas B; Newton, Isabel G

    2016-10-01

    Recent articles discussing cases of brain cancer in interventionalists have raised concerns regarding the hazards of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. We review the basics of radiation dose and the potential radiation effects, particularly as they pertain to the operator. Then we present the data regarding the risk of each type of radiation effect to the fluoroscopy operator and staff, with special attention on cancer induction, radiation-induced cataracts, and the pregnant operator. Although the evidence overwhelmingly shows that exposure to higher doses of radiation carries a risk of cancer and tissue reactions, the risks of chronic exposure to low-level radiation are less clear. Many studies examining occupational exposure to radiation fail to show an increased risk of stochastic effects of radiation, but the positive results raise concern that the studies are underpowered to consistently detect the small risk. The lack of information in these studies about radiation doses and adherence to radiation protection further confound their interpretation. Large prospective studies of populations with occupational exposure to low-level radiation might clarify this issue. More clearly established are the risks of radiation to the fetus and the risk of cataracts in interventional cardiologists and interventional radiologists. Interventionalists can mitigate these risks by following established radiation safety practices.

  15. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  16. A wildfire risk assessment framework for land and resource management

    Treesearch

    Joe H. Scott; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires can result in significant, long-lasting impacts to ecological, social, and economic systems. It is necessary, therefore, to identify and understand the risks posed by wildland fire, and to develop cost-effective mitigation strategies accordingly. This report presents a general framework with which to assess wildfire risk and explore mitigation options, and...

  17. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    PubMed

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Land application of manure and Class B biosolids: an occupational and public quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John P; McLaughlin, Michael R; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2012-01-01

    Land application is a practical use of municipal Class B biosolids and manure that also promotes soil fertility and productivity. To date, no study exists comparing biosolids to manure microbial risks. This study used quantitative microbial risk assessment to estimate pathogen risks from occupational and public exposures during scenarios involving fomite, soil, crop, and aerosol exposures. Greatest one-time risks were from direct consumption of contaminated soil or exposure to fomites, with one-time risks greater than 10. Recent contamination and high exposures doses increased most risks. and enteric viruses provided the greatest single risks for most scenarios, particularly in the short term. All pathogen risks were decreased with time, 1 d to14 mo between land application and exposure; decreases in risk were typically over six orders of magnitude beyond 30 d. Nearly all risks were reduced to below 10 when using a 4-mo harvest delay for crop consumption. Occupational, more direct risks were greater than indirect public risks, which often occur after time and dilution have reduced pathogen loads to tolerable levels. Comparison of risks by pathogen group confirmed greater bacterial risks from manure, whereas viral risks were exclusive to biosolids. A direct comparison of the two residual types showed that biosolids use had greater risk because of the high infectivity of viruses, whereas the presence of environmentally recalcitrant pathogens such as and maintained manure risk. Direct comparisons of shared pathogens resulted in greater manure risks. Overall, it appears that in the short term, risks were high for both types of residuals, but given treatment, attenuation, and dilution, risks can be reduced to near-insignificant levels. That being said, limited data sets, dose exposures, site-specific inactivation rates, pathogen spikes, environmental change, regrowth, and wildlife will increase risk and uncertainty and remain areas poorly understood.

  19. The risk of Listeria monocytogenes infection in beef cattle operations.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H O; Atwill, E; Dunbar, L; Ward, T; McDonough, P; Gonzalez, R; Stipetic, K

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and associated risk factors among beef operations (cow-calf and feedlot) in central and southern California. A repeated cross-sectional study where faecal and environmental samples were collected from 50 operations three times a year at different seasons was carried out. Samples were tested for presence of L. monocytogenes using a combination of enrichment and polymerase chain reaction tests. Data on putative risk factors were also collected. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in faecal samples from cows, calves and other animals on calf-cow operations at proportions of 3.1%, 3.75% and 2.5%, respectively. The organism was detected in 5.3% of cut-grass, 5.3% of soil, 14.3% of irrigation ditches, 3.1% of the ponds and 6.5% of water troughs samples. Listeria monocytogenes was less common in faecal (0.3%) and soil (0.75%) samples collected from feedlots. Listeria monocytogenes was present at a higher proportion among cow-calf operations than feedlots. There was no significant seasonal variation in the occurrence of this pathogen within the two types of operations. If risk mitigation strategies were implemented to reduce the public health risk these should focus in cow-calf operations.

  20. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  1. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  2. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for a Large Turbojet Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.; Silsby, Norman S.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made by the NASA to obtain statistical measurements of landing-contact conditions for a large turbojet transport in commercial airline operations. The investigation was conducted at the Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. Measurements were taken photographically during routine daylight operations. The quantities determined were vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The results indicated that the mean vertical velocity for the turbojet-transport landings was 1.62 feet per second and that 1 landing out of 100 would be expected to equal or exceed about 4.0 feet per second. The mean airspeed at contact was 132.0 knots, with 1 landing in 100 likely to equal or exceed about 153.0 knots. The mean rolling velocity was about 1.6 deg per second. One lending in 100 would probably equal or exceed a rolling velocity of about 4.0 deg. per second in the direction of the first wheel to touch. The mean bank angle for the turbojet transports was 1.04 deg, and right and left angles of bank were about evenly divided. One lending in 100 would be likely to equal or exceed a bank angle of about 3.5 deg. The mean value of distance to touchdown from the runway threshold was 1,560 feet. One lending in 100 would be expected to touchdown at or beyond about 2,700 feet from the runway threshold. The mean values for vertical velocity, airspeed, and distance t o touch-down for the turbojet transports were somewhat higher than those found previously for piston-engine transports. No significant differences were found for values of rolling velocity and bank angle.

  3. Theme: Land Laboratories--Urban Settings, Liability, Natural Resources Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "With a Little Imagination"; "From Fallow to Fertile"; "Operating a School Enterprise in Agriculture"; "Using a Nontraditional Greenhouse to Enhance Lab Instruction"; "Risk Management for Liability in Operating Land Laboratories"; "Working Land and Water Laboratory for Natural…

  4. Theme: Land Laboratories--Urban Settings, Liability, Natural Resources Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "With a Little Imagination"; "From Fallow to Fertile"; "Operating a School Enterprise in Agriculture"; "Using a Nontraditional Greenhouse to Enhance Lab Instruction"; "Risk Management for Liability in Operating Land Laboratories"; "Working Land and Water Laboratory for Natural…

  5. Linking Climate Risk, Policy Networks and Adaptation Planning in Public Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Schwartz, M.; Peters, C.

    2014-12-01

    Federal public land management agencies in the United States have engaged a variety of planning efforts to address climate adaptation. A major goal of these efforts is to build policy networks that enable land managers to access information and expertise needed for responding to local climate risks. This paper investigates whether the perceived and modeled climate risk faced by different land managers is leading to larger networks or more participating in climate adaptation. In theory, the benefits of climate planning networks are larger when land managers are facing more potential changes. The basic hypothesis is tested with a survey of public land managers from hundreds of local and regional public lands management units in the Southwestern United States, as well as other stakeholders involved with climate adaptation planning. All survey respondents report their perceptions of climate risk along a variety of dimensions, as well as their participation in climate adaptation planning and information sharing networks. For a subset of respondents, we have spatially explicity GIS data about their location, which will be linked with downscaled climate model data. With the focus on climate change, the analysis is a subset of the overall idea of linking social and ecological systems.

  6. Minimum risk wavelet shrinkage operator for Poisson image denoising.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wu; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2015-05-01

    The pixel values of images taken by an image sensor are said to be corrupted by Poisson noise. To date, multiscale Poisson image denoising techniques have processed Haar frame and wavelet coefficients--the modeling of coefficients is enabled by the Skellam distribution analysis. We extend these results by solving for shrinkage operators for Skellam that minimizes the risk functional in the multiscale Poisson image denoising setting. The minimum risk shrinkage operator of this kind effectively produces denoised wavelet coefficients with minimum attainable L2 error.

  7. Working session 5: Operational aspects and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cizelj, L.; Donoghue, J.

    1997-02-01

    A general observation is that both operational aspects and risk analysis cannot be adequately discussed without information presented in other sessions. Some overlap of conclusions and recommendations is therefore to be expected. Further, it was assumed that recommendations concerning improvements in some related topics were generated by other sessions and are not repeated here. These include: (1) Knowledge on degradation mechanisms (initiation, progression, and failure). (2) Modeling of degradation (initiation, progression, and failure). (3) Capabilities of NDE methods. (4) Preventive maintenance and repair. One should note here, however, that all of these directly affect both operational and risk aspects of affected plants. A list of conclusions and recommendations is based on available presentations and discussions addressing risk and operational experience. The authors aimed at reaching as broad a consensus as possible. It should be noted here that there is no strict delineation between operational and safety aspects of degradation of steam generator tubes. This is caused by different risk perceptions in different countries/societies. The conclusions and recommendations were divided into four broad groups: human reliability; leakage monitoring; risk impact; and consequence assessment.

  8. Development of a conceptual framework of holistic risk assessment - Landfill as a particular type of contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Butt, T E; Javadi, A A; Nunns, M A; Beal, C D

    2016-11-01

    Landfills can be regarded as a particular type of contaminated land that has a potential to directly and indirectly pollute all of the four main spheres of the environment which are the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and eventually adversely impact the biosphere. Therefore, environmental risk assessment of a landfill has to be more integrated and holistic by virtue of its nature of being a multidimensional pollutant source. Despite this, although various risk assessment approaches have been adopted for landfill waste disposal sites, there are still wide-ranging knowledge gaps and limitations which need to be addressed. One important knowledge gap and limitation of current risk assessment approaches is the inability to fully identify, categorise and aggregate all individual risks from all combinations of hazards, pathways and targets/receptors (e.g. water, air, soil and biota) in connection to a certain landfill leachate and yet at any stage of the landfill cycle. So such an approach is required that could not only integrate all possible characteristics of varying scenarios but also contain the ability to establish an overall risk picture, irrespective of the lifecycle stage of the landfill (e.g. planning stage/pre-operation, in-operation or post-operation/closed). One such approach to address the wide-breadth of landfill impact risks is by developing a more holistic risk assessment methodology, whose conceptual framework is presented in this paper for landfill leachate in a whole-system format. This conceptual framework does not only draw together various constituting factors and sub-factors of risk assessment in a logical sequence and categorical order, but also indicates the "what, why, when and how" outputs of and inputs to these factors and sub-factors can be useful. The framework is designed to identify and quantify a range of risks associated with all stages of the landfill lifecycle, and yet in a more streamlined, logical, categorical and integrated

  9. Soil heavy metal dynamics and risk assessment under long-term land use and cultivation conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelei; Xu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Long-term agricultural development and cultivation conversions affect soil heavy metal balance and the regional environmental safety. In this study, heavy metal parameters were used to identify changes in soil properties in response to land use and cultivation conversions. The integrated soil quality index, which involves seven heavy metal indices, was proposed to assess the environmental risk of long-term human activities in Northeast China. We used the remote sensing and geographical data for the four-term land use distribution from 1979 to 2009 to identify the spatial patterns of regional land use conversions. Then, 41 samples from the top 20 cm of the soil at sites corresponding to these seven types of conversions were collected (permanent dry land, dry land converted from wetland, dry land converted from forest, permanent wetland, permanent forest, paddy land converted from dry land, and paddy land converted from wetland). Based on the local soil properties and tillage practices, the following seven heavy metal parameters were employed: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn). The conversion of farmland from wetland resulted in an increase in the concentration of Pb and Cr in the soil. In contrast, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd decreased when wetland was converted into farmland because the tillage practices washed these heavy metals away. During the conversion of dry land and paddy land to wetland, the levels of Pb increased by approximately 28.6% and 24.7%, respectively. Under the same conditions, the concentration of As increased by 32.5% and 14.1%, respectively. The integrated index also demonstrated that the farmlands were not contaminated by the heavy metals during long-term agricultural development.

  10. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  11. An inexact risk management model for agricultural land-use planning under water shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Changchun; Dai, Chao; Li, Yongping; Li, Chunhui; Liu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Water resources availability has a significant impact on agricultural land-use planning, especially in a water shortage area such as North China. The random nature of available water resources and other uncertainties in an agricultural system present risk for land-use planning and may lead to undesirable decisions or potential economic loss. In this study, an inexact risk management model (IRM) was developed for supporting agricultural land-use planning and risk analysis under water shortage. The IRM model was formulated through incorporating a conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) constraint into an inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) framework, and could be used to control uncertainties expressed as not only probability distributions but also as discrete intervals. The measure of risk about the second-stage penalty cost was incorporated into the model so that the trade-off between system benefit and extreme expected loss could be analyzed. The developed model was applied to a case study in the Zhangweinan River Basin, a typical agricultural region facing serious water shortage in North China. Solutions of the IRM model showed that the obtained first-stage land-use target values could be used to reflect decision-makers' opinions on the long-term development plan. The confidence level α and maximum acceptable risk loss β could be used to reflect decisionmakers' preference towards system benefit and risk control. The results indicated that the IRM model was useful for reflecting the decision-makers' attitudes toward risk aversion and could help seek cost-effective agricultural land-use planning strategies under complex uncertainties.

  12. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  13. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  14. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  15. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Pre-Launch Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager(OLI) will be the main instrument on Landsat-8 when it launches in 2012. OLI represents a generational change from heritage Landsat instruments in its design but must maintain data continuity with the 30+ year Landsat data archive. As a result, OLI has undergone a stringent calibration and characterization campaign to ensure its characteristics are understood and consistent with past instruments. This paper presents an overview of the OLI design, its major differences from previous Landsat instruments, and a summary of its expected performance.

  16. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation-based disaster risk assessment of desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-02-03

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an "S" type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China.

  17. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation-Based Disaster Risk Assessment of Desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an “S” type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China. PMID:25654772

  18. The land morphology approach to flood risk mapping: An application to Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cunha, N S; Magalhães, M R; Domingos, T; Abreu, M M; Küpfer, C

    2017-05-15

    In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains. Floodplains are considered a part of a larger system called Wet System (WS). The WS includes permanent and temporary streams, water bodies, wetlands and valley bottoms. Valley bottom is a broad concept which comprehends not only floodplains but also flat and concave areas, contiguous to streams, in which slope is less than 5%. This will be addressed through a consistent method based on a land morphology approach that classifies landforms according to their hydrological position in the watershed. This method is based on flat areas (slopes less than 5%), surface curvature and hydrological features. The comparison between WS and flood risk data from the Portuguese Environmental Agency for the main rivers of mainland Portugal showed that in downstream areas of watersheds, valley bottoms are coincident with floodplains modelled by hydrological methods. Mapping WS has a particular interest in analysing river ecosystems position and function in the landscape, from upstream to downstream areas in the watershed. This morphological approach is less demanding data and time-consuming than hydrological methods and can be used as the preliminary delimitation of floodplains and potential flood risk areas in situations where there is no hydrological data available. The results were also compared with the land use/cover map at a national level and detailed in Trancão river basin, located in Lisbon

  19. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-03-15

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04).

  20. Reversal of Hartmann's procedure: a high-risk operation?

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Thomas M; Mostafa, Gamal; Norton, H James; Newcomb, William L; Hope, William W; Lincourt, Amy E; Kercher, Kent W; Kuwada, Timothy S; Gersin, Keith S; Heniford, B Todd

    2007-10-01

    Patients who undergo Hartmann's procedure often do not have their colostomy closed based on the perceived risk of the operation. This study evaluated the outcome of reversal of Hartmann's procedure based on preoperative risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed adult patients who underwent reversal of Hartmann's procedure at our tertiary referral institution. Patient outcomes were compared based on identified risk factors (age >60 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score >2, and >2 preoperative comorbidities). One-hundred thirteen patients were included. Forty-four patients (39%) had an ASA score of >or=3. The mean hospital duration of stay was 6.8 days. There were 28 (25%) postoperative complications and no mortality. Patients >60 years old had significantly longer LOS compared with the rest of the group (P = .02). There were no differences in outcomes between groups based on ASA score or the presence of multiple preoperative comorbidities. An albumin level of <3.5 was the only significant predictor of postoperative complications (P = .04). The reversal of Hartmann's operation appears to be a safe operation with acceptable morbidity rates and can be considered in patients, including those with significant operative risk factors.

  1. A Pre-operative Risk Model for Post-operative Pneumonia following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Raymond J.; Liang, Qixing; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoting; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Theurer, Patricia F.; Fishstrom, Astrid B.; Harrington, Steven D.; DeLucia, Alphonse; Paone, Gaetano; Patel, Himanshu J.; Prager, Richard L.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-operative pneumonia is the most prevalent of all hospital-acquired infections following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CAB). Accurate prediction of a patient’s risk of this morbid complication is hindered by its low relative incidence. In an effort to support clinical decision-making and quality improvement, we developed a pre-operative prediction model for post-operative pneumonia following CAB. Methods We undertook an observational study of 16,084 patients undergoing CAB between Q3 2011 – Q2 2014 across 33 institutions participating in the Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons – Quality Collaborative. Variables related to patient demographics, medical history, admission status, comorbid disease, cardiac anatomy and the institution performing the procedure were investigated. Logistic regression via forwards stepwise selection (p < 0.05 threshold) was utilized to develop a risk prediction model for estimating the occurrence of pneumonia. Traditional methods were employed to assess the model’s performance. Results Post-operative pneumonia occurred in 3.30% of patients. Multivariable analysis identified 17 pre-operative factors, including: demographics, laboratory values, comorbid disease, pulmonary and cardiac function, and operative status. The final model significantly predicted the occurrence of pneumonia, and performed well (C-statistic: 0.74). These findings were confirmed via sensitivity analyses by center and clinically important sub-groups. Conclusions We identified 17 readily obtainable pre-operative variables associated with post-operative pneumonia. This model may be used to provide individualized risk estimation and to identify opportunities to reduce a patient’s pre-operative risk of pneumonia through pre-habilitation. PMID:27261082

  2. Risk management for operations of the LANL Critical Experiments Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paternoster, R.; Butterfield, K.

    1998-12-31

    The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) currently operates two burst reactors (Godiva-IV and Skua), one solution assembly [the Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA)], two fast-spectrum benchmark assemblies (Flattop and Big Ten), and five general-purpose remote assembly machines that may be configured with nuclear materials and assembled by remote control. Special nuclear materials storage vaults support these and other operations at the site. With this diverse set of operations, several approaches are possible in the analysis and management of risk. The most conservative approach would be to write a safety analysis report (SAR) for each assembly and experiment. A more cost-effective approach is to analyze the probability and consequences of several classes of operations representative of operations on each critical assembly machine and envelope the bounding case accidents. Although the neutron physics of these machines varies widely, the operations performed at LACEF fall into four operational modes: steady-state mode, approach-to-critical mode, prompt burst mode, and nuclear material operations, which can include critical assembly fuel loading. The operational sequences of each mode are very nearly identical, whether operated on one assembly machine or another. The use of an envelope approach to accident analysis is facilitated by the use of classes of operations and the use of bounding case consequence analysis. A simple fault tree analysis of operational modes helps resolve which operations are sensitive to human error and which are initiated by hardware of software failures. Where possible, these errors and failures are blocked by TSR LCOs. Future work will determine the probability of accidents with various initiators.

  3. Technoeconomic analysis of conventional logging systems operating from stump to landing

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Sarles; William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes technical and economic factors for six conventional logging systems suitable for operation in eastern forests. Discusses financial risks and business implications for loggers investing in high-production, state-of-the-art logging systems. Provides logging contractors with information useful as a preliminary guide for selection of equipment and systems....

  4. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  5. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  6. Age at menarche and the risk of operative delivery.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hsu Phern; Frøen, J Frederik; Richardson, Sylvia; Liquet, Benoit; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Gordon C S

    2017-09-28

    We sought to evaluate the impact of later menarche on the risk of operative delivery. We studied 38,069 eligible women (first labors at term with a singleton infant in a cephalic presentation) from the Norwegian Mothers and Child Cohort Study. The main exposures were the age at menarche and the duration of the interval between menarche and the first birth. Poisson's regression with a robust variance estimator. Operative delivery, defined as emergency cesarean or assisted vaginal delivery (ventouse extraction or forceps). A 5 year increase in age at menarche was associated with a reduced risk of operative delivery (risk ratio [RR] 0.84, 95%CI 0.78, 0.89; p < .001). Adjustment for the age at first birth slightly strengthened the association (RR 0.79, 95%CI 0.74, 0.84; p < .001). However, the association was lost following adjustment for the menarche to birth interval (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.93, 1.06; p = .81). A 5 years increase in menarche to birth interval was associated with an increased risk of operative delivery (RR 1.26, 95%CI 1.23, 1.28; p < .001). This was not materially affected by adjustment for an extensive series of maternal characteristics (RR 1.23, 95%CI 1.20, 1.25; p < .001). Later menarche reduces the risk of an operative first birth through shortening the menarche to birth interval. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the pattern and/or duration of prepregnancy exposure of the uterus to estrogen and progesterone contributes to uterine aging.

  7. Geospatial Analysis of Urban Land Use Pattern Analysis for Hemorrhagic Fever Risk - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzah, L. N.; Majid, Z.; Ariff, M. A. M.; Fook, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Human modification of the natural environment continues to create habitats in which vectors of a wide variety of human and animal pathogens (such as Plasmodium, Aedes aegypti, Arenavirus etc.) thrive if unabated with an enormous potential to negatively affect public health. Typical examples of these modifications include impoundments, dams, irrigation systems, landfills and so on that provide enabled environment for the transmission of Hemorrhagic fever such as malaria, dengue, avian flu, Lassa fever etc. Furthermore, contemporary urban dwelling pattern appears to be associated with the prevalence of Hemorrhagic diseases in recent years. These observations are not peculiar to the developing world, as urban expansion also contributes significantly to mosquito and other vectors habitats. This habitats offer breeding ground to some vector virus populations. The key to disease control is developing an understanding of the contribution of human landscape modification to vector-borne pathogen transmission and how a balance may be achieved between human development, public health, and responsible urban land use. A comprehensive review of urban land use Pattern Analysis for Hemorrhagic fever risk has been conducted in this paper. The study found that most of the available literatures dwell more on the impact of urban land use on malaria and dengue fevers; however, studies are yet to be found discussing the implications of urban land use on the risk of Ebola, Lassa and other non-mosquito borne VHFs. A relational model for investigating the influence of urban land use change pattern on the risk of Hemorrhagic fever has been proposed in this study.

  8. Imaging Flash Lidar for Autonomous Safe Landing and Spacecraft Proximity Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    3-D Imaging flash lidar is recognized as a primary candidate sensor for safe precision landing on solar system bodies (Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn moons, etc.), and autonomous rendezvous proximity operations and docking/capture necessary for asteroid sample return and redirect missions, spacecraft docking, satellite servicing, and space debris removal. During the final stages of landing, from about 1 km to 500 m above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard fli1ght computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station from several kilometers distance. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16k pixels range images with 7 cm precision, at a 20 Hz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument design and capabilities as demonstrated by the closed-loop flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus). Then a plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology will be explained. This proposed plan is aimed at the development of a common sensor that with a modest design adjustment can meet the needs of both landing and proximity operation and docking applications.

  9. Evaluate the Capability of LANDSAT8 Operational Land Imager for Shoreline Change Detection/inland Water Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, W.; Khan, S. A.; Hussain, E.; Amir, F.; Maud, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper explored the capability of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) for post classification change detection analysis and mapping application because of its enhanced features from previous Landsat series. The OLI support vector machine (SVM) classified data was successfully classified with regard to all six test classes (i.e., open land, residential land, forest, scrub land, reservoir water and waterway). The OLI SVM-classified data for the four seasons (i.e. winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons) were used for change detection analysis of six situations; situation1: winter to spring seasonal change detection resulted reduction in reservoir water mapping and increases of scrub land; situation 2: winter to summer seasonal change detection resulted increase in dam water mapping and increase of scrub land. winter to summer which resulted reduction in dam water mapping and increase of vegetation; situation 3: winter to summer seasonal change detection resulted increase in increase in open land mapping; situation 4: spring to summer seasonal change detection resulted reduction of vegetation and shallow water and increase of open land and reservoir water; situation; 5: spring to autumn seasonal change detection resulted increase of reservoir water and open land; and Situation 6: summer to autumn seasonal change detection resulted increase of open land. OLI SVM classified data found suitable for post classification change detection analysis due to its resulted higher overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  10. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  11. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  12. Predicting pathogen transport and risk of infection from land-applied biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M. S.; Teng, J.; Kumar, A.; Gurian, P.

    2011-12-01

    Biosolids have been recycled as fertilizer to sustainably improve and maintain productive soils and to stimulate plant growth for over forty years, but may contain low levels of microbial pathogens. The Spreadsheet Microbial Assessment of Risk: Tool for Biosolids ("SMART Biosolids") is an environmental transport, exposure and risk model that compiles knowledge on the occurrence, environmental dispersion and attenuation of biosolids-associated pathogens to estimate microbial risk from biosolids land application. The SMART Biosolids model calculates environmental pathogen concentrations and assesses risk associated with exposure to pathogens from land-applied biosolids through five pathways: 1) inhalation of aerosols from land application sites, 2) consumption of groundwater contaminated by land-applied biosolids, 3) direct ingestion of biosolids-amended soils, 4) ingestion of plants contaminated by land-applied biosolids, and 5) consumption of surface water contaminated by runoff from a land application site. The SMART Biosolids model can be applied under a variety of scenarios, thereby providing insight into effective management practices. This study presents example results of the SMART Biosolids model, focusing on the groundwater and surface water pathways, following biosolids application to a typical site in Michigan. Volumes of infiltration and surface water runoff are calculated following a 100-year storm event. Pathogen transport and attenuation through the subsurface and via surface runoff are modeled, and pathogen concentrations in a downstream well and an adjacent pond are calculated. Risks are calculated for residents of nearby properties. For a 100-year storm event occurring immediately after biosolids application, the surface water pathway produces risks that may be of some concern, but best estimates do not exceed the bounds of what has been considered acceptable risk for recreational water use (Table 1); groundwater risks are very uncertain and at the

  13. Stiff Landings Are Associated With Increased ACL Injury Risk in Young Female Basketball and Floorball Players.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Mari; Pasanen, Kati; Kujala, Urho M; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannus, Pekka; Äyrämö, Sami; Krosshaug, Tron; Bahr, Roald; Avela, Janne; Perttunen, Jarmo; Parkkari, Jari

    2017-02-01

    Few prospective studies have investigated the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To investigate the relationship between biomechanical characteristics of vertical drop jump (VDJ) performance and the risk of ACL injury in young female basketball and floorball players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. At baseline, a total of 171 female basketball and floorball players (age range, 12-21 years) participated in a VDJ test using 3-dimensional motion analysis. The following biomechanical variables were analyzed: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact (IC), (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) knee flexion angle at IC, (4) peak knee flexion angle, (5) peak vertical ground-reaction force (vGRF), and (6) medial knee displacement. All new ACL injuries, as well as match and training exposure, were then recorded for 1 to 3 years. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Fifteen new ACL injuries occurred during the study period (0.2 injuries/1000 player-hours). Of the 6 factors considered, lower peak knee flexion angle (HR for each 10° increase in knee flexion angle, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.88) and higher peak vGRF (HR for each 100-N increase in vGRF, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) were the only factors associated with increased risk of ACL injury. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.6 for peak knee flexion and 0.7 for vGRF, indicating a failed-to-fair combined sensitivity and specificity of the test. Stiff landings, with less knee flexion and greater vGRF, in a VDJ test were associated with increased risk of ACL injury among young female basketball and floorball players. However, although 2 factors (decreased peak knee flexion and increased vGRF) had significant associations with ACL injury risk, the ROC curve analyses revealed that these variables cannot be used for screening of athletes.

  14. Use of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Assessing Species at Risk on Military Lands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    risk ERDC/CERL TR-11-29 2 of climate-mediated population decline and to identify any possible mech- anisms to decrease that risk. Numerous studies...as an emerging threat to wildlife species’ population distribution and persistence. Climate change vulnerability indexes allow land managers to... population segment of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on the Yakima Training Center, WA; and (3) the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemis

  15. The link between land use and flood risk assessment in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Densification of urban areas rises a concern for increased pluvial flooding. Flood risk in urban areas might rise under impact of land use changes. Urbanisation involves conversion of natural areas to impermeable areas giving lower infiltration rates and increased runoff. When high-intense rainfall excess the capacity of the drainage system in a city, high runoff causes pluvial flooding in low-laying areas. In the present study, a long time series (20 years) of geo-referenced flood claims from property owners has been collected and analysed in detail to assess flood risk under impact of land use changes in urban areas. The flood claim data come from property owners with flood insurance that covers property loss from overland flooding, groundwater intrusion through basement walls, as well as flooding from the drainage system, and are used as a proxy for flood severity. The spatial relationships between land use change and flood occurrences in different urban areas were analysed. Special emphasis were put on how nature-based solutions and blue-green infrastructure relates to flood risk. The relationships defined by a statistical method explaining the tendencies where the land use change contributes to flood risk changes and others engaged factors.

  16. Evaluating anthropogenic risk of grassland and forest habitat degradation using land-cover data

    Treesearch

    Kurt Riitters; James Wickham; Timothy Wade

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate a landscape-level approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining habitat context as defined by intensive anthropogenic land uses at multiple...

  17. Climate Changes Projection for Land and Forest Fire Risk Assessment in West Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadmiko, S. D.; Murdiyarso, D.; Faqih, A.

    2017-03-01

    Risk analysis is a method used to determine the probability of disaster in the current and future. This research analyse of fire risk in West Kalimantan by using extreme climate and vulnerability analysis. Extreme climate was calculated based on the extreme dry rainfall from regional climate model RegCM4.4 outputs. Vulnerability analysis was conducted by using a composite mapping analysis used hotspot data and eleven indicators of vulnerability. We found that very high level of extreme dry rainfall located in the southern region and the western coast area of West Kalimantan. This condition was influenced by environment factors such as topography and land use. Extreme dry rainfall also associated with the pattern of annual rainfall in West Kalimantan which ranges between 1753-4861 mm. Modelling of the vulnerability of land and forest fires in West Kalimantan showed that the land use has impact 24% on the vulnerability model. The results of the vulnerability model analysis shows that the plantations areas and secondary swamp forests are highly vulnerable, particularly on the peat area with depth about 50-200 cm. The analysis of land and forest fires risk found that the vulnerable areas have high risk which is largely unmanaged plantation areas and peatlands.

  18. INTERPRETATION OF SPLP RESULTS FOR ASSESSING RISK TO GROUNDWATER FROM LAND-APPLIED GRANULAR WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists and engineers often rely on results from the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) to assess the risk of groundwater contamination posed by the land application of granular solid wastes. The concentrations of pollutants in SPLP leachate can be measured and ...

  19. Use of risk assessment panels during revision of the Tongass Land and Resource Management Plan.

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Shaw

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the process used to conduct the 16 risk assessment panels and a subsistence working group held during revision of the Tongass land management plan. It provides an overview of how results from the panels were used by forest managers in plan-related decisionmaking, discusses some reactions to the effort, and identifies some opportunities to improve...

  20. Applying the Land Use Portfolio Model with Hazus to analyse risk from natural hazard events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinitz, Laura B.; Taketa, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the integration of two geospatial decision-support systems for natural-hazard risk assessment and management. Hazus is a risk-assessment tool developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to identify risks and estimate the severity of risk from natural hazards. The Land Use Portfolio Model (LUPM) is a risk-management tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate plans or actions intended to reduce risk from natural hazards. We analysed three mitigation policies for one earthquake scenario in the San Francisco Bay area to demonstrate the added value of using Hazus and the LUPM together. The demonstration showed that Hazus loss estimates can be input to the LUPM to obtain estimates of losses avoided through mitigation, rates of return on mitigation investment, and measures of uncertainty. Together, they offer a more comprehensive approach to help with decisions for reducing risk from natural hazards.

  1. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  2. Antiplatelet Drugs: Mechanisms and Risks of Bleeding Following Cardiac Operations

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Victor A.; Ferraris, Suellen P.; Saha, Sibu P.

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative antiplatelet drug use is common in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The impact of these drugs on bleeding and blood transfusion varies. We hypothesize that review of available evidence regarding drug-related bleeding risk, underlying mechanisms of platelet dysfunction, and variations in patient response to antiplatelet drugs will aid surgeons as they assess preoperative risk and attempt to limit perioperative bleeding. The purpose of this review is to (1) examine the role that antiplatelet drugs play in excessive postoperative blood transfusion, (2) identify possible mechanisms to explain patient response to antiplatelet drugs, and (3) formulate a strategy to limit excessive blood product usage in these patients. We reviewed available published evidence regarding bleeding risk in patients taking preoperative antiplatelet drugs. In addition, we summarized our previous research into mechanisms of antiplatelet drug-related platelet dysfunction. Aspirin users have a slight but significant increase in blood product usage after CABG (0.5 U of nonautologous blood per treated patient). Platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are more potent antiplatelet drugs than aspirin but have a half-life similar to aspirin, around 5 to 10 days. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons guidelines recommend discontinuation, if possible, of ADP inhibitors 5 to 7 days before operation because of excessive bleeding risk, whereas aspirin should be continued during the entire perioperative period in most patients. Individual variability in response to aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs is common with both hyper- and hyporesponsiveness seen in 5 to 25% of patients. Use of preoperative antiplatelet drugs is a risk factor for increased perioperative bleeding and blood transfusion. Point-of-care tests can identify patients at high risk for perioperative bleeding and blood

  3. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Coles, Garill A.; Shoemaker, Steven V.

    2012-06-12

    Modernization of nuclear power operations control systems, in particular the move to digital control systems, creates an opportunity to modernize existing legacy infrastructure and extend plant life. We describe here decision support tools that allow the assessment of different facets of risk and support the optimization of available resources to reduce risk as plants are upgraded and maintained. This methodology could become an integrated part of the design review process and a part of the operations management systems. The methodology can be applied to the design of new reactors such as small nuclear reactors (SMR), and be helpful in assessing the risks of different configurations of the reactors. Our tool provides a low cost evaluation of alternative configurations and provides an expanded safety analysis by considering scenarios while early in the implementation cycle where cost impacts can be minimized. The effects of failures can be modeled and thoroughly vetted to understand their potential impact on risk. The process and tools presented here allow for an integrated assessment of risk by supporting traditional defense in depth approaches while taking into consideration the insertion of new digital instrument and control systems.

  4. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  5. Estimate capital for operational risk using peak over threshold method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputri, Azizah Anugrahwati; Noviyanti, Lienda; Soleh, Achmad Zanbar

    2015-12-01

    Operational risk is inherent in bank activities. To cover this risk a bank reserves a fund called as capital. Often a bank uses Basic Indicator approach (BIA), Standardized Approach (SA), or Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) for estimating the capital amount. BIA and SA are less-objective in comparison to AMA, since BIA and SA use non-actual loss data while AMA use the actual one. In this research, we define the capital as an OpVaR (i.e. the worst loss at a given confidence level) which will be estimated by Peak Over Threshold Method.

  6. Risk management for optimal land use planning integrating ecosystem services values: A case study in Changsha, Middle China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie; Zhong, Minzhou; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Gaojie; Hua, Shanshan; Li, Xiaodong; Yuan, Yujie; Wu, Haipeng; Gao, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Land-use change has direct impact on ecosystem services and alters ecosystem services values (ESVs). Ecosystem services analysis is beneficial for land management and decisions. However, the application of ESVs for decision-making in land use decisions is scarce. In this paper, a method, integrating ESVs to balance future ecosystem-service benefit and risk, is developed to optimize investment in land for ecological conservation in land use planning. Using ecological conservation in land use planning in Changsha as an example, ESVs is regarded as the expected ecosystem-service benefit. And uncertainty of land use change is regarded as risk. This method can optimize allocation of investment in land to improve ecological benefit. The result shows that investment should be partial to Liuyang City to get higher benefit. The investment should also be shifted from Liuyang City to other regions to reduce risk. In practice, lower limit and upper limit for weight distribution, which affects optimal outcome and selection of investment allocation, should be set in investment. This method can reveal the optimal spatial allocation of investment to maximize the expected ecosystem-service benefit at a given level of risk or minimize risk at a given level of expected ecosystem-service benefit. Our results of optimal analyses highlight tradeoffs between future ecosystem-service benefit and uncertainty of land use change in land use decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ergonomic risk factors for cumulative trauma disorders in VDU operators.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Nur; Akat, Celil; Akyüz, Müfit; Cakci, Aytül

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the rate of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) in the upper body and to describe the associations of such disorders with ergonomic parameters in a group of data entry operators. A total of 173 data entry operators volunteered to take part in the study. Questionnaires were used to investigate their medical history. Diagnoses of CTDs were made with clinical tests. A visual posture analysis of the workers and an ergonomic analysis of workstations and workload were used to reveal risk factors. Neck and shoulder pain, extensor tendonitis of the wrists and De Quervain's disease were common in the study population. An assessment of risk factors showed that leaning wrists on the keyboard, hard keystrokes, extreme wrist joint and thumb positions and working in poor ergonomic design were correlated to pain and development of CTDs.

  8. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  9. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands

    PubMed Central

    Twidwell, Dirac; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Sindelar, Michael T.; Weir, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1) a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2) a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3) an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related) equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands. PMID:26465329

  10. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands.

    PubMed

    Twidwell, Dirac; Wonkka, Carissa L; Sindelar, Michael T; Weir, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1) a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2) a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3) an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related) equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands.

  11. Modeling the operational risk in Iranian commercial banks: case study of a private bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Omid; Kimiagari, Alimohammad; Noorbakhsh, Eaman

    2012-08-01

    The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision from the Bank for International Settlement classifies banking risks into three main categories including credit risk, market risk, and operational risk. The focus of this study is on the operational risk measurement in Iranian banks. Therefore, issues arising when trying to implement operational risk models in Iran are discussed, and then, some solutions are recommended. Moreover, all steps of operational risk measurement based on Loss Distribution Approach with Iran's specific modifications are presented. We employed the approach of this study to model the operational risk of an Iranian private bank. The results are quite reasonable, comparing the scale of bank and other risk categories.

  12. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  13. Summary of the operational land imager focal plane array for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Kirk A.; Burmester, William; Malone, Kevin; Schrein, Ronald J.; Irwin, Ronda; Donley, Eric; Collins, Sandra R.

    2011-10-01

    The Landsat missions are the longest continuous record of changes in the Earth's surface as seen from space. The next follow-on activity is the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The LDCM objective is to extend the ability to detect and quantitatively characterize changes on the global land surface at a scale where natural and man-made causes of change can be detected and differentiated. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments on the LDCM spacecraft. OLI will produce science data for the reflective bands, which include 6 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and 3 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands. The OLI instrument utilizes a pushbroom design with 15.5 degree field of view. As a result, the OLI Focal Plane Array (FPA) cross track dimension is large, and the FPA is a critical technology for the success of the mission. The FPA contains 14 critically aligned Focal Plane Modules (FPM) and consists of 6916 imaging pixels in each of the 8 multi-spectral bands, and 13,832 imaging pixels in the panchromatic band. Prior to integration into the FPA, the FPMs were characterized for radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. The Flight FPA has been built and its performance has also been characterized. In this paper, the critical attributes of the FPMs and FPA are highlighted. Detailed description of the FPM and FPA test sets are provided. The performance results that demonstrate compliance to the science mission requirements are presented.

  14. An operational framework for object-based land use classification of heterogeneous rural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watmough, Gary R.; Palm, Cheryl A.; Sullivan, Clare

    2017-02-01

    The characteristics of very high resolution (VHR) satellite data are encouraging development agencies to investigate its use in monitoring and evaluation programmes. VHR data pose challenges for land use classification of heterogeneous rural landscapes as it is not possible to develop generalised and transferable land use classification definitions and algorithms. We present an operational framework for classifying VHR satellite data in heterogeneous rural landscapes using an object-based and random forest classifier. The framework overcomes the challenges of classifying VHR data in anthropogenic landscapes. It does this by using an image stack of RGB-NIR, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and textural bands in a two-phase object-based classification. The framework can be applied to data acquired by different sensors, with different view and illumination geometries, at different times of the year. Even with these complex input data the framework can produce classification results that are comparable across time. Here we describe the framework and present an example of its application using data from QuickBird (2 images) and GeoEye (1 image) sensors.

  15. Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL): Potential Impact on Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couluris, G. J.; Signor, D.; Phillips, J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating technological and operational concepts for introducing Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft into a future US National Airspace System (NAS) civil aviation environment. CESTOL is an aircraft design concept for future use to increase capacity and reduce emissions. CESTOL provides very flexible takeoff, climb, descent and landing performance capabilities and a high-speed cruise capability. In support of NASA, this study is a preliminary examination of the potential operational impact of CESTOL on airport and airspace capacity and delay. The study examines operational impacts at a subject site, Newark Liberty Intemational Airport (KEWR), New Jersey. The study extends these KEWR results to estimate potential impacts on NAS-wide network traffic operations due to the introduction of CESTOL at selected major airports. These are the 34 domestic airports identified in the Federal Aviation Administration's Operational Evolution Plan (OEP). The analysis process uses two fast-time simulation tools to separately model local and NAS-wide air traffic operations using predicted flight schedules for a 24-hour study period in 2016. These tools are the Sen sis AvTerminal model and NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). We use both to simulate conventional-aircraft-only and CESTOL-mixed-with-conventional-aircraft operations. Both tools apply 4-dimension trajectory modeling to simulate individual flight movement. The study applies AvTerminal to model traffic operations and procedures for en route and terminal arrival and departures to and from KEWR. These AvTerminal applications model existing arrival and departure routes and profiles and runway use configurations, with the assumption jet-powered, large-sized civil CESTOL aircraft use a short runway and standard turboprop arrival and departure procedures. With these rules, the conventional jet and CESTOL aircraft are procedurally

  16. Application-ready expedited MODIS data for operational land surface monitoring of vegetation condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Jesslyn; Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Frieze, Aaron; Ji, Lei; Gacke, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring systems benefit from high temporal frequency image data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) system. Because of near-daily global coverage, MODIS data are beneficial to applications that require timely information about vegetation condition related to drought, flooding, or fire danger. Rapid satellite data streams in operational applications have clear benefits for monitoring vegetation, especially when information can be delivered as fast as changing surface conditions. An “expedited” processing system called “eMODIS” operated by the U.S. Geological Survey provides rapid MODIS surface reflectance data to operational applications in less than 24 h offering tailored, consistently-processed information products that complement standard MODIS products. We assessed eMODIS quality and consistency by comparing to standard MODIS data. Only land data with known high quality were analyzed in a central U.S. study area. When compared to standard MODIS (MOD/MYD09Q1), the eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maintained a strong, significant relationship to standard MODIS NDVI, whether from morning (Terra) or afternoon (Aqua) orbits. The Aqua eMODIS data were more prone to noise than the Terra data, likely due to differences in the internal cloud mask used in MOD/MYD09Q1 or compositing rules. Post-processing temporal smoothing decreased noise in eMODIS data.

  17. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    PubMed

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  18. Evaluations of land cover risk factors for canine leptospirosis: 94 cases (2002-2009).

    PubMed

    Raghavan, R; Brenner, K; Higgins, J; Van der Merwe, D; Harkin, K R

    2011-09-01

    Associations of land cover/land use variables and the presence of dogs in urban vs. rural address locations were evaluated retrospectively as potential risk factors for canine leptospirosis in Kansas and Nebraska using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The sample included 94 dogs positive for leptospirosis predominantly based on a positive polymerase chain reaction test for leptospires in urine, isolation of leptospires on urine culture, a single reciprocal serum titer of 12,800 or greater, or a four-fold rise in reciprocal serum titers over a 2-4 weeks period; and 185 dogs negative for leptospirosis based on a negative polymerase chain reaction test and reciprocal serum titers less than 400. Land cover features from 2001 National Land Cover Dataset and 2001 Kansas Gap Analysis Program datasets around geocoded addresses of case/control locations were extracted using 2500m buffers, and the presence of dogs' address locations within urban vs. rural areas were estimated in GIS. Multivariate logistic models were used to determine the risk of different land cover variables and address locations to dogs. Medium intensity urban areas (OR=1.805, 95% C.I.=1.396, 2.334), urban areas in general (OR=2.021, 95% C.I.=1.360, 3.003), and having urban address locations (OR=3.732, 95% C.I.=1.935, 7.196 entire study region), were significant risk factors for canine leptospirosis. Dogs regardless of age, sex and breed that live in urban areas are at higher risk of leptospirosis and vaccination should be considered.

  19. Risk analysis for autonomous underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Brito, Mario Paulo; Griffiths, Gwyn; Challenor, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the elicitation of expert judgment. We conducted a formal judgment elicitation process where eight world experts in AUV design and operation were asked to assign a probability of AUV loss given the emergence of each fault or incident from the vehicle's life history of 63 faults and incidents. After discussing methods of aggregation and analysis, we show how the aggregated risk estimates obtained from the expert judgments were used to create a risk model. To estimate AUV survival with mission distance, we adopted a statistical survival function based on the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. We present theoretical formulations for the estimator, its variance, and confidence limits. We also present a numerical example where the approach is applied to estimate the probability that the Autosub3 AUV would survive a set of missions under Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica in January-March 2009.

  20. Savannah River Reactor Operation: Indices of risk for emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Periodically it is necessary to re-examine the implications of new source terms for neighboring offsite populations as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Severe Accident studies mature, and lead to a better understanding of the progression of hypothetical core melt accidents in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. In this application multiple-system failure, low-frequency events, and consequently higher radiological source terms than from normal operation or design basis accidents (DBAs) are considered. Measures of consequence such as constant dose vs distance, boundary doses, and health effects to close-in populations are usually examined in this context. A set of source terms developed for the Safety Information Document (SID) for support of the Reactor Operation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) forms the basis for the revised risk evaluation discussed herein. The intent of this review is not to completely substantiate the sufficiency of the current Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). However, the two principal measures (200-rem red-bone marrow dose vs distance and 300-rem thyroid dose vs distance) for setting an EPZ are considered. Additional dose-at-distance calculations and consideration of DBA doses would be needed to complete a re-evaluation of the current EPZ. These subject areas are not addressed in the current document. Also, this report evaluates the sensitivity of individual risk estimates to the extent of offsite evacuation assumed from a K reactor severe accident and compares these risks to the Draft DOE Safety Guidelines. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Preliminary assessment of the microwave landing system requirements for STOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C. N.; Brown, S. C.; Goka, T.; Park, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an investigation made to assess the Microwave Landing System (MLS) Requirements for use by civil STOL aircraft are described. The principal MLS characteristics investigated in the report were signal accuracy and volume of coverage. The study utilized a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom digital simulation of a De Havilland Buffalo C-8A aircraft. Fully automatic control of timed curve flight down to touchdown was simulated. Selected MLS accuracy and coverage parameters for the azimuth, primary elevation, flare evelation and DME signals were varied. The resulting STOL aircraft system performance in following a representative curved flight path was statistically determined. Coverage requirements for STOL aircraft operating in the terminal area environment were also investigated.

  2. Managing risks of market price uncertainty for a microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram

    After deregulation of electricity in the United States, the day-ahead and real-time markets allow load serving entities and generation companies to bid and purchase/sell energy under the supervision of the independent system operator (ISO). The electricity market prices are inherently uncertain, and can be highly volatile. The main objective of this thesis is to hedge against the risk from the uncertainty of the market prices when purchasing/selling energy from/to the market. The energy manager can also schedule distributed generators (DGs) and storage of the microgrid to meet the demand, in addition to energy transactions from the market. The risk measure used in this work is the variance of the uncertain market purchase/sale cost/revenue, assuming the price following a Gaussian distribution. Using Markowitz optimization, the risk is minimized to find the optimal mix of purchase from the markets. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic program. The microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, IL was used as a case study. The result of this work reveals the tradeoff faced by the microgrid energy manager between minimizing the risk and minimizing the mean of the total operating cost (TOC) of the microgrid. With this information, the microgrid energy manager can make decisions in the day-ahead and real-time markets according to their risk aversion preference. The assumption of market prices following Gaussian distribution is also verified to be reasonable for the purpose of hedging against their risks. This is done by comparing the result of the proposed formulation with that obtained from the sample market prices randomly generated using the distribution of actual historic market price data.

  3. Risk Balance: A Key Tool for Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Faris, Grant B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) discipline actively participates as a project member to achieve their common objective of full mission success while also providing an independent risk assessment to the Project Manager and Office of Safety and Mission Success staff. The cornerstone element of MOA is the independent assessment of the risks the project faces in executing its mission. Especially as the project approaches critical mission events, it becomes imperative to clearly identify and assess the risks the project faces. Quite often there are competing options for the project to select from in deciding how to execute the event. An example includes choices between proven but aging hardware components and unused but unproven components. Timing of the event with respect to visual or telecommunications visibility can be a consideration in the case of Earth reentry or hazardous maneuver events. It is in such situations that MOA is called upon for a risk balance assessment or risk trade study to support their recommendation to the Project Manager for a specific option to select. In the following paragraphs we consider two such assessments, one for the Stardust capsule Earth return and the other for the choice of telecommunications system configuration for the EPOXI flyby of the comet Hartley 2. We discuss the development of the trade space for each project's scenario and characterize the risks of each possible option. The risk characterization we consider includes a determination of the severity or consequence of each risk if realized and the likelihood of its occurrence. We then examine the assessment process to arrive at a MOA recommendation. Finally we review each flight project's decision process and the outcome of their decisions.

  4. Risk Balance: A Key Tool for Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Faris, Grant B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) discipline actively participates as a project member to achieve their common objective of full mission success while also providing an independent risk assessment to the Project Manager and Office of Safety and Mission Success staff. The cornerstone element of MOA is the independent assessment of the risks the project faces in executing its mission. Especially as the project approaches critical mission events, it becomes imperative to clearly identify and assess the risks the project faces. Quite often there are competing options for the project to select from in deciding how to execute the event. An example includes choices between proven but aging hardware components and unused but unproven components. Timing of the event with respect to visual or telecommunications visibility can be a consideration in the case of Earth reentry or hazardous maneuver events. It is in such situations that MOA is called upon for a risk balance assessment or risk trade study to support their recommendation to the Project Manager for a specific option to select. In the following paragraphs we consider two such assessments, one for the Stardust capsule Earth return and the other for the choice of telecommunications system configuration for the EPOXI flyby of the comet Hartley 2. We discuss the development of the trade space for each project's scenario and characterize the risks of each possible option. The risk characterization we consider includes a determination of the severity or consequence of each risk if realized and the likelihood of its occurrence. We then examine the assessment process to arrive at a MOA recommendation. Finally we review each flight project's decision process and the outcome of their decisions.

  5. Assessing the Risk of Disc Heniation Related to Landing Impact Following Long-duration Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, J. T.; Newby, N..; Wells, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that crewmembers returning on the Space Shuttle have an increased incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus after spaceflight. This increased risk is thought to be related to disc volume expansion due to unloading and prolonged exposure to microgravity. Although there is an increased risk of disc herniation in Space Shuttle astronauts, it is unknown if dynamic landing loads further contribute to the risk of herniation. To determine if dynamic loads increase the risk of incidence, data from crewmembers (excluding cosmonauts) returning on the Soyuz spacecraft will be compared to Space Shuttle astronauts. These data will be obtained from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Project at NASA. Severity and incidence after spaceflight will be mined from the data, and statistical analyses will be used to determine if Soyuz crewmembers have a higher incidence of disc herniation than Space Shuttle crewmembers. The results are expected to show no difference between Space Shuttle and Soyuz crewmembers, indicating that higher dynamic loads on landing and long-duration spaceflight do not significantly increase the risk of disc herniation. If no difference is shown between the two crewmember populations, then disc volume expansion due to microgravity does not significantly increase the risk of injury due to dynamic loads for deconditioned crewmembers. Any risk associated with deconditioning would be primarily due to bone structure changes and resulting bone strength changes. This study is an important first step in determining whether the spinal disc plays a role in injury due to dynamic loads.

  6. Assessing and monitoring the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, using spectral mixture analysis and Landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2016-07-01

    The fall of the communist regime in Romania at the end of 1989 and the ensuing transition to the market economy brought about many changes in the use of agricultural land. These changes combined with the action of climatic factors led, in most cases, to negative effects increasing the risk of degradation of agricultural land. This study aims to assess and monitor the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, for the period 1988-2011 using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). Each satellite image was classified through the Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) method; then, on the basis of certain threshold values, we obtained maps of land degradation and maps showing the passage from various classes of land use/land cover (LULC) to land degradation. The results indicate that during the intermediary periods there was an ascending and descending trend in the risk of land degradation determined by the interaction of climatic factors with the social-economic ones. For the entire period, the overall trend was ascending, the risk of land degradation increasing by around 4.60 % of the studied surface. Out of the climatic factors, high temperatures and, implicitly, drought were the most significant. The social-economic factors are the result of the changes which occurred after the fall of the communist regime, the most important being the fragmentation of agricultural land and the destruction of the irrigation system.

  7. Stochastic and recursive calibration for operational, large-scale, agricultural land and water use management models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Kimball, J. S.; Jencso, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    Managing the impact of climatic cycles on agricultural production, on land allocation, and on the state of active and projected water sources is challenging. This is because in addition to the uncertainties associated with climate projections, it is difficult to anticipate how farmers will respond to climatic change or to economic and policy incentives. Some sophisticated decision support systems available to water managers consider farmers' adaptive behavior but they are data intensive and difficult to apply operationally over large regions. Satellite-based observational technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods, create an opportunity for new, cost-effective analysis tools to support policy and decision-making over large spatial extents at seasonal scales.We present an integrated modeling framework that can be driven by satellite remote sensing to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of climatic and policy impacts on agricultural production, water resources, and management decisions. The core of this framework is a widely used model of agricultural production and resource allocation adapted to be used in conjunction with remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land and water farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to reduced or enhanced access to water due to climatic or policy restrictions. A recursive Bayesian update method is used to adjust the model parameters by assimilating information on crop acreage, production, and crop evapotranspiration as a proxy for water use that can be estimated from high spatial resolution satellite remote sensing. The data assimilation framework blends new and old information to avoid over-calibration to the specific conditions of a single year and permits the updating of parameters to track gradual changes in the agricultural system.This integrated framework provides an operational means of monitoring and forecasting what crops will be grown

  8. Risk in the Ryukyu Islands: Joint Planning for Okinawa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    Hagushi landings and overcome its associated risks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Joint Operational Planning, Operational Art, Operation Iceberg, Okinawa. 16...The decision to recognize the benefits associated with the Hagushi landings, considering the potential consequences, displayed sound operational...across the joint force to produce an operational approach to exploit the benefits of the Hagushi landings and overcome its associated risks. iv

  9. Pathogen risk assessment of land applied wastewater and biosolids: A fuzzy set approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dahab, M.F.; Fuerhacker, M.; Zibuschka, F.

    1998-07-01

    There are major concerns associated with land application of wastewater and biosolids including the potential risk to public health from water-borne pollutants that may enter the food chain and from pathogens that may be present in the wastewater. These risks are of particular concern when wastewater is applied to land where crops are grown as part of the human food chain or when direct human contact with the wastewater may occur. In many communities, toxic chemicals may not be present in the biosolids, or their concentrations may be reduced through source control measures. However, pathogens that enter wastewater from infected individuals cannot be controlled at the source and are often found in wastewater or biosolids applied to land. Public health officials have emphasized that microbial pathogens (or pathogen indicators) should not occur in areas where exposure to humans is likely. Under this criteria, the concept of risk assessment which requires the characterization of the occurrence of pathogens, almost seems to be contradictory to basic public health goals. As the understanding of pathogen and pathogen indicator occurrence becomes better refined, the arguments for finding practical application of risk assessment for pathogenic organisms become more compelling.

  10. Potential scientific objectives for a 2018 2-rover mission to Mars and implications for the landing site and landed operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Westall, F.; Beaty, D.; Cady, S. L.; Carr, M. H.; Ciarletti, V.; Coradini, A.; Elfving, A.; Glavin, D.; Goesmann, F.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Ori, G. G.; Phillips, R. J.; Salvo, C.; Sephton, M.; Syvertson, M.; Vago, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    A study sponsored by MEPAG has defined the possibilities for cooperative science using two rovers under consideration for launch to Mars in 2018 (ESA’s ExoMars, and a NASA-sourced rover concept for which we use the working name of MAX-C). The group considered collaborative science opportunities both without change to either proposed rover, as well as with some change allowed. Planning focused on analysis of shared and separate objectives, with concurrence on two high priority shared objectives that could form the basis of highly significant collaborative exploration activity. The first shared objective relates to sending the proposed rovers to a site interpreted to contain evidence of past environments with high habitability potential, and with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures where they would evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions, assess the potential for preservation of biotic and/or prebiotic signatures, and search for possible evidence of past life and prebiotic chemistry. The second shared objective relates to the collection, documentation, and suitable packaging of a set of samples by the rovers that would be sufficient to achieve the scientific objectives of a possible future sample return mission. Achieving cooperative science with the two proposed rovers implies certain compromises that might include less time available for pursuing each rover’s independent objectives, implementation of some hardware modifications, and the need to share a landing site that may not be optimized for either rover. Sharing a landing site has multiple implications, including accepting a common latitude restriction, accepting the geological attributes of the common landing site, and creation of a potential telecommunications bottleneck. Moreover, ensuring a safe landing with the sky crane and pallet system envisioned for the mission would likely result in landing terrain engineering requirements more constraining than those for MSL

  11. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model

  12. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km

  13. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  14. Sustainability of ground water quality considering land use changes and public health risks.

    PubMed

    Twarakavi, Navin K C; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2006-12-01

    One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality (GWQ). Another issue of equal interest is the sustainability of natural resources for future generations. To understand the sustainability of the natural resources such as water in general, one needs to understand the impact of future land use changes on the natural resources. This work proposes a methodology to address sustainability of GWQ considering land use changes, aquifer vulnerability to multiple contaminants, and public health risks. The methodology was demonstrated for the Sumas-Blaine aquifer in Washington State. The land transformation model predicted that nearly 60 percent of the land use practices would change in the Sumas-Blaine Aquifer by the year 2015. The accuracy of the LTM model predictions increased to greater levels as the spatial resolution was decreased. Aquifer vulnerability analysis was performed for major contaminants using the binary logistic regression (LR) method. The LR model, along with the predicted future land use, was used to estimate the future GWQ using two indices-carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic ground water qualities. Sustainability of GWQ was then analyzed using the concept of 'strong' sustainability. The sustainability map of GWQ showed improvements in many areas where urbanization is expected to occur. The positive impact of urbanization on GWQ is an indication of the extensive damage caused by existing agricultural activities in the study area.

  15. Radiation exposure risk to the surgeon during operative angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramalanjaona, G.R.; Pearce, W.H.; Ritenour, E.R.

    1986-09-01

    Intraoperative angiography has become an essential adjunct to reconstructive vascular surgery. Therefore, radiation exposure and its potential risks to the performing surgeon need to be known. To study this, we designed experimental and clinical tests quantifying the radiation exposure to the surgeon during different intraoperative angiograms. Radiation exposure to various parts of the surgeon's body was quantified by thermoluminescence dosimetry. During each exposure a surgeon standing one foot from the x-ray tube received an absorbed dose equivalent to 0.24 to 1.4 millirems, which is about half that of an intraoperative cholangiogram. With 5000 millirems considered the maximum permissible dose, this would imply that an upper limit of about 3500 intraoperative angiograms each year (68 each week) could be performed safely. Comparatively, abdominal angiography carried the most significant risk (p = 0.01) and peripheral angiography was the least hazardous. Fluoroscopy increased radiation exposure more than four times that of nonfluoroscopic procedures (p = 0.05). The surgeon's extremities received the greatest dose, followed by the eyes and neck, suggesting the need for individual monitoring devices for those parts to be worn by surgeons who perform operative angiograms more frequently than average. Our study indicates that the radiation dose received by the surgeon during operative angiography, especially that of peripheral vessels, is minimal. Operative arteriography is not only a simple and readily available diagnostic tool, but it is quite a safe procedure if applied correctly.

  16. Radiometric Calibration and Stability of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Edward; Ong, Lawrence; Morfitt, Ron; Haque, Md Obaidul

    2015-01-01

    Landsat-8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 1/2 years. The OLI radiometric calibration, which is monitored using on-board lamps, on-board solar diffusers, the moon and vicarious calibration techniques has been stable to within 1% over this period of time. The Coastal Aerosol band, band 1, shows the largest change at about 1% over the period; all other bands have shown no significant trend. OLI bands 1- 4 show small discontinuities in response (+0.1% to 0.2%) beginning about 7 months after launch and continuing for about 1 month associated with a power cycling of the instrument, though the origin of the recovery is unclear. To date these small changes have not been compensated for, but this will change with a reprocessing campaign that is currently scheduled for Fall 2015. The calibration parameter files (each typically covering a 3 month period) will be updated for these observed gain changes. A fitted response to an adjusted average of the lamps, solar and lunar results will represent the trend, sampled at the rate of one value per CPF.

  17. Landsat Data Continuity Mission operational land imager and thermal infrared sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Reuter, Dennis; Thome, Kurtis J.; Irons, James R.; Barsi, Julia A.; Montanaro, Matt

    2011-10-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) will have two pushbroom Earth-imaging sensors: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS). The OLI has the reflective 30-meter and panchromatic 15-meter ETM+ bands plus additional 30-meter bands at 443 nm and 1375 nm. The TIRS has two 100-meter bands that spectrally split the ETM+ thermal band. OLI has completed performance testing and is scheduled for a late summer 2011 delivery to the spacecraft. OLI radiometric performance has shown that polarization sensitivity is 1-2%; Signal-to-Noise Ratios at signal levels about 5-10% of full scale are between 6-12 times better than ETM+, e.g., 250 versus 30; radiometric stability over 16 days is better than 0.5% (2-sigma); coherent noise is not visible; detector operability is 100% (no dead or inoperable detectors), absolute radiance calibration uncertainty is ~4%, reflectance calibration uncertainty is ~2.5% and detector-to-detector radiometric uniformity is generally better than 0.5%. TIRS completed initial performance testing in March 2011 and in August 2011 will be entering its primary thermal vacuum performance testing with the integrated instrument. At this point indications are that the TIRS instrument will have noise levels roughly ¼ of the ETM+ bands and detector-to-detector radiometric uniformity of better than 0.5%.

  18. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  19. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5%. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9% respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1%. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  20. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb, and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5 percent. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9 percent respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1 percent. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  1. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  2. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  3. 43 CFR 3809.100 - What special provisions apply to operations on segregated or withdrawn lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809... examination report. After the date on which the lands are withdrawn from appropriation under the mining...

  4. DNR in the OR. Resuscitation as an operative risk.

    PubMed

    Walker, R M

    1991-11-06

    Should do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders be routinely rescinded when terminally ill patients undergo palliative surgery? If so, patients will be forced to balance the benefits of palliative surgery against the risks of unwanted resuscitation. If physicians are required to honor intraoperative DNR orders, they may feel unacceptably restrained from correcting adverse effects for which they feel responsible. This dilemma has been overlooked by DNR policies. This article argues for the permissibility of honoring intraoperative DNR orders. The patient's right to refuse treatment outweighs physicians' concerns about professional scrutiny over intraoperative deaths. Physicians' moral concerns about hastening patient death are important but may be assuaged by (1) emphasizing patients' acceptance of operative mortality risk; (2) viewing matters as analogous to surgery on Jehovah's Witnesses who refuse lifesaving transfusion; (3) viewing the patient's intraoperative death as a double effect, that is, an unintended negative effect that is linked to the performance of a good act (palliation); and (4) distinguishing this from assisted suicide.

  5. Risk management in international manned space program operations.

    PubMed

    Seastrom, J W; Peercy, R L; Johnson, G W; Sotnikov, B J; Brukhanov, N

    2004-02-01

    New, innovative joint safety policies and requirements were developed in support of the Shuttle/Mir program, which is the first phase of the International Space Station program. This work has resulted in a joint multinational analysis culminating in joint certification for mission readiness. For these planning and development efforts, each nation's risk programs and individual safety practices had to be integrated into a comprehensive and compatible system that reflects the joint nature of the endeavor. This paper highlights the major incremental steps involved in planning and program integration during development of the Shuttle/Mir program. It traces the transition from early development to operational status and highlights the valuable lessons learned that apply to the International Space Station program (Phase 2). Also examined are external and extraneous factors that affected mission operations and the corresponding solutions to ensure safe and effective Shuttle/Mir missions.

  6. Role and operative risk of bilateral adrenalectomy in hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Y; Pitre, J; Conti, F; Abboud, B; Pras-Jude, N; Luton, J P

    1996-09-01

    Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery has radically modified the management of pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (Cushing's disease). Bilateral adrenalectomy may, however, represent the ultimate treatment in some cases of hypercortisolism. In the present study we report our experience of bilateral adrenalectomy in 82 patients operated on during the last 15 years. The causes of hypercortisolism were Cushing's disease (n = 78), ectopic ACTH syndrome (n = 3), and primary adrenocortical nodular dysplasia (Carney-Meador syndrome) (n = 1). Before operation 37% of the patients had severe symptoms of hypercortisolism. A bilateral posterior approach was undertaken in 58 patients, whereas 18 patients had an anterior transabdominal approach and 6 patients a laparoscopic approach. There were two operative deaths (2.4%). Postoperative complications occurred mostly in cases of advanced disease and were observed in 14 patients (17%), among whom 4 had severe complications. At long-term follow-up, one recurrence of hypercortisolism and 12 Nelson syndromes (15%) were observed. In conclusion, bilateral adrenalectomy carries an acceptable operative risk, and we recommend bilateral adrenalectomy rather than long-term suppressive therapy in patients requiring prompt and definitive control of their hypercortisolism or after pituitary surgery failure.

  7. Operative Duration and Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bekelis, Kimon; Coy, Shannon; Simmons, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The association of surgical duration with the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) has not been quantified in neurosurgery. We investigated the association of operative duration in neurosurgical procedures with the incidence of SSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures from 2005 to 2012 and were registered in the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Project registry. To control for confounding, we used multivariable regression models and propensity score conditioning. During the study period there were 94,744 patients who underwent a neurosurgical procedure and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 4.1% developed a postoperative SSI within 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression showed an association between longer operative duration with higher incidence of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.20). Compared with procedures of moderate duration (third quintile, 40th-60th percentile), patients undergoing the longest procedures (>80th percentile) had higher odds (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.86-2.31) of developing SSI. The shortest procedures (<20th percentile) were associated with decreased incidence of SSI (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61-0.83) compared with those of moderate duration. The same associations were present in propensity score adjusted models and models stratified by subgroups of cranial, spinal, peripheral nerve, and carotid procedures. In a cohort of patients from a national prospective surgical registry, longer operative duration was associated with increased incidence of SSI for neurosurgical procedures. These results can be used by neurosurgeons to inform operative management and to stratify patients with regard to SSI risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrological Risk of Artificial Floods Associated To Dam Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, C.; Petaccia, A.; Rosso, R.

    Past experience and statistical data show that extreme floods are an important factor for risk assessment of dams. In the last century, the methods to assess the hydrolog- ical safety of dams have considered principally the analysis of dam-break scenarios. For instance, one records four major reservoir disasters in Italy; the first one (1923) was due to structural dam failure immediately after dam completion, the second one (1935) occurred because dam overtopping due to a flood largely exceeding spillway capacity, the third one (1963) was produced by the largest recorded landslide into a reservoir without dam failure, and the fourth one (1985) was caused by poor mainte- nance of a small fill dam. Yet in the last years, dam failures have been significantly reduced. Berga (1998) reported that the percentage of failures before 1950 was 2.3%, while for dams constructed from 1951 to 1982 it reduced to 0.2%, and since 1982 is only 0.09%. This considerable reduction indicates that a significant progress has been achieved in dam safety. On the other hand, there is an increasing need in modern risk- averse societies to reduce the vulnerability of downstream river systems. This includes economic damage to properties and infrastructures, priority of human life protection, and environmental damages. Therefore new criteria to evaluate the hydrological safety of dams are required also considering the effects of artificial floods generated by dam gate operation. In several countries, the major hazard is indeed not that associated with potential dam-breach, but it deals with the artificial floods produced by dam gate op- eration in both emergency and maintenance modes. The increase of anthropization of riparian areas downstream dams constructed in the past has augmented the potential effects of such operations. In this respect, one can note that emergency gates of the dams may release discharges largely exceeding natural extreme floods. The role of reservoir operation during major

  9. The application of seismic risk-benefit analysis to land use planning in Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Chen, Liang-Chun

    2007-09-01

    In the developing countries of Asia local authorities rarely use risk analysis instruments as a decision-making support mechanism during planning and development procedures. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to enable planners to undertake such analyses. We illustrate a case study of seismic risk-benefit analysis for the city of Taipei, Taiwan, using available land use maps and surveys as well as a new tool developed by the National Science Council in Taiwan--the HAZ-Taiwan earthquake loss estimation system. We use three hypothetical earthquakes to estimate casualties and total and annualised direct economic losses, and to show their spatial distribution. We also characterise the distribution of vulnerability over the study area using cluster analysis. A risk-benefit ratio is calculated to express the levels of seismic risk attached to alternative land use plans. This paper suggests ways to perform earthquake risk evaluations and the authors intend to assist city planners to evaluate the appropriateness of their planning decisions.

  10. Operative Start Time Does Not Affect Post-Operative Infection Risk.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Christopher A; Davies, Stephen W; Willis, Rhett N; Dietch, Zachary C; Shah, Puja M; Sawyer, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Surgical care is delivered 24 h a day at most institutions. Alarmingly, some authors have found that certain operative start times are associated with greater morbidity and mortality rates. This effect has been noted in both the public and private sector. Although some of these differences may be related to process, they may also be caused by the human circadian rhythm and corresponding changes in host defenses. We hypothesized that the time of day of an operation would impact the frequency of certain post-operative outcomes significantly. Cases at a single tertiary-care center reported to the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program over a 10-year period were identified. Operative start times were divided into six-hour blocks, with 6 am to noon serving as the reference. Standard univariable techniques were applied. Multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects modeling then was used to determine the relation between operative start times and infectious outcomes, controlling for surgeon clustering. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.01. A total of 21,985 cases were identified, of which 2,764 (12.6%) were emergency procedures. Overall, 9.7% (n = 2,142) of patients experienced some post-operative infectious complication. Seventy percent of these infections (n = 1,506) were surgical site infections. On univariable analysis considering all cases, nighttime and evening operations had higher rates of post-operative infections than those in performed during the day (9.1% from 6 am to noon; 9.7% from noon to 6 pm; 14.8% from 6 pm to midnight; and 14.4% from midnight to 6 am; p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, operative start time was not associated with the risk of post-operative infection, even when emergency cases were considered independently. Our data suggest that operative start times have no correlation with post-operative infectious complications. Further work is required to identify the source of

  11. Study on the risk and impacts of land subsidence in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, H. Z.; Andreas, H.; Gumilar, I.; Brinkman, J. J.

    2015-11-01

    Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia located in the west-northern coast of Java island, within a deltaic plain and passes by 13 natural and artificial rivers. This megapolitan has a population of about 10.2 million people inhabiting an area of about 660 km2, with relatively rapid urban development. It has been reported for many years that several places in Jakarta are subsiding at different rates. The main causative factors of land subsidence in Jakarta are most probably excessive groundwater extraction, load of constructions (i.e., settlement of high compressibility soil), and natural consolidation of alluvial soil. Land subsidence in Jakarta has been studied using leveling surveys, GPS surveys, InSAR and Geometric-Historic techniques. The results obtained from leveling surveys, GPS surveys and InSAR technique over the period between 1974 and 2010 show that land subsidence in Jakarta has spatial and temporal variations with typical rates of about 3-10 cm year-1. Rapid urban development, relatively young alluvium soil, and relatively weak mitigation and adapatation initiatives, are risk increasing factors of land subsidence in Jakarta. The subsidence impacts can be seen already in the field in forms of cracking and damage of housing, buildings and infrastructure; wider expansion of (riverine and coastal) flooding areas, malfunction of drainage system, changes in river canal and drain flow systems and increased inland sea water intrusion. These impacts can be categorized into infrastructural, environmental, economic and social impacts. The risk and impacts of land subsidence in Jakarta and their related aspects are discussed in this paper.

  12. SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2007-07-01

    SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of system evolution that is designed specifically to address issues found across UK nuclear sites. The code adopts flexible input language with build-in unit checking to model the whole system (i.e. near-field, geosphere and biosphere) in a single code thus avoiding the need for any time consuming data transfer and the often laborious interface between the different codes. This greatly speeds up the assessment process and has major quality assurance advantages. SimER thus provides a cost-effective tool for undertaking projects involving risk assessment from contaminated land assessments through to full post-closure safety cases and other work supporting key site endpoint decisions. A Windows version (v1.0) of the code was first released in June 2004. The code has subsequently been subject to further testing and development. In particular, Viewers have been developed to provide users with visual information to assist the development of SimER models, and output can now be produced in a format that can be used by the FieldView software to view the results and produce animation from the SimER calculations. More recently a Linux version of the code has been produced to extend coverage to the commonly used platform bases and offer an improved operating environment for probabilistic assessments. Results from the verification of the SimER code for a sample of test cases for both contaminated land and waste disposal applications are presented. (authors)

  13. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21st century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change. PMID:26867481

  14. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-02-12

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21(st) century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change.

  15. Land use as an explanatory factor for potential phosphorus loss risk, assessed by P indices and their governing parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Vogt, Rolf D; Lu, Xueqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lü, Changwei; Mohr, Christian W; Zhu, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The total level of phosphorus (P) and the distribution of P pools in the topsoil are significantly affected by the excessive application of mineral and organic fertilizers connected with intensive agriculture. This leads to an increased potential risk for P loss, and then contributes to freshwater eutrophication. Soil test P (STP), P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) are commonly applied as proxies for assessing the risk of P loss. Although conceptually based, the empirical relationships between these operationally defined proxies and the actual P flux exhibit large spatial variations. Herein, a comprehensive synoptic study and monitoring of soil has been conducted in a watershed in north-eastern China. A set of conventional indicators for soil P loss risk were measured along with the main P pools, P sorption indices, texture, organic matter, as well as Fe and Al oxides and other mineral compositions. Moreover, detailed soil P speciation was conducted using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, phosphatase activities in the soils were determined for each land use soil category. The results reflected that the soil content of total P, total inorganic P and STP increased significantly following the order of increasing management intensity. STP, being strongly coupled to the application of P fertilizers, was a strong explanatory factor for the spatial differences in DPS - both between and within different land uses. The dominant inorganic and organic P species in the soils were orthophosphate and monoester-P, respectively. Their contents were oppositely correlated with the degree of management influence, with the amount of orthophosphate positively related. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP) represented the highest activities among the four representative phosphatases, i.e. enzymes that hydrolyze organic P - releasing labile orthophosphate. Orchard soils were found to contain the highest levels of monoester P

  16. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  17. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  18. Operation Risk Mitigation On Halal Meat Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Agus; Farida, Ayu; Ulil Albab, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Business owner of perishable goods such as meats has barriers to meet the demand of worldwide shipping. One of potential risk is damage resulting in decreased quality product, while the product selection criteria not only focus on quality. As the development of health issues and needs, halal meats is not only considered by the Muslim consumer but also consumer globally. In addition, they have to pay attention to the possible risk that might occur during the logistic operations so as they prevent loss if they fail to deal with the problem and risk properly. Quality Function Development proposed to identify what consumer’s need as well as to analyse the condition of market in the future. The study is conducted in the context of business owner’s feelings based on their obstacles. It also aims to unravel the expectations and perceptions of owners with interrelated issues such as halal meats with each affecting on the other multidirectional ways. This study has revealed new insights for policy makers, logistics service providers, and practitioners whose decisions might impact the industry.

  19. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  20. A New Era in Geodesy and Cartography: Implications for Landing Site Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global dataset has ushered in a new era for Mars local and global geodesy and cartography. These data include the global digital terrain model (Digital Terrain Model (DTM) radii), the global digital elevation model (Digital Elevation Model (DEM) elevation with respect to the geoid), and the higher spatial resolution individual MOLA ground tracks. Currently there are about 500,000,000 MOLA points and this number continues to grow as MOLA continues successful operations in orbit about Mars, the combined processing of radiometric X-band Doppler and ranging tracking of MGS together with millions of MOLA orbital crossover points has produced global geodetic and cartographic control having a spatial (latitude/longitude) accuracy of a few meters and a topographic accuracy of less than 1 meter. This means that the position of an individual MOLA point with respect to the center-of-mass of Mars is know to an absolute accuracy of a few meters. The positional accuracy of this point in inertial space over time is controlled by the spin rate uncertainty of Mars which is less than 1 km over 10 years that will be improved significantly with the next landed mission.

  1. Landsat 8 operational land imager on-orbit geometric calibration and performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Lee, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI) payload for moderate resolution imaging in the visible, near infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands. During the 90-day commissioning period following launch, several on-orbit geometric calibration activities were performed to refine the prelaunch calibration parameters. The results of these calibration activities were subsequently used to measure geometric performance characteristics in order to verify the OLI geometric requirements. Three types of geometric calibrations were performed including: (1) updating the OLI-to-spacecraft alignment knowledge; (2) refining the alignment of the sub-images from the multiple OLI sensor chips; and (3) refining the alignment of the OLI spectral bands. The aspects of geometric performance that were measured and verified included: (1) geolocation accuracy with terrain correction, but without ground control (L1Gt); (2) Level 1 product accuracy with terrain correction and ground control (L1T); (3) band-to-band registration accuracy; and (4) multi-temporal image-to-image registration accuracy. Using the results of the on-orbit calibration update, all aspects of geometric performance were shown to meet or exceed system requirements.

  2. On-orbit performance of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, Esad; Vanderwerff, Kelly; Scaramuzza, Pat; Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 satellite was launched on February 11, 2013, to systematically collect multispectral images for detection and quantitative analysis of changes on the Earth’s surface. The collected data are stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and continue the longest archive of medium resolution Earth images. There are two imaging instruments onboard the satellite: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS). This paper summarizes radiometric performance of the OLI including the bias stability, the system noise, saturation and other artifacts observed in its data during the first 1.5 years on orbit. Detector noise levels remain low and Signal-To-Noise Ratio high, largely exceeding the requirements. Impulse noise and saturation are present in imagery, but have negligible effect on Landsat 8 products. Oversaturation happens occasionally, but the affected detectors quickly restore their nominal responsivity. Overall, the OLI performs very well on orbit and provides high quality products to the user community. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. Derivation and evaluation of land surface temperature from the geostationary operational environmental satellite series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been continuously monitoring the earth surface since 1970, providing valuable and intensive data from a very broad range of wavelengths, day and night. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is currently operating GOES-15 and GOES-13. The design of the GOES series is now heading to the 4 th generation. GOES-R, as a representative of the new generation of the GOES series, is scheduled to be launched in 2015 with higher spatial and temporal resolution images and full-time soundings. These frequent observations provided by GOES Image make them attractive for deriving information on the diurnal land surface temperature (LST) cycle and diurnal temperature range (DTR). These parameters are of great value for research on the Earth's diurnal variability and climate change. Accurate derivation of satellite-based LSTs from thermal infrared data has long been an interesting and challenging research area. To better support the research on climate change, the generation of consistent GOES LST products for both GOES-East and GOES-West from operational dataset as well as historical archive is in great demand. The derivation of GOES LST products and the evaluation of proposed retrieval methods are two major objectives of this study. Literature relevant to satellite-based LST retrieval techniques was reviewed. Specifically, the evolution of two LST algorithm families and LST retrieval methods for geostationary satellites were summarized in this dissertation. Literature relevant to the evaluation of satellite-based LSTs was also reviewed. All the existing methods are a valuable reference to develop the GOES LST product. The primary objective of this dissertation is the development of models for deriving consistent GOES LSTs with high spatial and high temporal coverage. Proper LST retrieval algorithms were studied

  4. Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia; Deyanov, Christo; Israel, Mishel

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the cardiovascular system. Two groups of exposed operators (49 broadcasting (BC) station and 61 TV station operators) and a control group of 110 radiorelay station operators, matched by sex and age, with similar job characteristics except for the radiofrequency EMR were studied. The EMR exposure was assessed and the time-weighted average (TWA) was calculated. The cardiovascular risk factors arterial pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease were followed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in the two exposed groups. It was found that the radiofrequency EMR exposure was associated with greater chance of becoming hypertensive and dyslipidemic. The stepwise multiple regression equations showed that the SBP and TWA predicted the high TC and high LDL-C, while the TC, age and abdominal obesity were predictors for high SBP and DBP. In conclusion, our data show that the radiofrequency EMR contributes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.

  5. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  6. 76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing...

  7. Can private land conservation reduce wildfire risk to homes? A case study in San Diego County, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butsic, Van; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Bar-Massada, Avi

    2017-01-01

    The purchase of private land for conservation purposes is a common way to prevent the exploitation of sensitive ecological areas. However, private land conservation can also provide other benefits, one of these being natural hazard reduction. Here, we investigated the impacts of private land conservation on fire risk to homes in San Diego County, California. We coupled an econometric land use change model with a model that estimates the probability of house loss due to fire in order to compare fire risk at the county and municipality scale under alternative private land purchasing schemes and over a 20 year time horizon. We found that conservation purchases could reduce fire risk on this landscape, and the amount of risk reduction was related to the targeting approach used to choose which parcels were conserved. Conservation land purchases that targeted parcels designated as high fire hazard resulted in lower fire risk to homes than purchases that targeted low costs or high likelihood to subdivide. This result was driven by (1) preventing home placement in fire prone areas and (2) taking land off the market, and hence increasing development densities in other areas. These results raise the possibility that resource conservation and fire hazard reduction may benefit from combining efforts. With adequate planning, future conservation purchases could have synergistic effects beyond just protecting ecologically sensitive areas.

  8. Risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A

    2013-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is monitored under the USEPA High Production Volume (HPV) chemical program and is predominantly used as the active ingredient in select antibacterial bar soaps and other personal care products. The compound commonly occurs at parts-per-million concentrations in processed wastewater treatment residuals (i.e. biosolids), which are frequently land-applied as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Human and ecological risk assessment parameters measured by the authors in previous studies were integrated with existing data to perform a two-tiered human health and ecological risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne TCC. The 14 exposure pathways identified in the Part 503 Biosolids Rule were expanded, and conservative screening-level hazard quotients (HQ values) were first calculated to estimate risk to humans and a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Tier 1). The majority of biosolids-borne TCC exposure pathways resulted in no screening-level HQ values indicative of significant risks to exposed organisms (including humans), even under worst-case land application scenarios. The two pathways for which the conservative screening-level HQ values exceeded one (i.e. Pathway 10: biosolids➔soil➔soil organism➔predator, and Pathway 16: biosolids➔soil➔surface water➔aquatic organism) were then reexamined using modified parameters and scenarios (Tier 2). Adjusted HQ values remained greater than one for Exposure Pathway 10, with the exception of the final adjusted HQ values under a one-time 5 Mg ha(-1) (agronomic) biosolids loading rate scenario for the American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Results were used to prioritize recommendations for future biosolids-borne TCC research, which include additional measurements of toxicological effects and TCC concentrations in environmental matrices at the field level.

  9. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isola, Claudia; Drusch, Matthias; Gascon, Ferran; Martimort, Philippe; Del Bello, Umberto; Spoto, Francois; Sy, Omas; Laberinti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Long-term availability of Earth observation-based services and continuity of consistent high quality data is - apart from meteorological services - not guaranteed in Europe. In order to contribute to improve its response to ever growing challenges of global safety and climate change, Europe requires an independent sustained and reliable Earth observation system. The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is a European programme for the implementation of a European capacity to provide independent and permanent access to reliable Earth observation data. To ensure the operational provision of appropriate Earth-observation data the GMES Space Component (GSC) includes a series of five space missions called 'Sentinels', which are being developed by ESA specifically for GMES. The European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geo-location and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at

  10. Risk Factors for Severe Complications of Operative Mandibular Fractures.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Brian J; Mercante, Donald E; Neary, John P; King, Brett J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the risk factors for major complications developing during the operative treatment of mandibular fractures. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients who had undergone open reduction, internal fixation of mandibular fractures from August 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 at a large, urban teaching hospital and level 1 trauma center. The outcome variable of interest was major complications, defined as the occurrence of any one of the following events: hospital readmission, return to the operating room, and a prolonged, unexpected postoperative stay. Multiple demographic, social, medical, injury-related, and treatment-related variables were recorded during the medical record review. The relationships between these variables and our outcome variable were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 317 patients met the inclusion criteria. The hospital readmission rate was 7.2%, the reoperation rate was 9.5%, and the rate of unplanned, prolonged admission was 0.6%, for a total major complication rate of 11.4%. Eight variables reached statistical significance in their association with the occurrence of major complications. These were the presence of medical comorbidities, a diagnosis of depression, a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder, incarceration, interpersonal violence as a mechanism of injury, the presence of a left angle fracture, the removal of a tooth in the line of fracture, and patient noncompliance. On multivariable analysis, patient noncompliance, depression, the presence of a left angle fracture, and the removal of a tooth in the line of fracture continued to have statistically significant associations with the occurrence of major complications. The identification of risk factors for the development of complications in mandibular trauma is a primary concern for surgeons in the modern healthcare system. The present study identified a number of variables

  11. 76 FR 69294 - Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors...

  12. Trainees operating on high-risk patients without cardiopulmonary bypass: a high-risk strategy?

    PubMed

    Ascione, Raimondo; Reeves, Barnaby C; Pano, Marco; Angelini, Gianni D

    2004-07-01

    The safety of teaching off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting to trainees is best tested in high-risk patients, who are more likely to experience significant morbidity after surgery. This study compared outcomes of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting operations performed by consultants and trainees in high-risk patients. Data for consecutive patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were collected prospectively. Patients satisfying at least one of the following criteria were classified as high-risk: age older than 75 years, ejection fraction less than 0.30, myocardial infarction in the previous month, current congestive heart failure, previous cerebrovascular accident, creatinine greater than 150 micromol/L, respiratory impairment, peripheral vascular disease, previous cardiac surgery, and left main stem stenosis greater than 50%. Early morbidity, 30-day mortality, and late survival were compared. From April 1996 to December 2002, 686 high-risk patients underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting revascularization. Operations by five consultants (416; 61%) and four trainees (239; 35%) were the focus of subsequent analyses. Nine visiting or research fellows performed the other 31 operations. Prognostic factors were more favorable in trainee-led operations. On average, consultants and trainees grafted the same number of vessels. There were 18 (4.3%) and 5 (1.9%) deaths within 30 days, and 14 (3.4%) and 5 (1.9%) myocardial infarctions in consultant and trainee groups, respectively. After adjusting for imbalances in prognostic factors, odd ratios for almost all adverse outcomes implied no increased risk with trainee operators, although patients operated on by trainees had longer postoperative stays and were more likely to have a red blood cell transfusion. Kaplan-Meier cumulative mortality estimates at 24-month follow-up were 10.5% (95% confidence interval, 7.7% to 14.2%) and 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 3.8% to 10.9%) in consultant

  13. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  14. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  15. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  16. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  17. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  18. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  19. Localised Badger Culling Increases Risk of Herd Breakdown on Nearby, Not Focal, Land

    PubMed Central

    Bielby, Jon; Vial, Flavie; Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is an important disease affecting the UK livestock industry. Controlling bovine tuberculosis (TB) is made more complex by the presence of a wildlife host, the Eurasian badger, Meles meles. Repeated large-scale badger culls implemented in the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) were associated with decreased cattle risks inside the culling area, but also with increased cattle risks up to the 2km outside the culling area. Intermediate reductions in badger density, as achieved by localised reactive culling in the RBCT, significantly increased cattle TB. Using a matched-pairs case-control study design (n = 221 pairs of cattle herds), we investigated the spatial scale over which localised badger culling had its biggest impact. We found that reactive badger culling had a significant positive association with the risk of cattle TB at distances of 1-3km and 3-5km, and that no such association existed over shorter distances (<1km). These findings indicate that localised badger culls had significant negative effects, not on the land on which culling took place, but, perhaps more importantly, on adjoining lands and farms. PMID:27749934

  20. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drusch, M.; Gascon, F.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2009-12-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multispectral instrument features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geolocation and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at end-of-life. The satellite will be three-axis stabilized with an AOCS based on high-rate multi-head star trackers, mounted on the instrument structure for better pointing accuracy and stability, as well as a laser gyroscope and a dual-frequency GNSS receiver. The Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) is based on the pushbroom concept. It features a Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) telescope with a pupil diameter of about 150 mm, and achieves a very good imaging quality all across its wide Field of View (290 km swath width, significantly enlarged with respect to Landsat and SPOT). The telescope structure and the mirrors are made of silicon carbide for minimizing thermo-elastic deformations. The visible and

  1. Evolvement rules of basin flood risk under low-carbon mode. Part II: risk assessment of flood disaster under different land use patterns in the Haihe basin.

    PubMed

    Li, Fawen; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Land use pattern contains a large amount of information about the flood hazard-formative environments, which is the most sensitive factor in hazard-formative environments. In this paper, based on the land use pattern in 2008 (the base year) and in 2020 (the planning year), the comparative analysis of flood disaster risk changes in Haihe basin were studied by the spatial analysis function of ARCGIS and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed the flood disaster risk in Haihe basin had an obvious zonality in the space, among which low risk was located in the northwest regions, and high risk was located in the southeast regions. Flood disaster risk in planning year was lower than in the base year. The risk value of 2020 in the mountain decreases from 0.445 to 0.430, while the risk value of the plain increases from 0.562 to 0.564. For the plain, high-risk area in 2020 is increased by 13.2%, which is the biggest change in risk grades. For the mountain, low-risk area and low risk area in 2020 are increased, and the low-risk area is the biggest increase, up to 37.7%. Meanwhile, high-risk area, high risk area, and medium risk area all tend to decrease, and the high-risk area is the biggest decrease, up to 32.6%. Overall, land use planning pattern under low-carbon mode is conducive to the Haihe basin flood control. The research can provide scientific foundations for basin land use planning and flood disaster risk management.

  2. Unpacking the concept of land degradation neutrality and addressing its operation through the Rio Conventions.

    PubMed

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Stringer, Lindsay C; Erlewein, Alexander; Metternicht, Graciela; Minelli, Sara; Safriel, Uriel; Sommer, Stefan

    2016-09-22

    The world's commitment towards land degradation neutrality (LDN) became enshrined in various international agreements and decisions throughout the year 2015. The challenge now becomes one of addressing its operation, in order to achieve these new policy goals and targets by the year 2030. Advancing LDN demands attention to what the concept seeks to achieve, as well as unravelling the perspectives of the key multi-lateral environmental agreements through which progress can be made. The three Rio Conventions (the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)) all play key roles in shaping the international LDN governance and implementation context. Their different but related foci create a number of challenges and opportunities for advancing LDN. In this paper we critically analyze the literature to elucidate potential challenges and opportunities in moving LDN towards implementation, considering the mandates and objectives of all three Rio Conventions. We first unpack the concept of LDN's aspirations. We highlight the importance of the definitions and terminology used, and the relationships between those definitions, terms and the actors using them, as well as their implications in framing the range of policy actions and synergies that could benefit progress towards multiple Sustainable Development Goals. We then examine the LDN pilot project spearheaded by the UNCCD to identify key lessons for LDN implementation. Synthesizing these lessons, we present a portfolio of blended interventions that seeks to address the aspirations of the UNCCD, UNFCCC and CBD in the LDN space, identifying synergistic options for national actions to move towards LDN. Overall, our analysis provides insights in advancing LDN from its current position as a policy target, towards synergetic action.

  3. The influence of land use on source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road-deposited sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Wu, Junwei; Hua, Pei; Zhao, Zhonghua; Wu, Lei; Fan, Gongduan; Bai, Yun; Kaeseberg, Thomas; Krebs, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The pollution load of urban runoff is boosted due to the washing away of road-deposited sediment (RDS). Therefore, a source-oriented mitigation strategy is essential to integrated stormwater management. This study showcases the influence of land use dependent source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in RDS. Samples were collected from areas of different land uses, including commercial city centre, highway, residential rural and campus areas. According to the positive matrix factorisation (PMF) receptor model, different primary sources were identified at different land use areas. Generally, potential sources of gasoline- and diesel-powered engine emissions and other pyrogenic sources of biomass, coal, and wood combustions were identified as main sources of PAH content in RDS. The source specific risks posed by PAHs at different land uses were further estimated by the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). This shows that the mean ILCRs of the total cancer risk for children and adults at the given land uses were lower than the baseline value of an acceptable risk. However, the potential exposure risk to RDS adsorbed PAHs for children was considerably higher than that for adults. Vehicular emissions and wood combustion were the major contributors to the cancer risk with average contributions of 57 and 29%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel land use approach for assessment of human health: The relationship between urban structure types and cardiorespiratory disease risk.

    PubMed

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence shows that in addition to lifestyle factors, environmental aspects are an important risk factor for human health. Numerous approaches have been used to estimate the relationship between environment and health. For example, the urban characteristics, especially the types of land use, are considered a potential proxy indicator to evaluate risk of disease. Although several studies have used land use variables to assess human health, none of them has used the concept of Urban Morphology by Urban Structure Types (USTs) as indicators of land use. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between USTs and cardiorespiratory disease risks in the Federal District, Brazil. Toward this end, we used a quantile regression model to estimate risk. We used 21 types of UST. Income and population density were used as covariates in our sensitivity analysis. Our analysis showed an association between cardiorespiratory diseases risk and 10 UST variables (1 related to rural area, 6 related to residential area, 1 recreational area, 1 public area and 1 commercial area). Our findings suggest that the conventional land use method may be missing important information about the effect of land use on human health. The use of USTs can be an approach to complement the conventional method. This should be of interest to policy makers in order to enhance public health policies and to create future strategies in terms of urban planning, land use and environmental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulating effects of land use policies on extent of the wildland urban interface and wildfire risk in Flathead County, Montana.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Hardy, Michael

    2013-11-30

    This study used a wildfire loss simulation model to evaluate how different land use policies are likely to influence wildfire risk in the wildland urban interface (WUI) for Flathead County, Montana. The model accounts for the complex socio-ecological interactions among climate change, economic growth, land use change and policy, homeowner mitigations, and forest treatments in Flathead County's WUI over the five 10-year subperiods comprising the future evaluation period (i.e., 2010-2059). Wildfire risk, defined as expected residential losses from wildfire [E(RLW)], depends on the number of residential properties on parcels, the probability that parcels burn, the probability of wildfire losses to residential structures on properties given the parcels on which those properties are located burn, the average percentage of wildfire-related losses in aesthetic values of residential properties, and the total value (structures plus land) of residential properties. E(RLW) for the five subperiods is simulated for 2010 (referred to as the current), moderately restrictive, and highly restrictive land use policy scenarios, a moderate economic growth scenario and the A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Results demonstrate that increasingly restrictive land use policy for Flathead County significantly reduces the amount and footprint of future residential development in the WUI. In addition, shifting from the current to a moderately restrictive land use policy for Flathead County significantly reduces wildfire risk for the WUI, but shifting from the current to a highly restrictive land use policy does not significantly reduce wildfire risk in the WUI. Both the methods and results of the study can help land and wildfire managers to better manage future wildfire risk and identify residential areas having potentially high wildfire risk.

  6. Integrating Land Cover Modeling and Adaptive Management to Conserve Endangered Species and Reduce Catastrophic Fire Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources and then decision makers can use this to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision making, where science allows us to learn to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuels monitoring with decision making focused on dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy, but habitat trajectories suggest tradeoffs. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state and by ideas about fire behavior. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility for and cover modeling programs intended to inform decision making.

  7. Mitigating Climate Change with Ocean Pipes: Influencing Land Temperature and Hydrology and Termination Overshoot Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Caldeira, K.; Ricke, K.

    2014-12-01

    With increasing risk of dangerous climate change geoengineering solutions to Earth's climate problems have attracted much attention. One proposed geoengineering approach considers the use of ocean pipes as a means to increase ocean carbon uptake and the storage of thermal energy in the deep ocean. We use a latest generation Earth System Model (ESM) to perform simulations of idealised extreme implementations of ocean pipes. In our simulations, downward transport of thermal energy by ocean pipes strongly cools the near surface atmosphere - by up to 11°C on a global mean. The ocean pipes cause net thermal energy to be transported from the terrestrial environment to the deep ocean while increasing the global net transport of water to land. By cooling the ocean surface more than the land, ocean pipes tend to promote a monsoonal-type circulation, resulting in increased water vapour transport to land. Throughout their implementation, ocean pipes prevent energy from escaping to space, increasing the amount of energy stored in Earth's climate system despite reductions in surface temperature. As a consequence, our results indicate that an abrupt termination of ocean pipes could cause dramatic increases in surface temperatures beyond that which would have been obtained had ocean pipes not been implemented.

  8. Terrestrial ecological risk evaluation for triclosan in land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Fuchsman, Phyllis; Lyndall, Jennifer; Bock, Michael; Lauren, Darrel; Barber, Timothy; Leigh, Katrina; Perruchon, Elyse; Capdevielle, Marie

    2010-07-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound found in many consumer products including soaps and personal care products. Most triclosan is disposed of down household drains, whereupon it is conveyed to wastewater treatment plants. Although a high percentage of triclosan biodegrades during wastewater treatment, most of the remainder is adsorbed to sludge, which may ultimately be applied to land as biosolids. We evaluated terrestrial ecological risks related to triclosan in land-applied biosolids for soil microbes, plants, soil invertebrates, mammals, and birds. Exposures are estimated using a probabilistic fugacity-based model. Triclosan concentrations in biosolids and reported biosolids application rates are compiled to support estimation of triclosan concentrations in soil. Concentrations in biota tissue are estimated using an equilibrium partitioning model for plants and worms and a steady-state model for small mammals; the resulting tissue concentrations are used to model mammalian and avian dietary exposures. Toxicity benchmarks are identified from a review of published and proprietary studies. The results indicate that adverse effects related to soil fertility (i.e., disruption of nitrogen cycling) would be expected only under "worst-case" exposures, under certain soil conditions and would likely be transient. The available data indicate that adverse effects on plants, invertebrates, birds, and mammals due to triclosan in land-applied biosolids are unlikely. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  9. Measurement of the Errors of Service Altimeter Installations During Landing-Approach and Take-Off Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William; Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Carpenter, Gene T.

    1960-01-01

    The overall errors of the service altimeter installations of a variety of civil transport, military, and general-aviation airplanes have been experimentally determined during normal landing-approach and take-off operations. The average height above the runway at which the data were obtained was about 280 feet for the landings and about 440 feet for the take-offs. An analysis of the data obtained from 196 airplanes during 415 landing approaches and from 70 airplanes during 152 take-offs showed that: 1. The overall error of the altimeter installations in the landing- approach condition had a probable value (50 percent probability) of +/- 36 feet and a maximum probable value (99.7 percent probability) of +/- 159 feet with a bias of +10 feet. 2. The overall error in the take-off condition had a probable value of +/- 47 feet and a maximum probable value of +/- 207 feet with a bias of -33 feet. 3. The overall errors of the military airplanes were generally larger than those of the civil transports in both the landing-approach and take-off conditions. In the landing-approach condition the probable error and the maximum probable error of the military airplanes were +/- 43 and +/- 189 feet, respectively, with a bias of +15 feet, whereas those for the civil transports were +/- 22 and +/- 96 feet, respectively, with a bias of +1 foot. 4. The bias values of the error distributions (+10 feet for the landings and -33 feet for the take-offs) appear to represent a measure of the hysteresis characteristics (after effect and recovery) and friction of the instrument and the pressure lag of the tubing-instrument system.

  10. Integrating environment into land-use planning through strategic environmental assessment in China: Towards legal frameworks and operational procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Tang . E-mail: tangtaochina@hotmail.com; Tan Zhu; He Xu

    2007-04-15

    China currently put forwards 'striving to build an environmentally friendly society' as one of the most important development goals. The land administration authorities are facing the challenge of effectively incorporating environment considerations into their planning system. This paper aims to investigate why and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is enacted as an effective tool to integrate the environment into land-use planning during the construction process of an environmentally friendly society in China, and identify factors that influence the integration. It presents characteristics of the land-use planning system, and reviews the progress and current state of SEA in China. Results show that SEA provides many benefits in promoting environmental considerations into the land-use planning process. The legal frameworks and operational procedures, in the context of land-use master planning SEA, are summarized and an assessment made of their effectiveness. Some barriers are highlighted through examination of the latest case studies, and several recommendations are presented to overcome these obstacles.

  11. Livestock grazing impact on soil wettability and erosion risk in post-fire agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    Stavi, Ilan; Barkai, Daniel; Knoll, Yaakov M; Zaady, Eli

    2016-12-15

    Fires in agricultural areas are common, modifying the functioning of agro-ecosystems. Such fires have been extensively studied, and reported to considerably affect soil properties. Yet, understanding of the impact of livestock grazing, or more precisely, trampling, in fire-affected lands is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of low- to moderate-fire severity and livestock trampling (hoof action) on the solid soil's wettability and related properties, and on soil detachment, in burnt vs. non-burnt croplands. The study was implemented by allowing livestock to access plots under high, medium, and low stocking rates in (unintentionally) burnt and non-burnt lands. Also, livestock exclusion plots were assigned as a control treatment. Results showed that fire slightly decreased the soil wettability. At the same time, water drop penetration time (WDPT) was negatively related to the stocking rate, and critical surface tension (CST) was ~13% smaller in the control plots than in the livestock-presence treatments. Also, the results showed that following burning, the resistance of soil to shear decreased by ~70%. Mass of detached material was similar in the control plots of the burnt and non-burnt plots. At the same time, it was three-, eight-, and nine-fold greater in the plots of the burnt×low, burnt×medium, and burnt×high stocking rates, respectively, than in the corresponding non-burnt ones. This study shows that livestock trampling in low- to moderate-intensity fire-affected lands increased the shearing of the ground surface layer. On the one hand, this slightly increased soil wettability. On the other hand, this impact considerably increased risks of soil erosion and land degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  13. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H.; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  14. Managing Toxicological Risks: The Legacy of Shuttle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Space toxicology greatly matured as a result of research and operations associated with the Shuttle. Materials offgassing had been a manageable concern since the Apollo days, but we learned to pay careful attention to compounds that could escape containment, to combustion events, to toxic propellants, to overuse of utility compounds, and to microbial and human metabolites. We also learned that flying real-time hardware to monitor air pollutants was a pathway with unanticipated speed bumps. Each new orbiter was tested for any excess offgassing products that could pollute the air during flight. In the late 1990s toxicologists and safety experts developed a 5-level toxicity rating system to guide containment of toxic compounds. This system is now in use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Several combustion events during Shuttle Mir and also during Shuttle free-flight impelled toxicologists to identify hardware capable of monitoring toxic products; however, rapid adaptation of the hardware for the unique conditions of spaceflight caused unexpected missteps. Current and planned combustion analyzers would be useful to commercial partners that wish to manage the risk of health effects from thermal events. Propellants received special attention during the Shuttle program because of the possibility of bringing them into the habitable volume on extravehicular activity suits. Monitors for the airlocks were developed to mitigate this risk. Utility materials, such as lubricants, posed limited toxicological problems because water was not recovered. One clearly documented case of microbial metabolites polluting the Shuttle atmosphere was noted, and this has implications for commercial flights and control of microbes. Finally, carbon dioxide, the major human metabolite, episodically presented air quality problems aboard Shuttle, especially when nominal air flows were obstructed. Commercial vehicles must maintain robust air circulation given the anticipated high density

  15. Knee joint anatomy predicts high-risk in vivo dynamic landing knee biomechanics.

    PubMed

    McLean, Scott G; Lucey, Sarah M; Rohrer, Suzan; Brandon, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    With knee morphology being a non-modifiable anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factor, its consideration within injury prevention models is limited. Knee anatomy, however, directly influences joint mechanics and the potential for injurious loads. With this in mind, we explored associations between key knee anatomical and three-dimensional biomechanical parameters exhibited during landings. We hypothesized that lateral and medial posterior tibial slopes and their ratio, and tibial plateau width, intercondylar distance and their ratio, were proportional to peak stance anterior knee joint reaction force, knee abduction and internal rotation angles. Twenty recreationally active females (21.2 (1.7) years) had stance phase three-dimensional dominant limb knee biomechanics recorded during ten single leg land-and-cut tasks. Six anatomical indices were quantified for the same limb via a series of two dimensional (sagittal, transverse and coronal) magnetic resonance images. Linear stepwise regression analyses examined which of these anatomical factors were independently associated with each of the three mean subject-based peak knee biomechanical measures. Lateral tibial slope was significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with peak anterior knee joint reaction force, explaining 60.9% of the variance. Both tibial plateau width:intercondylar distance (P<0.0001) and medial tibial slope:lateral tibial slope (P<0.001) ratios were significantly correlated with peak knee abduction angle, explaining 75.4% of the variance. The medial tibial slope:lateral tibial slope ratio was also significantly (P<0.001) correlated with peak knee internal rotation angle, explaining 49.2% of the variance. Knee anatomy is directly associated with high-risk knee biomechanics exhibited during dynamic landings. Continued understanding of multifactorial contributions to the anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism should dictate future injury screening and prevention efforts in order to successfully cater

  16. A Successful Example of Transitioning Research to NCEP Operations: The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Wei, H.; Meng, J.; Dong, J.; Mitchell, K.; Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Mocko, D. M.; Cosgrove, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Mo, K. C.; Ebisuzaki, W.; Rosencrans, M.; Luo, L.; Luebehusen, E.

    2014-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a long-term, multi-institutional project initiated to provide improved land surface initial conditions for weather and climate models, and subsequently expanded to support multiple applications related to land surface hydrology. Begun as a research project in January 2000, it became quasi-operational in September 2008, and operational at NCEP in August 2014. The NLDAS development included Phase 1 to establish the NLDAS configuration, including collection of soil and vegetation data, selection of land-surface models (LSMs), generation of surface forcing data sets, and model runs for a 3-year period, with evaluation/validation of model output. Phase 2 involved 30-year (1979-2008) retrospective and near real-time runs (2009-present) of four improved LSMs and surface forcing to generate energy and water fluxes, and state variables from those LSMs. The anomalies and percentiles from the 30-year climatologies for evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff/streamflow, and snow water equivalent have been comprehensively evaluated against observations, and are used to support US operational drought monitoring and prediction tasks such as the U.S. Drought Monitor, NCEP Climate Prediction Center drought information, and activities of the National Integrated Drought Information System. More than 34 years of surface forcing and model output data have been distributed by the NCEP/EMC NLDAS website (www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/nldas), the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC, daac.gsfc.nasa.gov), the UCAR/NCAR Climate Data Guide (climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data), and the USGS Geo Portal (cida.usgs.gov/gdp). The operational implementation provides more reliable and timely access to NLDAS products. This presentation summarizes experiences of NLDAS, status and format of current NLDAS products, and the future plans for NLDAS.

  17. Risk-Aware Planetary Rover Operation: Autonomous Terrain Classification and Path Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Fuchs, Thoams J.; Steffy, Amanda; Maimone, Mark; Yen, Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and avoiding terrain hazards (e.g., soft soil and pointy embedded rocks) are crucial for the safety of planetary rovers. This paper presents a newly developed groundbased Mars rover operation tool that mitigates risks from terrain by automatically identifying hazards on the terrain, evaluating their risks, and suggesting operators safe paths options that avoids potential risks while achieving specified goals. The tool will bring benefits to rover operations by reducing operation cost, by reducing cognitive load of rover operators, by preventing human errors, and most importantly, by significantly reducing the risk of the loss of rovers.

  18. Risk-Aware Planetary Rover Operation: Autonomous Terrain Classification and Path Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Fuchs, Thoams J.; Steffy, Amanda; Maimone, Mark; Yen, Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and avoiding terrain hazards (e.g., soft soil and pointy embedded rocks) are crucial for the safety of planetary rovers. This paper presents a newly developed groundbased Mars rover operation tool that mitigates risks from terrain by automatically identifying hazards on the terrain, evaluating their risks, and suggesting operators safe paths options that avoids potential risks while achieving specified goals. The tool will bring benefits to rover operations by reducing operation cost, by reducing cognitive load of rover operators, by preventing human errors, and most importantly, by significantly reducing the risk of the loss of rovers.

  19. Tailoring a non-path-dependent model for environmental risk management and polycentric urban land-use planning.

    PubMed

    Sakieh, Yousef; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul; Mirkarimi, Seyed Hamed

    2017-02-01

    This study attempts to develop a non-path-dependent model for environmental risk management and polycentric urban land-use planning in Gorgan Township area, Iran. Applying three suitability layers of environmental risk (soil erosion, flood risk, fire risk, and land susceptibility), urbanization potential, and integrated surface (environmental risk plus urbanization potential layers), a non-path-dependent Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model was configured to execute three scenarios of polycentric urban growth allocation. Specifically, the modeling approach improved the traditional functionality of the CA-MC model from a prediction algorithm into an innovative land allocation tool. Besides, due to its flexibility, the non-path-dependent model was able to explicitly include different characteristics of the landscape structure ranging from physical land attributes to landscape functions and processes (natural hazards). Accordingly, three polycentric urban growth allocation efforts were undertaken and compared in terms of connectivity and compactness of the resultant patterns and consumption of other land resources. Based on results, the polycentric allocation procedure based on integrated suitability layer produced a more manageable pattern of urban landscape, while the growth option based on environmental risk layer was more successful for protecting farmlands against excessive urbanization. This study suggests that polycentric urban land-use planning under the strategy of rural land development programs is an available option for designing an urban landscape with lower exposure to natural hazards and more economic benefits to rural residents. Finally, the non-path-dependent modeling is a recommended approach, when highly flexible and interactive decision-support systems as well as trend-breaking scenarios are desired.

  20. Risk-Constrained Dynamic Programming for Optimal Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    A chance-constrained dynamic programming algorithm was developed that is capable of making optimal sequential decisions within a user-specified risk bound. This work handles stochastic uncertainties over multiple stages in the CEMAT (Combined EDL-Mobility Analyses Tool) framework. It was demonstrated by a simulation of Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) using real landscape data obtained from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Although standard dynamic programming (DP) provides a general framework for optimal sequential decisionmaking under uncertainty, it typically achieves risk aversion by imposing an arbitrary penalty on failure states. Such a penalty-based approach cannot explicitly bound the probability of mission failure. A key idea behind the new approach is called risk allocation, which decomposes a joint chance constraint into a set of individual chance constraints and distributes risk over them. The joint chance constraint was reformulated into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of an indicator function, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the chance-constraint optimization problem can be turned into an unconstrained optimization over a Lagrangian, which can be solved efficiently using a standard DP approach.

  1. Human health risk assessment of triclosan in land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; Mayfield, David B; Tabony, Jade A; Capdevielle, Marie; Slezak, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]-phenol) is an antimicrobial agent found in a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Numerous studies have examined the occurrence and environmental fate of triclosan in wastewater, biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and plants and organisms exposed to biosolid-amended soils. Triclosan has a propensity to adhere to organic carbon in biosolids and biosolid-amended soils. Land application of biosolids containing triclosan has the potential to contribute to multiple direct and indirect human health exposure pathways. To estimate exposures and human health risks from biosolid-borne triclosan, a risk assessment was conducted in general accordance with the methodology incorporated into the US Environmental Protection Agency's Part 503 biosolids rule. Human health exposures to biosolid-borne triclosan were estimated on the basis of published empirical data or modeled using upper-end environmental partitioning estimates. Similarly, a range of published triclosan human health toxicity values was evaluated. Margins of safety were estimated for 10 direct and indirect exposure pathways, both individually and combined. The present risk assessment found large margins of safety (>1000 to >100 000) for potential exposures to all pathways, even under the most conservative exposure and toxicity assumptions considered. The human health exposures and risks from biosolid-borne triclosan are concluded to be de minimis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2358-2367. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. IT Operational Risk Measurement Model Based on Internal Loss Data of Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiaoling

    Business operation of banks relies increasingly on information technology (IT) and the most important role of IT is to guarantee the operational continuity of business process. Therefore, IT Risk management efforts need to be seen from the perspective of operational continuity. Traditional IT risk studies focused on IT asset-based risk analysis and risk-matrix based qualitative risk evaluation. In practice, IT risk management practices of banking industry are still limited to the IT department and aren't integrated into business risk management, which causes the two departments to work in isolation. This paper presents an improved methodology for dealing with IT operational risk. It adopts quantitative measurement method, based on the internal business loss data about IT events, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to predict the potential losses. We establish the correlation between the IT resources and business processes to make sure risk management of IT and business can work synergistically.

  3. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  4. Optimizing selection of training and auxiliary data for operational land cover classification for the LCMAP initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhe; Gallant, Alisa L.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Pengra, Bruce; Olofsson, Pontus; Loveland, Thomas R.; Jin, Suming; Dahal, Devendra; Yang, Limin; Auch, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) initiative is a new end-to-end capability to continuously track and characterize changes in land cover, use, and condition to better support research and applications relevant to resource management and environmental change. Among the LCMAP product suite are annual land cover maps that will be available to the public. This paper describes an approach to optimize the selection of training and auxiliary data for deriving the thematic land cover maps based on all available clear observations from Landsats 4-8. Training data were selected from map products of the U.S. Geological Survey's Land Cover Trends project. The Random Forest classifier was applied for different classification scenarios based on the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm. We found that extracting training data proportionally to the occurrence of land cover classes was superior to an equal distribution of training data per class, and suggest using a total of 20,000 training pixels to classify an area about the size of a Landsat scene. The problem of unbalanced training data was alleviated by extracting a minimum of 600 training pixels and a maximum of 8000 training pixels per class. We additionally explored removing outliers contained within the training data based on their spectral and spatial criteria, but observed no significant improvement in classification results. We also tested the importance of different types of auxiliary data that were available for the conterminous United States, including: (a) five variables used by the National Land Cover Database, (b) three variables from the cloud screening "Function of mask" (Fmask) statistics, and (c) two variables from the change detection results of CCDC. We found that auxiliary variables such as a Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives (aspect, position index, and slope), potential wetland index, water probability, snow

  5. Environmental and economic risks assessment under climate changes for three land uses scenarios analysis across Teshio watershed, northernmost of Japan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Shibata, Hideaki; Chen, Li

    2017-12-01

    Land use and climate changes affect on the economy and environment with different patterns and magnitudes in the watershed. This study used risk analysis model stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) to evaluate economic and environmental risks caused by four climate change scenarios (baseline, small-, mid- and large changes) and three land uses (paddy dominated, paddy-farmland mixture and farmland dominated for agriculture) in Teshio watershed in northern Hokkaido, Japan. Under the baseline climate conditions, the lower ranking of economic income of crop yield and higher ranking of pollutant load from agricultural land were both predicted in paddy dominated for agriculture, suggesting that the paddy dominated system caused higher risks of economic and environmental variables compared to other two land uses. Increase of temperature and precipitation increased crop yields under all three climate changes which resulted in increase of the ranking of economic income, indicating that those climate changes could reduce economic risk. The increased temperature and precipitation also accelerated mineralization of organic nutrient and nutrient leaching to river course of Teshio which resulted in increase of the ranking of pollutant load, suggesting that those climate changes could lead to more environmental risk. The rankings of economic income in mid- and large changes of climate were lower than that in small change of climate under paddy-farmland mixture and farmland dominated systems due to decrease of crop yield, suggesting that climate change led to more economic risk. In summary, the results suggested that increase in temperature and precipitation caused higher risks of both economic and environmental perspectives, and the impacts was higher than those of land use changes in the studied watershed. Those findings would help producers and watershed managers to measure the tradeoffs between environmental protection and agricultural economic development

  6. Effect of land cover and ecosystem mapping on ecosystem-risk assessment in the Little Karoo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Payet, Karine; Rouget, Mathieu; Esler, Karen J; Reyers, Belinda; Rebelo, Tony; Thompson, Mark W; Vlok, Jan H J

    2013-06-01

    Extinction-risk assessments aim to identify biological diversity features threatened with extinction. Although largely developed at the species level, these assessments have recently been applied at the ecosystem level. In South Africa, national legislation provides for the listing and protection of threatened ecosystems. We assessed how land-cover mapping and the detail of ecosystem classification affected the results of risk assessments that were based on extent of habitat loss. We tested 3 ecosystem classifications and 4 land-cover data sets of the Little Karoo region, South Africa. Degraded land (in particular, overgrazed areas) was successfully mapped in just one of the land-cover data sets. From <3% to 25% of the Little Karoo was classified as threatened, depending on the land-cover data set and ecosystem classification applied. The full suite of threatened ecosystems on a fine-scale map was never completely represented within the spatial boundaries of a coarse-scale map of threatened ecosystems. Our assessments highlight the importance of land-degradation mapping for the listing of threatened ecosystems. On the basis of our results, we recommend that when budgets are constrained priority be given to generating more-detailed land-cover data sets rather than more-detailed ecosystem classifications for the assessment of threatened ecosystems.

  7. Risk Factors for Injuries During Military Static-Line Airborne Operations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph; Steelman, Ryan

    2016-11-01

     To identify and analyze articles in which the authors examined risk factors for soldiers during military static-line airborne operations.  We searched for articles in PubMed, the Defense Technical Information Center, reference lists, and other sources using the key words airborne, parachuting, parachutes, paratrooper, injuries, wounds, trauma, and musculoskeletal.  The search identified 17 684 potential studies. Studies were included if they were written in English, involved military static-line parachute operations, recorded injuries directly from events on the landing zone or from safety or medical records, and provided data for quantitative assessment of injury risk factors. A total of 23 studies met the review criteria, and 15 were included in the meta-analysis.  The summary statistic obtained for each risk factor was the risk ratio, which was the ratio of the injury risk in 1 group to that of another (baseline) group. Where data were sufficient, meta-analyses were performed and heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed.  Risk factors for static-line parachuting injuries included night jumps, jumps with extra equipment, higher wind speeds, higher air temperatures, jumps from fixed-wing aircraft rather than balloons or helicopters, jumps onto certain types of terrain, being a female paratrooper, greater body weight, not using the parachute ankle brace, smaller parachute canopies, simultaneous exits from both sides of an aircraft, higher heat index, winds from the rear of the aircraft on exit entanglements, less experience with a particular parachute system, being an enlisted soldier rather than an officer, and jumps involving a greater number of paratroopers.  We analyzed and summarized factors that increased the injury risk for soldiers during military static-line parachute operations. Understanding and considering these factors in risk evaluations may reduce the likelihood of injury during parachuting.

  8. The Design and Operation of Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space (SOLVES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Rashidy Zulkifi, Mohd; Izmir Yamin, Mohd; Othman, Jamaludin; Rafidi Zakaria, Norul

    2013-09-01

    Inclusive in the planning of Spaceport Malaysia are 2 local suborbital vehicles development. One of the vehicles is called SOLVES or Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space. The emphasis on the design and operation of SOLVES is green and robotic technology, where both green technology and robotic technology are used to protect the environment and enhance safety. As SOLVES climbs, its center of gravity stabilizes and remains at the bottom as its propellant being used until it depletes, due to the position of the vehicle's passenger cabin and its engines at its lower end. It will reach 80km from sea level generally known as "the edge of space" due to its momentum although its propellant will be depleted at a lower altitude. As the suborbital vehicle descends tail first, its wings automatically extend and rotate at horizontal axes perpendicular to the fuselage. These naturally and passively rotating wings ensure controlled low velocity and stable descend of the vehicle. The passenger cabin also rotates automatically at a steady low speed at the centerline of its fuselage as it descends, caused naturally by the lift force, enabling its passengers a surrounding 360 degrees view. SOLVES is steered automatically to its landing point by an electrical propulsion system with a vectoring nozzle. The electrical propulsion minimizes space and weight and is free of pollution and noise. Its electrical power comes from a battery aided by power generated by the naturally rotating wings. When the vehicle lands, it is in the safest mode as its propellant is depleted and its center of gravity remains at the bottom of its cabin. The cabin, being located at the bottom of the fuselage, enables very convenient, rapid and safe entry and exit of its passengers. SOLVES will be a robotic suborbital vehicle with green technology. The vehicle will carry 4 passengers and each passenger will be trained to land the vehicle manually if the fully automated landing system fails

  9. Evaluating soil contamination risk impact on land vulnerability and climate change in east Azerbaijan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, Farzin; Anaya-Romero, Maria; de La Rosa, Diego

    2010-05-01

    spring, while will increase 32 and 52 percent in summer and autumn. As most of the arable land that is suitable for cultivation in the study area is already in use, chemical fertilizers application will widely obvious to increase crop production. According to 88 study points identified by grid survey method (44 consecutively profiles and augers), Typic Calcixerepts are the most dominant subgroups in the studied area. Altitude varies from 1300 to 1600m with a mean of about 1450m, and slope gradients vary from flat to more than 10%. The attainable contamination risk for two hypothetical scenarios was estimated for the natural conditions of selected soils, under current Ahar climate conditions and calculated amount according to IPCC report by application of the Pantanal model. Results showed that 32%, 25%, 4% and 27% of total studied area were classified as V1, V2, V3, and V4 vulnerable land due to phosphorous while it will not be changed by climate change. Also, attainable vulnerability classes because of heavy metals will be constant too, but the whole area subdivided as: V1 and V3 in a total of 57% and 31%, respectively. Nitrate is the major nitrogen derived pollutant and the main source of groundwater contamination because of its high mobility. According to the obtained results, nitrogen risk impact on land vulnerability will decrease by climate change while in the future scenario more than 55% of total area will classify as none vulnerable area. Assessing pesticide and climate change impact presents those four vulnerable classes: V1, V2, V3, and V4 in a total of 1%, 2%, 28% and 57% studied are while they will change to 1%, 2%, 49%, and 36%. In other words, 19% of total area will be improved by climate change.

  10. Operation Support Hope; Risk Management -- Leader’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    with the harsh environment. The solution is for commanders and other leaders to manage those risks. The risk - management process of hazard identification...policy cover, risk management is an effective tool to protect the force. That doesn’t mean we can throw away the book. What it does mean is that the

  11. [Conflict matrix : Risk management tool in the operating room].

    PubMed

    Andel, D; Markstaller, K; Andel, H

    2017-05-01

    In business conflicts have long been known to have a negative effect on costs and team performance. In medicine this aspect has been widely neglected, especially when optimizing processes for operating room (OR) management. In the multidisciplinary setting of OR management, shortcomings in rules for decision making and lack of communication result in members perceiving themselves as competitors in the patient's environment rather than acting as art of a multiprofessional team. This inevitably leads to the emergence and escalation of conflicts. We developed a conflict matrix to provide an inexpensive and objective way for evaluating the level of escalation of conflicts in a multiprofessional working environment, such as an OR. The senior members of all involved disciplines were asked to estimate the level of conflict escalation between the individual professional groups on a scale of 0-9. By aggregating the response data, an overview of the conflict matrix within this OR section was created. No feedback was received from 1 of the 11 contacted occupational groups. By color coding the median, minimum and maximum values of the retrieved data, an intuitive overview of the escalation levels of conflict could be provided. The value range of all feedbacks was between 0 and 6. Estimation of the escalation levels differed widely within one category, showing a range of up to 6 (out of 6) levels. The presented assessment using a conflict matrix is a simple and cost-effective method to assess the conflict landscape, especially in multidisciplinary environments, such as OR management. The chance of conflict prevention or the early recognition of existing conflicts represents an enormous potential for cost and risk saving and might have positive long-term effects by building a culture of conflict prevention at the workplace and a positive influence on interdisciplinary cooperation in this working environment.

  12. Operating room fires in otolaryngology: risk factors and prevention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lee P; Roy, Soham

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the causes of operating room (OR) fires in otolaryngology. A questionnaire was designed to elicit the characteristics of OR fires experienced by otolaryngologists. The survey was advertised to 8523 members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Three hundred forty-nine questionnaires were completed. Eighty-eight surgeons (25.2%) witnessed at least one OR fire in their career, 10 experienced 2 fires each, and 2 reported 5 fires each. Of 106 reported fires, details were available for 100. The most common ignition sources were an electrosurgical unit (59%), a laser (32%), and a light cord (7%). Twenty-seven percent of fires occurred during endoscopic airway surgery, 24% during oropharyngeal surgery, 23% during cutaneous or transcutaneous surgery of the head and neck, and 18% during tracheostomy; 7% were related to a light cord, and 1% was related to an anesthesia machine. Eighty-one percent of fires occurred while supplemental oxygen was in use. Common fuels included an endotracheal tube (31%), OR drapes/towels (18%), and flash fire (where no substrate burned) (11%). Less common fuels included alcohol-based preparation solution, gauze sponges, patient's hair or skin, electrosurgical unit with retrofitted insulation over the tip, tracheostomy tube, tonsil sponge, suction tubing, a cottonoid pledget, and a red rubber catheter. OR fire may occur in a wide variety of clinical settings; endoscopic airway surgery, oropharyngeal surgery, cutaneous surgery, and tracheostomy present the highest risk for otolaryngologists. Electrosurgical devices and lasers are the most likely to produce ignition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  14. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  15. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  16. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  17. A new operational EUMETSAT product for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over land (PMAp v2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Munro, Rosemary; Poli, Gabriele; Holdak, Andriy; Lang, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol optical properties is an important task to provide data for industry and climate forecasting. An ideal instrument should include observations with moderate spectral and high spatial resolution for a wide range of wavelengths (from the UV to the TIR), measurements of the polarization state at different wavelengths and measurements of the same scene for different observation geometries. As such an ideal instrument is currently unavailable the usage of different instruments on one satellite platform is an alternative choice. Since February 2014, the Polar Multi sensor Aerosol product (PMAp) has been delivered as an operational GOME product to our customers. The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical properties over ocean (AOD, volcanic ash, aerosol type) using a multi-sensor approach (GOME, AVHRR, IASI). The product is now extended to pixels over land using a new release of the operational PMAp processor (PMAp v2). The pre-operational data dissemination of the new PMAp v2 data to our users is scheduled for March 2016. This presentation gives an overview on the new operational product PMAp v2 with a focus on the validation of the PMAp aerosol optical depth over land. The impact of different error sources on the results (e.g. surface contribution to the TOA reflectance) is discussed. We also show first results of upcoming extensions of our PMAp processor, in particular the improvement of the cloud/aerosol discrimination of thick aerosol events (e.g. volcanic ash plumes, desert dust outbreaks).

  18. Operational Risk Measurement of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on Extreme Value Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiashan; Li, Yong; Ji, Feng; Peng, Cheng

    The financial institutions and supervision institutions have all agreed on strengthening the measurement and management of operational risks. This paper attempts to build a model on the loss of operational risks basing on Peak Over Threshold model, emphasizing on weighted least square, which improved Hill’s estimation method, while discussing the situation of small sample, and fix the sample threshold more objectively basing on the media-published data of primary banks loss on operational risk from 1994 to 2007.

  19. The urgent need for risk assessment on the antibiotic resistance spread via sewage sludge land application.

    PubMed

    Bondarczuk, Kinga; Markowicz, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Sewage sludge is an ever-increasing by-product of the wastewater treatment process frequently used as a soil fertiliser. To control its quality and prevent any possible hazardous impact of fertilisation, some mandatory limits of heavy metal content have been established by the European Commission (Sewage Sludge Directive). However, since the implementation of the limits, new emerging contaminants have been reported worldwide. Regardless of the wastewater treatment process, sewage sludge contains antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes, which can be released into the environment through its land application. Such a practice may even boost the dissemination and further development of antibiotic resistance phenomenon - already a global problem challenging modern medicine. Due to the growing pharmaceutical pollution in the environment, the time is ripe to assess the risk for the human and environmental health of sewage sludge land application in the context of antibiotic resistance spread. In this review we present the current knowledge in the field and we emphasise the necessity for more studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human health risk from soil heavy metal contamination under different land uses near Dabaoshan Mine, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huarong; Xia, Beicheng; Fan, Chen; Zhao, Peng; Shen, Shili

    2012-02-15

    Soil heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern, and the ecological risk associated with heavy metals is increasing. In this paper, we investigated heavy metal contamination near Dabaoshan Mine by: using sequential indicator simulation to delineate the spatial patterns of soil data; fitting multiple linear regression models for heavy metal uptake by crops; interpreting land uses from remote sensing images and integrating the spatial patterns, uptake models and land uses into a dose-response model for human health risks from heavy metals. The areas with elevated soil heavy metal concentrations are mainly located at the Dabaoshan Mine site and in the watershed basins of the Hengshi, Tielong and Chuandu rivers. The average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soil in the study area are all above the natural soil background levels, but Cd is the major contributor to human health risk in the area. Areas of low soil pH are also found throughout the watershed basins of the Hengshi, Tielong and Chuandu rivers. Of the different land use types in the study area, agricultural and residential land uses have the highest human health risk because ingestion is the dominant exposure pathway for heavy metals. The spatial patterns of the heavy metal concentrations and soil pH indicate that the areas with the highest human health risk regions do not directly coincide with the areas of highest heavy metal concentrations, but do coincide with the areas of lower soil pH. The contamination with high concentrations of heavy metals provides the risk source, but the combination of high heavy metal concentrations, low pH and agricultural or residential land use is required for human health risks to be present. The spatial pattern of the hazard quotients indicates that Cd is the most important pollutant contributing to the human health risk.

  1. Ohio's statewide land use inventory: An operational approach for applying LANDSAT data to state, regional and local planning programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, P. E.; Geosling, P. H.; Leone, F.; Minshall, C.; Rodgers, R. H.; Wilhelm, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The programmatic, technical, user application, and cost factors associated with the development of an operational, statewide land use inventory from LANDSAT data are described. The LANDSAT multispectral data are subjected to geometrical and categorical processing to produce map files for each of the 200 fifteen (15) minute quads covering Ohio. Computer compatible tapes are rescanned to produce inventory tapes which identify eight (8) Level I land use categories and a variety of Level II categories. The inventory tapes are processed through a series of ten (10) software programs developed by the State of Ohio. The net result is a computerized inventory which can be displayed in map or tabular form for various geographic units, at a variety of scales and for selected categories of usage. The computerized inventory data files are applied to technical programs developed by the various state agencies to be used in state, regional, and local planning programs.

  2. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound operation, as...

  3. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound operation, as...

  4. Wildfire Risk Mapping over the State of Mississippi: Land Surface Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, William H.; Mostovoy, Georgy; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Jolly, W. Matt

    2012-01-01

    Three fire risk indexes based on soil moisture estimates were applied to simulate wildfire probability over the southern part of Mississippi using the logistic regression approach. The fire indexes were retrieved from: (1) accumulated difference between daily precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (P-E); (2) top 10 cm soil moisture content simulated by the Mosaic land surface model; and (3) the Keetch-Byram drought index (KBDI). The P-E, KBDI, and soil moisture based indexes were estimated from gridded atmospheric and Mosaic-simulated soil moisture data available from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). Normalized deviations of these indexes from the 31-year mean (1980-2010) were fitted into the logistic regression model describing probability of wildfires occurrence as a function of the fire index. It was assumed that such normalization provides more robust and adequate description of temporal dynamics of soil moisture anomalies than the original (not normalized) set of indexes. The logistic model parameters were evaluated for 0.25 x0.25 latitude/longitude cells and for probability representing at least one fire event occurred during 5 consecutive days. A 23-year (1986-2008) forest fires record was used. Two periods were selected and examined (January mid June and mid September December). The application of the logistic model provides an overall good agreement between empirical/observed and model-fitted fire probabilities over the study area during both seasons. The fire risk indexes based on the top 10 cm soil moisture and KBDI have the largest impact on the wildfire odds (increasing it by almost 2 times in response to each unit change of the corresponding fire risk index during January mid June period and by nearly 1.5 times during mid September-December) observed over 0.25 x0.25 cells located along the state of Mississippi Coast line. This result suggests a rather strong control of fire risk indexes on fire occurrence probability

  5. USING TRAINED POUCHED RATS TO DETECT LAND MINES: ANOTHER VICTORY FOR OPERANT CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m2 of land, finding 41 mines and 54 other explosive devices. Humans with metal detectors found no additional mines. On average, the rats emitted 0.33 false alarm for every 100 m2 searched, which is below the threshold given by International Mine Action Standards for accrediting mine-detection animals. These findings indicate that Cricetomys are accurate mine-detection animals and merit continued use in this capacity. PMID:21709791

  6. Assessing the Operational Readiness of Landing Craft Air Cushion Vessels Using Statistical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Beachmaster Unit ONE C/A Craft Alteration CASREP Casualty Report CBM Condition Based Maintenance CCI Corrosion Control Inspection CESE...Allowance List CSMP Current Ship Maintenance Project CSR Craft Status Report CRAFTALT Craft Alteration C4N Command, Control , Communications...Assault Craft Unit (ACU)-5 manages a fleet of 40 Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) hovercrafts from its base at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton

  7. Joint Publication 3-31. Command and Control for Joint Land Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...provides recommended phasing of forces to the JFC. The JFLCC does not control the land force portion of the time-phased force and deployment data ...communications systems and resources into the theater’s networked communications system architecture, or COP synchronizes JFLCC’s critical voice and data

  8. Lower extremity mechanics during landing after a volleyball block as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, David; Jandacka, Daniel; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Hamill, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    To compare lower extremity mechanics and energy absorption during two types of landing after a successful or unsuccessful block in volleyball and assess the risks of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Cohort study. Fourteen elite male volleyball players (aged 24.5 ± 4.6 years; height 1.94 ± 0.06 m; mass 86.6 ± 7.6 kg). Subjects were required to land on force platforms using stick landing or step-back landing (with the right lower extremity stepping back away from the net) techniques after performing a standing block jump movement. Vertical ground reaction force (body weight); knee flexion (degrees); knee moments (Nm/kg); and hip, knee and ankle energy absorption (J/kg). The right lower extremity showed a greater first peak of vertical ground reaction force, a greater valgus moment, lower energy absorption by the knee, and higher energy absorption by the hip and ankle joints during step-back landing. The lower extremity may be exposed to a greater risk of ACL injury when stepping back from the net during the initial impact phase after a step-back landing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecotoxicological risks associated with land treatment of petrochemical wastes. I. Residual soil contamination and bioaccumulation by cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Schroder, Jackie; Basta, Nicholas; Payton, Mark; Wilson, James; Carlson, Ruth; Janz, David; Lochmiller, Robert

    2003-02-28

    Petrochemical waste contains both organic and inorganic contaminants that can pollute soil and may pose significant ecological risks to wildlife. Petrochemical waste typically is disposed of in land treatment units, which are widespread throughout Oklahoma and the United States. Few studies have been conducted evaluating possible toxicity risks to terrestrial organisms residing on these units. In this study, the extent of soil contamination with fluoride (F), metals, and organic hydrocarbons, the bioaccumulation of F and metals in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), the relationship between contaminants in soil and in tissues of cotton rats, and the level of potentially toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil were determined on land treatment units. Over a 2-yr period, cotton rats and soils were collected and analyzed from 5 land treatment and matched reference units. The number of land treatment units with soil metal contamination (in parentheses) included: Cr, Cu, Pb (5). Al, As, Ni, Sr, Zn (4). Ba (3). and Cd, V (2). The number of land treatment units with soil PAH contamination (in parentheses) were naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene (3). acenaphthene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (2). and acenaphthylene, fluorene, fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene (1). Total PAH and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were elevated at all five land treatment units. Mean sums of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalents (BaPequiv ) were not affected on

  10. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  11. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Song, Jing; Li, Weifeng; Zheng, Maokun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and their ecological risks are key issues in soil security studies. This study investigated the concentrations of six heavy metals--copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) in Shenzhen's agricultural lands and examined the potential hazards and possible sources of these metals. Eighty-two samples from agricultural topsoil were collected. Potential ecological risk index was used to calculate the potential risk of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore pollution sources of the metals. Finally, Kriging was used to predict the spatial distribution of the metals' potential ecological risks. The concentrations of the heavy metals were higher than their background values. Most of them presented little potential ecological risk, except for the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Four districts (Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan, and Dapeng) exhibited some degree of potential risk, which tended to have more industries and road networks. Three major sources of heavy metals included geochemical processes, industrial pollutants, and traffic pollution. The heavy metal Cd was the main contributor to the pollution in agricultural land during the study period. It also poses the potential hazard for the future. High potential risk is closely related to industrial pollution and transportation. Since the 1980s, the sources of heavy metals have evolved from parent rock weathering, erosion, degradation of organics, and mineralization to human disturbances resulting in chemical changes in the soil.

  12. UST System Compatibility with Petroleum-Biofuel Blends: A Brief Guide to the 2015 Federal UST Regulations for Owners and Operators of USTs Located on Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Review information for UST owners and operators on tribal lands with compatibility requirements in the 2015 federal UST regulation when storing gasoline blends containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel blends containing greater than 20 percent.

  13. Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague risks in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania: a geospatial approach.

    PubMed

    Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Literature suggests that higher resolution remote sensing data integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) can provide greater possibility to refine the analysis of land cover and terrain characteristics for explanation of abundance and distribution of plague hosts and vectors and hence of health risk hazards to humans. These technologies are not widely used in East Africa for studies on diseases including plague. The objective of this study was to refine the analysis of single and combined land cover and terrain characteristics in order to gain an insight into localized plague infection risks in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. The study used a geospatial approach to assess the influence of land cover and terrain factors on the abundance and spatial distribution of plague hosts (small mammals) and plague vectors (fleas). It considered different levels of scale and resolution. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical method was used to clarify the relationships between land cover and terrain variables with small mammals and fleas. Results indicate that elevation positively influenced the presence of small mammals. The presence of fleas was clearly influenced by land management features such as miraba. Medium to high resolution remotely sensed data integrated in a GIS have been found to be quite useful in this type of analysis. These findings contribute to efforts on plague surveillance and awareness creation among communities on the probable risks associated with various landscape factors during epidemics.

  14. Lockheed NC-130B (AF58-712) Aircraft. A Study of STOL Operational Techniques; landing approach.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Lockheed NC-130B (AF58-712) Aircraft. A Study of STOL Operational Techniques; landing approach. Nose-low pitch attitude of the aircraft was required in wave-off (or go-around) at 85 knots with flaps 70 degrees. An increase in stall-speed margin could be required to produce a more positive climb angle. (Nov 1962) Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 104; 60yrs at Ames, Atmosphere of Freedom NASA SP-2000-4314

  15. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanaro, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-06-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Interior (DOI) / United States Geological Survey (USGS), is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. It will be the eighth mission in the Landsat series. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper outlines the present development status of the two instruments.

  16. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  17. Risk evaluation of available phosphorus loss in agricultural land based on remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiaodong; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Junfeng; Liu, Ting; Xie, Bin

    2010-09-01

    The surplus of phosphorus leads to water eutrophication. Huge input of fertilizers in agricultural activities enriches nutrition in soil. The superfluous nutrient moves easily to riparian water by rainfall and surface runoff; leads to water eutrophication of riparian wetlands and downstream water; and consequently affects ecological balance. Thus it is significant to investigate the risk of phosphorus loss in agricultural land, to identify high concentration areas and guide the management of nutrition loss. This study was implemented mainly in the area of agricultural use in southern Western Australia, where a three-year period preliminary monitoring of water quality showed that the concentration of different forms of phosphorus in water had far exceeded the standard. Due to the large scale surface runoff caused by occasional storms in Western Australia, soil erosion was selected as the main driving factor for the loss of phosphorus. Remote sensing and ground truth data were used to reflect the seasonal changes of plants. The spatial distribution of available phosphorus was then predicted and combined with the evaluation matrix to evaluate the loss risk of phosphorus. This evaluation was based on quantitative rather than qualitative data to make better precision. It could help making decision support for monitoring water quality of rivers and riparian wetlands.

  18. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  19. Distribution of mammal functional diversity in the Neotropical realm: Influence of land-use and extinction risk

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Medellín, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Functional diversity represents a measure of diversity that incorporates the role of species in an ecosystem, and therefore its dynamics and resilience. Assessing its drivers and spatial variation represents an important step forward in our understanding of functional ecosystem dynamics and it is also necessary to achieve a comprehensive conservation planning. In this paper, we assessed mammal functional diversity for the 218 ecoregions within the Neotropical realm. We evaluated the overall influence and spatial variation of species richness, ecoregion extent, intervention and species at risk on functional diversity. Using ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression modeling approaches, we found that intervened areas and threatened and non-threatened species are the most influential overall drivers of functional diversity. However, we also detected that these variables do not operate equally across scales. Our local analyses indicated both that the variation explained and local coefficients vary spatially depending on the ecoregion and major habitat type. As estimates of functional diversity are based on current distribution of all mammals, negative influence of intervened areas and positive influence of non-threatened species may reflect a potential degradation of functional processes for some ecosystems. Most generally, the negative influence of intervention together with the influence of threatened species indicates that some areas are currently more susceptible to functional diversity loss. Our results help to pinpoint key areas requiring urgent conservation action to reduce natural land-cover loss and areas where threatened species play influential roles on ecosystem functioning. PMID:28441467

  20. Distribution of mammal functional diversity in the Neotropical realm: Influence of land-use and extinction risk.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Medellín, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Functional diversity represents a measure of diversity that incorporates the role of species in an ecosystem, and therefore its dynamics and resilience. Assessing its drivers and spatial variation represents an important step forward in our understanding of functional ecosystem dynamics and it is also necessary to achieve a comprehensive conservation planning. In this paper, we assessed mammal functional diversity for the 218 ecoregions within the Neotropical realm. We evaluated the overall influence and spatial variation of species richness, ecoregion extent, intervention and species at risk on functional diversity. Using ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression modeling approaches, we found that intervened areas and threatened and non-threatened species are the most influential overall drivers of functional diversity. However, we also detected that these variables do not operate equally across scales. Our local analyses indicated both that the variation explained and local coefficients vary spatially depending on the ecoregion and major habitat type. As estimates of functional diversity are based on current distribution of all mammals, negative influence of intervened areas and positive influence of non-threatened species may reflect a potential degradation of functional processes for some ecosystems. Most generally, the negative influence of intervention together with the influence of threatened species indicates that some areas are currently more susceptible to functional diversity loss. Our results help to pinpoint key areas requiring urgent conservation action to reduce natural land-cover loss and areas where threatened species play influential roles on ecosystem functioning.

  1. Development and flight tests of a Kalman filter for navigation during terminal area and landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Flanagan, P. F.; Sorenson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A Kalman filter for aircraft terminal area and landing navigation was implemented and flight tested in the NASA Ames STOLAND avionics computer onboard a Twin Otter aircraft. This system combines navaid measurements from TACAN, MODILS, air data, radar altimeter sensors along with measurements from strap-down accelerometer and attitude angle sensors. The flight test results demonstrate that the Kalman filter provides improved estimates of the aircraft position and velocity as compared with estimates from the more standard complementary filter. The onboard computer implementation requirements to achieve this improved performance are discussed.

  2. Personnel Attrition Rates in Historical Land Combat Operations: Susceptibility and Vulnerability of Major Anatomical Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    D-A27--76 The US Army’s Center for Strategy and Force Evaluation RESEARCH PAPER CAA-RP-93-3 PERSONNEL ATTRITION RATES IN HISTORICAL LAND COMBAT...ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT UL UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED IA F NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 RESEARCH PAPER CAA-RP-93-3 PERSONNEL...Analysis Agency Research Paper. CAA-RP-93-2, June 1993. The collection of data and data-based studies consists of the files of pertinent documents

  3. The Operational Risk Assessment for Distribution Network with Distributed Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xie; Yaqi, Wu; Yifan, Wang; Qian, Sun; Jianwei, Ma

    2017-05-01

    Distribution network is an important part of the power system and is connected to the consumers directly. Many distributed generations that have discontinuous output power are connected in the distribution networks, which may cause adverse impact to the distribution network. Therefore, to ensure the security and reliability of distribution network with numerous distributed generations, the risk analysis is necessary for this kind of distribution networks. After study of stochastic load flow algorithm, this paper applies it in the static security risk assessment. The wind and photovoltaic output probabilistic model are built. The voltage over-limit is chosen to calculate the risk indicators. As a case study, the IEEE 33 system is simulated for analyzing impact of distributed generations on system risk in the proposed method.

  4. Simulating future climate and land-use impacts on at-risk species in parks and protected areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alpine and sagebrush ecosystems in the mountain west are under threat from climate change and development. The wolverine, fisher, greater sage-grouse,and pygmy rabbit are iconic at-risk species in the region. We explore the impacts of future climate and land-use change on these s...

  5. Simulating future climate and land-use impacts on at-risk species in parks and protected areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alpine and sagebrush ecosystems in the mountain west are under threat from climate change and development. The wolverine, fisher, greater sage-grouse,and pygmy rabbit are iconic at-risk species in the region. We explore the impacts of future climate and land-use change on these s...

  6. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for Two Large Turbojet Transports and a Turboprop Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.

    1961-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently completed a statistical investigation of landing-contact conditions for two large turbojet transports and a turboprop transport landing on a dry runway during routine daylight operations at the Los Angeles International Airport. Measurements were made to obtain vertical velocity, airspeed, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from the runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The vertical velocities at touchdown for one of the turbojet airplanes measured in this investigation were essentially the same as those measured on the same type of airplane during a similar investigation (see NASA Technical Note D-527) conducted approximately 8 months earlier. Thus, it appeared that 8 months of additional pilot experience has had no noticeable tendency toward lowering the vertical velocities of this transport. Distributions of vertical velocities for the turbojet transports covered in this investigation were similar and considerably higher than'those for the turboprop transport. The data for the turboprop transport were in good agreement with the data for the piston-engine transports (see NACA Report 1214 and NASA Technical Note D-147) for all the measured parameters. For the turbojet transports, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a vertical velocity of approximately 4.2 ft/sec; whereas, for the turboprop transport, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed 3.2 ft/sec. The mean airspeeds at touchdown for the three transports ranged from 22.5 percent to 26.6 percent above the stalling speed. Rolling velocities for the turbojet transports were considerably higher than those for the turboprop transport. Distributions of bank angles at contact for the three transports were similar. For each type of airplane, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a bank angle at touchdown of approximately 3.0 deg. Distributions of touchdown distances for the three transports

  7. Mosquito communities and disease risk influenced by land use change and seasonality in the Australian tropics.

    PubMed

    Meyer Steiger, Dagmar B; Ritchie, Scott A; Laurance, Susan G W

    2016-07-07

    Anthropogenic land use changes have contributed considerably to the rise of emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. These diseases appear to be increasing as a result of the novel juxtapositions of habitats and species that can result in new interchanges of vectors, diseases and hosts. We studied whether the mosquito community structure varied between habitats and seasons and whether known disease vectors displayed habitat preferences in tropical Australia. Using CDC model 512 traps, adult mosquitoes were sampled across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient of grassland, rainforest edge and rainforest interior habitats, in both the wet and dry seasons. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordinations were applied to examine major gradients in the composition of mosquito and vector communities. We captured ~13,000 mosquitoes from 288 trap nights across four study sites. A community analysis identified 29 species from 7 genera. Even though mosquito abundance and richness were similar between the three habitats, the community composition varied significantly in response to habitat type. The mosquito community in rainforest interiors was distinctly different to the community in grasslands, whereas forest edges acted as an ecotone with shared communities from both forest interiors and grasslands. We found two community patterns that will influence disease risk at out study sites, first, that disease vectoring mosquito species occurred all year round. Secondly, that anthropogenic grasslands adjacent to rainforests may increase the probability of novel disease transmission through changes to the vector community on rainforest edges, as most disease transmitting species predominantly occurred in grasslands. Our results indicate that the strong influence of anthropogenic land use change on mosquito communities could have potential implications for pathogen transmission to humans and wildlife.

  8. Rebaselining seismic risks for resumption of Building 707 plutonium operations at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, F. Jr.; Foppe, T.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1993-08-01

    Natural phenomena risks have been assessed for plutonium handling facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant, based on numerous studies performed for the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project. The risk assessment was originally utilized in the facilities Final Safety Analysis Reports and in subsequent risk management decisions. Plutonium production operations were curtailed in 1989 in order for a new operating contractor to implement safety improvements. Since natural phenomena events dominated risks to the public, a re-assessment of these events were undertaken for resumption of plutonium operations.

  9. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  10. Improving operational land surface model canopy evapotranspiration in Africa using a direct remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M.; Tu, K.; Funk, C.; Michaelsen, J.; Williams, P.; Williams, C.; Ardö, J.; Boucher, M.; Cappelaere, B.; de Grandcourt, A.; Nickless, A.; Nouvellon, Y.; Scholes, R.; Kutsch, W.

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's economically poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled evapotranspiration (ET), a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a remote sensing model of transpiration (the primary component of ET), driven by a time series of vegetation indices, was used to substitute transpiration from the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Oregon State University, Air Force, and Hydrology Research Laboratory at National Weather Service Land Surface Model (GNOAH) to improve total ET model estimates for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against GNOAH ET and the remote sensing method using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance were at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites was poor, but better than the models before hybridization. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a simple canopy scheme that depends primarily on low bias surface climate reanalysis data and is driven primarily by a time series of vegetation indices.

  11. Anesthesia and sedation outside the operating room: how to prevent risk and maintain good quality.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to define risks for anesthesia and sedation outside the operating room, and to suggest how to prevent these risks and maintain quality of care. There are no recent data on risk for anesthesia outside the operating room, except information derived from the American Society of Anesthesia Closed Claims project, which indicates there is a higher risk for office-based anesthesia. Complications of anesthesia outside the operating room are not well studied, although a few closed claims are appearing in the literature suggesting there is a higher risk. Topics discussed focus on MRI and surgical procedures, principally dental, plastic, and gastrointestinal endoscopy. Risk factors for these procedures are identified and quantified and measures to reduce them discussed, with emphasis on full oxygenation and end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring. Nonoperating room anesthesia requires skills, experience and organization. Quality can only be assured by ensuring all alternative locations adhere to operating room standards.

  12. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Duncan, Matthew G.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Reacting to potential on-orbit collision risk in an operational environment requires timely and accurate communication and exchange of data, information, and analysis to ensure informed decision-making for safety of flight and responsible use of the shared space environment. To accomplish this mission, it is imperative that all stakeholders effectively manage resources: devoting necessary and potentially intensive resource commitment to responding to high-risk conjunction events and preventing unnecessary expenditure of resources on events of low collision risk. After 10 years of operational experience, the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) is modifying its Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to ensure this alignment of collision risk and resource management. This evolution manifests itself in the approach to characterizing, reporting, and refining of collision risk. Implementation of this updated CONOPS is expected to have a demonstrated improvement on the efficacy of JSpOC, CARA, and owner/operator resources.

  13. Operational Risk and the American Way of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    morning of 27 November 1950 was bitterly cold in northwest Korea. The temperature had dropped overnight to below zero and the wind screamed across the...1950-1951 (Chevy Chase , MD: Johns Hopkins University Operations Research Office, 1952), 52-54. 21 The strategic situation in Korea 1950 looked...1950-1951. Chevy Chase , MD: Johns Hopkins Operations Research Office, 1952. Millett, Allan R. The War for Korea, 1950-1951 They Came from the North

  14. Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    operations.1 Thucydides ’ account of Athens defeating of Spartan forces on the island of Sphacteria illuminates the utility and familiarity ancient...Whitehouse, Amphibious Operations (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, 1963), i. 2 Robert B. Strassler, The Landmark Thucydides : A Comprehensive Guide to...Marine Corps Gazette 30, no. 9. September 1946. Strassler, Robert B. The Landmark Thucydides : A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. New York

  15. The Challenge of Modern Contingency Base Management During Sustained Land Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    boards exist to approve the expenditure of Operations and Maintenance Army ( OMA ) funds and to prevent fiscal law violations such as the purpose of...personal property, thereby not spending Operations and Maintenance, Army ( OMA ) funds above the MILCON threshold or spending OMA funds in order to augment a...MILCON facility (thereby mixing MILCON and OMA appropriations). IMCOM personnel can provide the expertise in how to classify work as construction

  16. Global flood risk response to large-scale land-ocean-atmospheric interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. J.; Dettinger, M. D.; Jongman, B.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.

    2012-12-01

    The economic consequences of flooding are huge, as exemplified by recent major floods in Thailand, Pakistan, and the Mississippi Basin. Moreover, research shows that economic flood risks are increasing around the world. Whilst much research is being carried out to assess how this may be related to socioeconomic development (increased exposure to floods) or climate change (increased hazard), the role of interannual climate variability caused by land-ocean-atmospheric interactions, is poorly understood at the global scale. To address these issues, we recently initiated a 4-year project to assess and map the impacts of large scale interannual climate variability on both flood risk (in terms of expected annual economic damages) and flood hazard at the global scale. In this contribution, we assess El Niño Southern Oscillation's (ENSO) impact on global flood risk, and discuss implications for key stakeholders. The research involves a model chain coupling the results of a hydrological model, inundation model, and flood damage model. In terms of risk, we simulate clear and significant differences in annual expected economic damage between El Niño (EN) years and non-EN years, and between La Niña (LN) and non-LN years. These are related to large-scale land-ocean atmospheric interactions, which force significant changes in flood hazard magnitudes. However, our analyses reveal asymmetrical results between ENSO modes. For example, whilst several basins in southern Africa have much higher annual floods in LN years than in neutral years, the opposite signal is less clear. We present seasonal composites of climatic and atmospheric variables to explain these differences. Moreover, we find strong correlations between ENSO indices and (simulated and observed) peak annual floods in rivers all around the world. In many regions, the strength of these relationships is greater than those between the ENSO indices and mean annual discharge. The application of these results to short and

  17. The Influence of IPO to the Operational Risk of Chinese Commercial Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lijun; Li, Jianping

    This paper analyzed the initial public offering (IPO) effect to operational risk. We classified the banks with listed banks and non-listed banks, simulated the annual operational loss with bootstrap method and compared the annual unexpected loss distributions with VaRs, expected shortfall and the annual operational economic capital, the result showed that the annual operational capital of list banks is rather lower than that of non-listed banks. It is showed that IPO may spur banks improving operational risk management.

  18. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  19. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  20. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  1. A Time History of Control Operation of a C-54 Airplane in Blind Landing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talmage, Donald B.

    1947-01-01

    Tests were made with a C-54 airplane in which airline pilots made several blind approaches to determine whether any special flying techniques were used in blind landings and whether any special handling-qualities requirements would have to be formulated because of such special techniques. It was found that the airplane was flown at all times in the normal manner; that is, all turns were banked turns that were nearly coordinated by use of the rudder so that the sideslip was held close to zero. The pilot expended considerable physical work in continually moving the controls but this wake was due in part to the large friction in the three control systems. The actual control deflections used were small compared to the maximum deflections available.

  2. Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1998-04-23

    A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

  3. Distribution and risk assessment of metals and arsenic contamination in man-made ditch sediments with different land use types.

    PubMed

    Nsenga Kumwimba, Mathieu; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Muyembe, Diana Kavidia

    2016-12-01

    Ditches are subjected to a large input of nutrients, trace metals, and arsenic and the enhancement of sedimentation due to human activities. However, the influence of different types of land uses on the distribution and associated environmental risk of metals and arsenic in the Red purple Sichuan Basin remains largely unclear, which is needed for water management. This study was carried out to characterize metal/metalloid status in ditch sediments from different land uses. A total of 68 surface sediment samples (0-5 cm) were collected from open ditches distributed in different land use types, i.e., cultivated ditches (CD), barren land ditches (BLD), roadside ditches (RSD), and residential ditches (RD), within the Sichuan Basin. Mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Mn in both RD and RSD were above the soil background values of Sichuan Basin, but Cd in ditch sediments of the basin posed considerable ecological risk to the environment. Overall, metals/metalloid (except Pb) decreased in the following order of RD > RSD > BLD > CD. Of the different land use types in the hilly region, residential and roadside land uses were likely to adverse effects on aquatic life. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Mn, As, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, and Al were mainly influenced by natural weathering (erosion), while Pb might come from heavy vehicular traffic. The degree of contamination (Md), enrichment factor (EF), and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that Cd causes strong sediment pollution in the basin. Sediment quality guidelines SQG-Q values displayed that metals and arsenic created medium-low potential of adverse biological effects. These results provide baseline information on the metals and arsenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin. Awareness of land use type contributions to metals and arsenic requires that these man-made ditches be considered for their mitigation of pollutants in this region.

  4. Multi-hazard risk assessment applied to hydraulic fracturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Gasparini, Paolo; Russo, Raffaella; Capuano, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Without exception, the exploitation of any energy resource produces impacts and intrinsically bears risks. Therefore, to make sound decisions about future energy resource exploitation, it is important to clearly understand the potential environmental impacts in the full life-cycle of an energy development project, distinguishing between the specific impacts intrinsically related to exploiting a given energy resource and those shared with the exploitation of other energy resources. Technological advances as directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have led to a rapid expansion of unconventional resources (UR) exploration and exploitation; as a consequence, both public health and environmental concerns have risen. The main objective of a multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR is to assess the rate (or the likelihood) of occurrence of incidents and the relative potential impacts on surrounding environment, considering different hazards and their interactions. Such analyses have to be performed considering the different stages of development of a project; however, the discussion in this paper is mainly focused on the analysis applied to the hydraulic fracturing stage of a UR development project. The multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR poses a number of challenges, making of this one a particularly complex problem. First, a number of external hazards might be considered as potential triggering mechanisms. Such hazards can be either of natural origin or anthropogenic events caused by the same industrial activities. Second, failures might propagate through the industrial elements, leading to complex scenarios according to the layout of the industrial site. Third, there is a number of potential risk receptors, ranging from environmental elements (as the air, soil, surface water, or groundwater) to local communities and ecosystems. The multi-hazard risk approach for this problem is set by considering multiple hazards

  5. Assessing interdependent operational, tactical and strategic risks for improved utility master plans.

    PubMed

    Luís, Ana; Lickorish, Fiona; Pollard, Simon

    2015-05-01

    Risk management plays a key role in water utilities. Although risk tools are well-established at operational levels, approaches at the strategic level are rarely informed by systemic assessments of the water supply and lack a long-term perspective. Here, we report a baseline strategic risk analysis, founded on a systemic analysis of operational risks developed 'bottom-up' and validated in a large water utility. Deploying an action-oriented research method, supported by semi- structured interviews with in-house water utility risk experts, deep connections are established between operational risk and strategic risk that surpass those existing elsewhere in the sector. Accessible presentational formats - influence diagrams, risk "heat-maps" and supporting narratives are used to promote Board-level risk discussions, and characterise a baseline set of strategic risks core to forward utility master planning. Uniquely, the influence of operational events, exposures and potential harms, together with the mitigating measures in place to mediate these risks are linked to corporate objectives on business sustainability, profitability, water quality, water quantity, supply disruption and reputation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    sprayer, cultivator and tyre manufacturers, and the associated development and evaluation of novel tools for sustainable land management. Preliminary results from the first winter of monitoring focus on soil physics assessments (such as surface roughness, near-surface compaction, bulk density) and event-based losses associated with surface runoff. Research is initially investigating the relative importance of soil compaction, rather than the lack of vegetation cover, in accounting for the much greater losses of surface runoff, sediment and P loss identified down tramline wheelings compared to the uncompacted, cropped area. Treatments being investigated on three sites with contrasting soil textures and climatic regimes include: • The effect of correctly inflated, "Xeobib" low ground pressure tractor and sprayer tyres compared to conventional tyres and "common practice" tyre pressures • The effect of drilling the wheeling areas and using new GPS technology to guide spraying operations, compared to conventional practice of using undrilled tramline areas for that purpose. Subsequent monitoring periods will explore the cost-effectiveness of techniques to lift the soil compaction in the autumn using novel tools attached to the sprayer unit. Results from such applied, field scale cost-effectiveness studies provide evidence to help identify source areas of diffuse pollution, improve our process understanding of the response of soil systems to land management practices, and thereby support the targeting of practical pollution control measures across a range of soil types and climatic regimes. This project will provide practical recommendations to the farming industry, help inform farm scale evaluations of diffuse pollution risk such as the new Soil Protection Review recently introduced by the UK Department for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and yield data to help parameterise and refine diffuse pollution models used for policy support at a range of scales.

  7. Land application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Australia: risks to the environment and food crops.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D L; Penney, N; McLaughlin, M J; Rigby, H; Schwarz, K

    2010-01-01

    Australia is a large exporter of agricultural products, with producers responsible for a range of quality assurance programs to ensure that food crops are free from various contaminants of detriment to human health. Large volumes of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), although low by world standards, are increasingly being recycled to land, primarily to replace plant nutrients and to improve soil properties; they are used in agriculture, forestry, and composted. The Australian National Biosolids Research Program (NBRP) has linked researchers to a collective goal to investigate nutrients and benchmark safe concentrations of metals nationally using a common methodology, with various other research programs conducted in a number of states specific to regional problems and priorities. The use of biosolids in Australia is strictly regulated by state guidelines, some of which are under review following recent research outcomes. Communication and research between the water industry, regulators and researchers specific to the regulation of biosolids is further enhanced by the Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP). This paper summarises the major issues and constraints related to biosolids use in Australia using specific case examples from Western Australia, a member of the Australian NBRP, and highlights several research projects conducted over the last decade to ensure that biosolids are used beneficially and safely in the environment. Attention is given to research relating to plant nutrient uptake, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus (including that of reduced phosphorus uptake in alum sludge-amended soil); the risk of heavy metal uptake by plants, specifically cadmium, copper and zinc; the risk of pathogen contamination in soil and grain products; change to soil pH (particularly following lime-amended biosolids); and the monitoring of faecal contamination by biosolids in waterbodies using DNA techniques. Examples of products that are currently

  8. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    PubMed

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention.

  9. Improving Risk Models for Avian Influenza: The Role of Intensive Poultry Farming and Flooded Land during the 2004 Thailand Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention. PMID:23185352

  10. A Comparison of Risk Sensitive Path Planning Methods for Aircraft Emergency Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    Determining the best site to land a damaged aircraft presents some interesting challenges for standard path planning techniques. There are multiple possible locations to consider, the space is 3-dimensional with dynamics, the criteria for a good path is determined by overall risk rather than distance or time, and optimization really matters, since an improved path corresponds to greater expected survival rate. We have investigated a number of different path planning methods for solving this problem, including cell decomposition, visibility graphs, probabilistic road maps (PRMs), and local search techniques. In their pure form, none of these techniques have proven to be entirely satisfactory - some are too slow or unpredictable, some produce highly non-optimal paths or do not find certain types of paths, and some do not cope well with the dynamic constraints when controllability is limited. In the end, we are converging towards a hybrid technique that involves seeding a roadmap with a layered visibility graph, using PRM to extend that roadmap, and using local search to further optimize the resulting paths. We describe the techniques we have investigated, report on our experiments with these techniques, and discuss when and why various techniques were unsatisfactory.

  11. Risk factors for health disorders in computer operators in telecom Serbia.

    PubMed

    Blagojević, Ljiljana; Petrović, Branislav; Blagojević, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Computer operators are at risk to develop health disorders related to prolonged computer use. We assessed the occupational risk factors for computer-related health disorders and evaluated health conditions of 939 Serbian computer operators. Musculoskeletal (55.8%), ocular (27.3%) and mental disorders (7.1%) were reported most frequently. Risk factors for health disorders, in both male and female populations, were age; overtime work; negative working atmosphere; awkward posture at work; the presence of vibrations, noise, dust and chemical pollution in the workplace. Negative working atmosphere, body mass index > 30, total job tenure and duration of exposed employment were risk factors for developing health disorders only in males, while smoking was a risk factor only in the female population. Our study showed high prevalence of musculoskeletal and ocular disorders in Serbian computer operators. More effective preventive measures are necessary to improve computer operators' health.

  12. An exploration of spatial human health risk assessment of soil toxic metals under different land uses using sequential indicator simulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chu; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Fei; Huang, Xiao-Long; Gu, Yan-Ling; Shi, Li-Xiu; Shi, Ya-Hui; Wan, Jia

    2016-07-01

    A modified method was proposed which integrates the spatial patterns of toxic metals simulated by sequential indicator simulation, different exposure models and local current land uses extracted by remote-sensing software into a dose-response model for human health risk assessment of toxic metals. A total of 156 soil samples with a various land uses containing farm land (F1-F25), forest land (W1-W12) and residential land (U1-U15) were collected in a grid pattern throughout Xiandao District (XDD), Hunan Province, China. The total Cr and Pb in topsoil were analyzed. Compared with Hunan soil background values, the elevated concentrations of Cr were mainly located in the east of XDD, and the elevated concentrations of Pb were scattered in the areas around F1, F6, F8, F13, F14, U5, U14, W2 and W11. For non-carcinogenic effects, the hazard index (HI) of Cr and Pb overall the XDD did not exceed the accepted level to adults. While to children, Cr and Pb exhibited HI higher than the accepted level around some areas. The assessment results indicated Cr and Pb should be regarded as the priority pollutants of concern in XDD. The first priority areas of concern were identified in region A with a high probability (>0.95) of risk in excess of the accepted level for Cr and Pb. The areas with probability of risk between 0.85 and 0.95 in region A were identified to be the secondary priority areas for Cr and Pb. The modified method was proved useful due to its improvement on previous studies and calculating a more realistic human health risk, thus reducing the probability of excessive environmental management.

  13. Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

  14. 78 FR 53666 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... travels south to Winneconne, WI where it confluences with the Upper Fox River. The Wolf River has two..., dredging projects, and restored drawbridges over the Fox River that connect directly with the Wolf River... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River,...

  15. 78 FR 27336 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... confluences with the Upper Fox River. The Wolf River has two drawbridges over the waterway. The Winneconne... restored drawbridges over the Fox River that connect directly with the Wolf River. The purpose of this... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River,...

  16. 43 CFR 3809.100 - What special provisions apply to operations on segregated or withdrawn lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and whether it remains valid. BLM may require preparation of a mineral examination report before... for the disputed mining claim proposing operations that are limited to taking samples to confirm or... may only conduct exploration under a notice that is limited to taking samples to confirm or...

  17. Operational Art and Risk: Why Doctrine Does Not Help

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    70 Graphic 1: “Do you think going to war...objectives outlined in his orders. Where and how he accepts this risk is entirely at his discretion. He is time constrained and can only rely on his...a peak of 75 percent and those opposed to going to war sank to the low of 21 percent in the time period. Graphic 1 in Appendix A shows the trends for

  18. Managing competing influences: risk acceptance in Operation Rolling Thunder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    help. To the members of my Seminar, the Fightin’ Fourth , I have enjoyed my time with you and I appreciate the many ways that you all have challenged...pivotal two years, from July 1966 until July 1968.30 This chapter begins by describing the background and conduct of Operation Rolling Thunder along with...majority of North Vietnam in July 1966.34 Even as air attacks destroyed more and different strategic targets from the original target list, the United

  19. Understanding and De-risking the Dependencies between Operator and Manufacturer of Clinical IT.

    PubMed

    Despotou, George; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; White, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Health IT, in addition to benefits can also have unintended consequences both in terms of operational and business risks. Understanding the dependencies between operator and manufacturer as well as issues that need to be addressed during procurement is essential to increase confidence in the operation of health IT. The paper provides the context, and a number of issues health IT operators such as clinical organisations, need to investigate during acquisition of health IT.

  20. A Compilation of Data on Rates of Advance in Land Combat Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present b. Author: Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy c. Date: 1970 d. Organization: Harper & Row...Title: Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present b. Author: Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy c. Date: 1970 d. Organization...Organization: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc., Helen Hemingway Benton, Publisher, Chicago, IL 2. Notes: The Pony Express operated from April 1S60 to

  1. Proxy Forces, the Future of the Land Component in Coalition Operations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Travis L., Kelly H. Smith, Isaac J. Peltier, D. Jonathon White, and Richard D. Newton . Contemporary Security Challenges: Irregular Warfare and Indirect...64-76. Newton , Richard D., Travis L. Homiak, Kelly H. Smith, Isaac J. Peltier, and D. Jonathon White. Contemporary Security Challenges: Irregular...analysis of US Operations with Kurdish proxy forces in Iraq. 34Travis L. Homiak, Kelly H. Smith, Isaac J. Peltier, D. Jonathon White and Richard D

  2. Synchronization techniques for all digital 16-ary QAM receivers operating over land mobile satellite links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fines, P.; Aghvami, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a low bit rate (64 Kb/s) all digital 16-ary Differentially Encoded Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-DEQAM) demodulator operating over a mobile satellite channel, is considered. The synchronization and detection techniques employed to overcome the Rician channel impairments, are described. The acquisition and steady state performance of this modem, are evaluated by computer simulation over AWGN and RICIAN channels. The results verify the suitability of the 16-DEQAM transmission over slowly faded and/or mildly faded channels.

  3. Operational Benefits and Risk Reduction of Marine Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, L. H. J.; Glansdorp, C. C.

    1998-09-01

    Safety is a crucial issue in densely sailed waterways. Traffic guidance systems (VTS) have proven to be valuable in this respect. The effectiveness of current systems and the benefits for improvements in navigation are addressed in this paper. Relevant incidents are analysed with a risk assessment tool (Accident Sequence Precursor method) developed for complex system analyses. The method is capable of drawing conclusions on a high level: strategic and tactic events and the human errors associated with the navigator's task cycle. Changes in current VTS systems will not likely improve safety records in dense areas. Improvements might best be achieved by reducing or eliminating the human factor in incident sequences.

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  5. Risk assessment of the entry of canine-rabies into Papua New Guinea via sea and land routes.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Keponge-Yombo, Andy; Thomson, David; Ward, Michael P

    2017-09-15

    Canine-rabies is endemic in parts of Indonesia and continues to spread eastwards through the Indonesian archipelago. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a land border with Papua Province, Indonesia, as well as logging and fishing industry connections throughout Asia. PNG has a Human Development Index of 0.505; therefore, an incursion of canine-rabies could have devastating impacts on human (7.5 million) and animal populations. Given the known difficulties of rabies elimination in resource-scarce environments, an incursion of rabies into PNG would also likely compromise the campaign for global elimination of rabies. A previous qualitative study to determine routes for detailed risk assessment identified logging, fishing and three land-routes (unregulated crossers ["shopper-crossers"], traditional border crossers and illegal hunters) as potential high risk routes for entry of rabies-infected dogs into PNG. The objective of the current study was to quantify and compare the probability of entry of a rabies-infected dog via these routes into PNG and to identify the highest risk provinces and border districts to target rabies prevention and control activities. Online questionnaires were used to elicit expert-opinion about quantitative model parameter values. A quantitative, stochastic model was then used to assess risk, and parameters with the greatest influence on the estimated mean number of rabies-infected dogs introduced/year were identified via global sensitivity analysis (Sobol method). Eight questionnaires - including 7 online - were implemented and >220 empirical distributions were parameterised using >2900 expert-opinions. The highest risk provinces for combined sea routes were West Sepik, Madang and Western Province, driven by the number of vessels and the probability of bringing dogs. The highest risk border districts for combined land routes were Vanimo-Green River and South Fly, driven by the number of people crossing the border and the number of dogs (with hunters

  6. Review of operational aspects of initial experiments utilizing the U.S. MLS. [microwave landing system effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, T. M.; Morello, S. A.; Reeder, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    An exercise to support the Federal Aviation Administration in demonstrating the U.S. candidate for an international microwave landing system (MLS) was conducted by NASA. During this demonstration the MLS was utilized to provide the TCV Boeing 737 research airplane with guidance for automatic control during transition from conventional RNAV to MLS RNAV in curved, descending flight; flare; touchdown; and roll-out. Flight profiles, system configuration, displays, and operating procedures used in the demonstration are described, and preliminary results of flight data analysis are discussed. Recent experiences with manually controlled flight in the NAFEC MLS environment are also discussed. The demonstration shows that in automatic three-dimensional flight, the volumetric signal coverage of the MLS can be exploited to enable a commercial carrier class airplane to perform complex curved, descending paths with precision turns into short final approaches terminating in landing and roll-out, even when subjected to strong and gusty tail and cross wind components and severe wind shear.

  7. Emission rate modeling and risk assessment at an automobile plant from painting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Kulkarni, A.

    1999-07-01

    Pollution from automobile plants from painting operations has been addressed in the Clean Act Amendments (1990). The estimation of pollutant emissions from automobile painting operation were done mostly by approximate procedures than by actual calculations. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for calculating the emissions of the pollutants from painting operation in an automobile plant. Five scenarios involving an automobile painting operation, located in Columbus (Ohio), were studied for pollutant emission and concomitant risk associated with that. In the study of risk, a sensitivity analysis was done using Crystal Ball{reg{underscore}sign} on the parameters involved in risk. This software uses the Monte Carlo principle. The most sensitive factor in the risk analysis was the ground level concentration of the pollutants. All scenarios studied met the safety goal (a risk value of 1 x 10{sup {minus}6}) with different confidence levels. The highest level of confidence in meeting the safety goal was displayed by Scenario 1 (Alpha Industries). The results from the scenarios suggest that risk is associated with the quantity of released toxic pollutants. The sensitivity analysis of the various parameter shows that average spray rate of paint is the most important parameter in the estimation of pollutants from the painting operations. The entire study is a complete module that can be used by the environmental pollution control agencies for estimation of pollution levels and estimation of associated risk. The study can be further extended to other operations in an automobile industry or to different industries.

  8. An Evidenced-Based Approach for Estimating Decompression Sickness Risk in Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ronald R.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Conkin, Johnny

    1999-01-01

    Estimating the risk of decompression Sickness (DCS) in aircraft operations remains a challenge, making the reduction of this risk through the development of operationally acceptable denitrogenation schedules difficult. In addition, the medical recommendations which are promulgated are often not supported by rigorous evaluation of the available data, but are instead arrived at by negotiation with the aircraft operations community, are adapted from other similar aircraft operations, or are based upon the opinion of the local medical community. We present a systematic approach for defining DCS risk in aircraft operations by analyzing the data available for a specific aircraft, flight profile, and aviator population. Once the risk of DCS in a particular aircraft operation is known, appropriate steps can be taken to reduce this risk to a level acceptable to the applicable aviation community. Using this technique will allow any aviation medical community to arrive at the best estimate of DCS risk for its specific mission and aviator population and will allow systematic reevaluation of the decisions regarding DCS risk reduction when additional data are available.

  9. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  10. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will describe the design, capabilities and status of the OLI and TIRS instruments. The OLI will provide 8 channel multispectral images at a spatial resolution of 30 meters and panchromatic images at 15 meter spatial resolution. The TIRS is a 100 meter spatial resolution push-broom imager whose two spectral channels, centered at 10.8 and 12 microns, split the ETM+ thermal bands. The two channels allow the use of the "split-window" technique to aid in atmospheric correction. The TIRS focal plane consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays to span the 185 km swath width. The OLI and TIRS instruments will be operated independently but in concert with each other. Data from both instruments will be merged into a single data stream at the (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) facility. The ground system, being developed by USGS, includes an Image Assessment System (lAS), similar to Landsat-7's, to operationally monitor, characterize and update the calibrations of the two sensors.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-02-01

    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70À 30 W latitude, 149À 53 W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  12. Risk Analysis and Management for Real-time Flood Control Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Zhong, P. A.; Zhang, Y.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a risk analysis model for the real-time flood control operation of a complex flood control system and a multiobjective risk management model for the real-time flood control optimal operation of a reservoir. The risk analysis model is established by decomposing the original system into three basic subsystems. Risk analysis of each basic subsystem is carried-out independently by a submodel. The results from all subsystems are integrated by the Copula theory to determine the overall risk of the entire flood control system for real-time operation. The multiobjective risk management model determines the optimal operation schedules that satisfy the given flood control objectives and minimizes the overall risks at the same time. The two objectives considered in this study are: 1) to minimize the risk of the reservoir and its upstream area and 2) to minimize the risk of the downstream city protection. The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II is used to solve the multiobjective model and generate the Pareto optimal front. Then a comprehensive filter method is proposed to select several representative non-dominated solutions from the Pareto optimal front for the decision makers to make flood control management. The proposed models are applied to the flood control system in the middle reaches of the Huaihe river basin in China. The results show that the proposed method can provide a practical way to estimate the risks in real-time flood control operation of a complex flood control system and provide a new way to conduct the real-time flood control optimal operation and risk management of a reservoir.

  13. Effects of foot rotation positions on knee valgus during single-leg drop landing: Implications for ACL injury risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Teng, P S P; Kong, P W; Leong, K F

    2017-06-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when athletes land in high risk positions such as knee valgus. The position of the foot at landing may influence the transmission of forces from the ankle to the knee. Using an experimental approach to manipulate foot rotation positions, this study aimed to provide new insights on how knee valgus during single-leg landing may be influenced by foot positions. Eleven male recreational basketball players performed single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm high platform in three foot rotation positions (toe-in, toe-forward and toe-out) at initial contact. A motion capture system and a force plate were used to measure lower extremity kinematics and kinetics. Knee valgus angles at initial contact (KVA) and maximum knee valgus moments (KVM), which were known risk factors associated with ACL injury, were measured. A one-way repeated measures Analysis of Variance was conducted (α=0.05) to compare among the three foot positions. Foot rotation positions were found to have a significant effect on KVA (p<0.001, η(2)=0.66) but the difference between conditions (about 1°) was small and not clinically meaningful. There was a significant effect of foot position on KVM (p<0.001, η(2)=0.55), with increased moment observed in the toe-out position as compared to toe-forward (p=0.012) or toe-in positions (p=0.002). When landing with one leg, athletes should avoid extreme toe-out foot rotation positions to minimise undesirable knee valgus loading associated with non-contact ACL injury risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flood Risk and Probabilistic Benefit Assessment to Support Management of Flood-Prone Lands: Evidence From Candaba Floodplains, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, A. M.; Kibler, K. M.; Sayama, T.; Ohara, M.

    2016-12-01

    Flood management decision-making is often supported by risk assessment, which may overlook the role of coping capacity and the potential benefits derived from direct use of flood-prone land. Alternatively, risk-benefit analysis can support floodplain management to yield maximum socio-ecological benefits for the minimum flood risk. We evaluate flood risk-probabilistic benefit tradeoffs of livelihood practices compatible with direct human use of flood-prone land (agriculture/wild fisheries) and nature conservation (wild fisheries only) in Candaba, Philippines. Located north-west to Metro Manila, Candaba area is a multi-functional landscape that provides a temporally-variable mix of possible land uses, benefits and ecosystem services of local and regional value. To characterize inundation from 1.3- to 100-year recurrence intervals we couple frequency analysis with rainfall-runoff-inundation modelling and remotely-sensed data. By combining simulated probabilistic floods with both damage and benefit functions (e.g. fish capture and rice yield with flood intensity) we estimate potential damages and benefits over varying probabilistic flood hazards. We find that although direct human uses of flood-prone land are associated with damages, for all the investigated magnitudes of flood events with different frequencies, the probabilistic benefits ( 91 million) exceed risks by a large margin ( 33 million). Even considering risk, probabilistic livelihood benefits of direct human uses far exceed benefits provided by scenarios that exclude direct "risky" human uses (difference of 85 million). In addition, we find that individual coping strategies, such as adapting crop planting periods to the flood pulse or fishing rather than cultivating rice in the wet season, minimize flood losses ( 6 million) while allowing for valuable livelihood benefits ($ 125 million) in flood-prone land. Analysis of societal benefits and local capacities to cope with regular floods demonstrate the

  15. RECYCLING OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE VIA LAND APPLICATION: ASSESSMENT OF RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment sludges (WTS) offer potential benefits when applied to soil and recycling of the waste stream via land application has been proposed as a management option. Recycling of WTS to the land helps conserve landfill disposal capacity and natural resources, but potential...

  16. Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Millions of tons of treated sewage sludges or “biosolids” are applied annually to farms, forests, rangelands, mine lands and other types of land in the United States. Biosolids are defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as “the primarily organic solid product ...

  17. RECYCLING OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE VIA LAND APPLICATION: ASSESSMENT OF RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment sludges (WTS) offer potential benefits when applied to soil and recycling of the waste stream via land application has been proposed as a management option. Recycling of WTS to the land helps conserve landfill disposal capacity and natural resources, but potential...

  18. Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Millions of tons of treated sewage sludges or “biosolids” are applied annually to farms, forests, rangelands, mine lands and other types of land in the United States. Biosolids are defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as “the primarily organic solid product ...

  19. Voluntary nonmonetary conservation approaches on private land: a review of constraints, risks, and benefits for raptor nest protection.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Andrea; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation on private land of the developed world faces several challenges. The costs of land are often high, and the attitudes of landowners towards conservation are variable. Scientists and practitioners need to scan for and adopt cost-effective solutions that allow for the long-term sustainability of conservation measures on private land. In this study, we focus on one of such possible solutions: Working with landowners to implement voluntary nonmonetary conservation. We restrict our focus to protection of raptor nests, but the ideas can be applied to other taxa as well. Through a literature review, we show that a voluntary nonmonetary approach for protecting raptor nests has been so far largely neglected and/or rarely reported in the scientific literature. However, results of a questionnaire sent to BirdLife partners across Europe indicate that this approach is more widely used than it appears from the literature. We show that voluntary nonmonetary approaches may represent useful tools to protect raptor nests on private land. We provide a workflow for implementation of such an approach in raptor nest protection, highlighting benefits, potential risks, and constraints in the application of the strategy. We suggest that a voluntary nonmonetary approach may have great potential for cost-effective conservation, but the risks it may entail should be carefully assessed in each case. There is an urgent need to consider and evaluate novel approaches, such as the one described here, which may constitute missed opportunities for cost-effective conservation.

  20. Voluntary Nonmonetary Conservation Approaches on Private Land: A Review of Constraints, Risks, and Benefits for Raptor Nest Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation on private land of the developed world faces several challenges. The costs of land are often high, and the attitudes of landowners towards conservation are variable. Scientists and practitioners need to scan for and adopt cost-effective solutions that allow for the long-term sustainability of conservation measures on private land. In this study, we focus on one of such possible solutions: Working with landowners to implement voluntary nonmonetary conservation. We restrict our focus to protection of raptor nests, but the ideas can be applied to other taxa as well. Through a literature review, we show that a voluntary nonmonetary approach for protecting raptor nests has been so far largely neglected and/or rarely reported in the scientific literature. However, results of a questionnaire sent to BirdLife partners across Europe indicate that this approach is more widely used than it appears from the literature. We show that voluntary nonmonetary approaches may represent useful tools to protect raptor nests on private land. We provide a workflow for implementation of such an approach in raptor nest protection, highlighting benefits, potential risks, and constraints in the application of the strategy. We suggest that a voluntary nonmonetary approach may have great potential for cost-effective conservation, but the risks it may entail should be carefully assessed in each case. There is an urgent need to consider and evaluate novel approaches, such as the one described here, which may constitute missed opportunities for cost-effective conservation.

  1. MAHLI on Mars: lessons learned operating a geoscience camera on a landed payload robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Ravine, Michael A.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-06-01

    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) is a 2-megapixel, color camera with resolution as high as 13.9 µm pixel-1. MAHLI has operated successfully on the Martian surface for over 1150 Martian days (sols) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. During that time MAHLI acquired images to support science and science-enabling activities, including rock and outcrop textural analysis; sand characterization to further the understanding of global sand properties and processes; support of other instrument observations; sample extraction site documentation; range-finding for arm and instrument placement; rover hardware and instrument monitoring and safety; terrain assessment; landscape geomorphology; and support of rover robotic arm commissioning. Operation of the instrument has demonstrated that imaging fully illuminated, dust-free targets yields the best results, with complementary information obtained from shadowed images. The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow satisfactory night imaging but do not improve daytime shadowed imaging. MAHLI's combination of fine-scale, science-driven resolution, RGB color, the ability to focus over a large range of distances, and relatively large field of view (FOV), have maximized the return of science and science-enabling observations given the MSL mission architecture and constraints.

  2. 12 CFR 3.161 - Qualification requirements for incorporation of operational risk mitigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal savings association uses insurance as an operational risk mitigant, captures through appropriate... regulatory action or for the receiver or liquidator of a failed depository institution; and (v) Is...

  3. Post-operative hematoma after surgery for intracranial meningiomas: causes, avoidable risk factors and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Rüdiger; Raabe, Andreas; Scharrer, Inge; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Seifert, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Intracranial meningiomas are mainly benign lesions amenable for surgical resection. However, removal of an intracranial meningioma carries a higher risk of post-operative hemorrhage compared to surgery for other intracranial neoplasms. Because avoidance of post-operative hematoma is of vital interest for neurosurgical patients, the aim of this retrospective study was to analyze risk factors of post-operative hematoma associated with meningioma surgery. Two hundred and ninety six patients with intracranial meningiomas, operated between June 1998 and June 2002, were included in this study. Patients who developed a space-occupying post-operative intracranial hemorrhage and were treated surgically were identified. Data of patients with and without hematoma were retrospectively analyzed to identify risk factors associated with post-operative hematoma. Variables analyzed included patients' age, invasion of venous sinus by the meningioma, tumor vascularization, arachnoidal infiltration, pre-operative prophylaxis of thromboembolic events, peri-operative coagulation abnormalities, residual tumor, location and histology of the tumor. Outcome of patients with post-operative hematoma was assessed according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at discharge and at three months. 21 patients (7.1 %) of 296 patients developed a post-operative intracranial hematoma requiring surgical evacuation. Age was significantly higher in the hematoma group 62.4 +/- 14.0 years compared to patients without post-operative hematoma 56.1 +/- 12.0 (p < 0.05; t-test). Patients older than 70 years had a six-fold increased risk to develop a post-operative hematoma (Chi2 test, 95% CI 1.949-13.224). Patients with post-operative hemorrhage had significant lower post-operative prothrombin time, fibrinogen and platelets immediately after surgery and lower platelets at day 1. None of the other parameters, including pre-operative routine coagulation values, differed significantly between patients with and

  4. Injury risk and noise exposure in firefighter training operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Long, Rachel; Sun, Kan; Sayler, Stephanie; von Thaden, Terry L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Firefighters have high rate of injuries and illnesses, as well as exposures to high levels of noise. This study explored the relationship between noise exposure and injury among firefighters. Methods We recruited firefighters undergoing vehicle extrication and structural collapse emergency response training at a highly realistic training facility. Demographics, health status, body mass index, and history of serious injuries (i.e., injuries requiring first aid treatment, treatment in a medical clinic or office, or treatment at a hospital) were assessed at baseline, and daily activities, injury events, and near-misses were assessed daily using surveys. Participants' noise exposures were monitored for one 24-hour period using noise dosimeters. We used a mixed-effects logistic regression model to estimate the odds of injury events and near-misses associated with noise exposure as an independent variable. Results Of 56 subjects, twenty (36%) reported that they had ever suffered a serious injury during firefighting activities, and nine (16%) reported a serious injury within the past year. We estimated rates of 6.6 lifetime serious injuries per 100 FTE 16.1 serious injuries per 100 FTE within the past year. Our models indicated a significant increase in injury events and near misses among those with higher BMI, and as well as a dose-response relationship between near-misses/injuries and increasing noise levels. Noise levels >90 dBA in the 30 min prior to time of injury or near-miss were associated with substantially increased odds ratios for injury or near-miss. Our models further indicated that perceived job demands were significantly associated with increased risk of injury or near-miss. Conclusion Our results suggest that noise exposures may need to be incorporated into injury prevention programs for firefighters to reduce injuries among this high-risk occupational group. PMID:26712895

  5. Managing Risk for Cassini During Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MOandDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona M.

    2002-01-01

    A Risk Management Process has been tailored for Cassini that not only satisfies the requirements of NASA and JPL, but also allows the Program to proactively identify and assess risks that threaten mission objectives. Cassini Risk Management is a team effort that involves both management and engineering staff. The process is managed and facilitated by the Mission Assurance Manager (MAM), but requires regular interactions with Program Staff and team members to instill the risk management philosophy into the day to day mission operations. While Risk Management is well defined for projects in the development phase, it is a relatively new concept for Mission Operations. The Cassini team has embraced this process and has begun using it in an effective, proactive manner, to ensure mission success. It is hoped that the Cassini Risk Management Process will form the basis by which risk management is conducted during MO&DA on future projects. proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully implemented a Risk Management Process for mission operations, The initial SRL has been developed and input into he online tool. The Risk Management webbased system has been rolled out for use by the flight team and risk owners we working proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully

  6. Managing Risk for Cassini During Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MOandDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona M.

    2002-01-01

    A Risk Management Process has been tailored for Cassini that not only satisfies the requirements of NASA and JPL, but also allows the Program to proactively identify and assess risks that threaten mission objectives. Cassini Risk Management is a team effort that involves both management and engineering staff. The process is managed and facilitated by the Mission Assurance Manager (MAM), but requires regular interactions with Program Staff and team members to instill the risk management philosophy into the day to day mission operations. While Risk Management is well defined for projects in the development phase, it is a relatively new concept for Mission Operations. The Cassini team has embraced this process and has begun using it in an effective, proactive manner, to ensure mission success. It is hoped that the Cassini Risk Management Process will form the basis by which risk management is conducted during MO&DA on future projects. proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully implemented a Risk Management Process for mission operations, The initial SRL has been developed and input into he online tool. The Risk Management webbased system has been rolled out for use by the flight team and risk owners we working proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully

  7. Sharing the Burden and Risk: An Operational Assessment of the Reserve Components in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Department of Defense (DOD) tracks the individuals deployed in various databases, while history offices, lessons learned organizations, and numerous...analysis: Significant Activities (SIGACTs) database; Theater History of Operations Reports (THOR)/Mission Report (MISREP) Analysis Tool; mobility...databases; DMDC’s Defense Casualty Analysis System; accidental injury data from the Services; archived histories , testimonies, interviews, after action

  8. Short Operative Duration and Surgical Site Infection Risk in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Procedures.

    PubMed

    Dicks, Kristen V; Baker, Arthur W; Durkin, Michael J; Anderson, Deverick J; Moehring, Rebekah W; Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J; Weber, David J; Lewis, Sarah S

    2015-12-01

    To determine the association (1) between shorter operative duration and surgical site infection (SSI) and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI risk among first-time hip and knee arthroplasties. Retrospective cohort study A total of 43 community hospitals located in the southeastern United States. Adults who developed SSIs according to National Healthcare Safety Network criteria within 365 days of first-time knee or hip arthroplasties performed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. Log-binomial regression models estimated the association (1) between operative duration and SSI outcome and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI outcome. Hip and knee arthroplasties were evaluated in separate models. Each model was adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiology score and patient age. A total of 25,531 hip arthroplasties and 42,187 knee arthroplasties were included in the study. The risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration shorter than the 25th percentile was 0.40 times the risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration between the 25th and 75th percentile (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.56; P<.01). Short operative duration did not demonstrate significant association with SSI for hip arthroplasties (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79-1.37; P=.36). Knee arthroplasty surgeons with shorter median operative durations had a lower risk of SSI than surgeons with typical median operative durations (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.64; P<.01). Short operative durations were not associated with a higher SSI risk for knee or hip arthroplasty procedures in our analysis.

  9. Short Operative Duration and Surgical Site Infection Risk in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Kristen V.; Baker, Arthur W.; Durkin, Michael J.; Anderson, Deverick J.; Moehring, Rebekah W.; Chen, Luke F.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Weber, David J.; Lewis, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association (1) between shorter operative duration and surgical site infection (SSI) and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI risk among first-time hip and knee arthroplasties. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study SETTING A total of 43 community hospitals located in the southeastern United States. PATIENTS Adults who developed SSIs according to National Healthcare Safety Network criteria within 365 days of first-time knee or hip arthroplasties performed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. METHODS Log-binomial regression models estimated the association (1) between operative duration and SSI outcome and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI outcome. Hip and knee arthroplasties were evaluated in separate models. Each model was adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiology score and patient age. RESULTS A total of 25,531 hip arthroplasties and 42,187 knee arthroplasties were included in the study. The risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration shorter than the 25th percentile was 0.40 times the risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration between the 25th and 75th percentile (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.56; P <.01). Short operative duration did not demonstrate significant association with SSI for hip arthroplasties (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79–1.37; P =.36). Knee arthroplasty surgeons with shorter median operative durations had a lower risk of SSI than surgeons with typical median operative durations (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43–0.64; P <.01). CONCLUSIONS Short operative durations were not associated with a higher SSI risk for knee or hip arthroplasty procedures in our analysis. PMID:26391277

  10. Prior inpatient admission increases the risk of post-operative infection in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zachary M; Chidi, Alexis P; Goswami, Julie; Han, Katrina; Simmons, Richard L; Rosengart, Matthew R; Tsung, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) operations have a high incidence of post-operative nosocomial infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether hospitalization up to 1 year before HPB surgery is associated with an increased risk of post-operative infection, surgical-site infection (SSI) and infection resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing HPB surgeries between January 2008 and June 2013 was conducted. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for controlling for potential confounders to determine the association between pre-operative admission and post-operative infection. Of the 1384 patients who met eligibility criteria, 127 (9.18%) experienced a post-operative infection. Pre-operative hospitalization was independently associated with an increased risk of a post-operative infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.46] and SSI (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.97). Pre-operative hospitalization was also associated with an increased risk of post-operative infections resistant to standard pre-operative antibiotics (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.06-6.59) and an increased risk of resistant SSIs (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.25-12.73). Pre-operative hospitalization is associated with an increased incidence of post-operative infections, often with organisms that are resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. Patients hospitalized up to 1 year before HPB surgery may benefit from extended spectrum chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  11. Risk assessment of the fatality due to explosion in land mass transport infrastructure by fast transient dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, G; Larcher, M; Casadei, F; Solomos, G

    2010-01-15

    Terrorist attacks in New York have shocked the world community showing clearly the vulnerability of air transport in such events. However, the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London showed that land mass transport infrastructure is equally vulnerable in case of similar attacks. The fact that there has not been substantial investment in the domain of risk analysis and evaluation of the possible effects due to such events in land mass transportation infrastructure leaves large room for new developments that could eventually fill this gap. In the present work using the finite element code EUROPLEXUS there has been a large effort to perform a complete study of the land mass infrastructure in case of explosion events. This study includes a train station, a metro station and a metro carriage providing thus valuable simulation data for a variety of different situations. For the analysis of these structures it has been necessary to apply a laser scanning method for the acquisition of geometrical data, to improve the simulation capabilities of EUROPLEXUS by adding failure capabilities for specific finite elements, to implement new material models (e.g. glass), and to add new modules that achieve data post-processing for the calculation of fatal and non-fatal injuries risk. The aforementioned improvements are explained in the present work with emphasis in the newly developed risk analysis features of EUROPLEXUS.

  12. Risk characterisation and management of sewage sludge on agricultural land--implications for the environment and the food-chain.

    PubMed

    Ross, A D; Lawrie, R A; Keneally, J P; Whatmuff, M S

    1992-08-01

    The disposal of sewage wastes may cause severe environmental problems as was graphically demonstrated with pollution on Sydney's ocean beaches in recent years. Sewage sludges contain valuable plant nutrients and organic matter which can improve the fertility and structure of the soil. However, human parasites, pathogenic micro-organisms and chemicals capable of causing soil contamination, phytotoxicity and residues in animal products may also be present. Although sewage sludge is frequently spread on agricultural land overseas, it is not common in Australia and most states do not have specific regulations to minimise risk and promote good practice. A sludge-to-land program began in the Sydney region in 1990. It follows guidelines written by NSW Agriculture to encourage beneficial agricultural use of sludge by adoption of environmentally sustainable practices. This article describes the major risks to the food-chain and the environment, which may be associated with applying sewage sludge to agricultural land. It summarises how the risks are managed, and where further research data are required.

  13. The Effect of Land Suitability to Reduce Erosion Risks, Using GIS (Case Study; Boushehr Province, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, K.; Modallaldoust, S.

    Soil erosion normally occurs at a very high level in most parts of Iran and can become a problem when human affects such as agricultural activities disturbed the ecological balance. Problems with erosion have become more apparent in recent decades owing to changes in land use, field sizes and soil management patterns. This study aims to find the relations between land management such as slope gradient with land use pattern and the erosion reduction in Jam and Riz basin. The materials used in this study included the basic maps of topography, geology, recent land use and IRS data that prepared the required information layers to assessment of erosion. The types of especial erosion calculated by the empirical method for the mentioned basin. The land use coefficient (Xa) was applied in the used model of EPM (Erosion Potential Model) to forecasting the effect of the land type to reduce the erosion. The results of this study indicated that the rangeland products a rate of especial erosion about 3074.8 (m3/km2 year) and the cropland products a rate of especial erosion about 1714.4 (m3/km2 year) which are respectively have minimum and maximum role in erosion for the study domain. In conclusion optimum land management reduced erosion in the study area up to 58.3%.

  14. Are University Co-Operative Education Students Safe? Perceptions of Risk to Students on Work Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhook, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    As students venture off campus for university-sponsored activities, are they at risk, given that universities are better able to control risk factors on campus than they can for their off-campus activities? Co-operative education is a formalized and longstanding academic program that often sees students spend upwards of a third of their time off…

  15. [The risk of infection with patients with multi-drug resistant bacteria in the operating room].

    PubMed

    Latroche, Marie-France; Roche, Géraldine; Velardo, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The risk of infection in the operating theatre is constant and multifactorial. It can be contained through a prevention process. The organisation, implementation, monitoring and the results of the patient pathway are all sources for the analysis of practices, quality and professional progress in order to limit the risks of transmitting multi-drug or highly resistant bacteria.

  16. Sea-Level Rise and Land Subsidence in Deltas: Estimating Future Flood Risk Through Integrated Natural and Human System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessler, Z. D.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly sensitive to local human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. We present a new delta flood exposure and risk framework for estimating the sensitivity of deltas to relative sea-level rise. We have applied this framework to a set of global environmental, geophysical, and social indicators over 48 major river deltas to quantify how contemporary risks vary across delta systems. The risk modeling framework incorporates upstream sediment flux and coastal land subsidence models, global empirical estimates of contemporary storm surge exposure, and population distribution and growth. Future scenarios are used to test the impacts on coastal flood risk of upstream dam construction, coastal population growth, accelerated sea-level rise, and enhanced storm surge. Results suggest a wide range of outcomes across different delta systems within each scenario. Deltas in highly engineered watersheds (Mississippi, Rhine) exhibit less sensitivity to increased dams due to saturation of sediment retention effects, though planned or under-construction dams are expected to have a substantial impact in the Yangtze, Irrawaddy, and Magdalena deltas. Population growth and sea-level rise are expected to be the dominant drivers of increased human risk in most deltas, with important exceptions in several countries, particularly China, where population are forecast to contract over the next several decades.

  17. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  18. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  19. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  20. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  1. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  2. 45 CFR 153.630 - Data validation requirements when HHS operates risk adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data validation requirements when HHS operates... Program § 153.630 Data validation requirements when HHS operates risk adjustment. (a) General requirement... behalf of the State for the applicable benefit year must have an initial and second validation audit...

  3. 45 CFR 153.630 - Data validation requirements when HHS operates risk adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data validation requirements when HHS operates... Program § 153.630 Data validation requirements when HHS operates risk adjustment. (a) General requirement... behalf of the State for the applicable benefit year must have an initial and second validation audit...

  4. [Assessment of the predisposing risk factors of the complicated postoperative course after combined operations].

    PubMed

    Federov, A V; Kolygin, A V; Berelavichus, S V; Kriger, A G; Chernova, T G; Goncharova, N N; Solodkiĭ, A V

    2013-01-01

    Results of 335 combined operations were analyzed. Men were 89 (27%), women - 246 (73%), the majority of patients were of middle age. 285 (85%) operations included cholecystectomy. 195 (58%) patients had hernioplasty. The third place belonged to vascular operations - 76 (23%). Certain predisposing factors, correlating with the risk of the complicated postoperative course, were marked out. Indications and contraindications to the combined operation were assigned, based on the number of predisposing factors in a patient. Considering the increased risk of intraoperative complications during the combined operation (increased duration, blood loss), participation of highly experienced surgeons and use of modern high-tech equipment seem to be reasonable. The general results of the analysis prove that combined operations are effective, safe and economically beneficial.

  5. Risk reduction methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Richard K.; Pingitore, Nelson V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will discuss proposed Flight Operations methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC), to reduce risks associated with the operation of complex multi-instrument spacecraft in a multi-spacecraft environment. The EOC goals are to obtain 100 percent science data capture and maintain 100 percent spacecraft health, for each EOS spacecraft. Operations risks to the spacecraft and data loss due to operator command error, mission degradation due to mis-identification of an anomalous trend in component performance or mis-management of resources, and total mission loss due to improper subsystem configuration or mis-identification of an anomalous condition. This paper discusses automation of routine Flight Operations Team (FOT) responsibilities, Expert systems for real-time non-nominal condition decision support, and Telemetry analysis systems for in-depth playback data analysis and trending.

  6. Ensemble Flow Forecasts for Risk Based Reservoir Operations of Lake Mendocino in Mendocino County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, C.; Hartman, R. K.; Mendoza, J.; Evans, K. M.; Evett, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) is a methodology that incorporates short to mid-range precipitation or flow forecasts to inform the flood operations of reservoirs. Previous research and modeling for flood control reservoirs has shown that FIRO can reduce flood risk and increase water supply for many reservoirs. The risk-based method of FIRO presents a unique approach that incorporates flow forecasts made by NOAA's California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC) to model and assess risk of meeting or exceeding identified management targets or thresholds. Forecasted risk is evaluated against set risk tolerances to set reservoir flood releases. A water management model was developed for Lake Mendocino, a 116,500 acre-foot reservoir located near Ukiah, California. Lake Mendocino is a dual use reservoir, which is owned and operated for flood control by the United State Army Corps of Engineers and is operated by the Sonoma County Water Agency for water supply. Due to recent changes in the operations of an upstream hydroelectric facility, this reservoir has been plagued with water supply reliability issues since 2007. FIRO is applied to Lake Mendocino by simulating daily hydrologic conditions from 1985 to 2010 in the Upper Russian River from Lake Mendocino to the City of Healdsburg approximately 50 miles downstream. The risk-based method is simulated using a 15-day, 61 member streamflow hindcast by the CNRFC. Model simulation results of risk-based flood operations demonstrate a 23% increase in average end of water year (September 30) storage levels over current operations. Model results show no increase in occurrence of flood damages for points downstream of Lake Mendocino. This investigation demonstrates that FIRO may be a viable flood control operations approach for Lake Mendocino and warrants further investigation through additional modeling and analysis.

  7. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  8. A Proposal of Operational Risk Management Method Using FMEA for Drug Manufacturing Computerized System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Nanba, Reiji; Fukue, Yoshinori

    This paper proposes operational Risk Management (RM) method using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for drug manufacturing computerlized system (DMCS). The quality of drug must not be influenced by failures and operational mistakes of DMCS. To avoid such situation, DMCS has to be conducted enough risk assessment and taken precautions. We propose operational RM method using FMEA for DMCS. To propose the method, we gathered and compared the FMEA results of DMCS, and develop a list that contains failure modes, failures and countermeasures. To apply this list, we can conduct RM in design phase, find failures, and conduct countermeasures efficiently. Additionally, we can find some failures that have not been found yet.

  9. Heavy metal speciation and risk assessment in dry land and paddy soils near mining areas at Southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guannan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Erxi; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils has been a long-standing environmental problem in many parts of the world, and poses enormous threats to ecosystem and human health. Speciation of heavy metals in soils is crucial to assessing environmental risks from contaminated soils. In this study, total concentrations and speciation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured for agricultural soils near mines along the Diaojiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomy Region, China. The sources of heavy metals in soils also were identified to assess their effect on speciation distribution of soil heavy metals. Furthermore, the speciation distribution of Cd and Zn, main soil heavy metal pollutants, in dry land and paddy soils were compared. Results showed that there were two severely polluted regions near mine area reaching alarming pollution level. As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were more affected by mining activities, showing very strong pollution level in soils. The mean percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fraction was highest and up to 46.8 % for Cd, indicating a high environmental risk. Greater bioavailable fractions of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were found in soils heavily polluted by mining activities, whereas Cr and Ni as geogenic elements in the stable residual fraction. In addition, in the dry land soils, reducible fraction proportion of Cd was higher than that in the paddy soils, whereas exchangeable and carbonate fraction of Cd was lower than that in the paddy soils. Oxidizable fraction of Zn was higher in the paddy soils than that in the dry land soils. The results indicate that the sources of soil heavy metals and land types affect heavy metal speciation in the soil and are significant for environmental risk assessment of soil heavy metal pollutions.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND REVIEW OF MONITORING METHODS AND RISK ASSESSMENT MODELS USED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF BIOSOLIDS LAND APPLICATION ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and Review of monitoring methods and risk assessment models for biosolids land application impacts on air and land

    Ronald F Herrmann (NRMRL), Mike Broder (NCEA), and Mike Ware (NERL)

    Science Questions .

    MYP Science Question: What additional model...

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND REVIEW OF MONITORING METHODS AND RISK ASSESSMENT MODELS USED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF BIOSOLIDS LAND APPLICATION ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and Review of monitoring methods and risk assessment models for biosolids land application impacts on air and land

    Ronald F Herrmann (NRMRL), Mike Broder (NCEA), and Mike Ware (NERL)

    Science Questions .

    MYP Science Question: What additional model...

  12. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part I. Method description.

    PubMed

    Aven, Terje; Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2006-09-21

    Investigations of major accidents show that technical, human, operational, as well as organisational factors influence the accident sequences. In spite of these facts, quantitative risk analyses of offshore oil and gas production platforms have focused on technical safety systems. This paper presents a method (called BORA-Release) for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequency. By using BORA-Release it is possible to analyse the effect of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and how platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors influence the barrier performance. BORA-Release comprises the following main steps: (1) development of a basic risk model including release scenarios, (2) modelling the performance of safety barriers, (3) assignment of industry average probabilities/frequencies and risk quantification based on these probabilities/frequencies, (4) development of risk influence diagrams, (5) scoring of risk influencing factors, (6) weighting of risk influencing factors, (7) adjustment of industry average probabilities/frequencies, and (8) recalculation of the risk in order to determine the platform specific risk related to hydrocarbon release. The various steps in BORA-Release are presented and discussed. Part II of the paper presents results from a case study where BORA-Release is applied.

  13. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  14. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  15. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  16. Evaluation of influence of historical changes in land use along the middle Vistula river reach on flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamuz, Emilia; Romanowicz, Renata; Booij, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    There is a vast literature on the influence of land use changes on rainfall-runoff processes. The problem is difficult as it requires separation of climatic and water management related changes from land use influences. The present paper addresses the problem of the influence of land use changes on maximum flows at cross-sections along the middle River Vistula reach. We adopt a methodology tested at the catchment scale, which consists of an optimisation of a rainfall-runoff model using a moving time horizon and analysis of the variability of model parameters. In the present application, it consists of an analysis of changes of roughness coefficients of a distributed HEC-RAS model, optimised using a moving five-year window. The chosen river reach (between Annopol and Gusin) has a recorded history of land use changes over 50 years (from 1949 to 2001), which included 36% of the study area. The nature of the changes is complex and shows different trends for different plant communities and sections of the valley. Generally, there has been a several percent increase in the area occupied by forests and grassland communities and a slight increase in the proportion of scrub. The first step of the procedure is to define the river reaches that have recorded information on land use changes. The second step is to perform a moving window optimisation of the HEC-RAS model for a chosen river reach. In order to assess the influence of land use changes on maximum flow values, the goodness-of-fit of the simulation of annual maximum water levels is used as an optimisation criterion. In this way the influence of land use changes on maximum inundation extent related to flood risk assessment can be estimated. The final step is to analyse the results and relate the model parameter changes to historical land use changes. We report here the results of the first two steps of the procedure. This work was partly supported from the project "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula

  17. Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fatigue Failure Is Increased by Limited Internal Femoral Rotation During In Vitro Repeated Pivot Landings

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A reduced range of hip internal rotation is associated with increased peak anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and risk for injury. It is unknown, however, whether limiting the available range of internal femoral rotation increases the susceptibility of the ACL to fatigue failure. Hypothesis Risk of ACL failure is significantly greater in female knee specimens with a limited range of internal femoral rotation, smaller femoral-ACL attachment angle, and smaller tibial eminence volume during repeated in vitro simulated single-leg pivot landings. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods A custom-built testing apparatus was used to simulate repeated single-leg pivot landings with a 4×-body weight impulsive load that induces knee compression, knee flexion, and internal tibial torque in 32 paired human knee specimens from 8 male and 8 female donors. These test loads were applied to each pair of specimens, in one knee with limited internal femoral rotation and in the contralateral knee with femoral rotation resisted by 2 springs to simulate the active hip rotator muscles’ resistance to stretch. The landings were repeated until ACL failure occurred or until a minimum of 100 trials were executed. The angle at which the ACL originates from the femur and the tibial eminence volume were measured on magnetic resonance images. Results The final Cox regression model (P = .024) revealed that range of internal femoral rotation and sex of donor were significant factors in determining risk of ACL fatigue failure. The specimens with limited range of internal femoral rotation had a failure risk 17.1 times higher than did the specimens with free rotation (P = .016). The female knee specimens had a risk of ACL failure 26.9 times higher than the male specimens (P = .055). Conclusion Limiting the range of internal femoral rotation during repetitive pivot landings increases the risk of an ACL fatigue failure in comparison with free rotation in a cadaveric model

  18. “IT'S BIG SURGERY”: PREOPERATIVE EXPRESSIONS OF RISK, RESPONSIBILITY AND COMMITMENT TO TREATMENT AFTER HIGH-RISK OPERATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Pecanac, Kristen E.; Kehler, Jacqueline M.; Brasel., Karen J.; Cooper, Zara; Steffens, Nicole M.; McKneally, Martin F.; Schwarze, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the processes surgeons use to establish patient buy-in to postoperative treatments. Background Surgeons generally believe they confirm the patient's commitment to an operation and all ensuing postoperative care, before surgery. How surgeons get buy-in and whether patients participate in this agreement is unknown. Methods We used purposive sampling to identify three surgeons from different subspecialties who routinely perform high-risk operations at each of three distinct medical centers (Toronto, ON; Boston, MA; Madison, WI). We recorded preoperative conversations with three to seven patients facing high-risk surgery with each surgeon (n = 48) and used content analysis to analyze each preoperative conversation inductively. Results Surgeons conveyed the gravity of high-risk operations to patients by emphasizing the operation is “big surgery” and that a decision to proceed invoked a serious commitment for both the surgeon and the patient. Surgeons were frank about the potential for serious complications and the need for intensive care. They rarely discussed the use of prolonged life-supporting treatment, and patients’ questions were primarily confined to logistic or technical concerns. Surgeons regularly proceeded through the conversation in a manner that suggested they believed buy-in was achieved, but this agreement was rarely forged explicitly. Conclusions Surgeons who perform high-risk operations communicate the risks of surgery and express their commitment to the patient's survival. However, they rarely discuss prolonged life-supporting treatments explicitly and patients do not discuss their preferences. It is not possible to determine patients’ desires for prolonged postoperative life support based on these preoperative conversations alone. PMID:24253139

  19. It's big surgery: preoperative expressions of risk, responsibility, and commitment to treatment after high-risk operations.

    PubMed

    Pecanac, Kristen E; Kehler, Jacqueline M; Brasel, Karen J; Cooper, Zara; Steffens, Nicole M; McKneally, Martin F; Schwarze, Margaret L

    2014-03-01

    To identify the processes, surgeons use to establish patient buy-in to postoperative treatments. Surgeons generally believe they confirm the patient's commitment to an operation and all ensuing postoperative care, before surgery. How surgeons get buy-in and whether patients participate in this agreement is unknown. We used purposive sampling to identify 3 surgeons from different subspecialties who routinely perform high-risk operations at each of 3 distinct medical centers (Toronto, Ontario; Boston, Massachusetts; Madison, Wisconsin). We recorded preoperative conversations with 3 to 7 patients facing high-risk surgery with each surgeon (n = 48) and used content analysis to analyze each preoperative conversation inductively. Surgeons conveyed the gravity of high-risk operations to patients by emphasizing the operation is "big surgery" and that a decision to proceed invoked a serious commitment for both the surgeon and the patient. Surgeons were frank about the potential for serious complications and the need for intensive care. They rarely discussed the use of prolonged life-supporting treatment, and patients' questions were primarily confined to logistic or technical concerns. Surgeons regularly proceeded through the conversation in a manner that suggested they believed buy-in was achieved, but this agreement was rarely forged explicitly. Surgeons who perform high-risk operations communicate the risks of surgery and express their commitment to the patient's survival. However, they rarely discuss prolonged life-supporting treatments explicitly and patients do not discuss their preferences. It is not possible to determine patients' desires for prolonged postoperative life support on the basis of these preoperative conversations alone.

  20. Risk Analysis of Multipurpose Reservoir Real-time Operation based on Probabilistic Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, which outputs a lot of inflow scenarios or traces, does well in depicting the inflow not only the marginal distribution but also their corrections. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir operating risk by inputting probabilistic hydrologic forecasting into reservoir real-time operation. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, two alternative techniques, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), are implemented for producing probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, respectively, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of traces that excessive (or below) the critical value to the total number of traces, and (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is build to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits with the inputted probabilistic hydrologic forecasting. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated and minimized based on the proposed methods, and this is great potential benefit in decision and choosing the most realistic one.