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Sample records for landing systems analysis

  1. Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Version 4.1 of LAS provides flexible framework for algorithm development and processing and analysis of image data. Over 500,000 lines of code enable image repair, clustering, classification, film processing, geometric registration, radiometric correction, and manipulation of image statistics.

  2. The Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Irani, Fred M.

    1991-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system, available in the public domain, for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. The system was developed to support earth sciences research and development activities. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete on-line and hardcopy documentation, extensive image data file management, reformatting, and conversion utilities, and high level device independent access to image display hardware. The capabilities are summarized of the latest release of the system (version 5). Emphasis is given to the system portability and the isolation of hardware and software dependencies in this release.

  3. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  4. Development of Land Analysis System display modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Douglas; Hollaren, Douglas; Huewe, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) display modules were developed to allow a user to interactively display, manipulate, and store image and image related data. To help accomplish this task, these modules utilize the Transportable Applications Executive and the Display Management System software to interact with the user and the display device. The basic characteristics of a display are outlined and some of the major modifications and additions made to the display management software are discussed. Finally, all available LAS display modules are listed along with a short description of each.

  5. Overview of the land analysis system (LAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Olseson, Lyndon R.

    1987-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is a fully integrated digital analysis system designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems research. LAS is being developed through a cooperative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center and the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. LAS has over 275 analysis modules capable to performing input and output, radiometric correction, geometric registration, signal processing, logical operations, data transformation, classification, spatial analysis, nominal filtering, conversion between raster and vector data types, and display manipulation of image and ancillary data. LAS is currently implant using the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). While TAE was designed primarily to be transportable, it still provides the necessary components for a standard user interface, terminal handling, input and output services, display management, and intersystem communications. With TAE the analyst uses the same interface to the processing modules regardless of the host computer or operating system. LAS was originally implemented at EROS on a Digital Equipment Corporation computer system under the Virtual Memorial System operating system with DeAnza displays and is presently being converted to run on a Gould Power Node and Sun workstation under the Berkeley System Distribution UNIX operating system.

  6. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  7. Systems Analysis of Amphibious Landing Craft: Comparisons of Revised Designs of Advanced Landing Craft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AALC(AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT LANDING CRAFT), AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT LANDING CRAFT, DEBARKING, GAMUT MODEL, GENERAL PURPOSE SIMULATION SYSTEM, GPSS(GENERAL PURPOSE SIMULATION SYSTEM), IBM 360 COMPUTERS, LANDING CRAFT MIXES.

  8. An overview of the Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi

    1986-01-01

    An outline covering the history, development methodology, and major hardware/software components of the Land Analysis System (LAS) is presented. System support services including the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE), Catalog Manager, history files, and applications services are briefly described along with the general functional capabilities of the 224 available applications programs. Example interface menus are given and desired enhancements to the LAS system are listed.

  9. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  10. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  11. Dynamic heave-pitch analysis of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, K. M.; Boghani, A. B.; Wormley, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    A program to develop analytical tools for evaluating the dynamic performance of Air Cushion Landing Systems (ACLS) is described. The heave (vertical) motion of the ACLS was analyzed, and the analysis was extended to cover coupled heave-pitch motions. The mathematical models developed are based on a fundamental analysis of the body dynamics and fluid mechanics of the aircraft-cushion-runway interaction. The air source characteristics, flow losses in the feeding ducts, trunk and cushion, the effects of fluid compressibility, and dynamic trunk deflections, including ground contact are considered. A computer program, based on the heave-pitch analysis, was developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of an ACLS during landing impact and taxi over an irregular runway. The program outputs include ACLS motions, loadings, pressures, and flows as a function of time. To illustrate program use, three basic types of simulations were carried out. The results provide an initial indication of ACLS performance during (1) a static drop, (2) landing impact, and (3) taxi over a runway irregularity.

  12. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  13. Pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.

  14. LAS - LAND ANALYSIS SYSTEM, VERSION 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities

  15. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Kinney, David J.; Howard, Austin R.; Chen, George T.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the Study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

  16. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  17. Landing System Development- Design and Test Prediction of a Lander Leg Using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Stefano; Buchwald, Robert; Pellegrino, Pasquale; Schroder, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    Several mission studies have been performed focusing on a soft and precision landing using landing legs. Examples for such missions are Mars Sample Return scenarios (MSR), Lunar landing scenarios (MoonNEXT, Lunar Lander) and small body sample return studies (Marco Polo, MMSR, Phootprint). Such missions foresee a soft landing on the planet surface for delivering payload in a controlled manner and limiting the landing loads.To ensure a successful final landing phase, a landing system is needed, capable of absorbing the residual velocities (vertical, horizontal and angular) at touch- down, and insuring a controlled attitude after landing. Such requirements can be fulfilled by using landing legs with adequate damping.The Landing System Development (LSD) study, currently in its phase 2, foresees the design, analysis, verification, manufacturing and testing of a representative landing leg breadboard based on the Phase B design of the ESA Lunar Lander. Drop tests of a single leg will be performed both on rigid and soft ground, at several impact angles. The activity is covered under ESA contract with TAS-I as Prime Contractor, responsible for analysis and verification, Astrium GmbH for design and test and QinetiQ Space for manufacturing. Drop tests will be performed at the Institute of Space Systems of the German Aerospace Center (DLR-RY) in Bremen.This paper presents an overview of the analytical simulations (test predictions and design verification) performed, comparing the results produced by Astrium made multi body model (rigid bodies, nonlinearities accounted for in mechanical joints and force definitions, based on development tests) and TAS-I made nonlinear explicit model (fully deformable bodies).

  18. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  19. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

  20. Heave-pitch-roll analysis and testing of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Wormley, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical tools (analysis and computer simulation) needed to explain and predict the dynamic operation of air cushion landing systems (ACLS) is described. The following tasks were performed: the development of improved analytical models for the fan and the trunk; formulation of a heave pitch roll analysis for the complete ACLS; development of a general purpose computer simulation to evaluate landing and taxi performance of an ACLS equipped aircraft; and the verification and refinement of the analysis by comparison with test data obtained through lab testing of a prototype cushion. Demonstration of simulation capabilities through typical landing and taxi simulation of an ACLS aircraft are given. Initial results show that fan dynamics have a major effect on system performance. Comparison with lab test data (zero forward speed) indicates that the analysis can predict most of the key static and dynamic parameters (pressure, deflection, acceleration, etc.) within a margin of a 10 to 25 percent.

  1. Analysis and preliminary design of Kunming land use and planning management information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Chen, Zhenjie

    2007-06-01

    This article analyzes Kunming land use planning and management information system from the system building objectives and system building requirements aspects, nails down the system's users, functional requirements and construction requirements. On these bases, the three-tier system architecture based on C/S and B/S is defined: the user interface layer, the business logic layer and the data services layer. According to requirements for the construction of land use planning and management information database derived from standards of the Ministry of Land and Resources and the construction program of the Golden Land Project, this paper divides system databases into planning document database, planning implementation database, working map database and system maintenance database. In the design of the system interface, this paper uses various methods and data formats for data transmission and sharing between upper and lower levels. According to the system analysis results, main modules of the system are designed as follows: planning data management, the planning and annual plan preparation and control function, day-to-day planning management, planning revision management, decision-making support, thematic inquiry statistics, planning public participation and so on; besides that, the system realization technologies are discussed from the system operation mode, development platform and other aspects.

  2. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  3. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  4. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  5. Land Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    LAND COMBAT SYSTEMS It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. — Charles ... Darwin ABSTRACT: The Land Combat Systems (LCS) industry has significantly changed over the last decade. The days when production lines and factories

  6. A Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing (SAPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2009-01-01

    SAPE is a Python-based multidisciplinary analysis tool for systems analysis of planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The purpose of SAPE is to provide a variable-fidelity capability for conceptual and preliminary analysis within the same framework. SAPE includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and structural sizing. SAPE uses the Python language-a platform-independent open-source software for integration and for the user interface. The development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X and has been partially tested on Linux.

  7. Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems analysis of a planetary entry (SAPE), descent, and landing (EDL) is a multidisciplinary activity in nature. SAPE improves the performance of the systems analysis team by automating and streamlining the process, and this improvement can reduce the errors that stem from manual data transfer among discipline experts. SAPE is a multidisciplinary tool for systems analysis of planetary EDL for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. It performs EDL systems analysis for any planet, operates cross-platform (i.e., Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems), uses existing software components and open-source software to avoid software licensing issues, performs low-fidelity systems analysis in one hour on a computer that is comparable to an average laptop, and keeps discipline experts in the analysis loop. SAPE uses Python, a platform-independent, open-source language, for integration and for the user interface. Development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE currently includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and interface for structural sizing.

  8. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  9. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world. PMID:26121142

  10. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  11. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A number of problems related to the design, construction and evaluation of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle and its control and operating systems intended for an unmanned exploration of Mars are studied. Vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain sensing and modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of samples are included.

  12. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions☆

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  13. Uncertainty Analysis in the Decadal Survey Era: A Hydrologic Application using the Land Information System (LIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, K.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Computing and algorithmic advancements are making possible a more complete accounting of errors and uncertainties in earth science modeling. Knowledge of uncertainty can be critical in many application areas and can help to guide scientific research efforts. Here, we describe a plan and progress to date for a fuller accounting of hydrologic modeling uncertainties that addresses the challenges posed by decadal survey missions. These challenges include the need to account for a wide range of error sources (e.g., model error, stochastically varying inputs, observational error, downscaling) and uncertainties (model parameters, error parameters, model selection). In addition, there is a need to incorporate into an assessment all available data, which for decadal survey missions includes the wealth of data from ground, air and satellite observing systems. Our core tool is NASA’s Land Information System (LIS), a high-resolution, high-performance, land surface modeling and data assimilation system that supports a wide range of land surface research and applications. Support for parameter and uncertainty estimation was recently incorporated into the software architecture, and to date three optimization algorithms (Levenberg-Marquardt, Genetic Algorithm, and SCE-UA) and two Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for Bayesian analysis (random walk, Differential Evolution-Monte Carlo) have been added. Results and discussion center on a case study that was the focus of Santanello et al. (2007) who demonstrated the use of remotely sensed soil moisture for hydrologic parameter estimation in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. We contrast results from uncertainty estimation to those from parameter estimation alone. We demonstrate considerable but not complete uncertainty reduction. From this analysis, we identify remaining challenges to a more complete accounting of uncertainties.

  14. Global Land Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

  15. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars were investigated. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; navigation, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks were studied: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement and transport parameter evaluation.

  16. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  17. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. V.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars are reported. Problem areas include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. These tasks are summarized: vehicle model design, mathematical model of vehicle dynamics, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electrochemical controls, remote control, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, and chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  18. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [computer analysis from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a computer mapping project using LANDSAT data and the USGS/NASA land use classification system are summarized. During the computer mapping portion of the project, accuracies of 67 percent to 79 percent were achieved using Level II of the classification system and a 4,000 acre test site centered on Douglasville, Georgia. Analysis of response to a questionaire circulated to actual and potential LANDSAT data users reveals several important findings: (1) there is a substantial desire for additional information related to LANDSAT capabilities; (2) a majority of the respondents feel computer mapping from LANDSAT data could aid present or future projects; and (3) the costs of computer mapping are substantially less than those of other methods.

  19. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to control of a mobile planetary vehicle according to a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: (1) overall systems analysis; (2) vehicle configuration and dynamics; (3) toroidal wheel design and evaluation; (4) on-board navigation systems; (5) satellite-vehicle navigation systems; (6) obstacle detection systems; (7) terrain sensing, interpretation and modeling; (8) computer simulation of terrain sensor-path selection systems; and (9) chromatographic systems design concept studies. The specific tasks which have been undertaken are defined and the progress which has been achieved during the period July 1, 1971 to December 31, 1971 is summarized.

  20. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  1. Parametric Mass Modeling for Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System Analysis Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Komar, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the parametric mass models used for the Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems Analysis study conducted by NASA in FY2009-2010. The study examined eight unique exploration class architectures that included elements such as a rigid mid-L/D aeroshell, a lifting hypersonic inflatable decelerator, a drag supersonic inflatable decelerator, a lifting supersonic inflatable decelerator implemented with a skirt, and subsonic/supersonic retro-propulsion. Parametric models used in this study relate the component mass to vehicle dimensions and mission key environmental parameters such as maximum deceleration and total heat load. The use of a parametric mass model allows the simultaneous optimization of trajectory and mass sizing parameters.

  2. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  3. LandCaRe DSS--an interactive decision support system for climate change impact assessment and the analysis of potential agricultural land use adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Wenkel, Karl-Otto; Berg, Michael; Mirschel, Wilfried; Wieland, Ralf; Nendel, Claas; Köstner, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support system LandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously

  4. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  5. Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis of the Microwave Landing System Ground and Airborne Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    relative costs and reliability of the system have been programmed into the cost model. 5.3 RESULTS OF APPLYING THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS MODEL The ARINC ...Young, K. Peter 1326-01-16-2547 9. Porferintg Ogeni etiet Noise and Address 10. WoA Unit No. (TRAIS) ARINC Reseaarch Corporation 2551 Riva Road 11...Throughout this study, ARINC Research Corporation received enthusiastic and invaluable support from the engineering and management staffs of the Federal

  6. Space shuttle post-entry and landing analysis. Volume 1: Candidate system evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, B. S.; Duiven, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to aid in the evaluation and design of multi-sensor navigation schemes proposed for the orbiter. The scope of the effort is limited to the post-entry, energy management, and approach and landing mission phases. One candidate system based on conventional navigation aids is illustrated including two DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) stations and ILS (Instrument Landing System) glide slope and localizer antennas. Some key elements of the system not shown are the onboard IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units), altimeters, and a computer. The latter is programmed to mix together (filter) the IMU data and the externally-derived data. A completely automatic, all-weather landing capability is required. Since no air-breathing engines will be carried on orbital flights, there will be no chance to go around and try again following a missed approach.

  7. Analysis of Summertime Convective Initiation in Central Alabama Using the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

  9. Guidance and Control Algorithms for the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; CwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) study was to identify feasible technologies that will enable human exploration of Mars, specifically to deliver large payloads to the Martian surface. This paper focuses on the methods used to guide and control two of the contending technologies, a mid- lift-to-drag (L/D) rigid aeroshell and a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD), through the entry portion of the trajectory. The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used to simulate and analyze the trajectories of the contending technologies and guidance and control algorithms. Three guidance algorithms are discussed in this paper: EDL theoretical guidance, Numerical Predictor-Corrector (NPC) guidance and Analytical Predictor-Corrector (APC) guidance. EDL-SA also considered two forms of control: bank angle control, similar to that used by Apollo and the Space Shuttle, and a center-of-gravity (CG) offset control. This paper presents the performance comparison of these guidance algorithms and summarizes the results as they impact the technology recommendations for future study.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters. [Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.; Bull, J. S.; Peach, L. L.; Demko, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a sensitivity analysis of the Decelerated Steep Approach and Landing (DSAL) maneuver to on-board and ground-based navigation system parameters. The Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) DSAL maneuver involves decelerating to zero range rate while tracking the localizer and glideslope. The considered study investigated the performance of the navigation systems using Constant Deceleration Profile (CDP) guidance and a six degrees glideslope trajectory. A closed-loop computer simulation of the UH1H helicopter DSAL system was developed for the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions on system performance parameter sensitivity are discussed.

  11. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file

  12. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

  13. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to an unmanned exploration of the planet Mars by means of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle are investigated. These problems include: design, construction and evaluation of the vehicle itself and its control and operating systems. More specifically, vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, propulsion, hazard detection systems, terrain sensing and modelling, obstacle detection concepts, path selection, decision-making systems, and chemical analyses of samples are studied. Emphasis is placed on development of a vehicle capable of gathering specimens and data for an Augmented Viking Mission or to provide the basis for a Sample Return Mission.

  14. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    A number of problems related to unmanned exploration of planets or other extraterrestrial bodies with Mars as a case in point were investigated. The design and evaluation of a prototype rover concept with emphasis on mobility, maneuverability, stability, control and propulsion is described along with the development of terrain sensor concepts and associated software for the autonomous control of any planetary rover. Results are applicable not only to the design of a mission rover but the vehicle is used as a test bed for the rigorous evaluation of alternative autonomous control systems.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of land unit suitability for conservation using a knowledge-based system.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Hope C; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Reynolds, Keith M

    2010-08-01

    The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to determine the conservation suitability of land units in the interior Columbia River basin using NetWeaver software in the Ecosystem Management Decision Support application framework. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of suitability ratings, derived from evaluating the knowledge bases, to fuzzy logic function parameters and to the removal of data layers (land use condition, road density, disturbance regime change index, vegetation change index, land unit size, cover type size, and cover type change index). The amount and geographic distribution of suitable land polygons was most strongly altered by the removal of land use condition, road density, and land polygon size. Removal of land use condition changed suitability primarily on private or intensively-used public land. Removal of either road density or land polygon size most strongly affected suitability on higher-elevation US Forest Service land containing small-area biophysical environments. Data layers with the greatest influence differed in rank between the two knowledge bases. Our results reinforce the importance of including both biophysical and socio-economic attributes to determine the suitability of land units for conservation. The sensitivity tests provided information about knowledge base structuring and parameterization as well as prioritization for future data needs.

  16. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  17. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  18. Analysis of Multiple Precipitation Products and Preliminary Assessment of Their Impact on Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Land Surface States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottschalck, Jon; Meng, Jesse; Rodel, Matt; Houser, paul

    2005-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are computer programs, similar to weather and climate prediction models, which simulate the stocks and fluxes of water (including soil moisture, snow, evaporation, and runoff) and energy (including the temperature of and sensible heat released from the soil) after they arrive on the land surface as precipitation and sunlight. It is not currently possible to measure all of the variables of interest everywhere on Earth with sufficient accuracy and space-time resolution. Hence LSMs have been developed to integrate the available observations with our understanding of the physical processes involved, using powerful computers, in order to map these stocks and fluxes as they change in time. The maps are used to improve weather forecasts, support water resources and agricultural applications, and study the Earth's water cycle and climate variability. NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project facilitates testing of several different LSMs with a variety of input datasets (e.g., precipitation, plant type). Precipitation is arguably the most important input to LSMs. Many precipitation datasets have been produced using satellite and rain gauge observations and weather forecast models. In this study, seven different global precipitation datasets were evaluated over the United States, where dense rain gauge networks contribute to reliable precipitation maps. We then used the seven datasets as inputs to GLDAS simulations, so that we could diagnose their impacts on output stocks and fluxes of water. In terms of totals, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) had the closest agreement with the US rain gauge dataset for all seasons except winter. The CMAP precipitation was also the most closely correlated in time with the rain gauge data during spring, fall, and winter, while the satellitebased estimates performed best in summer. The GLDAS simulations revealed that modeled soil moisture is highly

  19. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  20. Global Land Information System (GLIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for scientists seeking sources of information about the Earth's land surfaces. GLIS contains "metadata," that is, descriptive information about data sets. Through GLIS, scientists can evaluate data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for products. GLIS is more, however, than a mere list of products. It offers online samples of earth science data that may be ordered through the system.

  1. Land Combat Systems Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    communication equipment, and maintains power train components, starters , alternators , and generators. MCLB Barstow, Barstow, CA is the Marine Corps...protectionism became dominant themes. Other heavy industries, such as locomotive and food machinery companies, also were converted to production of land...implications for national defense. Domestic LCS companies’ market share may decrease as foreign companies with cheaper alternatives become more competitive and

  2. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  3. Revised Land Use Characteristic Dataset for Asia and Southwest Asia for the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) uses the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use characteristic dataset to determine global dust emission areas. The USGS dataset was developed from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer 1-km data from April 1992 to March 1993. In the past decade drastic changes in land and water use in Asia and Southwest Asia have quickly outdated this dataset. In China and Mongolia, age-old practices of farming and animal husbandry have been abandoned. Herders have too many animals in one location allowing the grassland to be eaten away and leaving vast areas of topsoil exposed and primed for removal by the wind. In the case of Southwest Asia, a four-year drought is in progress. Many of the wetlands and marshes in the river deltas are drying up from the lack of water runoff. To compound the problem several new dams were and are being built along the major watersheds. In particular, Iraq's dam building in the 1990's and politically driven draining of the Mesopotamian marshes between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has lead to the near disappearance of this historical marshland. To incorporate these changes we are updating the USGS land use characteristic dataset using GIS-like software named ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images), 1 km National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global topographical data, satellite imagery, and recently released governmental maps and reports. (For example, within the last two years the Chinese and Mongolian governments have released land degradation and desertification maps to satisfy the requirements set forth by United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.) The steps taken to create the new land use characteristic database will be described in detail. Before (non-dust producing areas) and after (dust producing areas) examples will be shown.

  4. A design for a new catalog manager and associated file management for the Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, Cheryl

    1986-01-01

    Due to the larger number of different types of files used in an image processing system, a mechanism for file management beyond the bounds of typical operating systems is necessary. The Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) Catalog Manager was written to meet this need. Land Analysis System (LAS) users at the EROS Data Center (EDC) encountered some problems in using the TAE catalog manager, including catalog corruption, networking difficulties, and lack of a reliable tape storage and retrieval capability. These problems, coupled with the complexity of the TAE catalog manager, led to the decision to design a new file management system for LAS, tailored to the needs of the EDC user community. This design effort, which addressed catalog management, label services, associated data management, and enhancements to LAS applications, is described. The new file management design will provide many benefits including improved system integration, increased flexibility, enhanced reliability, enhanced portability, improved performance, and improved maintainability.

  5. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  6. Multicomponent Body and Surface Wave Seismic Analysis using an Urban Land Streamer System: An Integrative Earthquake Hazards Assessment Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribler, G.; Liberty, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present earthquake site response results from a 48-channel multicomponent seismic land streamer and large weight drop system. We acquired data along a grid of city streets in western Idaho at a rate of a few km per day where we derived shear wave velocity profiles to a depth of 40-50 m by incorporating vertical and radial geophone signals to capture the complete elliptical Rayleigh wave motion. We also obtained robust p-wave reflection and refraction results by capturing the returned signals that arrive at non-vertical incidence angles that result from the high-velocity road surface layer. By integrating the derived shear wave velocity profiles with p-wave reflection results, we include depositional and tectonic boundaries from the upper few hundred meters into our analysis to help assess whether ground motions may be amplified by shallow bedrock. By including p-wave refraction information into the analysis, we can identify zones of high liquefaction potential by comparing shear wave and p-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) measurements relative to refraction-derived water table depths. The utilization of multicomponent land streamer data improves signal-noise levels over single component data with no additional field effort. The added multicomponent data processing step can be as simple as calculating the magnitude of the vector for surface wave and refraction arrivals or rotating the reflected signals to the maximum emergence angle based on near surface p-wave velocity information. We show example data from a number of Idaho communities where historical earthquakes have been recorded. We also present numerical models and systematic field tests that show the effects of a high velocity road surface layer in surface and body wave measurements. We conclude that multicomponent seismic information derived from seismic land streamers can provide a significant improvement in earthquake hazard assessment over a standard single component approach with only a small addition in

  7. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  8. Land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, John D.

    1990-07-01

    The general advantages and potential operating characteristics of the mobile satellite service (MSS) are described, and distinctions are made between radio telephone, which is interconnected to the public switched telephone network, and private mobile radio systems. Mobile satellite service offers voice, data, position location, and paging services, interconnection to the public switched telephone network, and the possibility of private networks. Performance and cost characteristics are given along with summaries of market needs and market demands. The space and ground systems of the MSS are described.

  9. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  10. The Global Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, Lyndon R.

    1993-08-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for scientists seeking data pertaining to the Earth's land surface that can be used in global change studies. GLIS contains descriptive information on a variety of regional, continental, and global land data sets. The interactive query services of GLIS allow scientists to assess the potential utility of data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for data products. In addition to the text-based query services, GLIS offers a number of graphical aids to users accessing the system through one of the supported graphical user interfaces, such as the PG-GLIS package developed for IBM-compatible personal computers. These services include interative specification of geographic search areas, geographic coverage plots, and online digital image browse capabilities. Access to GLIS is provided through either wide-area network or dial-up interfaces. A prototype of the system became operational in June 1991, and full operational status is expected by September 1992. In addition to continued data set expansion, 1992 development plans include the enhancement of data query and visualization services and the addition of a graphical user interface for UNIX workstations.

  11. Land mobile satellite demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

  12. Application and analysis of anchored geosynthetic systems for stabilization of abandoned mine land slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitton, S.J.; Whitman, F.; Liang, R.Y.; Harris, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    An anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) was used in the remediation of a landslide associated with an abandoned coal mine located near Hindman, Kentucky. In concept, AGS is a system that provides in-situ stabilization of soil slopes by combining a surface-deployed geosynthetic with an anchoring system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system involves tensioning a geosynthetic over a slope`s surface by driving anchors through the geosynthetic at a given spacing and distance. By tensioning the geosynthetic over the slope`s surface, a compressive load is applied to the slope. Benefits of AGS are described to include the following: (1) increase soil strength due to soil compression including increased compressive loading on potential failure surfaces, (2) soil reinforcement through soil nailing, (3), halt of soil creep, (4) erosion control, and (5) long term soil consolidation. Following installation of the AGS and one year of monitoring, it was found that the anchored geosynthetic system only provided some of the reported benefits and in general did not function as an active stabilization system. This was due in part to the inability of the system to provide and maintain loading on the geosynthetic. The geosynthetic, however, did tension when slope movement occurred and prevented the slope from failing. Thus, the system functioned more as a passive restraint system and appeared to function well over the monitoring period.

  13. Information analysis of a spatial database for ecological land classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Frank W.; Dozier, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    An ecological land classification was developed for a complex region in southern California using geographic information system techniques of map overlay and contingency table analysis. Land classes were identified by mutual information analysis of vegetation pattern in relation to other mapped environmental variables. The analysis was weakened by map errors, especially errors in the digital elevation data. Nevertheless, the resulting land classification was ecologically reasonable and performed well when tested with higher quality data from the region.

  14. Computer program design for land treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K. ); Jantrania, A.

    1989-10-01

    Municipal Sludge Land Application expert System (MuSLAXS)is as expert system developed for site assessment and design analysis of municipal sludge application on agricultural land. The system has knowledge on the technical and regulatory aspects of sludge land application and understanding of soil-plant systems for South Carolina. It can be effectively used outside South Carolina with modifications to incorporate specific regulations on land treatment and soil and crop database. A database supports this expert system and provides appropriate default values for sludge and soil characteristics, and fertilizer recommendations for crops commonly grown in South Carolina. Information on the sludge characteristics is gathered from the user, if it is available, or it is retrieved from the sludge database. Based on the recommendations by the EPA and the expert, a list of 22 constituents, for which the sludge should be analyzed is developed. This list includes: total solids, volatile solids, total nitrogen (TNK), ammonia-nitrogen, organic-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, PCBs, calcium, magnesium, chromium, boron, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and molybdenum.

  15. A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO MITIGATING URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF VIA DEVELOPMENT PLANS BASED ON LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We advocate an approach to reduce the anticipated increase in stormwater runoff from conventional development by demonstrating a low-impact development that incorporates hydrologic factors into an expanded land suitability analysis. This methodology was applied to a 3 hectare exp...

  16. THE SHADOW BOX OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A simple replacement for the Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS) was designed and built at NRL for use as a research tool in the experimental...transport, and simple to maintain. Experimental evaluation of two proposed landing systems, the Laterally Compounded Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System

  17. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  18. Analysis of Air Land Combat Tactics Using JANUS(T) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    FORTRAN, a structured Digital Equipment Corporation extension of FORTRAN-77. [Ref.5: p. 221 b. Model Resolution The JANUS (T) combat simulation...reviewed and analy,,ed within the context of military operations research; thus, the analysis of the assumptions underlying the JANUSi (T) model are outside

  19. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  20. A study of instrument landing system on decimeter-wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lijian; Wang, Yongsheng; Wu, Dewei; Zhao, Xiubin

    2007-11-01

    This paper puts forward a new type of landing system based on decimeter wave, in-depth analysis on the forming of navigation information under this system, indicates the characteristics of the landing system, and defines the main technologies; provides the approach to realize the landing system with the application of decimeter wave instruments, puts forward the methods and the simulation of the generation of navigation signal and the establishment of antenna array radiation pattern, providing the theoretical gist for the development of decimeter wave instruments landing system.

  1. V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Low Speed and Transition Equivalent Systems Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    had t9 adjust his piloting technique quickly. The pilots felt this was unacceptable, and even dangerous . 38 NADC-81 104-60 1.0 Rate Command .2 C...TR5 K8 ., -. 031 rad/cn PILOT A: Back on attitude type system, I think, I can’t really 6 tell. It is just too darn sluggish and this thing is dangerous ...can’t make this thing respond very fast. That can be dangerous in close confines. You really got to sneak up on the pad. So we are back to where I can’t

  2. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  3. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  4. The utility of a geographic information system in facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1994-12-31

    Facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis, which is indispensable for the evaluation of potential future uses for a site, is essentially spatial in nature. Spatial analysis is best accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), as a GIS allows the identification and reporting or mapping of complex relationships among multiple data layers such as geology, soils, vegetation, contamination, and facilities. GIS-based maps and reports are valuable tools for communicating facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints to decision makers. This paper defines the term {open_quotes}GIS,{close_quotes}, provides an example of how a GIS could be used to conduct opportunities and constraints analysis at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and summarizes the benefits of using a GIS for this analysis. Because a GIS is often seen as a {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} shrouded in technical jargon, this paper attempts to describe the concepts and benefits of a GIS in language understandable to decision makers who are not GIS experts but who migth profit from the use of GIS products. The purpose of this paper is to alert DOE decision makers to a valuable source of facility/land use-related information that already exists at many sites and that should not be overlook during the analysis of future use options.

  5. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis in Agent-Based Models of Socio-Ecological Systems: An Example in Agricultural Land Conservation for Lake Water Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligmann-Zielinska, A.; Kramer, D. B.; Spence Cheruvelil, K.; Soranno, P.

    2012-12-01

    Socio-ecological systems are dynamic and nonlinear. To account for this complexity, we employ agent-based models (ABMs) to study macro-scale phenomena resulting from micro-scale interactions among system components. Because ABMs typically have many parameters, it is challenging to identify which parameters contribute to the emerging macro-scale patterns. In this paper, we address the following question: What is the extent of participation in agricultural land conservation programs given heterogeneous landscape, economic, social, and individual decision making criteria in complex lakesheds? To answer this question, we: [1] built an ABM for our model system; [2] simulated land use change resulting from agent decision making, [3] estimated the uncertainty of the model output, decomposed it and apportioned it to each of the parameters in the model. Our model system is a freshwater socio-ecological system - that of farmland and lake water quality within a region containing a large number of lakes and high proportions of agricultural lands. Our study focuses on examining how agricultural land conversion from active to fallow reduces freshwater nutrient loading and improves water quality. Consequently, our ABM is composed of farmer agents who make decisions related to participation in a government-sponsored Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) managed by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). We also include an FSA agent, who selects enrollment offers made by farmers and announces the signup results leading to land use change. The model is executed in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to generate a distribution of maps of fallow lands that are used for calculating nutrient loading to lakes. What follows is a variance-based sensitivity analysis of the results. We compute sensitivity indices for individual parameters and their combinations, allowing for identification of the most influential as well as the insignificant inputs. In the case study, we observe that farmland

  7. Pilot land data system. [for satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.; Cressy, P. J.; Devirian, M.

    1985-01-01

    The full realization of the potential of satellite remote sensing would require the utilization of information systems which are currently not available. However, technological advances make it now possible to design a data system for meeting the land scientists' most critical information needs. A working group has been assembled to examine the need for a Pilot Data System (PLDS). The pilot program is to establish a limited-scale, distributed information system to explore approaches to satisfy the needs of the land science research community. Aspects and objectives considered by the working group are discussed, taking into account science scenarios, required functions, the characteristics of a land data system, and questions of pilot land data system development.

  8. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  9. Portable-Beacon Landing System for Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.

  10. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management.

  11. Land system architecture: Using land systems to adapt and mitigate global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.

    2013-04-01

    Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.

  12. Land Navigation and Positioning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Global Position System ( GPS ). This TOP incorporates procedures that require automated data collection instrumentation and a reference system that... Global Position System ( GPS ) 44 Survey Control Point (SCP) 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...including those aided by the Global Positioning System ( GPS ). The MAPSH comprises the Dynamic Reference Unit Hybrid (DRUH), a Precision Lightweight

  13. Studies of some unconventional systems for solving various landing problems. [air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J.; Mcgehee, J. R.; Dreher, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Solutions to various landing problems were obtained through unconventional systems. The first, of these is the air cushion landing system, where efforts were concentrated on development of adequate braking and steering systems and an improved understanding of scaling laws and behavior. The second was concentrated on use of a wire brush skid as a drag producing device, which was shown to have good friction coefficients and reasonable wear rates at ground bearing pressures up to 689 kPa and forward speeds up to 80 km/hr. The third showed great promise in an active control landing gear where significant load reductions were possible during landing impact and subsequent rollout.

  14. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  15. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  16. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  17. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  18. Magneto-rheological (MR) damper for landing gear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Mahboubeh

    2010-11-01

    Depending on the different sink speeds, angles of attack and masses; aircraft landing gears could face a wide range of impact conditions which may possibly cause structural damage or failure. Thus, in hard landing scenarios, the landing gear must absorb sufficient energy in order to minimize dynamic stress on the aircraft airframe. Semi-active control systems are the recent potential solutions to overcome these limitations. Among semi-active control strategies, those based on smart fluids such as magneto-rheological (MR) fluids have received recent attraction as their rheological properties can be continuously controlled using magnetic or electric field and they are not sensitive to the contaminants and the temperature variation and also require lower powers. This thesis focuses on modeling of a MR damper for landing gear system and analysis of semi-active controller to attenuate dynamic load and landing impact. First, passive landing gear of a Navy aircraft is modeled and the forces associated with the shock strut are formulated. The passive shock strut is then integrated with a MR valve to design MR shock strut. Here, MR shock strut is integrated with the landing gear system modeled as the 2DOF system and governing equations of motion are derived in order to simulate the dynamics of the system under different impact conditions. Subsequently the inverse model of the MR shock strut relating MR yield stress to the MR shock strut force and strut velocity is formulated. Using the developed governing equations and inverse model, a PID controller is formulated to reduce the acceleration of the system. Controlled performance of the simulated MR landing gear system is demonstrated and compared with that of passive system.

  19. Estimating Evapotranspiration with Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S. V.; Mocko, D. M.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in both land surface models (LSM) and land surface data assimilation, especially over the last decade, have substantially advanced the ability of land data assimilation systems (LDAS) to estimate evapotranspiration (ET). This article provides a historical perspective on international LSM intercomparison efforts and the development of LDAS systems, both of which have improved LSM ET skill. In addition, an assessment of ET estimates for current LDAS systems is provided along with current research that demonstrates improvement in LSM ET estimates due to assimilating satellite-based soil moisture products. Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System, we assimilate both NASA and Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) soil moisture products into the Noah LSM Version 3.2 with the North American LDAS phase 2 (NLDAS-2) forcing to mimic the NLDAS-2 configuration. Through comparisons with two global reference ET products, one based on interpolated flux tower data and one from a new satellite ET algorithm, over the NLDAS2 domain, we demonstrate improvement in ET estimates only when assimilating the LPRM soil moisture product.

  20. An analysis of Milwaukee county land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    The identification and classification of urban and suburban phenomena through analysis of remotely-acquired sensor data can provide information of great potential value to many regional analysts. Such classifications, particularly those using spectral data obtained from satellites such as the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) orbited by NASA, allow rapid frequent and accurate general land use inventories that are of value in many types of spatial analyses. In this study, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin was classified into several broad land use categories on the basis of computer analysis of four bands of ERTS spectral data (ERTS Frame Number E1017-16093). Categories identified were: (1) road-central business district, (2) grass (green vegetation), (3) suburban, (4) wooded suburb, (5) heavy industry, (6) inner city, and (7) water. Overall, 90 percent accuracy was attained in classification of these urban land use categories.

  1. Land mobile satellite communications systems and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, E.

    1992-07-01

    An overview of existing and planned land mobile satellite communications systems and services is given. Operational and planned global systems such as Inmarsat, Iridium, and Globalstar, are highlighted, and the main technical details are listed. European and U.S. concepts are discussed. Applications for land mobile satellite communications are addressed, such as fleet management and global personal communications. The main technological challenges which are important for the future development of mobile communications, such as efficient use of spectrum, use of higher frequency bands, processing satellites with multiple beams, and suitable satellite orbits, are identified.

  2. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  3. Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

  4. A land mobile satellite data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

  5. Teleconnections in the Land-Atmosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avissar, R.; Werth, D.

    2002-05-01

    Teleconnections in the land-atmosphere system are investigated with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model. Deforestation of the Amazon is used as an example to illustrate their extent and magnitude. An ensemble of six control simulations is compared to a group of six deforested simulations. The deforestation effect in the Amazon is strong, with reductions in precipitation, evapotranspiration, and cloudiness. A noticeable impact in several other regions of the world is also detected, several of which show a reduction in rainy season precipitation that exhibits a high signal-to-noise ratio (determined by the t-statistic). To determine the significance of the deforestation signal, several ``false" ensembles, combining control and deforested members randomly, are created for comparison to the actual ``true" ensemble. This type of analysis is useful for verifying the significance of a purported effect. The globally-averaged precipitation deficits for the true ensemble are generally high compared to the false ensembles. Furthermore, changes in the Amazon due to the deforestation correlate significantly with remote changes in several areas. This suggests that the Amazon deforestation is producing a detectable signal throughout the Earth, and this finding underscores the importance of human activity in that region.

  6. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... remain open to such forms of disposition as may by law be made of National Forest System land and to... public land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease, license, or permit, or... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for...

  7. Land-to-Ocean Linkage in Eurasian Hydrological System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Lammers, R. B.

    2004-12-01

    Northern Eurasia is a large and diverse region spanning land cover types from grassland/steppe to taiga forest to tundra. Understanding the interaction of these land cover types with the regional climate and hydrologic cycle is essential for understanding the system as a whole. We investigate how the northern flowing river networks over the NEESPI domain play a critical role in connecting and combining the diverse land cover types throughout the full range in latitudes which progress as far south as 45 degrees N. To provide this hydrological perspective we employ a digital river network, STN-EASE, at 25x25km grid cell resolution created specifically for high latitude hydrological analysis. The river network provides the fundamental framework for synthesis studies based on a broad suite of measures of system behavior. Along the network these deal with in-stream travel distance, river order, and hydrological contributions of major land cover types. At basin outlets these include river discharge and aggregate totals of key hydrologic variables. The taiga forests of Northern Eurasia are the dominant land cover type in the Arctic Ocean drainage of northern Eurasia. However, when viewed through the hydrological lens we find these taiga forests play an even greater role in terms of runoff generation than would be expected by area measures alone. This suggests that the northern forests are an important feature of the Arctic as well as the global climate system and a potentially important focal point in Arctic system change.

  8. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use.

    PubMed

    Silvino, R F; Barbosa, F A R

    2015-08-01

    Despite being inside a protected area, Lake Sumidouro has been impacted by the anthropogenic occupation of the surrounding area since the 1970's, compromising the ecological integrity of the lake and the sustainable use of natural resources. This study examined the current trophic classification of the lake and developed methods for improving it through an integrated analysis of morphometric and limnological parameters, land use and land occupation in the watershed, and eutrophication potential. Data for the limnological parameters, land use and land occupation, and morphometric characteristics of Lake Sumidouro were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2009 and 2010. Depending on the trophic classification system used, Lake Sumidouro is classified as oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. In our study, the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in the rainy season, indicating that high nutrient inputs played an important role during this period. Areas of anthropogenic occupation comprised approximately 62.9% of the total area of the watershed, with pasture and urban settlement as the main types of land use. The influent total phosphorus load was estimated to be 15,824.3 kg/year. To maintain mesotrophic conditions, this load must be reduced by 29.4%. By comparing the isolated use of trophic state indices, this study demonstrated that comparing the trophic state classification with morphometric analyses, land use and land occupation types in the watershed, and potential phosphorus load provided better information to guide management actions for restoration and conservation. Furthermore, this approach also allowed for evaluating the vulnerability of the environment to the eutrophication process.

  9. A comparative analysis of the Global Land Cover 2000 and MODIS land cover data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Reed, B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced

  10. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours

  11. The Sand Land Soil System and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoory, R. A.

    Worldwide arid soils such as Latterites from African Savannas to the Xeralfs and Xererts of the Mediterranean Basin Ortents and Orthids of Asian Deserts are uniquely different in their strategic roles for utilizing the land in places where a delicate balance between annual climatic cycles and general trends toward desertification predominate Arid lands cover 1 3 of global land surface and contain irreplaceable natural resources with potential productivity of meeting the demands of more than two billion people and serving as sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 to combat global warming The soil system in these arid areas are being degraded underutilized and kept in a stage of obliviousness due to inadequate public literacy and most importantly in-sufficient scientific evaluations based on pedology and soil taxonomy standards Implementation of food security projects and sustainable development programs on randomly selected sites and assessment of land degradation worldwide by powerful computers and satellite imagery techniques without field work and identification of Representative Soil Units are data producing and grant attracting but counter productive We live in a world in which there is an order out there and things are precisely measured and categorized for efficient utilization Why not the soils mainly in arid areas How we could generalize the world of soils under our feet by concept of soils are the same Expansion of educational programs quantification of multiple ecosystems within the arid regions through detailed and correlated

  12. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

  13. Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Lee, Wayne; Steltzner, Adam; SanMartin, Alejanhdro

    2004-01-01

    System validation for a Mars entry, descent, and landing system is not simply a demonstration that the electrical system functions in the associated environments. The function of this system is its interaction with the atmospheric and surface environment. Thus, in addition to traditional test-bed, hardware-in-the-loop, testing, a validation program that confirms the environmental interaction is required. Unfortunately, it is not possible to conduct a meaningful end-to-end test of a Mars landing system on Earth. The validation plan must be constructed from an interconnected combination of simulation, analysis and test. For the Mars Exploration Rover mission, this combination of activities and the logic of how they combined to the system's validation was explicitly stated, reviewed, and tracked as part of the development plan.

  14. 77 FR 8895 - Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... general land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease, license, or permit, or... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud Campground; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public...

  15. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  16. The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, William K.

    2003-01-01

    One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they

  17. The Auto-Tuned Land Data Assimilation System (ATLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W. T.; Yilmaz, M. Tugrul

    2014-01-01

    Land data assimilation systems are commonly tasked with merging remotely sensed surface soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems can be degraded by the incorrect specification of parameters describing modeling and observation errors. Here the Auto-Tuned Land Data Assimilation System (ATLAS) is introduced to simultaneously solve for all parameters required for the application of a simple land data assimilation system to integrate satellite-based rainfall and soil moisture retrievals for drought monitoring applications. The approach is based on combining a triple collocation (TC) strategy with the statistical analysis of filtering innovations and designed to leverage the simultaneous availability of satellite-based soil moisture products acquired from both active and passive microwave remote sensing. A number of variants of the ATLAS approach—each based on a different strategy for leveraging TC and innovation analysis within an adaptive filtering framework—are derived and evaluated through a synthetic twin experiment. In addition, a preliminary real data analysis is conducted using actual satellite-based products and evaluated against independent ground-based observations. Results illustrate the potential of ATLAS to improve the analysis of soil moisture anomalies using data products derived from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and the NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive missions.

  18. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap NRC Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description, Scope and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the HPLS. Roadmap Process and Approach. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Key Requirements. Top Level HPLS Roadmap. Capability Presentations by Leads. Mission Drivers Requirements. "AEDL" System Engineering. Communication & Navigation Systems. Hypersonic Systems. Super to Subsonic Decelerator Systems. Terminal Descent and Landing Systems. A Priori In-Situ Mars Observations. AEDL Analysis, Test and Validation Infrastructure. Capability Technical Challenges. Capability Connection Points to other Roadmaps/Crosswalks. Summary of Top Level Capability. Forward Work.

  19. Multimedia Modeling System Response to Regional Land Management Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooter, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of Research and Development. It is populated with linked or fully coupled models that address nutrient research questions such as, "How might future policy, climate or land cover change in the Mississippi River Basin affect Nitrogen and Phosphorous loadings to the Gulf of Mexico" or, "What are the management implications of regional-scale land management changes for the sustainability of air, land and water quality?" This second question requires explicit consideration of economic (e.g. sector prices) and societal (e.g. land management) factors. Metrics that illustrate biosphere-atmosphere interactions such as atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric N loading to surface water, soil organic N and N percolation to groundwater are calculated. An example application has been completed that is driven by a coupled agricultural and energy sector model scenario. The economic scenario assumes that by 2022 there is: 1) no detectable change in weather patterns relative to 2002; 2) a concentration of stover processing facilities in the Upper Midwest; 3) increasing offshore Pacific and Atlantic marine transportation; and 4) increasing corn, soybean and wheat production that meets future demand for food, feed and energy feedstocks. This production goal is reached without adding or removing agricultural land area whose extent is defined by the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 2002v2011 classes 81 and 82. This goal does require, however, crop shifts and agricultural management changes. The multi-media system response over our U.S. 12km rectangular grid resolution analysis suggests that there are regions of potential environmental and health costs, as well as large areas that could experience unanticipated environmental and health

  20. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  1. Industrial use of land observation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. B., III

    1984-01-01

    The principal industrial users of land observation satellite systems are the geological industries; oil/gas, mining, and engineering/environmental companies. The primary system used is LANDSAT/MSS. Currently, use is also being made of the limited amounts of SKYLAB photography, SEASAT and SIR-A radar, and the new LANDSAT/TM data available. Although considered experimental, LANDSAT data is now used operationally by several hundred exploration and engineering companies worldwide as a vastly improved geological mapping tool to help direct more expensive geophysical and drilling phases, leading to more efficient decision-making and results. Future needs include global LANDSAT/TM; higher spatial resolution; stereo and radar; improved data handling, processing distribution and archiving systems, and integrated geographical information systems (GIS). For a promising future, governments must provide overall continuity (government and/or private sector) of such systems, insure continued government R and D, and commit to operating internationally under the civil Open Skies policy.

  2. Satellite systems requirements for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.

    1983-01-01

    The system design objective is to provide a satellite link through a gateway station, connecting mobile users in areas not served by a terrestrial cellular system to the switched telephone network (STN). The proposed frequency allocation comprises a pair of 10-MHz bands in the 806-890 MHz range specified by the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) for land-mobile satellite service (LMSS). The satellite design is constrained by projected STS capability with an upper stage of the wide-body Centaur or Integral Propulsion System (IPS) type. For the latter (a TRW design), the payload is limited to approximately 10,400 lb. The design is to be based on 1990's technology, with initial operating capability scheduled for 1995. The satellite should be designed for a 7-year life. Mobile-unit compatibility with cellular system specifications is desirable, if consistent with other system requirements.

  3. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  4. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  5. Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS) Category 3 Certification Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM .... ......... J-1 APPENDIX K: FRESNEL LENS OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM .. ......... K-I APPENDIX L: PILOT ACLS RATINGS...surface elements of the ACLS consist of the AN/SPN-42A Landing Control Central with the AN/SPN-41 Instrument Landing System and Fresnel Lens Optical...radar antennas. c. The Fresnel lens calibration pole and three hand held radios be provided. d. Instrumentation seivicing and recording playback

  6. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  7. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  8. Integration of Multiple Data Sources to Simulate the Dynamics of Land Systems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangzheng; Su, Hongbo; Zhan, Jinyan

    2008-02-04

    In this paper we present and develop a new model, which we have calledDynamics of Land Systems (DLS). The DLS model is capable of integrating multiple datasources to simulate the dynamics of a land system. Three main modules are incorporatedin DLS: a spatial regression module, to explore the relationship between land uses andinfluencing factors, a scenario analysis module of the land uses of a region during thesimulation period and a spatial disaggregation module, to allocate land use changes froma regional level to disaggregated grid cells. A case study on Taips County in North Chinais incorporated in this paper to test the functionality of DLS. The simulation results underthe baseline, economic priority and environmental scenarios help to understand the landsystem dynamics and project near future land-use trajectories of a region, in order tofocus management decisions on land uses and land use planning.

  9. What's Cookin' With Helicopter Microwave Landing Systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a joint effort of the FAA, NASA and the Helicopter Industry to establish a data base for (Microwave Landing Systems) MLS approaches, and to aid the FAA in developing the MLS Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria for rotary-wing IFR operations. The latter is of particular importance for it appears to signal sincere official interest in filling in the blanks in Chapter 11 of TERPS -- that portion set aside for helicopter IFR operations and recognition of the unique capabilities of the helicopter in the instrument environment. One of the program objectives is to find out what a sample of pilots can do with the MLS in a minimum machine.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  11. Configuration development of the Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, C. T.; Lackey, J. A.; Spear, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Configurations for a Land Mobile Satellite System Spacecraft are discussed. It is a preliminary concept of a quad aperture reflector spacecraft capable of relaying radio messages to land mobile units throughout the United States.

  12. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    PubMed

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengsheng; Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of land use and land cover (LULC) changes among three study areas with different biophysical environments in the Brazilian Amazon at multiple scales, from per-pixel, polygon, census sector, to study area. Landsat images acquired in the years of 1990/1991, 1999/2000, and 2008/2010 were used to examine LULC change trajectories with the post-classification comparison approach. A classification system composed of six classes - forest, savanna, other-vegetation (secondary succession and plantations), agro-pasture, impervious surface, and water, was designed for this study. A hierarchical-based classification method was used to classify Landsat images into thematic maps. This research shows different spatiotemporal change patterns, composition and rates among the three study areas and indicates the importance of analyzing LULC change at multiple scales. The LULC change analysis over time for entire study areas provides an overall picture of change trends, but detailed change trajectories and their spatial distributions can be better examined at a per-pixel scale. The LULC change at the polygon scale provides the information of the changes in patch sizes over time, while the LULC change at census sector scale gives new insights on how human-induced activities (e.g., urban expansion, roads, and land use history) affect LULC change patterns and rates. This research indicates the necessity to implement change detection at multiple scales for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change patterns and rates.

  14. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Surface Landing Site Weather Analysis for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Weather information is an important asset for NASA's Constellation Program in developing the next generation space transportation system to fly to the International Space Station, the Moon and, eventually, to Mars. Weather conditions can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from pre-launch ground processing of the Ares vehicles to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Meteorological analysis is art important contributor, not only to the development and verification of system design requirements but also to mission planning and active ground operations. Of particular interest are the surface weather conditions at both nominal and abort landing sites for the manned Orion capsule. Weather parameters such as wind, rain, and fog all play critical roles in the safe landing of the vehicle and subsequent crew and vehicle recovery. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch has been tasked by the Constellation Program with defining the natural environments at potential landing zones. This paper wiI1 describe the methodology used for data collection and quality control, detail the types of analyses performed, and provide a sample of the results that cab be obtained.

  16. Design and implementation of multi-source data mining system for land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Xia, Yin; Hu, Xi

    2009-10-01

    With the development of "3S" technologies, a large quantity of spatial-temporal data related to land use has been accessed. Being scattered across different departments and lacking of relevant analysis tools made them utilize insufficiently. Although some experts have applied data mining to solve this problem, most of them have only provided one method for single task to build the mining systems. However, it is undesirable to use just one method to mine. In addition, the single function systems can not be used widely and conveniently. Hence, under full investigation on operations of land use, a multi-source data mining prototype system for land use is proposed by integrating of technologies of GIS and spatial data mining. According to the general data mining process, aiming at the multi-demands of land evaluation and land planning and so on, the system is developed by using ArcEngine 9.0 and VB.net. The system integrates basic geospatial data, land use/cover data, and thematic data as data sources, excavates different knowledge of land Quality, land use zoning rules, land use patterns and change rules and so on. Based on the types of knowledge, the system accordingly provides several different mining methods, including decision tree, support vector machine, artificial neural network, time series, spatial association rules, etc. Wide adaptability of the system is demonstrated by using some cases. The results of the system can meet multipurpose needs and be used to support decision-making of the land management department.

  17. Evolutionary direction of land-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Natural landscape is always subject to dynamic change, leaving characteristic patterns at various time scales. Noticeable patterns, ranging from meandering to fractal characteristics of river networks, have been investigated with physical modeling, mathematical modeling, and other manners. One revolutionary idea to foster holistic understanding of landscape evolution is the optimality concept. There have been several optimality hypotheses proposed for different types of landforms. However, none of them seems fully verified (Paik, 2012). It has been argued that lack of feedbacks between different processes into account is critical limitation of present optimality hypotheses (Paik and Kumar, 2010). In this regards, this study presents how optimality context to be formulated for a clear case where strong feedbacks are exchanged during co-evolution, i.e. land-atmosphere system. While most landscape evolution models, either physical, numerical, or optimality-based, assume simple spatio-temporal variability in climate forcing (e.g., rainfall), climatic field evolves together with landscape in reality. For example, orographic precipitation is enhanced as tectonic uplift continues. Accordingly, landscape and atmosphere are closely linked and we should look at them as a single system, rather than separated individuals. In this presentation, limitation of existing optimality hypotheses will be demonstrated with examples of coupled evolution of land-atmosphere system. Fundamental implications for general optimality concept for evolutionary direction of the coupled system will be discussed. Keywords: Optimal channel network; Landscape evolution; Orographic rainfall References Paik, K. and P. Kumar (2010) Optimality approaches to describe characteristic fluvial patterns on landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol.365, No.1545, pp.1387-1395, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0303. Paik, K. (2012) Search for the optimality signature of river

  18. Potential capabilities of aircraft laser landing systems.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, G A; Matvienko, G G; Shishkin, S A; Anisimov, V I; Butuzov, V V; Zhukov, V V; Stolyarov, G V; Pasyuk, V P

    2016-10-20

    We present calculations of the efficiency of the laser landing system (LLS), based on determining the minimum required fluxes of scattered radiation from fixed extended landmarks (FELs), which are LLS indicators in the case of visual FEL detection under real operation conditions. It is shown that, when the meteorological visibility range Sm=800  m, for reliable detection of laser beams from the glissade slope group at ranges L∼1.0-1.6  km under nighttime conditions, the minimum required powers are Pmin=0.5  W for λ=0.52 and 0.64 μm, given deviations from the glissade path by the angle ϕ=0°-5°. The green and red rays are visible at distances L=1-1.2  km under twilight conditions. Our calculations corroborated the possibility of creating a new-generation laser-based LLS capable of ensuring aircraft landing under the conditions of International Civil Aviation Organization category 1 (decision height of 60 m at the minimum visibility equal 800 m).

  19. AGFATL- ACTIVE GEAR FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF AND LANDING ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Analysis program, AGFATL, was developed to provide a complete simulation of the aircraft takeoff and landing dynamics problem. AGFATL can represent an airplane either as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom or as a flexible body with multiple degrees of freedom. The airframe flexibility is represented by the superposition of up to twenty free vibration modes on the rigid-body motions. The analysis includes maneuver logic and autopilots programmed to control the aircraft during glide slope, flare, landing, and takeoff. The program is modular so that performance of the aircraft in flight and during landing and ground maneuvers can be studied separately or in combination. A program restart capability is included in AGFATL. Effects simulated in the AGFATL program include: (1) flexible aircraft control and performance during glide slope, flare, landing roll, and takeoff roll under conditions of changing winds, engine failures, brake failures, control system failures, strut failures, restrictions due to runway length, and control variable limits and time lags; (2) landing gear loads and dynamics for up to five gears; (3) single and multiple engines (maximum of four) including selective engine reversing and failure; (4) drag chute and spoiler effects; (5) wheel braking (including skid-control) and selective brake failure; (6) aerodynamic ground effects; (7) aircraft carrier operations; (8) inclined runways and runway perturbations; (9) flexible or rigid airframes; 10) rudder and nose gear steering; and 11) actively controlled landing gear shock struts. Input to the AGFATL program includes data which describe runway roughness; vehicle geometry, flexibility and aerodynamic characteristics; landing gear(s); propulsion; and initial conditions such as attitude, attitude change rates, and velocities. AGFATL performs a time integration of the equations of motion and outputs comprehensive information on the airframe

  20. Viirs Land Science Investigator-Led Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadiga, S.; Mauoka, E.; Roman, M. O.; Wolfe, R. E.; Kalb, V.; Davidson, C. C.; Ye, G.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the NASA's Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Land Science Investigator-led Processing System (Land SIPS), housed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is to produce high quality land products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to extend the Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) developed from NASA's heritage Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites. In this paper we will present the functional description and capabilities of the S-NPP Land SIPS, including system development phases and production schedules, timeline for processing, and delivery of land science products based on coordination with the S-NPP Land science team members. The Land SIPS processing stream is expected to be operational by December 2016, generating land products either using the NASA science team delivered algorithms, or the "best-of" science algorithms currently in operation at NASA's Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE). In addition to generating the standard land science products through processing of the NASA's VIIRS Level 0 data record, the Land SIPS processing system is also used to produce a suite of near-real time products for NASA's application community. Land SIPS will also deliver the standard products, ancillary data sets, software and supporting documentation (ATBDs) to the assigned Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for archival and distribution. Quality assessment and validation will be an integral part of the Land SIPS processing system; the former being performed at Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) facility, while the latter under the auspices of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration & Validation (WGCV) Land Product Validation (LPV) Subgroup; adopting the best-practices and tools used to assess the quality of heritage EOS-MODIS products generated at the MODIS Adaptive Processing

  1. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  2. Quantitative Geomorphological Analysis & Land Use/ Land Cover Change Detection of Two Sub-Watersheds in NE region of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, M.; Singh, S.; Verma, V. K.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Morphometric analysis is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the landforms. The delineation of drainage system is of utmost importance in understanding hydrological system of an area, water resource management and it's planning in an effective manner. Morphometric analysis and land use change detection of two sub-watersheds namely Kukar Suha and Ratewal of district Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar, Punjab, India was carried out for quantitative description of drainage and characterisation. The stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, and other morphometric analysis like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, texture, relief ratio, ruggedness number etc. were measured. The drainage pattern of Kukar Suha and Ratewal is mainly dendritic. The agriculture and settlements came up along the drainage network causes the pattern disturbance in the watershed. The study was undertaken to spotlight the morphometric parameters, their impact on the basin and the land use land cover changes occurred over the period of time. Morphometric parameters such as linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect of the watershed are computed. The land use/land cover change was extracted from LISS IV Mx + Cartosat1 PAN data. ASTER data is used to prepare DEM (digital elevation model) and geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate various morphometric parameters in ArcGIS10 software.

  3. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD06 National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest...) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent... land management plans for units of the NFS. Public comment is invited and will be considered...

  4. Constellation Program (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Integrated Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John D.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Eisenman, David J.; Peer, Scott G.; Fasanella, Edward L.; Lawrence, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Chief Engineer requested a risk comparison of the Integrated Landing System design developed by NASA and the design developed by Contractor- referred to as the LM 604 baseline. Based on the results of this risk comparison, the CEV Chief engineer requested that the NESC evaluate identified risks and develop strategies for their reduction or mitigation. The assessment progressed in two phases. A brief Phase I analysis was performed by the Water versus Land-Landing Team to compare the CEV Integrated Landing System proposed by the Contractor against the NASA TS-LRS001 baseline with respect to risk. A phase II effort examined the areas of critical importance to the overall landing risk, evaluating risk to the crew and to the CEV Crew Module (CM) during a nominal land-landing. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.

  5. The Pilot Land Data System: Report of the Program Planning Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An advisory report to be used by NASA in developing a program plan for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) was developed. The purpose of the PLDS is to improve the ability of NASA and NASA sponsored researchers to conduct land-related research. The goal of the planning workshops was to provide and coordinate planning and concept development between the land related science and computer science disciplines, to discuss the architecture of the PLDs, requirements for information science technology, and system evaluation. The findings and recommendations of the Working Group are presented. The pilot program establishes a limited scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical, and management approaches to satisfying the needs of the land science community. The PLDS paves the way for a land data system to improve data access, processing, transfer, and analysis, which land sciences information synthesis occurs on a scale not previously permitted because of limits to data assembly and access.

  6. Learjet Model 55 Wing Analysis with Landing Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroughs, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The NASTRAN analysis was used to determine the impact of new landing loads on the Learjet Model 55 wing. These new landing loads were the result of a performance improvement effort to increase the landing weight of the aircraft to 18,000 lbs. from 17,000 lbs. and extend the life of the tires and brakes by incorporating larger tires and heavy duty brakes. Landing loads for the original 17,000 lb. airplane landing configuration were applied to the full airplane NASTRAN model. The analytical results were correlated with the strain gage data from the original landing load static tests. The landing loads for the 18,000 lb. airplane were applied to the full airplane NASTRAN model, and a comparison was made with the original Model 55 data. The results of this comparison enable Learjet to determine the difference in stress distribution in the wing due to these two different sets of landing loads.

  7. 78 FR 58555 - Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Forest System land from location and entry under the United States mining laws for a period of 20 years... National Forest System land is hereby withdrawn from location and entry under the United States mining laws... applicability of those public land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease,...

  8. Remote sensing and GIS integration for land cover analysis, a case study: Bozcaada Island.

    PubMed

    Bektas, F; Goksel, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were used in order to accomplish land cover change of Bozcaada Island, Turkey, by using multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Digital image processing techniques were conducted for the processes of image enhancement, manipulation, registration and classification for land cover change analysis. The land cover changes between two different dates were visualized and analyzed by using Geographic Information System techniques. The results showed that remotely sensed data and GIS are effective and powerful tools for carrying out changes on land cover of the island and monitoring of its impact on the environment.

  9. A Land Surface Data Assimilation Framework Using the Land Information System: Description and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Land Information System (LIS) is a hydrologic modeling framework that integrates various community land surface models, ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatia...

  10. Surface Landing Site Weather Analysis for Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee

    2008-01-01

    Weather information is an important asset for NASA's Constellation Program in developing the next generation space transportation system to fly to the International Space Station, the Moon and, eventually, to Mars. Weather conditions can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from pre-launch ground processing to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Meteorological analysis is an important contributor, not only to the development and verification of system design requirements but also to mission planning and active ground operations. Of particular interest are the surface atmospheric conditions at both nominal and abort landing sites for the manned Orion capsule. Weather parameters such as wind, rain, and fog all play critical roles in the safe landing of the vehicle and subsequent crew and vehicle recovery. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch has been tasked by the Constellation Program with defining the natural environments at potential landing zones. Climatological time series of operational surface weather observations are used to calculate probabilities of occurrence of various sets of hypothetical vehicle constraint thresholds, Data are available for numerous geographical locations such that statistical analysis can be performed for single sites as well as multiple-site network configurations. Results provide statistical descriptions of how often certain weather conditions are observed at the site(s) and the percentage that specified criteria thresholds are matched or exceeded. Outputs are tabulated by month and hour of day to show both seasonal and diurnal variation. This paper will describe the methodology used for data collection and quality control, detail the types of analyses performed, and provide a sample of the results that can be obtained,

  11. Do Increasingly Globalized Land Systems Promote or Undermine Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Scholars are now studying land systems in a global context using such concepts as "telecoupling." Research to date has recognized that local land systems may be undermined by globalization, and local people displaced. The land change community emphasizes the ways in which local people make decisions about natural resources given the opportunities and constraints that globalization presents. This talk will present a summary of current land systems science research in agribusiness, global trade and financial institutions, highlighting key ways in which sustainability measures can capture the effects of these actors and activities.

  12. Advances in Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    Assimilation of remotely sensed land surface observations into regional to global scale numerical models have the potential to significantly advance our ability, to assess, understand, and predict surface water, energy, and carbon cycles. This session seeks to assess the state-of-the-art in data assimilation methods for integrating land surface remote sensing and modeling, with a focus on practical applications and techniques. Assimilated land surface variables of interest include (but are not limited to, soil moisture, surface temperature, snowpack, streamflow, vegetation dynamics, and carbon storage. Contributions describing the development of practical land surface data assimilation methods, multivariate land surface data assimilation strategies, evaluation of the required accuracy and resolution of remote sensing observations, the effects of scale, process complexity, and uncertainty on data assimilation, and the optimal treatment of model and observation errors are encouraged.

  13. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  14. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alewell, C.; Birkholz, A.; Meusburger, K.; Schindler Wildhaber, Y.; Mabit, L.

    2015-08-01

    As sediment loads impact freshwater systems and infrastructure, their origin in complex landscape systems is of crucial importance for optimization of catchment management. We differentiated sediment source contribution to a lowland river in Central Switzerland in using compound specific stable isotopes analysis (CSIA). We found a clear distinction of sediment sources originating from forest and agricultural land use. We suggest to generally reduce uncertainty of sediment source attribution, in (i) aiming for approaches with least possible data complexity to reduce analytical effort as well as refraining from undetected source attribution and/or tracer degradation obscured by complex high data demanding modelling approaches, (ii) to use compound content (in our case long chain fatty acid (FA)) rather than soil organic matter content when converting isotopic signature to soil contribution and (iii) to restrict evaluation to the long-chain FAs (C22:0 to C30:0) not to introduce errors due to aquatic contributions from algae and microorganisms. Results showed unambiguously that during base flow agricultural land contributed up to 65 % of the suspended sediments, while forest was the dominant sediment source during high flow, which indicates that during base and high flow conditions connectivity of sediment source areas with the river change. Our findings are the first results highlighting significant differences in compound specific stable isotope (CSSI) signature and quantification of sediment sources from land uses dominated by C3 plant cultivation.

  15. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Settler's Grove of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the..., Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order withdraws 183.46 acres of National Forest System... one of the few remaining stands of old- growth western red cedar trees in the Settler's Grove...

  16. Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS): Single aperture system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1982-01-01

    The large size of the UHF antenna on the satellite provides two advantages with respect to the Land Mobile Satellite System design. It provides tremendous gain for both transmitting and receiving at the satellite and enables very simple, low power equipment in the mobile vehicle. The UHF antenna for this study was selected to have an aperture of 55 meters. This implies a beamwidth of roughly 0.45 degree and requires 87 beams to cover the continental United States.

  17. US army land condition-trend analysis (LCTA) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diersing, Victor E.; Shaw, Robert B.; Tazik, David J.

    1992-05-01

    The US Army Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is a standardized method of data collection, analysis, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. The method utilizes vascular plant inventories, permanent field plot data, and wildlife inventories. Vascular plant inventories are used for environmental documentation, training of personnel, species identification during LCTA implementation, and as a survey for state and federal endangered or threatened species. The permanent field plot data documents the vegetational, edaphic, topographic, and disturbance characteristics of the installation. Inventory plots are allocated in a stratified random fashion across the installation utilizing a geographic information system that integrates satellite imagery and soil survey information. Ground cover, canopy cover, woody plant density, slope length, slope gradient, soil information, and disturbance data are collected at each plot. Plot data are used to: (1) describe plant communities, (2) characterize wildlife and threatened and endangered species habitat, (3) document amount and kind of military and nonmilitary disturbance, (4) determine the impact of military training on vegetation and soil resources, (5) estimate soil erosion potential, (6) classify land as to the kind and amount of use it can support, (7) determine allowable use estimates for tracked vehicle training, (8) document concealment resources, (9) identify lands that require restoration and evaluate the effectiveness of restorative techniques, and (10) evaluate potential acquisition property. Wildlife inventories survey small and midsize mammals, birds, bats, amphibians, and reptiles. Data from these surveys can be used for environmental documentation, to identify state and federal endangered and threatened species, and to evaluate the impact of military activities on wildlife populations. Short- and long-term monitoring of permanent field plots is used to evaluate and adjust land

  18. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  19. Incorporating JULES into NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Investigations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  20. Flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, implementation and flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) are discussed. The system was implemented and flight tested on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV), a Boeing 737-100. The design uses modern optimal control methods. The direct digital design obtained uses a 10 Hz rate for the sampling of sensors and the control commands. The basic structure of the control law consists of a steady state Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix. The sensor information used includes Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, attitude, calibrated airspeed, and body accelerations. The phases of the final approach considered are localized and steep glideslope capture (which may be performed simultaneously or independently), localizer and glideslope track, crab/decrab, and flare to touchdown. The system can capture, track, and flare from conventional, as well as steep, glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg. All of the modes of the control law including the Kalman filters were implemented on the TSRV flight computers which use fixed point arithmetic with 16 bit words. The implementation considerations are described as well as an analysis of the flight test results.

  1. Evolving the Land Information System into a Cloud Computing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Paul R.

    2015-02-17

    The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.

  2. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  3. A Reusable Design for Precision Lunar Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhrman, Linda; Brand, Timothy; Fill, Tom; Norris, Lee; Paschall, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The top-level architecture to accomplish NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to use Lunar missions and systems not just as an end in themselves, but also as testbeds for the more ambitious goals of Human Mars Exploration (HME). This approach means that Lunar missions and systems are most likely going to be targeted for (Lunar) polar missions, and also for long-duration (months) surface stays. This overacting theme creates basic top-level requirements for any next-generation lander system: 1) Long duration stays: a) Multiple landers in close proximity; b) Pinpoint landings for "surface rendezvous"; c) Autonomous landing of pre-positioned assets; and d) Autonomous Hazard Detection and Avoidance. 2) Polar and deep-crater landings (dark); 3) Common/extensible systems for Moon and Mars, crew and cargo. These requirements pose challenging technology and capability needs. Compare and contrast: 4) Apollo: a) 1 km landing accuracy; b) Lunar near-side (well imaged and direct-to-Earth com. possible); c) Lunar equatorial (landing trajectories offer best navigation support from Earth); d) Limited lighting conditions; e) Significant ground-in-the-loop operations; 5) Lunar Access: a) 10-100m landing precision; b) "Anywhere" access includes polar (potentially poor nav. support from Earth) and far side (poor gravity and imaging; no direct-to-Earth com); c) "Anytime" access includes any lighting condition (including dark); d) Full autonomous landing capability; e) Extensible design for tele-operation or operator-in-the-loop; and f) Minimal ground support to reduce operations costs. The Lunar Access program objectives, therefore, are to: a) Develop a baseline Lunar Precision Landing System (PLS) design to enable pinpoint "anywhere, anytime" landings; b) landing precision 10m-100m; c) Any LAT, LON; and d) Any lighting condition; This paper will characterize basic features of the next generation Lunar landing system, including trajectory types, sensor suite options and a reference

  4. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration. [performance tests of remote control equipment for roving vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    Problems related to the design and control of an autonomous rover for the purpose of unmanned exploration of the planets were considered. Building on the basis of prior studies, a four wheeled rover of unusual mobility and maneuverability was further refined and tested under both laboratory and field conditions. A second major effort was made to develop autonomous guidance. Path selection systems capable of dealing with relatively formidable hazard and terrains involving various short range (1.0-3.0 meters), hazard detection systems using a triangulation detection concept were simulated and evaluated. The mechanical/electronic systems required to implement such a scheme were constructed and tested. These systems include: laser transmitter, photodetectors, the necessary data handling/controlling systems and a scanning mast. In addition, a telemetry system to interface the vehicle, the off-board computer and a remote control module for operator intervention were developed. Software for the autonomous control concept was written. All of the systems required for complete autonomous control were shown to be satisfactory except for that portion of the software relating to the handling of interrupt commands.

  5. Application of the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) mobile apps to land degradation, restoration and climate change adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combatting land degradation, promoting restoration and adapting to climate change all require an understanding of land potential. A global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) is being developed that will address many of these limitations using an open source approach designed to allow anyone w...

  6. 76 FR 37826 - Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...,776 acres of public and National Forest System lands from location and entry under the 1872 Mining Law... alter the applicability of the public land laws other than the 1872 Mining Law (30 U.S.C. 22 et seq.). 3... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National...

  7. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  8. The effects of war on land-use/land-cover change: An analysis of Landsat imagery for northeast Bosnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witmer, Frank D. W.

    The use of satellite technology by military planners has a relatively long history as a tool of warfare, but little research has used satellite technology to study the effects of war. This research addresses this gap by applying satellite remote sensing imagery to study the effects of war on land-use/land-cover change in northeast Bosnia. The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995, resulted in over 100,000 deaths, many more wounded, and the mass displacement of nearly half the population of 4.2 million. When combined with the destruction of much of the transportation infrastructure and housing stock, widespread mine placement, and loss of agricultural machinery, the impacts to both the people and land were dramatic. Though the most severe war impacts are visible at local scales (e.g. destroyed buildings), this study focuses on impacts to agricultural land, a larger scale visible to satellite sensors. Multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data (30m pixels) from before and during the war in addition to recent imagery from 2004/05 were used to detect abandoned agricultural land. The satellite images were co-registered to enable a perpixel analysis of changes based on the statistical properties of the pixels using multiple change detection methods. Ground reference data were collected in May of 2006 at survey sites selected using a stratified random sampling approach based on the derived map of abandoned agricultural land. Fine resolution (60cm) Quickbird imagery was also used to verify the accuracy of the classification. The remote sensing analysis results were then used to test two hypotheses related to war outcomes: (a) land abandonment is due to wartime minefields and (b) land abandonment is greater in pre-war Croat areas and areas where ethnic cleansing was heaviest. The effects of minefields on land abandonment was first tested in a geographic information system (GIS), and then by using multiple regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation among observations

  9. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  10. Acquiring observation error covariance information for land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estimat...

  11. Enhancing Adaptive Filtering Approaches for Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estima...

  12. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  13. Assessment of land degradation using time series trend analysis of vegetation indictors in Otindag Sandy land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. Y.; Li, Z. Y.; Gao, Z. H.; Wu, J. J.; Sun, B.; Li, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    Land condition assessment is a basic prerequisite for finding the degradation of a territory, which might lead to desertification under climatic and human pressures. The temporal change in vegetation productivity is a key indicator of land degradation. In this paper, taking the Otindag Sandy Land as a case, the mean normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI_a), net primary production (NPP) and vegetation rain use efficiency (RUE) dynamic trends during 2001-2010 were analysed. The Mann-Kendall test and the Correlation Analysis method were used and their sensitivities to land degradation were evaluated. The results showed that the three vegetation indicators (NDVI_a, NPP and RUE) showed a downward trend with the two methods in the past 10 years and the land was degraded. For the analysis of the three vegetation indicators (NDVI_a, NPP and RUE), it indicated a decreasing trend in 62.57%, 74.16% and 88.56% of the study area according to the Mann-Kendall test and in 57.85%, 68.38% and 85.29% according to the correlation analysis method. However, the change trends were not significant, the significant trends at the 95% confidence level only accounted for a small proportion. Analysis of NDVI_a, NPP and RUE series showed a significant decreasing trend in 9.21%, 4.81% and 6.51% with the Mann-Kendall test. The NPP change trends showed obvious positive link with the precipitation in the study area. While the effect of the inter-annual variation of the precipitation for RUE was small, the vegetation RUE can provide valuable insights into the status of land condition and had best sensitivity to land degradation.

  14. Development of a dynamic strategy planning theory and system for sustainable river basin land use management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Yu, Chien-Hwa

    2005-06-15

    Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of system analysis, driving force-state-response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure in this work. The integrated management of the land, water, and air resources of a river basin system is considered in the procedure. Two modified land use management procedures combined with the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure are developed in this work. Based on the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure, the sustainable river basin land use management DSR dynamic decision support system (SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS) is developed by using the Vensim, MS Excel, ArcView, and Visual Basic software. The concepts of object-orientation are used to develop the system dynamic optimization and simulation models of SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS. Based on the modified land use management procedures, SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS is used to assist decision makers in generating the land use plans of the Nankan river basin in Taoyuan County of Taiwan. Since the decisions of land, water and air resources management are still made at different agencies, the land use management system should be modified based on the innovational procedure to implement the management strategy developed in this work. The results show that the modified land use management procedures can be a guidance for the governments in modifying the systems and regulation of urban and regional plans in Taiwan.

  15. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2011-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite-and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected as a co-winner of NASA?s 2005 Software of the Year award.LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has e volved from two earlier efforts -- North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations.In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling

  16. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2009-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Kumar et al., 2006; Peters- Lidard et al.,2007) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected ase co-winner of NASA's 2005 Software of the Year award. LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has evolved from two earlier efforts North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS; Rodell al. 2004) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations. In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by

  17. A guide to NASA's Pilot Land Data System (PLDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a distributed information management system designed to support NASA's land science community. The PLDS provides a wide range of services including management of information about scientific data, access to a library of scientific data, a data ordering capability, communications, connection to data analysis facilities, and electronic mail. The PLDS provides these services by offering the scientist the capability to search for and order data, and to communicate electronically with other scientists and computers. Three functions enable scientists to find what data are available and where they reside. The first two, Find data summaries and Read detailed descriptions give summary and detailed descriptions about data sets or groups of related data sets, science, projects, and institutions which archive land data. The third, gives information about specific pieces of data. This last function has two components, Search systemwide inventory and Search local inventory. The first component enables the user to find data elements (images, geological samples, transects, maps, etc.) that exist anywhere in the PLDS while the second has only information about data at the local site. The first enables the user to find pieces of data from several different data sets with the same temporal and spatial coverage and other elements common to most data sets, while the second allows the user to select a data set based on these descriptors and on those that are unique to a data set. The PLDS provides capabilities that enable electronic file transfers, intercomputer connection, and electronic mail. Both TCP/IP and DECnet protocols are supported via the NASA Science Internet (NIS). Access is also available through Telenet.

  18. Landing approach airframe noise measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasagna, P. L.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Putnam, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    Flyover measurements of the airframe noise produced by the AeroCommander, JetStar, CV-990, and B-747 airplanes are presented for various landing approach configurations. Empirical and semiempirical techniques are presented to correlate the measured airframe noise with airplane design and aerodynamic parameters. Airframe noise for the jet-powered airplanes in the clean configuration (flaps and gear retracted) was found to be adequately represented by a function of airplane weight and the fifth power of airspeed. Results show the airframe noise for all four aircraft in the landing configuration (flaps extended and gear down) also varied with the fifth power of airspeed, but this noise level could not be represented by the addition of a constant to the equation for clean-configuration airframe noise.

  19. Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Dynamics: Observations, Analysis and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay; Ringerud, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity affects remote sensing of both the atmosphere and the land surface. The dynamical behavior of microwave emissivity over a very diverse sample of land surface types is studied. With seven years of satellite measurements from AMSR-E, we identified various dynamical regimes of the land surface emission. In addition, we used two radiative transfer models (RTMs), the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and the Community Microwave Emission Modeling Platform (CMEM), to simulate land surface emissivity dynamics. With both CRTM and CMEM coupled to NASA's Land Information System, global-scale land surface microwave emissivities were simulated for five years, and evaluated against AMSR-E observations. It is found that both models have successes and failures over various types of land surfaces. Among them, the desert shows the most consistent underestimates (by approx. 70-80%), due to limitations of the physical models used, and requires a revision in both systems. Other snow-free surface types exhibit various degrees of success and it is expected that parameter tuning can improve their performances.

  20. Urbanization susceptibility maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluative approaches, with particular attention to the identification of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Policy decisions defining land use are mostly implemented through spatial planning and related zoning, and this involves trade-offs between many sectoral interests and conflicting challenges aimed at win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, the paper proposes a methodological approach for a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), named Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through the empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluative approach implemented in a DSDSS helps to elaborate "urbanization susceptibility maps", where spatial analysis combined with a multi-criteria method proved to be useful for facing the main issues related to land consumption and minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

  1. Urbanization suitability maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

    2012-11-01

    Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluation approaches, with particular attention to the development of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Land use policy decisions are implemented mostly through spatial planning and its related zoning. This involves trade-offs between many sectorial interests and conflicting challenges seeking win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, this paper proposes a methodological approach for developing a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), denominated Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluation approach implemented in a DSDSS helps produce "urbanization suitability maps" in which spatial analysis combined with multi-criteria evaluation methods proved to be useful for both facing the main issues relating to land consumption as well as minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

  2. Conflict or coordination? Assessing land use multi-functionalization using production-living-ecology analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Xu, Jianchun; Lin, Zhulu

    2017-01-15

    Land use multi-functionalization (LUMF) promotes efficient and sustainable land use, reduces land pressures from limited land resources, and elevates urbanization quality in the midst of the increasingly tense relationship between humans and nature. In this study, we propose a new conceptual index system using system science, entropy weight method, triangle model, and coupling coordination degree model for LUMF assessment as well as an analysis of the relationship among land use sub-functions. This framework was applied to six cities in the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay (UAHB) in eastern China's Zhejiang Province using twenty-two indicators in terms of production-living-ecology analysis during 2004-2013. The UAHB LUMF level increased over the past ten years, being affected by the designated functions and the "planning effect" for the six cities in the UAHB. The relationships among land use sub-functions in the six cities displayed strong variabilities at the spatial and temporal scales. The overall patterns of the relative importance of these sub-functions also differed from each other. Our research also shows that urban development in the UAHB had focused more on economic growth than on ecological protection and the regional development in the UAHB's six cities was unbalanced. Therefore, we suggest urban and land use management need to embrace more integrated planning and design in order to maintain efficient and sustainable land use.

  3. The shock-absorbed system of the airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callerio, Pietro

    1940-01-01

    A discussion is given of the behavior of the shock-absorbing system, consisting of elastic struts and tires, under landing, take-off, and taxying conditions, and a general formula derived for obtaining the minimum stroke required to satisfy the conditions imposed on the landing gear. Finally, the operation of some typical shock-absorbing systems are examined and the necessity brought out for taking into account, in dynamic landing-gear tests, the effect of the wing lift at the instant of contact with the ground.

  4. Trade-off analysis in the Northern Andes to study the dynamics in agricultural land use.

    PubMed

    Stoorvogel, J J; Antle, J M; Crissman, C C

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that land use change can be induced by non-linearities and thresholds in production systems that impact farmers' decision making. Tradeoffs between environmental and economic indicators is a useful way to represent dynamic properties of agricultural systems. The Tradeoff Analysis (TOA) System is software designed to implement the integrated analysis of tradeoffs in agricultural systems. The TOA methodology is based on spatially explicit econometric simulation models linked to spatially referenced bio-physical simulation models to simulate land use and input decisions. The methodology has been applied for the potato-pasture production system in the Ecuadorian Andes. The land use change literature often describes non-linearity in land use change as a result of sudden changes in the political (e.g. new agricultural policies) or environmental setting (e.g. earthquakes). However, less attention has been paid to the non-linearities in production systems and their consequences for land use change. In this paper, we use the TOA system to study agricultural land use dynamics and to find the underlying processes for non-linearities. Results show that the sources of non-linearities are in the properties of bio-physical processes and in the decision making-process of farmers.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Global Urban Land Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Karen C.; Fragkias, Michail; Güneralp, Burak; Reilly, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase in urban land area of 58,000 km2 from 1970 to 2000. India, China, and Africa have experienced the highest rates of urban land expansion, and the largest change in total urban extent has occurred in North America. Across all regions and for all three decades, urban land expansion rates are higher than or equal to urban population growth rates, suggesting that urban growth is becoming more expansive than compact. Annual growth in GDP per capita drives approximately half of the observed urban land expansion in China but only moderately affects urban expansion in India and Africa, where urban land expansion is driven more by urban population growth. In high income countries, rates of urban land expansion are slower and increasingly related to GDP growth. However, in North America, population growth contributes more to urban expansion than it does in Europe. Much of the observed variation in urban expansion was not captured by either population, GDP, or other variables in the model. This suggests that contemporary urban expansion is related to a variety of factors difficult to observe comprehensively at the global level, including international capital flows, the informal economy, land use policy, and generalized transport costs. Using the results from the global model, we develop forecasts for new urban land cover using SRES Scenarios. Our results show that by 2030, global urban land cover will increase between 430,000 km2 and 12,568,000 km2, with an estimate of 1,527,000 km2 more likely. PMID:21876770

  6. Post2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Paschall, Stephen C., II

    2010-01-01

    The ALHAT project is an agency-level program involving NASA centers, academia, and industry, with a primary goal to develop a safe, autonomous, precision-landing system for robotic and crew-piloted lunar and planetary descent vehicles. POST2 is used as the 6DOF descent and landing trajectory simulation for determining integrated system performance of ALHAT landing-system models and lunar environment models. This paper presents updates in the development of the ALHAT POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis for ALDAC-2 used for the testing and assessment of ALHAT system models. The ALDAC-2 POST2 Monte Carlo simulation results have been generated and focus on HRN model performance with the fully integrated system, as well performance improvements of AGNC and TSAR model since the previous design analysis cycle

  7. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  8. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  9. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  10. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  11. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  12. Geospatial Analysis of Urban Land Use Pattern Analysis for Hemorrhagic Fever Risk - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzah, L. N.; Majid, Z.; Ariff, M. A. M.; Fook, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Human modification of the natural environment continues to create habitats in which vectors of a wide variety of human and animal pathogens (such as Plasmodium, Aedes aegypti, Arenavirus etc.) thrive if unabated with an enormous potential to negatively affect public health. Typical examples of these modifications include impoundments, dams, irrigation systems, landfills and so on that provide enabled environment for the transmission of Hemorrhagic fever such as malaria, dengue, avian flu, Lassa fever etc. Furthermore, contemporary urban dwelling pattern appears to be associated with the prevalence of Hemorrhagic diseases in recent years. These observations are not peculiar to the developing world, as urban expansion also contributes significantly to mosquito and other vectors habitats. This habitats offer breeding ground to some vector virus populations. The key to disease control is developing an understanding of the contribution of human landscape modification to vector-borne pathogen transmission and how a balance may be achieved between human development, public health, and responsible urban land use. A comprehensive review of urban land use Pattern Analysis for Hemorrhagic fever risk has been conducted in this paper. The study found that most of the available literatures dwell more on the impact of urban land use on malaria and dengue fevers; however, studies are yet to be found discussing the implications of urban land use on the risk of Ebola, Lassa and other non-mosquito borne VHFs. A relational model for investigating the influence of urban land use change pattern on the risk of Hemorrhagic fever has been proposed in this study.

  13. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to state wide land information system in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizer, J. E.; Borchert, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. To update and refine existing state-wide land resource information systems, the Minnesota State Planning Agency is assessing the feasibility of extracting resource information from ERTS-1 imagery. Work has centered on a comparative analysis of Minnesota Land Management Information System (MLMIS) and ERTS-1 land use classes. The associated problems of determining appropriate data cell size and optimal seasonal timing have also been addressed. Using ERTS-1 images, dominant land use is classified as follows: urban, forest, agriculture, extractive, transportation, water, and wetlands. Preliminary analysis suggests that with appropriate changes in operational definitions these general classes can be further refined for the benefit of MLMIS users. Additional detail appears most feasible extractive classes.

  14. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  15. Preliminary analysis of knee stress in Full Extension Landing

    PubMed Central

    Makinejad, Majid Davoodi; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Bayat, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides an experimental and finite element analysis of knee-joint structure during extended-knee landing based on the extracted impact force, and it numerically identifies the contact pressure, stress distribution and possibility of bone-to-bone contact when a subject lands from a safe height. METHODS: The impact time and loads were measured via inverse dynamic analysis of free landing without knee flexion from three different heights (25, 50 and 75 cm), using five subjects with an average body mass index of 18.8. Three-dimensional data were developed from computed tomography scans and were reprocessed with modeling software before being imported and analyzed by finite element analysis software. The whole leg was considered to be a fixed middle-hinged structure, while impact loads were applied to the femur in an upward direction. RESULTS: Straight landing exerted an enormous amount of pressure on the knee joint as a result of the body's inability to utilize the lower extremity muscles, thereby maximizing the threat of injury when the load exceeds the height-safety threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The researchers conclude that extended-knee landing results in serious deformation of the meniscus and cartilage and increases the risk of bone-to-bone contact and serious knee injury when the load exceeds the threshold safety height. This risk is considerably greater than the risk of injury associated with walking downhill or flexion landing activities. PMID:24141832

  16. a Study of Urban Intensive Land Evaluating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Gu, J.; Chen, X.; You, Y.; Tang, Q.

    2012-07-01

    The contradiction of land supply and demand is becoming increasingly prominent in China. The increasing efficiency of land use is an important means to resolve the conflict. We propose a scientific approach for promoting the urban intensive land use. In this paper, an evaluation system of urban intensive land use is programmed. It is designed to change the manual way of collecting index data and building index system to a dynamical way. The system improves the efficiency and accuracy of the evaluation of urban intensive land use. It achieves intensive evaluation on three scales: macro-level, medium-level and micro-level. We build two data extraction methods. One is XML-based meta-data exchange method that obtains index data from the cadastral database. Another is data monitoring method that writes the index data to the evaluation database at real time. Database technologies are used to calculate index values and build index systems dynamically. GIS technologies are use to achieve three scales evaluation of urban intensive land use.

  17. In-situ Data Analysis Framework for ACME Land Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yao, C.; Jia, Y.; Steed, C.; Atchley, S.

    2015-12-01

    The realistic representation of key biogeophysical and biogeochemical functions is the fundamental of process-based ecosystem models. Investigating the behavior of those ecosystem functions within real-time model simulation can be a very challenging due to the complex of both model and software structure of an environmental model, such as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). In this research, author will describe the urgent needs and challenges for in-situ data analysis for ALM simulations, and layouts our methods/strategies to meet these challenges. Specifically, an in-situ data analysis framework is designed to allow users interactively observe the biogeophyical and biogeochemical process during ALM simulation. There are two key components in this framework, automatically instrumented ecosystem simulation, in-situ data communication and large-scale data exploratory toolkit. This effort is developed by leveraging several active projects, including scientific unit testing platform, common communication interface and extreme-scale data exploratory toolkit. Authors believe that, based on advanced computing technologies, such as compiler-based software system analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and in-memory data transport, this software system provides not only much needed capability for real-time observation and in-situ data analytics for environmental model simulation, but also the potentials for in-situ model behavior adjustment via simulation steering.

  18. Analysis-test correlation of airbag impact for Mars landing

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.; Davis, G.; Kuo, C.P.

    1994-12-31

    The NASA Mars Pathfinder mission is intended to demonstrate key low cost technologies for use in future science missions to Mars. Among these technologies is the landing system. Upon entering in Martian atmosphere at about 7000 m/sec., the spacecraft will deploy a series of breaking devices (parachute and solid rockets) to slow down its speed to less than 20 m/sec. as it impacts with the Martian ground. To cushion science instruments form the landing impact, an airbag system is inflated to surround the lander approximately five seconds before impact. After multiple bounces, the lander/airbags comes to rest, the airbags are deflated and retracted, and the lander opens up its petals to allow a microrover to begin exploration. Of interest here, is the final landing phase. Specifically, this paper will focus on the methodology used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of lander/airbags landing impact, and how this simulation correlates with initial tests.

  19. Ongoing Development of NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Kato, Hiroko; Zaitchik, Ben

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) produces global fields of land surface states (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) and fluxes (e.g., latent heat flux and runoff) by driving offline land surface models with observation-based inputs, using the Land Information System (LIS) software. Since production began in 2001, GLDAS has supported more than 100 scientific investigations and applications. Some examples are GEWEX and NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) global water and energy budget analyses, interpretations of hydrologic data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and forecast model initiation studies at NOAA and NASA. At the same time, the GLDAS team has continued improve results through the development of new modeling and data assimilation techniques. Here we describe several recent and ongoing innovations. These include global implementation of a runoff routing procedure, GRACE data assimilation, advanced snow cover assimilation, and irrigation modeling.

  20. Development of a digital integrated automatic landing system /DIALS/ for steep approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional digital integrated automatic landing system (DIALS) for a small commercial jet transport. The system uses the Microwave Landing System (MLS), body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not require inertial platforms. The system development uses modern digital control techniques. The phases of flight considered are the localizer and glideslope capture, which may be performed simultaneously or sequentially, localizer and glideslope track (hold), crab/decrab, and flare to touchdown. The system captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes (2.5 - 5.5 deg) selected prior to glideslope capture. The results of a nonlinear simulation are presented.

  1. Automatic helical rotorcraft descent and landing using a Microwave Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Foster, J. D.; Xenakis, G.

    1981-01-01

    A helical-approach concept is presented for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operation of rotorcraft into congested terminal areas where separation from high-speed jet traffic is highly desirable and the airport-precision-approach aid is a Microwave Landing System (MLS). The concept takes advantage of the fact that rotorcraft need not land on the main runway but can operate from a pad that lies on an MLS radial offset from the centerline. The results of 48 flights using a UH-1H helicopter and a research avionics system are presented. Three levels of navigation sophistication were also investigated. It is shown that an approach helix can be contained in a relatively small volume and that being within the Instrument Landing System (ILS) Category II window at a 30-m (100-ft) altitude is not a requirement for a successful hover over a landing pad. Only two of the three navigation systems provided estimates that allowed all flights to descend from hover to touchdown.

  2. Aeroacoustic Analysis of a Simplified Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi, R.; Li, Fei

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid approach is used to investigate the noise generated by a simplified landing gear without small scale parts such as hydraulic lines and fasteners. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from flow data provided by an unsteady computational fluid dynamics calculation. A simulation with 13 million grid points has been completed, and comparisons are made between calculations with different turbulence models. Results indicate that the turbulence model has a profound effect on the levels and character of the unsteadiness. Flow data on solid surfaces and a set of permeable surfaces surrounding the gear have been collected. Noise predictions using the porous surfaces appear to be contaminated by errors caused by large wake fluctuations passing through the surfaces. However, comparisons between predictions using the solid surfaces with the near-field CFD solution are in good agreement giving confidence in the far-field results.

  3. Applications of Skylab data to land use and climatological analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Lewis, J. E., Jr.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Jenner, C. B.; Outcalt, S. I.; Pease, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab study in Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site encompassed two separate but related tasks: (1) evaluation of photographic sensors S190A and B as sources of land use data for planning and managing land resources in major metropolitan regions, and (2) evaluation of the multispectral scanner S192 used in conjunction with associated data and analytical techniques as a data source on urban climates and the surface energy balance. Photographs from the Skylab S190B earth terrain camera were of greatest interest in the land use analysis task; they were of sufficiently high resolution to identify and map many level 2 and 3 land use categories. After being corrected to allow for atmosphere effects, output from thermal and visible bands of the S192 was employed in constructing computer map plots of albedo and surface temperature.

  4. Temporal Land Cover Analysis for Net Ecosystem Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2013-04-09

    We delineated 8 watersheds contributing to previously defined river reaches within the 1,468-km2 historical floodplain of the tidally influenced lower Columbia River and estuary. We assessed land-cover change at the watershed, reach, and restoration site scales by reclassifying remote-sensing data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program’s land cover/land change product into forest, wetland, and urban categories. The analysis showed a 198.3 km2 loss of forest cover during the first 6 years of the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, 2001–2006. Total measured urbanization in the contributing watersheds of the estuary during the full 1996-2006 change analysis period was 48.4 km2. Trends in forest gain/loss and urbanization differed between watersheds. Wetland gains and losses were within the margin of error of the satellite imagery analysis. No significant land cover change was measured at restoration sites, although it was visible in aerial imagery, therefore, the 30-m land-cover product may not be appropriate for assessment of early-stage wetland restoration. These findings suggest that floodplain restoration sites in reaches downstream of watersheds with decreasing forest cover will be subject to increased sediment loads, and those downstream of urbanization will experience effects of increased impervious surfaces on hydrologic processes.

  5. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Ravi; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Devin, M. Kipp; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Steltzner, Adam D.; Way, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions.

  7. Controllable set analysis for planetary landing under model uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jiateng; Gao, Ai; Cui, Pingyuan

    2015-07-01

    Controllable set analysis is a beneficial method in planetary landing mission design by feasible entry state selection in order to achieve landing accuracy and satisfy entry path constraints. In view of the severe impact of model uncertainties on planetary landing safety and accuracy, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the controllable set under uncertainties between on-board model and the real situation. Controllable set analysis under model uncertainties is composed of controllable union set (CUS) analysis and controllable intersection set (CIS) analysis. Definitions of CUS and CIS are demonstrated and computational method of them based on Gauss pseudospectral method is presented. Their applications on entry states distribution analysis under uncertainties and robustness of nominal entry state selection to uncertainties are illustrated by situations with ballistic coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and atmospheric uncertainty in Mars entry. With analysis of CUS and CIS, the robustness of entry state selection and entry trajectory to model uncertainties can be guaranteed, thus enhancing the safety, reliability and accuracy under model uncertainties during planetary entry and landing.

  8. 77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... our national forests. ``Our best opportunity to accomplish this is in the developing of a new forest... April 9, 2012 Part II Department of Agriculture Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 National Forest System... National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule and...

  9. The auto-tuned land data assimilation system (ATLAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilation systems are tasked with the merging remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven (principally) by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems is frequently degraded by the imprecise specification of parameters ...

  10. Flying NASA's terminal configured vehicle against the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, L. H., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Technology for advanced airborne systems and flight procedures to improve terminal-area operations in ATC environment is developed. The terminal configured vehicle (TCV) aircraft, its integrated digital electronic displays and flight controls, and how the pilot interfaces with the aircraft to fly precise curved descending approaches using Microwave Landing System (MLS) guidance are discussed.

  11. Helical automatic approaches of helicopters with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. D.; Mcgee, L. A.; Dugan, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A program is under way to develop a data base for establishing navigation and guidance concepts for all-weather operation of rotorcraft. One of the objectives is to examine the feasibility of conducting simultaneous rotorcraft and conventional fixed-wing, noninterfering, landing operations in instrument meteorological conditions at airports equipped with microwave landing systems (MLSs) for fixed-wing traffic. An initial test program to investigate the feasibility of conducting automatic helical approaches was completed, using the MLS at Crows Landing near Ames. These tests were flown on board a UH-1H helicopter equipped with a digital automatic landing system. A total of 48 automatic approaches and landings were flown along a two-turn helical descent, tangent to the centerline of the MLS-equipped runway to determine helical light performance and to provide a data base for comparison with future flights for which the helical approach path will be located near the edge of the MLS coverage. In addition, 13 straight-in approaches were conducted. The performance with varying levels of state-estimation system sophistication was evaluated as part of the flight tests. The results indicate that helical approaches to MLS-equipped runways are feasible for rotorcraft and that the best position accuracy was obtained using the Kalman-filter state-estimation with inertial navigation systems sensors.

  12. Validation of a Flexible Aircraft TakeOff and Landing Analysis /FATOLA/ computer program using flight landing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.; Mcgehee, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple-degree-of-freedom takeoff and landing analysis, Flexible Aircraft TakeOff and Landing Analysis computer program (FATOLA), was used to predict the landing behavior of a rigid-body X-24B reentry research vehicle and of a flexible-body modified-delta-wing supersonic YF-12 research aircraft. The analytical predictions were compared with flight test data for both research vehicles. Predicted time histories of vehicle motion and attitude, landing-gear strut stroke, and axial force transmitted from the landing gear to the airframe during the landing impact and rollout compared well with the actual time histories. Based on the comparisons presented, the versatility and validity of the FATOLA program for predicting landing dynamics of aircraft has been demonstrated.

  13. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Martynov, Maxim; Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Vsevolod Koryanov, D.; Kazakovtcev, Victor; Haukka, Harri; Arruego, Ignacio; Finchenko, Valery; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrei; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    Abstract A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) or Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth’s atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth’s atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. “Mini-1” category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: - qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, - Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, - m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, - V (m/s): re-entry velocity and - theta(deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet (“Mini-1” category) -type

  14. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    2014-05-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and Θ (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being

  15. Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2014-12-01

    Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing.

  16. GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayi; Huang, Xiangyu; Guan, Yifeng

    2008-07-01

    A pinpoint autonomous GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing is proposed. First, the descriptions of the mission outline for lunar soft landing are provided. Second, the GNC system design of the spacecraft is proposed. The baseline is a 3-axis stabilized system during all the phases of the mission. Orbit maneuvers are achieved by an assembled constant thrust or a throttleable main engine. The attitude control actuators are thrusters. The attitude and orbit determination is performed by sun sensors, star sensors, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), altimeter, velocimeter and lunar imaging sensors. Third, some proposed autonomous navigation and guidance methods including hazard detection and avoidance for lunar soft landing are analyzed. Finally, we draw some conclusions.

  17. Land-use/land-cover change detection using change-vector analysis in posterior probability space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuehong; Chen, Jin; Shen, Miaogen; Yang, Wei

    2008-10-01

    Land use/land cover change is an important field in global environmental change research. Remote sensing is a valuable data source from which land use/land cover change information can be extracted efficiently. A number of techniques for accomplishing change detection using satellite imagery have been formulated, applied, and evaluated, which can be generally grouped into two types. (1) Those based on spectral classification of the input data such as post-classification comparison and direct two-date classification; and (2) those based on radiometric change between different acquisition dates. The shortage of type 1 is cumulative error in image classification of an individual date. However, radiometric change approaches has a strict requirement for reliable image radiometry. In light of the above mentioned drawbacks of those two types of change detection methods, this paper presents a new method named change vector analysis in posterior probability space (CVAPS). Change-vector analysis (CVA) is one of the most successful radiometric change-based approaches. CVAPS approach incorporates post-classification comparison method and CVA approach, which is expected to inherit the advantages of two traditional methods and avoid their defects at the same time. CVAPS includes the following four steps. (1) Images in different periods are classified by certain classifier which can provide posterior probability output. Then, the posterior probability can be treated as a vector, the dimension of which is equal to the number of classes. (2) A procedure similar with CVA is employed. Compared with traditional CVA, new method analyzes the change vector in posterior probability space instead of spectral feature space. (3) A semiautomatic method, named Double-Window Flexible Pace Search (DFPS), is employed to determine the threshold of change magnitude. (4) Change category is discriminated by cosines of the change vectors. CVAPS approach was applied and validated by a case study of

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF TERMINAL FLIGHT PATH CONTROL IN CARRIER LANDING

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Fresnel lens optical landing system/(FLOLS)/pilot/aircraft system, considering deck motions and air turbulence inputs. Performance of this model in terms of terminal conditions in the vertical plane (ramp clearance, impact velocity, dispersion of the touchdown point) and aircraft longitudinal motions in the groove prior to touchdown is consistent with and validated by actual performance. The terminal dispersions are statistically combined to yield probabilities of potential ramp strikes, landing gear failures, and bolters, which, when put through a simplified pilot/LSO

  19. Study on passive momentum exchange landing gear using two-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Hara, Susumu; Otsuki, Masatsugu

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses a landing response control system based on the momentum exchange principle for planetary exploration spacecraft. In the past, landing gear systems with cantilever designs that incorporate honeycomb materials to dissipate shock energy through plastic deformation have been used, but once tested before launch, the system cannot be used in a real mission. The sky crane system used for the Mars Science Laboratory by NASA can achieve a safe and precise landing, but it is highly complex. This paper introduces a momentum exchange impact damper (MEID) that absorbs the controlled object's momentum with extra masses called damper masses. The MEID is reusable, which makes it easy to ensure the landing gear's reliability. In this system, only passive elements such as springs are needed. A single-axis (SA) model has already been used to verify the effectiveness of MEIDs through simulations and experiments measuring the rebound height of the spacecraft. However, the SA model cannot address the rotational motion and tipping of the spacecraft. This paper presents a two-landing-gear-system (TLGS) model in which multiple MEIDs are equipped for two-dimensional analysis. Unlike in the authors' previous studies, in this study each MEID is launched when the corresponding landing gear lands and the MEIDs do not contain active actuators. This mechanism can be used to realize advanced control specifications, and it is simply compared with previous mechanisms including actuators, in which all of the MEIDs are launched simultaneously. If each MEID works when the corresponding gear lands, the rebound height of each gear can be minimized, and tipping can be prevented, as demonstrated by the results of our simulations.

  20. LUMIS: A Land Use Management Information System for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.

  1. Systemic change increases forecast uncertainty of land use change models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the

  2. Air cushion landing system stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, T. D.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of an inelastic ACLS plunge mode dynamic model is presented. The ACLS has unrestrained side elements and frozen end elements. The model exhibits unstable behavior at certain operating conditions for which the side elements are in contact with the ground. A linear analysis showed this instability to be due mainly to the altitude sensitivities of the cushion to atmosphere airflows and the attendant influence on the dynamic pressure forces on the vehicle. The model instability can be alleviated by isolating side and end elements so that they are all unrestrained and by simultaneously venting the air cushion directly to atmosphere.

  3. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William; Boone, Arron; Mechoso, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Yongkang Xue, F. De Sales, B. Lau, A. Boone, C. R. Mechoso Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass there. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. The LSP affects the monsoon evolution through different mechanisms at different scales. It affects the surface energy balance and energy partitioning in latent and sensible heat, the atmospheric heating rate, and general circulation. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation

  4. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. It has also been suggested that LSP contribute to the abrupt jump in latitude of the East Asian monsoon as well as general circulation turning in some monsoon regions in its early stages. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. More comprehensive studies with multi-models are imperatively necessary.

  5. Space shuttle entry and landing navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Crawford, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    A navigation system for the entry phase of a Space Shuttle mission which is an aided-inertial system which uses a Kalman filter to mix IMU data with data derived from external navigation aids is evaluated. A drag pseudo-measurement used during radio blackout is treated as an additional external aid. A comprehensive truth model with 101 states is formulated and used to generate detailed error budgets at several significant time points -- end-of-blackout, start of final approach, over runway threshold, and touchdown. Sensitivity curves illustrating the effect of variations in the size of individual error sources on navigation accuracy are presented. The sensitivity of the navigation system performance to filter modifications is analyzed. The projected overall performance is shown in the form of time histories of position and velocity error components. The detailed results are summarized and interpreted, and suggestions are made concerning possible software improvements.

  6. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  7. 43 CFR 3140.7 - Lands within the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands within the National Park System. 3140.7 Section 3140.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR...

  8. 43 CFR 3140.7 - Lands within the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands within the National Park System. 3140.7 Section 3140.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR...

  9. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  10. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  11. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  12. Land Combat Systems Industry Study 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    FCS. There is a drive toward lean manufacturing processes throughout the industry. There is continual investment in emerging fabrication processes...inability to secure additional capital inhibits them from entering the systems integrator market. Instead UDI is pursuing lean manufacturing to cut

  13. Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.; Vanderark, Stephen T.

    1993-01-01

    The Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing (E/L) Activities documents all tasks required to land the Orbiter following an STS mission. In addition to analysis of tasks performed, task conditions are described, including estimated time for completion, altitude, relative velocity, normal and lateral acceleration, location of controls operated or monitored, and level of g's experienced. This analysis precedes further investigations into potential effects of zero g on piloting capabilities for landing the Orbiter following long-duration missions. This includes, but is not limited to, researching the effects of extended duration missions on piloting capabilities. Four primary constraints of the analysis must be clarified: (1) the analysis depicts E/L in a static manner--the actual process is dynamic; (2) the task analysis was limited to a paper analysis, since it was not feasible to conduct research in the actual setting (i.e., observing or filming duration an actual E/L); (3) the tasks included are those required for E/L during nominal, daylight conditions; and (4) certain E/L tasks will vary according to the flying style of each commander.

  14. Land degradation analysis based on the land use changes and land degradation evaluation in the Huan Beijing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xudong; Wang, Jing; Xie, Junqi; He, Ting; Lian, Gang; Lv, Chunyan

    2005-10-01

    Using remote sensing data of TM and ETM+ in 1992 and 2002, land degradation based on land use changes, especially sand changes were analyzed and land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated in the Huan Beijing Area. The area of sand in 2002 is 6669.6 km2, increased 716.2 km2 compared to that in 1991, and most of the newly-produced sand came from grassland. Land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated by the combination of vegetation, soil and topography information and the region was divided by 1km ×1km cell as the evaluation unit by the application of the GIS. The indicators of land degradation evaluation included soil organic, soil depth, vegetation cover (NDVI) and slope. Land degradation index (DI) was computed, considering the contribution of different indicators to land degradation. The land degradation status was divided into four types according to DI, no-degradation (DI > = 55), slight degradation (50 = < DI < 55), moderate degradation (40 = < DI < 50) and severe degradation (DI < 40). The results showed that the area of degraded land is 132900 km2, which occupied the percent 58.2 of the whole Huan Beijing Area and the proportion of slightly-degraded land to degraded land is about 0.47. The political county taken as an evaluation unit, the partition of land degradation in this area was also analyzed based on land degradation area proportion and degree. Six types of land degradation partition were got.

  15. Vegetation analysis for arid lands geobotany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, M. G.; Ustin, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    Three primary study sites were selected for measurement of plant phenological properties and spectral analysis. The sites selected represented typical sagebrush, creosote bush, and saltbush communities in Owens Valley, CA. Community composition was studied at these three sites plus five burned sites. Ten 50 m transects at each locality were measured for percent cover (over 10 cm) by a given species. On each transect two point quarter and five nearest neighbor analyses were conducted. These data provided percent cover, cover by area, plant size, tendency for association, and recolonization patterns after a disturbance. Plots representing percentage plant cover for six sites are included.

  16. Estimation of Land Surface States and Fluxes using a Land Surface Model Considering Different Irrigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, J. A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Evans, J. P.; Beaudoing, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    Food security can be improved by increasing the extent of agricultural land or by increasing agricultural productivity, including through intensive management such as irrigation. The objectives of this study were to incorporate practical irrigation schemes into land surface models of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and to apply the tool to estimate the impact of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes—including evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff—in the Murray-Darling basin in Australia. Here we present results obtained using Noah Land Surface Model v3.2 within LIS without simulated irrigation (IR0) and with three irrigation simulation routines: flood irrigation (IR1), drip irrigation (IR2), and sprinkler irrigation (IR3). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation index was used to define crop growing seasons. Simulations were performed for a full year (July 2002 to June 2003) and evaluated against hydrologic flux estimates obtained in previous studies. Irrigation amounts during the growing season (August 2002 to March 2003) were simulated as 104.6, 24.6, and 188.1 GL for IR1, IR2, and IR3, respectively. These preliminary results showed water use efficiency from a drip irrigation scheme would be highest and lowest from a sprinkler irrigation scheme, with a highly optimized version of flood irrigation falling in between. Irrigation water contributed to a combination of increased evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil moisture storage in the irrigation simulations relative to IR0. Implications for water management applications and for further model development will be discussed.

  17. Landing Force Organizational Systems Study (LFOSS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    ion Bxecut iwe". o Should we convert from our present acquisition management system to the "Program Manager Method "? o How can we more fully...retransmission. o Capable of sophisticated error detection ^in<] correction. o Better protect ion against electronic warfare (EW). o The capability of...voice telephone. In 1986, another secure voice telephone, the ANDVT (Advanced Narrowband Digital Voice Terminal), will extend the secure voice and data

  18. Application of the Auto-Tuned Land Assimilation System (ATLAS) to ASCAT and SMOS soil moisture retrieval products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilations are typically based on highly uncertain assumptions regarding the statistical structure of observation and modeling errors. Left uncorrected, poor assumptions can degrade the quality of analysis products generated by land data assimilation systems. Recently, Crow and van de...

  19. Global land cover mapping: a review and uncertainty analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congalton, Russell G.; Gu, Jianyu; Yadav, Kamini; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Given the advances in remotely sensed imagery and associated technologies, several global land cover maps have been produced in recent times including IGBP DISCover, UMD Land Cover, Global Land Cover 2000 and GlobCover 2009. However, the utility of these maps for specific applications has often been hampered due to considerable amounts of uncertainties and inconsistencies. A thorough review of these global land cover projects including evaluating the sources of error and uncertainty is prudent and enlightening. Therefore, this paper describes our work in which we compared, summarized and conducted an uncertainty analysis of the four global land cover mapping projects using an error budget approach. The results showed that the classification scheme and the validation methodology had the highest error contribution and implementation priority. A comparison of the classification schemes showed that there are many inconsistencies between the definitions of the map classes. This is especially true for the mixed type classes for which thresholds vary for the attributes/discriminators used in the classification process. Examination of these four global mapping projects provided quite a few important lessons for the future global mapping projects including the need for clear and uniform definitions of the classification scheme and an efficient, practical, and valid design of the accuracy assessment.

  20. Instrument Landing System Critical Area Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    VOODOO , -43- 󈧔 WAurC m . -C 84410 0a 0 0440004.. fsau @,nt 𔃺 F LgCL ..... ..... 0 -o U0 1. 0- rum 4-u 4. 4- 0 0 U suilie~~uso Voi eoN. -45-ij...other con- figurations of glide slope are used, for example, the capture effect, side- band reference or endf ire glide slope system. -1 53- XI...perturbations are best viewed in the frequency domain (i.e., the error spectrum).’ That is, -*.’ the PFE occupies a frequency band which is essentially

  1. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  2. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  3. Orion Landing and Recovery Systems Development - Government Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's work in development of landing and recovery systems for the Orion space craft. It includes a review of the available tools and skills that assist in analyzing the aerodynamic decelerators. There is a description of the work that is being done on the Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) parachutes that will be used with the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

  4. Validation of an Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Take-off and Landing analysis (AGFATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation using a computer program for active gear, flexible aircraft take off and landing analysis (AGFATL) are compared with experimental data from shaker tests, drop tests, and simulated landing tests to validate the AGFATL computer program. Comparison of experimental and analytical responses for both passive and active gears indicates good agreement for shaker tests and drop tests. For the simulated landing tests, the passive and active gears were influenced by large strut binding friction forces. The inclusion of these undefined forces in the analytical simulations was difficult, and consequently only fair to good agreement was obtained. An assessment of the results from the investigation indicates that the AGFATL computer program is a valid tool for the study and initial design of series hydraulic active control landing gear systems.

  5. North American Land Change Monitoring System: Current Status and Future Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, D.; Homer, C.; Ressl, R.; Takaki, F.; Meneses, C.; Latifovic, R.; Giri, C.; Colditz, R.; Jimenez, F.; Orozco, R.; Hossain, N.; Lopez, G.; Palafox, R.; Díaz, P.

    2009-05-01

    At the Land Cover Summit meeting held in Washington, DC in September 2006 the North American Land Change Monitoring System (NLCMS) project was initiated between representatives from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Institute of Geographic Statistics and Information of Mexico (INEGI) and the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). The objective of the NALCMS is a joint effort to create a harmonized system for multi-scale and multi-temporal monitoring and reporting of North American land cover change. The proposed system couples 250m and 30m resolutions, offering products relevant at both spatial scales. The two spatial resolutions will provide users with investigation, confirmation, calibration, and assessment of 250m change products with 30m product support. This combination of spatial resolutions offers a valuable increase in temporal frequency, context, and strategic prioritization for 30m products. In due course these land change products can provide continental, national, and regional consistency to land cover and land cover change analysis.

  6. An analysis of landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Erzberger, Heinz

    1996-01-01

    Advanced air traffic management systems such as the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) should yield a wide range of benefits, including reduced aircraft delays and controller workload. To determine the traffic-flow benefits achievable from future terminal airspace automation, live radar information was used to perform an analysis of current aircraft landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Separation statistics that result when controllers balance complex control procedural constraints in order to maintain high landing rates are presented. In addition, the analysis estimates the potential for airport capacity improvements by determining the unused landing opportunities that occur during rush traffic periods. Results suggest a large potential for improving the accuracy and consistency of spacing between arrivals on final approach, and they support earlier simulation findings that improved air traffic management would increase capacity and reduce delays.

  7. An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

  8. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  9. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  10. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  11. Analysis of On-board Hazard Detection and Avoidance for Safe Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Huertas, Andres; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Landing hazard detection and avoidance technology is being pursued within NASA to improve landing safety and increase access to sites of interest on the lunar surface. The performance of a hazard detection and avoidance system depends on properties of the terrain, sensor performance, algorithm design, vehicle characteristics and the overall all guidance navigation and control architecture. This paper analyzes the size of the region that must be imaged, sensor performance parameters and the impact of trajectory angle on hazard detection performance. The analysis shows that vehicle hazard tolerance is the driving parameter for hazard detection system design.

  12. Photogrammetric Measurements of CEV Airbag Landing Attenuation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Berry, Felecia C.; Dismond, Harriett R.; Cate, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility onto a sand/clay mixture representative of a dry lakebed from elevations as high as 62 feet (18.9 meters). Two different types of test articles have been evaluated: (1) half-scale metal shell models utilized to establish baseline impact dynamics and soil characterization, and (2) geometric full-scale drop models with shock-absorbing airbags which are being evaluated for their ability to cushion the impact of the Orion CEV with the earth s surface. This paper describes the application of the photogrammetric measurement technique and provides drop model trajectory and impact data that indicate the performance of the photogrammetric measurement system.

  13. A robust signalling system for land mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irish, Dale; Shmith, Gary; Hart, Nick; Wines, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Presented here is a signalling system optimized to ensure expedient call set-up for satellite telephony services in a land mobile environment. In a land mobile environment, the satellite to mobile link is subject to impairments from multipath and shadowing phenomena, which result in signal amplitude and phase variations. Multipath, caused by signal scattering and reflections, results in sufficient link margin to compensate for these variations. Direct signal attenuation caused by shadowing due to buildings and vegetation may result in attenuation values in excess of 10 dB and commonly up to 20 dB. It is not practical to provide a link with sufficient margin to enable communication when the signal is blocked. When a moving vehicle passes these obstacles, the link will experience rapid changes in signal strength due to shadowing. Using statistical models of attenuation as a function of distance travelled, a communication strategy has been defined for the land mobile environment.

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  15. Visualization and Analysis of Multi-scale Land Surface Products via Giovanni Portals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.; Gerasimov, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data.Customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI andGiovanni-MAIRS) have been created to integrate land, atmospheric,cryospheric, and societal products, enabling researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes, and their relationships to climate, at global and regional scales. This presentation shows a sample Giovanni portal page, lists selected data products in the system, and illustrates potential analyses with imagesand time-series at global and regional scales, focusing on climatology and anomaly analysis. More information is available at the GES DISCMAIRS data support project portal: http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govmairs.

  16. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O'Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  17. Load-limiting landing gear footpad energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Tsai, Ted

    1994-01-01

    As a precursor to future manned missions to the moon, an inexpensive, unmanned vehicle that could carry small, scientific payloads to the lunar surface was studied by NASA. The vehicle, called the Common Lunar Lander, required extremely optimized structural systems to increase the potential payload mass. A lightweight energy-absorbing system (LAGFEAS), which also acts as a landing load-limiter was designed to help achieve this optimized structure. Since the versatile and easily tailored system is a load-limiter, it allowed for the structure to be designed independently of the ever-changing landing energy predictions. This paper describes the LAGFEAS system and preliminary verification testing performed at NASA's Johnson Space Center for the Common Lunar Lander program.

  18. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  19. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  20. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.

  1. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  2. An analysis of human-induced land transformations in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento area

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtland, D.; DeCola, L. ); Gaydos, L.; Acevedo, W. ); Clarke, K. . Dept. of Geology and Geography); Bell, C. )

    1994-06-01

    Part of the US Geological Survey's Global Change Research Program involves studying the area from the Pacific Ocean to the Sierra foothills to enhance understanding of the role that human activities play in global change. The study investigates the ways that humans transform the land and the effects that changing the landscape may have on regional and global systems. To accomplish this research, scientists are compiling records of historical transformations in the region's land cover over the last 140 years, developing a simulation model to predict land cover change, and assembling a digital data set to analyze and describe land transformations. The historical data regarding urban growth focus attention on the significant change the region underwent from 1850 to 1990. The historical change is being used to calibrate a prototype cellular automata model, developed to predict changes in urban land cover 100 years into the future. These data aid in documenting and understanding human-induced land transformations from both historical and predictive perspectives. A descriptive analysis of the region is used to investigate the relationships among data characteristic of the region. These data consist of multilayer topography, climate, vegetation, and population data for a 256-km[sup 2] region of central California. A variety of multivariate analysis tools are used to integrate the data in raster format from map contours, interpolated climate observations, satellite observations, and population estimates.

  3. Commercialization of the land remote sensing system: An examination of mechanisms and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, J. K.; Gaelick, C.; Greenberg, J. S.; Logsdon, J.; Monk, T.

    1983-01-01

    In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.

  4. Intersects between Land, Energy, Water and the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy

  5. Present and future of desertification in Spain: Implementation of a surveillance system to prevent land degradation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Ibáñez, Javier; Del Barrio, Gabriel; Sanjuán, Maria E; Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Vicente, Silvio; Ruiz, Alberto; Puigdefábregas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Mitigation strategies are crucial for desertification given that once degradation starts, other solutions are extremely expensive or unworkable. Prevention is key to handle this problem and solutions should be based on spotting and deactivating the stressors of the system. Following this topic, the Spanish Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (SPACD) created the basis for implementing two innovative approaches to evaluate the threat of land degradation in the country. This paper presents tools for preventing desertification in the form of a geomatic approach to enable the periodic assessments of the status and trends of land condition. Also System Dynamics modelling has been used to integrate bio-physical and socio-economic aspects of desertification to explain and analyse degradation in the main hot spots detected in Spain. The 2dRUE procedure was implemented to map the land-condition status by comparing potential land productivity according to water availability, the limiting factor in arid lands, with plant-biomass data. This assessment showed that 20% of the territory is degraded and an additional 1% is actively degrading. System Dynamics modelling was applied to study the five desertification landscapes identified by the SPACD. The risk analysis, implemented on these models, concluded that 'Herbaceous crops affected by soil erosion' is the landscape most at risk, while the Plackett-Burman sensitivity analysis used to rank the factors highlighted the supremacy of climatic factors above socioeconomic drivers.

  6. The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

    2013-05-01

    The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands

  7. Source analysis of spaceborne microwave radiometer interference over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Sibo

    2016-03-01

    Satellite microwave thermal emissions mixed with signals from active sensors are referred to as radiofrequency interference (RFI). Based on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) observations from June 1 to 16, 2011, RFI over Europe was identified and analyzed using the modified principal component analysis algorithm in this paper. The X band AMSR-E measurements in England and Italy are mostly affected by the stable, persistent, active microwave transmitters on the surface, while the RFI source of other European countries is the interference of the reflected geostationary TV satellite downlink signals to the measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometers. The locations and intensities of the RFI induced by the geostationary TV and communication satellites changed with time within the observed period. The observations of spaceborne microwave radiometers in ascending portions of orbits are usually interfered with over European land, while no RFI was detected in descending passes. The RFI locations and intensities from the reflection of downlink radiation are highly dependent upon the relative geometry between the geostationary satellite and the measuring passive sensor. Only these fields of view of a spaceborne instrument whose scan azimuths are close to the azimuth relative to the geostationary satellite are likely to be affected by RFI.

  8. Development of the Arab Land Data Assimilation System (ALDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Toll, D. L.; Engman, E.; Habib, S.; Ozdogan, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arab region of the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) suffers from arid conditions, dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. These factors have nearly exhausted the existing water resources in the region and have led to a re-evaluation of water management plans and budgeting schemes between nations. In order to utilize the existing resources more efficiently, it is necessary that all nations within the MENA have access to optimal estimates of hydrological states and fluxes relevant to water resources. However, the region is poorly monitored due to trans-boundary issues and sparse in situ networks. This presentation will introduce a methodology and implementation strategy envisaged to achieve these goals through the development of a Land Data Assimilation System designed specifically for the Arab region (ALDAS). The ALDAS optimally merges available in situ data with satellite-based estimates of meteorological variables including data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) within a land surface modeling framework. As a result of this effort, a platform for data sharing among MENA nations is being prepared to provide timely regional estimates of hydrological states and fluxes at 1/8th degree resolution. To be discussed will be development and status of the land data assimilation system, and preliminary results from land surface model simulations over the region.

  9. GPS-based certification for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Wu, S. C.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    An MLS (microwave landing system) certification system based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. To determine the position history of the flight inspection aircraft during runway approach, signals from the GPS satellites, together with on-board radar altimetry, are used. It is shown that the aircraft position relative to a fixed point on the runway at threshold can be determined to about 30 cm vertically and 1 m horizontally. A requirement of the system is that the GPS receivers be placed on each flight inspection aircraft and at selected ground sites. The effects of different error sources on the determination of aircraft instantaneous position and its dynamics are analyzed.

  10. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of southern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. This study examined land cover changes during 1990-2008 to characterize and quantify the transformations in the typical oasis of Hotan. Land cover classifications of these images were performed based on the supervised classification scheme integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes. Change-detection techniques in remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to quantify temporal and spatial dynamics of land cover changes. The overall accuracies, Kappa coefficients, and average annual increase rate or decrease rate of land cover classes were calculated to assess classification results and changing rate of land cover. The analysis revealed that major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone, which led to accelerated soil salinization and plant deterioration within the oasis. These changes were mainly attributed to the intensified human activities. The results indicated that the newly created agricultural land along the margins of the Hotan oasis could result in more potential areas of land degradation. If no effective measures are taken against the deterioration of the oasis environment, soil erosion caused by land cover change may proceed. The trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone may lead to potential risks to the eco-environment of the Hotan oasis over the next decades.

  11. Implementation of Sentinel-2 Data in the M4Land System for the Generation of Continuous Information Products in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, P.; Schlenz, F.; Hank, T.; Migdall, S.; Weiß, I.; Danner, M.; Bach, H.; Mauser, W.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis system developed in the frame of the M4Land project (Model based, Multi-temporal, Multi scale and Multi sensorial retrieval of continuous land management information) has proven its capabilities of classifying crop type and creating products on the intensity of agricultural production using optical remote sensing data from Landsat and RapidEye. In this study, Sentinel-2 data is used for the first time together with Landsat 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI data within the M4Land analysis system to derive continuously crop type and the agricultural intensity of fields in an area north of Munich, Germany and the year 2015.

  12. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Kempler, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and indicator data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. The NCA-LDAS data will be archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp, THREDDS, Mirador search and download, and Giovanni visualization and analysis system.

  13. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [compatibility of land use classification system with computer processing techniques employed for land use mapping from ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  15. Analyses of Landing Mechanics in Division I Athletes Using the Landing Error Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    James, Joan; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Caswell, Shane V.; Onate, James; Cortes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be detrimental to any athlete, having both short- and long-term health consequences. Examining preseason screening landing mechanics can indicate the likelihood of injury during the season. Furthermore, previous injury is also commonly referred as a predisposing factor for reinjury. Hypothesis: Players with a history of lower extremity injury would have higher Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores than those with no previous injury, and healthy soccer athletes who sustained an injury during the 2014 season would have higher LESS scores than those who remained uninjured. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-four Division I male and female soccer athletes (19 men, 15 women; mean age, 19.6 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 172.4 ± 8.7 cm; mean weight, 70.8 ± 9.1 kg). An a priori sample size estimation for a power of 0.80 (80%) and an alpha error of 0.05 with an estimated effect size of 0.6 for a sample of 30 participants was attained. Participants performed a drop-landing task and were scored on their landing mechanics using the LESS. Lower extremity injuries were tracked during the season. LESS scores between those with and without a history of injury and those who were injured and uninjured during the season were compared using 2 separate 1-way analyses of variance. Results: No statistically significant differences (F1,33 = 0.47, P = 0.50) existed between LESS scores in athletes who had a previous injury history compared with those with no injury history. No statistically significant differences (F1,20 = 0.05, P = 0.83) existed between LESS scores in healthy athletes who were injured during the 2014 season compared with those healthy athletes who were uninjured. Conclusion: No differences were present between athletes with and without a history of lower extremity injury. The majority of healthy participants who were injured during the season had similar LESS

  16. Equivalent System Verification and Evaluation of Augmentation Effects on Fighter Approach and Landing Flying Qualities. Volume 2. Program Plan, Test Data and Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    PITCH ATTITUDE INITIAL RESPONSE, RESPONSE TO INPUTS PREDICTABILITY OF FINAL RESPONSE- orbe. REqgIRED TO PEFR K: ANY SPECIAL PILOT INPUTS? - ANY...Low Order System (Los) FREDUENCY C RN/ ICC ) Control System P1 (HOs) E. EY PW,3 01.1 Tie I Vtsuwe D-12 Anlytical dwircterstleu - Fitah late k.spiss ad

  17. Olive production systems on sloping land: prospects and scenarios.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, Jan; Duran Zuazo, Victor-Hugo; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the EU Olivero project was to improve the quality of life of the rural population and to assure the sustainable use of the natural resources of land and water in the sloping and mountainous olive production systems (SMOPS) areas in Southern Europe. One specific objective was to develop, with end-users, alternative future scenarios for olive orchards in the five Olivero target areas. This paper discusses the development of these scenarios, and their socio-economic and environmental effects. After presenting the different production systems (SMOPS) and their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, a general overview is given of the medium- and long-term prospects. These have been validated by experts from the olive sector and foresee changes towards abandonment, intensification and organic production. On balance, the changes could lead to lower production of some target areas in future. An analysis of major external factors affecting the future development of SMOPS indicates there will be labour shortages and increased wage rates, reduced subsidies and constant or rising olive oil prices. On the basis of these assumptions, four future scenarios are developed for the five target areas, with the help of a Linear Programming simulation model. The results are presented for two target areas. For the Trás-os-Montes target area in Portugal, three of the four tested scenarios point to a high level of abandonment, while in the most positive scenario the areas under semi-intensive low input and organic SMOPS increase. In the Granada and Jaen target area in Spain, all scenarios hint at intensification, and only the orchards on the steepest slopes are likely to be abandoned. The direction and extent of environmental effects (erosion, fire risk, pollution, water use and biodiversity) differ per scenario, as do the extent of cross-compliance and agri-environmental measures.

  18. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Martin, Susana

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface. Our development and assessments show clearly that this kind of inflatable technology originally developed for the Martian atmosphere, is feasible for use by Earth entry and descent applications. The preliminary results are highly promising indicating that the current Mars probe design could be used as it is for the Earth. According tp our analyses, the higher atmospheric pressure at an altitude of 12 km and less requires an additional pressurizing device for the in atable system increasing the entry mass by approximately 2 kg. These analyses involved the calculation of 120 different atmospheric entry and descent trajectories. The analysis of the existing technologies and current trends have indicated that the kind of inflatable technology pursued by RITD has high potential to enhance the European space technology expertise. This kind of technology is clearly feasible for utilization by Earth entry and descent applications.

  19. 75 FR 41886 - Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... States mining laws for a period of 20 years on behalf of the United States Forest Service to protect the...-775-6257. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Forest Service will manage the land to protect... made of National Forest System land, to protect the Inyan Kara area of the Black Hills National...

  20. Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.

  1. Assessing land-use history for reporting on cropland dynamics - A case study using the Land-Parcel Identification System in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; González, Ainhoa; Jones, Michael; O'Brien, Phillip; Stout, Jane C.; Green, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In developed countries, cropland and grassland conversions and management can be a major factor in Land Use and Land Use Change (LULUC) related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) dynamics. Depending on land use, management and factors such as soil properties land can either act as source or sink for GHGs. Currently many countries depend on national statistics combined with socio-economic modelling to assess current land use as well as inter-annual changes. This potentially introduces a bias as it neither provides information on direct land- use change trajectories nor spatially explicit information to assess the environmental context. In order to improve reporting countries are shifting towards high resolution spatial datasets. In this case study, we used the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), a pan-European geographical database developed to assist farmers and authorities with agricultural subsidies, to analyse cropland dynamics in Ireland. The database offer high spatial resolution and is updated annually. Generally Ireland is considered grassland dominated with 90 % of its agricultural area under permanent grassland, and only a small area dedicated to cropland. However an in-depth analysis of the LPIS for the years 2000 to 2012 showed strong underlying dynamics. While the annual area reported as cropland remained relatively constant at 3752.3 ± 542.3 km2, the area of permanent cropland was only 1251.9 km2. Reversely, the area that was reported as cropland for at least one year during the timeframe was 7373.4 km2, revealing a significantly higher area with cropland history than annual statistics would suggest. Furthermore, the analysis showed that one quarter of the land converting from or to cropland will return to the previous land use within a year. To demonstrate potential policy impact, we assessed cropland/grassland dynamics from the 2008 to 2012 commitment period using (a) annual statistics, and (b) data including land use history derived from LPIS. Under

  2. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include

  3. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means...

  4. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...

  5. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...

  6. A satellite system for land-mobile communications in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.

  7. Peripheral Jet Air Cushion Landing System Spanloader Aircraft. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    the Lockheed-Georgia Company attempted to solve the airport problem by use of a pressurized, trunk- type , air- cushi* landing system (ACLS) on its...which result from span distributed load type aircraft. To accomplish this objective the following study steps are performed: 1) A revised Spanloader...The fan performance characteristics, which are shown on Figure 25, were estimated by sealing an off-the-shelf Industrial type fan in accordance with

  8. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  9. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  10. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, P.J.; Kohley, T.W.; Oakleaf, J.

    2000-01-01

    Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

  11. Resource analysis and land use planning with space and high altitude photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1972-01-01

    Photographic scales providing resource data for decision making processes of land use and a legend system for barren lands, water resources, natural vegetation, agricultural, urban, and industrial lands in hierarchical framework are applied to various remote sensing techniques. Two natural vegetation resource and land use maps for a major portion of Maricopa County, Arizona are also produced.

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  13. Land use change analysis of Beykoz-Istanbul by means of satellite images and GIS.

    PubMed

    Musaoglu, N; Coskun, M; Kocabas, V

    2005-01-01

    Management and planning of the natural environment requires spatially accurate and timely information on land use patterns. With repetitive satellite coverage, the rapid evolution of computer technology and the integration of satellite and spatial data, the development of land use applications have become ubiquitous. The integration of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been widely applied and recognized as a powerful and effective tool in detecting land use change in urban areas. This paper presents the land use change analysis of the Beykoz region, which is the second largest administrative district of Istanbul. Land use changes and their impacts are monitored using Landsat (MSS - TM) and Spot 5 satellite data in the period of 1975-2001. The independent classification of each satellite image was used as a change analysis method and the resulting images were analyzed with GIS techniques. The results showed that forest area of Beykoz decreased from 80.55% to 70.5% between 1975 and 1984 and during the 1984-2001 periods, the forested area decreased from 70.5% to 68.86% and the urban growth rate was 4.65%.

  14. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Roger; Chavarría, Juan B

    2004-12-01

    Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica's Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA). Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters) artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ) Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1) with a seasonal component of the Yt = lamda(t-1) + gammaS12 + a(t) type.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  16. Assessing and monitoring the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, using spectral mixture analysis and Landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2016-07-01

    The fall of the communist regime in Romania at the end of 1989 and the ensuing transition to the market economy brought about many changes in the use of agricultural land. These changes combined with the action of climatic factors led, in most cases, to negative effects increasing the risk of degradation of agricultural land. This study aims to assess and monitor the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, for the period 1988-2011 using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). Each satellite image was classified through the Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) method; then, on the basis of certain threshold values, we obtained maps of land degradation and maps showing the passage from various classes of land use/land cover (LULC) to land degradation. The results indicate that during the intermediary periods there was an ascending and descending trend in the risk of land degradation determined by the interaction of climatic factors with the social-economic ones. For the entire period, the overall trend was ascending, the risk of land degradation increasing by around 4.60 % of the studied surface. Out of the climatic factors, high temperatures and, implicitly, drought were the most significant. The social-economic factors are the result of the changes which occurred after the fall of the communist regime, the most important being the fragmentation of agricultural land and the destruction of the irrigation system.

  17. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  18. Flight tests of IFR landing approach systems for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Peach, L. L.; Phillips, J. D.; Anderson, D. J.; Dugan, D. C.; Ross, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    Joint NASA/FAA helicopter flight tests were conducted to investigate airborne radar approaches (ARA) and microwave landing system (MLS) approaches. Flight-test results were utilized to prove NASA with a data base to be used as a performance measure for advanced guidance and navigation concepts, and to provide FAA with data for establishment of TERPS criteria. The first flight-test investigation consisted of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, using weather/mapping radar, operational pilots, and a Bell 212 helicopter. The second flight-test investigation consisted of IFR MLS approaches at Crows Landing (near Ames Research Center), with a Bell UH-1H helicopter, using NASA, FAA, and operational industry pilots. Tests are described and results discussed.

  19. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  20. Evolution of INMARSAT systems and applications: The land mobile experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staffa, Eugene; Subramaniam, Ram

    1993-01-01

    Inmarsat has provided mobile satellite communication services for land mobile applications for well over a decade. Having started with the Inmarsat-A voice and telex system, Inmarsat is committed to the evolution of services towards a global personal, handheld satellite communicator. Over the years, users have benefitted from the evolution of technologies, increased user friendliness and portability of terminals and ever decreasing cost of operations. This paper describes the various present systems, their characteristics and applications, and outlines their contributions in the evolution towards the personal global communicator.

  1. Evolution of INMARSAT systems and applications: The land mobile experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffa, Eugene; Subramaniam, Ram

    Inmarsat has provided mobile satellite communication services for land mobile applications for well over a decade. Having started with the Inmarsat-A voice and telex system, Inmarsat is committed to the evolution of services towards a global personal, handheld satellite communicator. Over the years, users have benefitted from the evolution of technologies, increased user friendliness and portability of terminals and ever decreasing cost of operations. This paper describes the various present systems, their characteristics and applications, and outlines their contributions in the evolution towards the personal global communicator.

  2. Improved Modeling of Land-Atmosphere Interactions using a Coupled Version of WRF with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Lapenta, William M.; Petars-Lidard, Christa D.

    2007-01-01

    The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many hydrometeorological processes. Accurate and high-resolution representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), vegetation, soil temperature and moisture content, and ground fluxes are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of weather and climate phenomena. The NASA/NWS Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center is currently investigating the potential benefits of assimilating high-resolution datasets derived from the NASA moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS). The LIS is a software framework that integrates satellite and ground-based observational and modeled data along with multiple land surface models (LSMs) and advanced computing tools to accurately characterize land surface states and fluxes. The LIS can be run uncoupled to provide a high-resolution land surface initial condition, and can also be run in a coupled mode with WRF to integrate surface and soil quantities using any of the LSMs available in LIS. The LIS also includes the ability to optimize the initialization of surface and soil variables by tuning the spin-up time period and atmospheric forcing parameters, which cannot be done in the standard WRF. Among the datasets available from MODIS, a leaf-area index field and composite SST analysis are used to improve the lower boundary and initial conditions to the LIS/WRF coupled model over both land and water. Experiments will be conducted to measure the potential benefits from using the coupled LIS/WRF model over the Florida peninsula during May 2004. This month experienced relatively benign weather conditions, which will allow the experiments to focus on the local and mesoscale

  3. 43 CFR 3140.7 - Lands within the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands within the National Park System... Lands within the National Park System. Conversions of existing oil and gas leases and valid claims based on mineral locations to combined hydrocarbon leases within units of the National Park System shall...

  4. Automated On-board Terrain Analysis for Precision Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in space robotics technology hinge to a large extent upon the development and deployment of sophisticated new vision-based methods for automated in-space mission operations and scientific survey. To this end, we have developed a new concept for automated terrain analysis that is based upon a generic image enhancement platform-multi-scale Retinex (MSR) and visual servo (VS) processing. This pre-conditioning with the MSR and the VS produces a "canonical" visual representation that is largely independent of lighting variations, and exposure errors. Enhanced imagery is then processed with a biologically inspired two-channel edge detection process, followed by a smoothness based criteria for image segmentation. Landing sites can be automatically determined by examining the results of the smoothness-based segmentation which shows those areas in the image that surpass a minimum degree of smoothness. Though the MSR has proven to be a very strong enhancement engine, the other elements of the approach, the VS, terrain map generation, and smoothness-based segmentation, are in early stages of development. Experimental results on data from the Mars Global Surveyor show that the imagery can be processed to automatically obtain smooth landing sites. In this paper, we describe the method used to obtain these landing sites, and also examine the smoothness criteria in terms of the imager and scene characteristics. Several examples of applying this method to simulated and real imagery are shown.

  5. Automated, on-board terrain analysis for precision landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in space robotics technology hinge to a large extent upon the development and deployment of sophisticated new vision-based methods for automated in-space mission operations and scientific survey. To this end, we have developed a new concept for automated terrain analysis that is based upon a generic image enhancement platform|multi-scale retinex (MSR) and visual servo (VS) processing. This pre-conditioning with the MSR and the vs produces a "canonical" visual representation that is largely independent of lighting variations, and exposure errors. Enhanced imagery is then processed with a biologically inspired two-channel edge detection process, followed by a smoothness based criteria for image segmentation. Landing sites can be automatically determined by examining the results of the smoothness-based segmentation which shows those areas in the image that surpass a minimum degree of smoothness. Though the msr has proven to be a very strong enhancement engine, the other elements of the approach|the vs, terrain map generation, and smoothness-based segmentation|are in early stages of development. Experimental results on data from the Mars Global Surveyor show that the imagery can be processed to automatically obtain smooth landing sites. In this paper, we describe the method used to obtain these landing sites, and also examine the smoothness criteria in terms of the imager and scene characteristics. Several examples of applying this method to simulated and real imagery are shown.

  6. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  7. Integrated Display System for Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.

  8. Systems-Dynamic Analysis for Neighborhood Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systems-dynamic analysis (or system dynamics (SD)) helps planners identify interrelated impacts of transportation and land-use policies on neighborhood-scale economic outcomes for households and businesses, among other applications. This form of analysis can show benefits and tr...

  9. Land Use Adaptation Strategies Analysis in Landslide Risk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chin-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2013-04-01

    In order to respond to the impact of climate and environmental change on Taiwanese mountain region, this study used GTZ (2004) Risk analysis guidelines to assess the landslide risk for 178 Taiwanese mountain towns. This study used 7 indicators to assess landslide risk, which are rainfall distribution, natural environment vulnerability (e.g., rainfall threshold criterion for debris flow, historical disaster frequency, landslide ratio, and road density), physicality vulnerability (e.g., population density) and socio-economic vulnerability (e.g., population with higher education, death rate and income). The landslide risk map can be obtained by multiplying 7 indicators together and ranking the product. The map had 5 risk ranges, and towns within the range of 4 to 5, which are high landslide risk regions, and have high priority in reducing risk. This study collected the regions with high landslide risk regions and analyzed the difference after Typhoon Morakot (2009). The spatial distribution showed that after significant environmental damage high landslide risk regions moved from central to south Taiwan. The changeable pattern of risk regions pointed out the necessity of updating the risk map periodically. Based on the landslide risk map and the land use investigation data which was provided by the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center in 2007, this study calculated the size of the land use area with landslide disaster risk. According to the above results and discussion, this study can be used to suggest appropriate land use adaptation strategies provided for reducing landslide risk under the impact of climate and environmental change.

  10. Landing impact studies of a 0.3-scale model air cushion landing system for a Navy fighter airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Thompson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine the landing-impact behavior of a 0.3-scale, dynamically (but not physically) similar model of a high-density Navy fighter equipped with an air cushion landing system. The model was tested over a range of landing contact attitudes at high forward speeds and sink rates on a specialized test fixture at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The investigation indicated that vertical acceleration at landing impact was highly dependent on the pitch angle at ground contact, the higher acceleration of approximately 5g occurring near zero body-pitch attitude. A limited number of low-speed taxi tests were made in order to determine model stability characteristics. The model was found to have good pitch-damping characteristics but stability in roll was marginal.

  11. An investigation of an active landing gear system to reduce aircraft vibrations caused by landing impacts and runway excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.; Li, Weiji

    2008-10-01

    A mathematical model is developed to control aircraft vibrations caused by runway excitation using an active landing gear system. Equations are derived to describe the integrated aircraft-active system. The nonlinear characteristics of the system are modelled and it is actively controlled using a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) strategy. The performance of this system and its corresponding passive system are compared using numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the impact loads and the vertical displacement of the aircraft's centre of gravity caused by landing and runway excitations are greatly reduced using the active system, which result in improvements to the performance of the landing gear system, benefits the aircraft's fatigue life, taxiing performance, crew/passenger comfort and reduces requirements on the unevenness of runways.

  12. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  13. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of

  14. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Mendeck, Gavin F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of

  15. Development of a microwave multilateration system for VTOL landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L., Jr.; Wheelock, S. L.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental microwave multilateration system has been developed by NASA to provide highly accurate position and velocity measurements during the approach and landing phase of VTOL aircraft. The system uses an angle modulated ranging signal to provide both range and range rate measurements between an aircraft transponder and multiple ground stations. Range and range rate measurements are converted to coordinate measurements, and the coordinate information is transmitted via an integral data link to the aircraft. This paper describes the development of the multilateration system and the associated digital signal processing techniques. Advantages and disadvantages of several processing techniques are discussed. The operation and accuracy of the system as determined from both analytical studies and flight experiments will be described.

  16. Development of land based radar polarimeter processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.

  17. Streamflow and water balance intercomparisons of four land surface models in the North American Land Data Assimilation System project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Dag; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Houser, Paul R.; Wood, Eric F.; Schaake, John C.; Robock, Alan; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Sheffield, Justin; Duan, Qingyun; Luo, Lifeng; Higgins, R. Wayne; Pinker, Rachel T.; Tarpley, J. Dan

    2004-04-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers about the multi-institutional North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project. It compares and evaluates streamflow and water balance results from four different land surface models (LSMs) within the continental United States. These LSMs have been run for the retrospective period from 1 October 1996 to 30 September 1999 forced by atmospheric observations from the Eta Data Assimilation System (EDAS) analysis, measured precipitation, and satellite-derived downward solar radiation. These model runs were performed on a common 1/8° latitude-longitude grid and used the same database for soil and vegetation classifications. We have evaluated these simulations using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured daily streamflow data for 9 large major basins and 1145 small- to medium-sized basins from 23 km2 to 10,000 km2 distributed over the NLDAS domain. Model runoff was routed with a common distributed and a lumped optimized linear routing model. The diagnosis of the model water balance results demonstrates strengths and weaknesses in the models, our insufficient knowledge of ad hoc parameters used for the model runs, the interdependence of model structure and model physics, and the lack of good forcing data in parts of the United States, especially in regions with extended snow cover. Overall, the differences between the LSM water balance terms are of the same magnitude as the mean water balance terms themselves. The modeled mean annual runoff shows large regional differences by a factor of up to 4 between models. The corresponding difference in mean annual evapotranspiration is about a factor of 2. The analysis of runoff timing for the LSMs demonstrates the importance of correct snowmelt timing, where the resulting differences in streamflow timing can be up to four months. Runoff is underestimated by all LSMs in areas with significant snowfall.

  18. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915... Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer responsibilities... standard for employee safety or employee protection from fire hazards in land-side facilities,...

  19. A parsimonious land data assimilation system for the SMAP/GPM satellite era

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilation systems typically require complex parameterizations in order to: define required observation operators, quantify observing/forecasting errors and calibrate a land surface assimilation model. These parameters are commonly defined in an arbitrary manner and, if poorly specified,...

  20. Advancing Our Understanding of the Impacts of Historic and Projected Land Use in the Earth System: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Brovkin, V.; Calvin, K. V.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Jones, C.; Pongratz, J.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Shevliakova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) are including increasingly comprehensive treatments of land use and land management, representing not only land cover change, but also land use in the form of prognostic crop and pasture models, irrigation, fertilization, wood harvest, and urbanization. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) is a new (proposed) satellite-MIP within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) that is designed to address the following main science questions: (1) What are the effects of land use and land-use change on climate (past-future)? (2) What are the effects of climate change on land-use and land-use change? (3) Are there regional land management strategies with promise to help mitigate and adapt to climate change? LUMIP will coordinate across existing land use change projects such as LUCID, AgMIP, GSWP3, Trendy, and LUC4C. LUMIP encompasses three major activities: (1) input and output data harmonization and standardization, (2) development of model metrics to assess ESM performance with respect to the impact of land use on climate and carbon cycling, and (3) design and execution of a concise set of land model and ESM experiments for assessment of the impacts of historic and projected land use on the climate system and to separate effects of fossil fuel vs. land use, biogeochemical vs biogeophysical processes, and land cover vs land management. Preliminary results from idealized model experiments will be presented.

  1. Spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural land-use intensity across the Western Siberian grain belt.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Insa; Broll, Gabriele; Trautz, Dieter

    2016-02-15

    The Western Siberian grain belt covers 1millionkm² in Asiatic Russia and is of global importance for agriculture. Massive land-use changes took place in that region after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the state farm system. Decreasing land-use intensity (LUI) in post-Soviet Western Siberia was observed on grassland due to declining livestock whilst on cropland trends of land abandonment reversed in the early 2000s. Recultivation of abandoned cropland as well as increasing fertilizer inputs and narrowing crop rotations led to increasing LUI on cropland during the last two decades. Beyond that general trend, no information is available about spatial distribution and magnitude but a crucial precondition for the development of strategies for sustainable land management. To quantify changes and patterns in LUI, we developed an intensity index that reflects the impacts of land-based agricultural production. Based on subnational yearly statistical data, we calculated two separate input-orientated indices for cropland and grassland, respectively. The indices were applied on two spatial scale: at seven provinces covering the Western Siberian grain belt (Altay Kray, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen) and at all districts of the central province Tyumen. The spatio-temporal analysis clearly showed opposite trends for the two land-use types: decreasing intensity on grassland (-0.015 LUI units per year) and intensification on cropland (+0.014 LUI units per year). Furthermore, a spatial concentration towards intensity centres occurred during transition from a planned to a market economy. A principal component analysis enabled the individual calculations of both land-use types to be combined and revealed a strong link between biophysical conditions and LUI. The findings clearly showed the need for having a different strategy for future sustainable land management for grassland (predominantly used by livestock of households

  2. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970... value (protection/rejuvenation of resources, improved visitor experience) to the park and...

  3. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970... value (protection/rejuvenation of resources, improved visitor experience) to the park and...

  4. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  5. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  7. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  8. A web-based system for supporting global land cover data production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gang; Chen, Jun; He, Chaoying; Li, Songnian; Wu, Hao; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) data production and verification process is very complicated, time consuming and labor intensive, requiring huge amount of imagery data and ancillary data and involving many people, often from different geographic locations. The efficient integration of various kinds of ancillary data and effective collaborative classification in large area land cover mapping requires advanced supporting tools. This paper presents the design and development of a web-based system for supporting 30-m resolution GLC data production by combining geo-spatial web-service and Computer Support Collaborative Work (CSCW) technology. Based on the analysis of the functional and non-functional requirements from GLC mapping, a three tiers system model is proposed with four major parts, i.e., multisource data resources, data and function services, interactive mapping and production management. The prototyping and implementation of the system have been realised by a combination of Open Source Software (OSS) and commercially available off-the-shelf system. This web-based system not only facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data and services required by GLC data production, but also provides online access, visualization and analysis of the images, ancillary data and interim 30 m global land-cover maps. The system further supports online collaborative quality check and verification workflows. It has been successfully applied to China's 30-m resolution GLC mapping project, and has improved significantly the efficiency of GLC data production and verification. The concepts developed through this study should also benefit other GLC or regional land-cover data production efforts.

  9. Analysis of continuous GPS measurements from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Several years of continuous data have been collected at remote bedrock Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Annual to sub-annual variations are observed in the position time-series. An atmospheric pressure loading (APL) effect is calculated from pressure field anomalies supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model loading an elastic Earth model. The predicted APL signal has a moderate correlation with the vertical position time-series at McMurdo, Ross Island (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) station MCM4), produced using a global solution. In contrast, a local solution in which MCM4 is the fiducial site generates a vertical time series for a remote site in Victoria Land (Cape Roberts, ROB4) which exhibits a low, inverse correlation with the predicted atmospheric pressure loading signal. If, in the future, known and well modeled geophysical loads can be separated from the time-series, then local hydrological loading, of interest for glaciological and climate applications, can potentially be extracted from the GPS time-series.

  10. Inferring non-point pollution from land cover analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Richard F.

    Best Management Practices (BMP's) in farming were found to significantly reduce agricultural non-point water pollution in Central Indiana. Through the implementation of systems of conservation tillage practices and structural measures at the farm level, reductions in runoff were achieved, thereby minimizing erosion and subsequent sedimentation and pollution of the surface water system. These conclusions resulted from a three and one-half year study entitled, ``The Indiana Heartland Model Implementation Project'' administered by the Indiana Heartland Coordinating Commission, involving cooperation and coordination of farmers, citizens, and a multi-agency, multi-disciplinary team comprised of four universities and numerous governmental agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded research, while the U.S. Department of Agriculture provided cost share monies for BMP implementation. A comprehensive geographically encoded computer-aided data base was constructed which included information on land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, soils, etc. Land cover map files were compiled through remote sensing including Landsat MSS digital data and low altitude color infrared aerial photography sources. This digital data base was suited for spatial and statistical analyses and transferred easily as input to Purdue University's ANSWERS Model for further watershed assessment. The ANSWERS Model is a distributed deterministic model which simulates the monitored reaction of subwatersheds to actual storm events. Through this model inferences were made as to the expected water quality improvements, given BMP's were implemented at critical areas for erosion throughout both watersheds.

  11. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  12. A long-term forecast analysis on worldwide land uses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Qi, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2006-08-01

    More and more lands worldwide are being cultivated for food production while forests are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. This paper aims to make a long-term forecast on land uses worldwide and provide the public, researchers, and government officials with a clear profile for land uses in the future. Data of land uses since 1961 were used to fit historical trajectories and make the forecast. The results show that trajectories of land areas can be well fitted with univariate linear regressions. The forecasts of land uses during the coming 25 years were given in detail. Areas of agricultural land, arable land, and permanent pasture land worldwide would increase by 6.6%, 7.2%, and 6.3% respectively in the year 2030 as compared to the current areas. Permanent crops land area all over the world is forecasted to increase 0.64% by 2030. By the year 2030 the areas of forests and woodland, nonarable and nonpermanent land worldwide would decrease by 2.4% and 0.9% against the current areas. All other land area in the world would dramatically decline by 6.4% by the year 2030. Overall the land area related to agriculture would tend to decrease in developed countries, industrialized countries, Europe, and North and Central America. The agriculture related land area would considerably increase in developing countries, least developed countries, low-income countries, Asia, Africa, South America, etc. Developing countries hold larger total land area than developed countries. Dramatic and continuous growth in agricultural land area of developing countries would largely contribute to the expected growth of world agricultural land area in the coming years. Population explosion, food shortage and poverty in the world, especially in developing countries, together caused the excessive cultivation of land for agricultural uses in the past years. Increasing agricultural land area exacerbates the climate changes and degradation of environment. How to limit the growth of human

  13. Surface Hydrology in Global River Basins in the Off-Line Land-Surface GEOS Assimilation (OLGA) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Yang, Runhua; Houser, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Land surface hydrology for the Off-line Land-surface GEOS Analysis (OLGA) system and Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) Data Assimilation System (DAS) has been examined using a river routing model. The GEOS-1 DAS land-surface parameterization is very simple, using an energy balance prediction of surface temperature and prescribed soil water. OLGA uses near-surface atmospheric data from the GEOS-1 DAS to drive a more comprehensive parameterization of the land-surface physics. The two global systems are evaluated using a global river routing model. The river routing model uses climatologic surface runoff from each system to simulate the river discharge from global river basins, which can be compared to climatologic river discharge. Due to the soil hydrology, the OLGA system shows a general improvement in the simulation of river discharge compared to the GEOS-1 DAS. Snowmelt processes included in OLGA also have a positive effect on the annual cycle of river discharge and source runoff. Preliminary tests of a coupled land-atmosphere model indicate improvements to the hydrologic cycle compared to the uncoupled system. The river routing model has provided a useful tool in the evaluation of the GCM hydrologic cycle, and has helped quantify the influence of the more advanced land surface model.

  14. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Jasinski, M. F.; Mocko, D. M.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. The resulting system, the NCA - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS), is a NASA contribution to the NCA. The outputs of the NCA-LDAS contribute to the development and evaluation of a suite of water indicators. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and validation data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. Currently released data include NCA-LDAS outputs from the Noah Land Surface Model version 3.3 (Noah-3.3) and Catchment Land Surface Model version Fortuna-2.5 (CLSM-F2.5) and the post- processed data sets for the routing variables. The NCA-LDAS data have temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively, of daily and 0.125x0.125 degree, covering North America (25N ~ 53N; 125W ~ 67W) and the period January 1979 to December 2012. The data files are in self-describing, machine-independent netCDF-4 format. The data contain a set of water- and energy-related Essential Climate Variables (ECV). The NCA-LDAS data are archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp (ftp://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/s4pa/NCA_LDAS), THREDDS (http://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/thredds/catalog.html), and Mirador search and download (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/). This presentation describes the main characteristics of the NCA-LDAS data and data services (access, subsetting, visualization, and analysis). The major differences between the NCA-LDAS data and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data are discussed

  15. Land-Based Mobile Laser Scanning Systems: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Arias, P.; Armesto, J.

    2011-09-01

    Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  16. a Study on the Improvement of Cadastral System in Mongolia - Focused on National Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkhbaatar, B.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    National land information system (NLIS) is an essential part of the Mongolian land reform. NLIS is a web based and centralized system which covers administration of cadastral database all over the country among land departments. Current ongoing NLIS implementation is vital to improve the cadastral system in Mongolia. This study is intended to define existing problems in current Mongolian cadastral system and propose administrative institutional and systematic implementation through NLIS. Once NLIS launches with proposed model of comprehensive cadastral system it will lead to not only economic and sustainable development but also contribute to citizens' satisfaction and lessen the burdensomeness of bureaucracy. Moreover, prevention of land conflicts, especially in metropolitan area as well as gathering land tax and fees. Furthermore after establishment of NLIS, it is advisable that connecting NLIS to other relevant state administrational organizations or institutions that have relevant database system. Connections with other relevant organizations will facilitate not only smooth and productive workflow but also offer reliable and more valuable information by its systemic integration with NLIS.

  17. Transforming Farming Systems on Public Lands in the EAA to Support Everglades Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Capece, John; Hanlon, Ed A.

    2010-01-08

    The public purchase of farmlands in the EAA provides an opportunity for transforming farming systems into truly sustainable systems and these can support the Everglades restoration efforts. The concept proposed in this presentation is that by reducing the yield intensity of farms and adding ecosystem services, public farm lands can serve both restoration and the economy more effectively and more efficiently. This working hypothesis will be evaluated by applying systems analysis approaches including life cycle analysis and embodied energy analysis. The rationale for pursuing new approaches ranges from the fact that climate change threats are global, not local, to the fact that eliminating Florida farms and moving production elsewhere yields no net ecological benefit. Historic water flow from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades is shown and the current concept of moving water explained. Southern Flow Way Plan 6 is explained and sustainable farming system in this newly acquired land presented. To determine if an EAA pulse-way strategy would work and meet the sustainability criteria requires integrated analysis of several systems - water budget, soil & water nutrient dynamics, prospects for new sugarcane varieties, soil subsidence and overall energy and carbon budget.

  18. A mini/microcomputer-based land use information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitz, R. N.; Keefer, R. L.; Britton, L. J.; Wilson, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System (MINIS), a data management system for land-use applications. MINIS is written nearly entirely in FORTRAN IV, and has a full range of conditional, Boolean and arithmetic commands, as well as extensive format control and the capability of interactive file creation and updating. It requires a mini or microcomputer with at least 64 K of core or semiconductor memory. MINIS has its own equation-oriented query language for retrieval from different kinds of data bases. It features a graphics output which permits output of overlay maps. Some experience of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Tennessee State Planning Office with MINIS is discussed.

  19. A land-potential knowledge system (LandPKS) based on local and scientific knowledge of land productivity and resilience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic assessment of land use change in drylands depends on understanding potential productivity, degradation resistance and resilience, all of which vary widely and are often ignored. Rapidly increasing demand, together with new technologies, migration and global capital mobility are driving dram...

  20. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  1. Safe landing area determination for a Moon lander by reachability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslantaş, Yunus Emre; Oehlschlägel, Thimo; Sagliano, Marco

    2016-11-01

    In the last decades developments in space technology paved the way to more challenging missions like asteroid mining, space tourism and human expansion into the Solar System. These missions result in difficult tasks such as guidance schemes for re-entry, landing on celestial bodies and implementation of large angle maneuvers for spacecraft. There is a need for a safety system to increase the robustness and success of these missions. Reachability analysis meets this requirement by obtaining the set of all achievable states for a dynamical system starting from an initial condition with given admissible control inputs of the system. This paper proposes an algorithm for the approximation of nonconvex reachable sets (RS) by using optimal control. Therefore subset of the state space is discretized by equidistant points and for each grid point a distance function is defined. This distance function acts as an objective function for a related optimal control problem (OCP). Each infinite dimensional OCP is transcribed into a finite dimensional Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLP) by using Pseudospectral Methods (PSM). Finally, the NLPs are solved using available tools resulting in approximated reachable sets with information about the states of the dynamical system at these grid points. The algorithm is applied on a generic Moon landing mission. The proposed method computes approximated reachable sets and the attainable safe landing region with information about propellant consumption and time.

  2. Application of Calspan pitch rate control system to the Space Shuttle for approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.; Chalk, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    A pitch rate control system designed for use in the shuttle during approach and landing was analyzed and compared with a revised control system developed by NASA and the existing OFT control system. The design concept control system uses filtered pitch rate feedback with proportional plus integral paths in the forward loop. Control system parameters were designed as a function of flight configuration. Analysis included time and frequency domain techniques. Results indicate that both the Calspan and NASA systems significantly improve the flying qualities of the shuttle over the OFT. Better attitude and flight path control and less time delay are the primary reasons. The Calspan system is preferred because of reduced time delay and simpler mechanization. Further testing of the improved flight control systems in an in-flight simulator is recommended.

  3. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Zvolanek, E.; Kuiper, J.; Carr, A.; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  4. Validation and Verification of the Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, M.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cetola, J.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization of land surface modeling can be clear upon considering the wide range of performance characteristics of numerical land surface models realizable through various combinations of factors. Such factors might include model physics and numerics, resolution, and forcing datasets used in operational implementation versus those that might have been involved in any prior development benchmarking. Of course, decisions concerning operational implementation may be better informed through more effective benchmarking of performance under various blends of such aforementioned operational factors. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) - a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community - and the land information system (LIS) Verification Toolkit (LVT) - developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) - have been adapted to the operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities in order to compare the performance of new land modeling and related activities with that of previous activities as well as observational or analyzed datasets. In this talk, three examples of adaptations of MET and LVT to evaluation of LIS-related operations at AFWA will be presented. One example will include comparisons of new surface rainfall analysis capabilities, towards forcing of AFWA's LIS, with previous capabilities. Comparisons will be relative to retrieval-, model-, and measurement-based precipitation fields. Results generated via MET's grid-stat, neighborhood, wavelet, and object based evaluation (MODE) utilities adapted to AFWA's needs will be discussed. This example will be framed in the context of better informing optimal blends of land surface model (LSM) forcing data sources - namely precipitation data- under

  5. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide.

  6. Assessment of land use and land cover change using spatiotemporal analysis of landscape: case study in south of Tehran.

    PubMed

    Sabr, Abutaleb; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Azarnivand, Hossein; Guinot, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, dust storms originating from local abandoned agricultural lands have increasingly impacted Tehran and Karaj air quality. Designing and implementing mitigation plans are necessary to study land use/land cover change (LUCC). Land use/cover classification is particularly relevant in arid areas. This study aimed to map land use/cover by pixel- and object-based image classification methods, analyse landscape fragmentation and determine the effects of two different classification methods on landscape metrics. The same sets of ground data were used for both classification methods. Because accuracy of classification plays a key role in better understanding LUCC, both methods were employed. Land use/cover maps of the southwest area of Tehran city for the years 1985, 2000 and 2014 were obtained from Landsat digital images and classified into three categories: built-up, agricultural and barren lands. The results of our LUCC analysis showed that the most important changes in built-up agricultural land categories were observed in zone B (Shahriar, Robat Karim and Eslamshahr) between 1985 and 2014. The landscape metrics obtained for all categories pictured high landscape fragmentation in the study area. Despite no significant difference was evidenced between the two classification methods, the object-based classification led to an overall higher accuracy than using the pixel-based classification. In particular, the accuracy of the built-up category showed a marked increase. In addition, both methods showed similar trends in fragmentation metrics. One of the reasons is that the object-based classification is able to identify buildings, impervious surface and roads in dense urban areas, which produced more accurate maps.

  7. A Summary of the Development of a Nominal Land Landing Airbag Impact Attenuation System for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tutt, Ben; Gill, Susannah; Wilson, Aaron; Johnson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Airborne Systems North America (formally Irvin Aerospace Inc) has developed an Airbag Landing System for the Orion Crew Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. This work is in support of the NASA Langley Research Center Landing System Advanced Development Project. Orion is part of the Constellation Program to send human explorers back to the moon, and then onwards to Mars and other destinations in the Solar System. A component of the Vision for Space Exploration, Orion is being developed to also enable access to space following the retirement of the Space Shuttle in the next decade. This paper documents the development of a conceptual design, fabrication of prototype assemblies, component level testing and two generations of airbag landing system testing. The airbag system has been designed and analyzed using the transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(RegisteredTradeMark). The landing system consists of six airbag assemblies; each assembly comprising a primary impact venting airbag and a non-venting anti-bottoming airbag. The anti-bottoming airbag provides ground clearance following the initial impact attenuation sequence. Incorporated into each primary impact airbag is an active vent that allows the entrapped gas to exit the control volume. The size of the vent is tailored to control the flow-rate of the exiting gas. An internal shaping structure is utilized to control the shape of the primary or main airbags prior to ground impact; this significantly improves stroke efficiency and performance.

  8. Towards a South Asia Land Data Assimilation System: first results for transboundary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Limaye, A. S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Bajracharya, B.; Shrestha, B. R.; Iceland, C.; Narula, K.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Doorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia faces a remarkably complex and diverse set of hydrologic stresses, including melting glaciers, variable snowpack, intensively utilized transboundary rivers, rapid groundwater depletion due to irrigation, flood and drought hazard, and rapidly changing land use/cover and climate conditions. The management and prediction challenges posed by these conditions are compounded by the sparseness of in situ monitoring sites, particularly in headwaters regions, and a lack of open sharing of hydrometeorological data across national boundaries. As a result, uncertainties in availability in a situation of rising demands are leading to increasing competing and exploitive use of a limited resource, being experienced at various scales. An open water information system for decision support is an absolute necessity. In order to provide an open and spatially complete water information system for decision support across the region, we are implementing a customized Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) designed to provide best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes across South Asia, both retrospectively and in near-real time. The LDAS merges advanced land surface models with satellite-derived and in situ observations. In the case of South Asia, multiple satellite-derived hydrological fields are relevant to complete water balance analysis, including precipitation from multiple sources (e.g., TRMM, CHIRPS, GPM), water storage anomalies from GRACE, thermal infrared evapotranspiration estimates, and snowpack characteristics from visible and microwave sensors. Each of these observation types can either be ingested to South Asia LDAS or used as an independent observation for comparison. Here we present the first results of this South Asian Land Data Assimilation System, with a focus on complete water balance analysis for selected river basins in South Asia.

  9. Activities of the Pilot Land Data System project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, J. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The University of Maryland's Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory submitted to NASA/Goddard an interim progress report on the work being conducted within its Pilot Land Data System IPLDS project. The Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory addressed the following tasks: (1) identify data types and data sources needed to describe the selected test sites in collaboration with Goddard's Hydrological Sciences Branch; (2) define the procedures necessary to access/acquire this data; (3) conduct meetings with the PLDS Systems Engineering Group to identify functional specification priorities for PLDS development; (4) assemble documentation on historical remotely sensed imagery and transfer of such information to the PLDS Data Management Group; (5) collect data identified by Goodard's Hydrological Sciences Branch for data set inventory in PLD; (6) develop a Workstation-PLDS system interface over high speed lines, (7) develop and test through a Phase 1 demonstration of a micro workstation to access PLDS; and (8) establish interdepartmental agreement of development of computer link for electronic access of water resources data from USGS.

  10. Land Management for Climate Change Mitigation and Geoengineering - Are Earth System Models up to the Challenge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the terrestrial models included in Earth system models simulate changes to the land surface from human activities. In the Community Land Model (CLM), for example, irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, soil tillage, wood harvesting, and numerous crop types are represented in addition to anthropogenic land-cover change (e.g., deforestation, reforestation, and afforestation). These land uses are included in the models because they have a strong influence on the hydrological cycle (irrigation), crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions (nitrogen fertilization, crop type), and carbon storage (wood harvesting, tillage). However, the representation of these processes in Earth system models is uncertain, as is the specification of transient changes from 1850 through the historical era and into the future. A more fundamental aspect of land surface models is the coupling of land and atmosphere through exchanges of energy, mass, and momentum. Here, too, anthropogenic activities can affect climate through land-cover change and land management. Eddy covariance flux tower analyses suggest that the land management effects are as significant as the land-cover change effects. These analyses pose a challenge to land surface models - How well do the models simulate the effects of land management (e.g., changes in leaf area index or community composition) on surface flux exchange with the atmosphere? Here I use the CLM and a new, advanced multilayer canopy flux model to illustrate challenges in model surface fluxes and the influence of land management on surface fluxes.

  11. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  12. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  13. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  14. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  15. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  16. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  17. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  18. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  19. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  20. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.212 Indian lands safety management system...

  1. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  2. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  3. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  4. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  5. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  6. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  7. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system...

  8. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  9. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  10. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  11. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  12. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  13. The NASA-Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Framework - Land Information System: Global Land/atmosphere Interaction with Resolved Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, Karen Irene; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2013-01-01

    The present generation of general circulation models (GCM) use parameterized cumulus schemes and run at hydrostatic grid resolutions. To improve the representation of cloud-scale moist processes and landeatmosphere interactions, a global, Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) coupled to the Land Information System (LIS) has been developed at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The MMFeLIS has three components, a finite-volume (fv) GCM (Goddard Earth Observing System Ver. 4, GEOS-4), a 2D cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, GCE), and the LIS, representing the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cloud processes, and land surface processes, respectively. The non-hydrostatic GCE model replaces the single-column cumulus parameterization of fvGCM. The model grid is composed of an array of fvGCM gridcells each with a series of embedded GCE models. A horizontal coupling strategy, GCE4fvGCM4Coupler4LIS, offered significant computational efficiency, with the scalability and I/O capabilities of LIS permitting landeatmosphere interactions at cloud-scale. Global simulations of 2007e2008 and comparisons to observations and reanalysis products were conducted. Using two different versions of the same land surface model but the same initial conditions, divergence in regional, synoptic-scale surface pressure patterns emerged within two weeks. The sensitivity of largescale circulations to land surface model physics revealed significant functional value to using a scalable, multi-model land surface modeling system in global weather and climate prediction.

  14. Assessing spatial uncertainties of land allocation using a scenario approach and sensitivity analysis: a study for land use in Europe.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Peter H; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hatna, Erez

    2013-09-01

    Land change model outcomes are vulnerable to multiple types of uncertainty, including uncertainty in input data, structural uncertainties in the model and uncertainties in model parameters. In coupled model systems the uncertainties propagate between the models. This paper assesses uncertainty of changes in future spatial allocation of agricultural land in Europe as they arise from a general equilibrium model coupled to a spatial land use allocation model. Two contrasting scenarios are used to capture some of the uncertainty in the development of typical combinations of economic, demographic and policy variables. The scenario storylines include different measurable assumptions concerning scenario specific drivers (variables) and parameters. Many of these assumptions are estimations and thus include a certain level of uncertainty regarding their true values. This leads to uncertainty within the scenario outcomes. In this study we have explored how uncertainty in national-level assumptions within the contrasting scenario assumptions translates into uncertainty in the location of changes in agricultural land use in Europe. The results indicate that uncertainty in coarse-scale assumptions does not translate into a homogeneous spread of the uncertainty within Europe. Some regions are more certain than others in facing specific land change trajectories irrespective of the uncertainty in the macro-level assumptions. The spatial spread of certain and more uncertain locations of land change is dependent on location conditions as well as on the overall scenario conditions. Translating macro-level uncertainties to uncertainties in spatial patterns of land change makes it possible to better understand and visualize the land change consequences of uncertainties in model input variables.

  15. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  16. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ebanyat, Peter; de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J; Bekunda, Mateete A; Giller, Ken E

    2010-07-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems' sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the

  17. An innovative land use regression model incorporating meteorology for exposure analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Brauer, Michael; Ainslie, Bruce; Steyn, Douw; Larson, Timothy; Buzzelli, Michael

    2008-02-15

    The advent of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS) has led to studies of chronic exposure and health effects based on the rationale that intra-urban variations in ambient air pollution concentrations are as great as inter-urban differences. Such studies typically rely on local spatial covariates (e.g., traffic, land use type) derived from circular areas (buffers) to predict concentrations/exposures at receptor sites, as a means of averaging the annual net effect of meteorological influences (i.e., wind speed, wind direction and insolation). This is the approach taken in the now popular land use regression (LUR) method. However spatial studies of chronic exposures and temporal studies of acute exposures have not been adequately integrated. This paper presents an innovative LUR method implemented in a GIS environment that reflects both temporal and spatial variability and considers the role of meteorology. The new source area LUR integrates wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover/insolation to estimate hourly nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations from land use types (i.e., road network, commercial land use) and these concentrations are then used as covariates to regress against NO and NO(2) measurements at various receptor sites across the Vancouver region and compared directly with estimates from a regular LUR. The results show that, when variability in seasonal concentration measurements is present, the source area LUR or SA-LUR model is a better option for concentration estimation.

  18. Seasonal-scale Observational Data Analysis and Atmospheric Phenomenology for the Cold Land Processes Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Gregory S.; Stamus, Peter A.; Snook, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) experiment emphasized the development of a strong synergism between process-oriented understanding, land surface models and microwave remote sensing. Our work sought to investigate which topographically- generated atmospheric phenomena are most relevant to the CLPX MSA's for the purpose of evaluating their climatic importance to net local moisture fluxes and snow transport through the use of high-resolution data assimilation/atmospheric numerical modeling techniques. Our task was to create three long-term, scientific quality atmospheric datasets for quantitative analysis (for all CLPX researchers) and provide a summary of the meteorologically-relevant phenomena of the three MSAs (see Figure) over northern Colorado. Our efforts required the ingest of a variety of CLPX datasets and the execution an atmospheric and land surface data assimilation system based on the Navier-Stokes equations (the Local Analysis and Prediction System, LAPS, and an atmospheric numerical weather prediction model, as required) at topographically- relevant grid spacing (approx. 500 m). The resulting dataset will be analyzed by the CLPX community as a part of their larger research goals to determine the relative influence of various atmospheric phenomena on processes relevant to CLPX scientific goals.

  19. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  20. Surface Temperature Assimilation in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Houser, Paul R.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is a global land parameterization that uses prescribed meteorology as forcing in order to determine regular gridded land surface states (temperature and moisture) and other properties (e.g. water and heat fluxes). In the present experiment, the assimilation of surface skin temperature is incorporated into the land parameterizations. The meteorological forcing was derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-3) Data Assimilation System (DAS) for the full year of 1998 GLDAS can use several land parameterizations, but here we use the Mosaic land surface model and the Common Land Model (CLM). TOVS surface temperature observations are assimilated into GLDAS. The TOVS observations are less frequent that observations used in previous experiments (ISCCP). The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the impact of the TOVS assimilation on both Mosaic and CLM. We will especially consider the impact of coarse temporal observations on the assimilation and bias correction.

  1. Dust in the Earth system: the biogeochemical linking of land, air and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgwell, Andy J.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the response of the Earth's climate system to anthropogenic perturbation has been a pressing priority for society since the late 1980s. However, recent years have seen a major paradigm shift in how such an understanding can be reached. Climate change demands analysis within an integrated 'Earth-system' framework, taken to encompass the suite of interacting physical, chemical, biological and human processes that, in transporting and transforming materials and energy, jointly determine the conditions for life on the whole planet. This is a highly complex system, characterized by multiple nonlinear responses and thresholds, with linkages often between apparently disparate components. The interconnected nature of the Earth system is wonderfully illustrated by the diverse roles played by atmospheric transport of mineral 'dust', particularly in its capacity as a key pathway for the delivery of nutrients essential to plant growth, not only on land, but perhaps more importantly, in the ocean. Dust therefore biogeochemically links land, air and sea. This paper reviews the biogeochemical role of mineral dust in the Earth system and its interaction with climate, and, in particular, the potential importance of both past and possible future changes in aeolian delivery of the micro-nutrient iron to the ocean. For instance, if, in the future, there was to be a widespread stabilization of soils for the purpose of carbon sequestration on land, a reduction in aeolian iron supply to the open ocean would occur. The resultant weakening of the oceanic carbon sink could potentially offset much of the carbon sequestered on land. In contrast, during glacial times, enhanced dust supply to the ocean could have 'fertilized' the biota and driven atmospheric CO2 lower. Dust might even play an active role in driving climatic change; since changes in dust supply may affect climate, and changes in climate, in turn, influence dust, a 'feedback loop' is formed. Possible feedback

  2. Dust in the Earth system: the biogeochemical linking of land, air and sea.

    PubMed

    Ridgwell, Andy J

    2002-12-15

    Understanding the response of the Earth's climate system to anthropogenic perturbation has been a pressing priority for society since the late 1980s. However, recent years have seen a major paradigm shift in how such an understanding can be reached. Climate change demands analysis within an integrated 'Earth-system' framework, taken to encompass the suite of interacting physical, chemical, biological and human processes that, in transporting and transforming materials and energy, jointly determine the conditions for life on the whole planet. This is a highly complex system, characterized by multiple nonlinear responses and thresholds, with linkages often between apparently disparate components. The interconnected nature of the Earth system is wonderfully illustrated by the diverse roles played by atmospheric transport of mineral 'dust', particularly in its capacity as a key pathway for the delivery of nutrients essential to plant growth, not only on land, but perhaps more importantly, in the ocean. Dust therefore biogeochemically links land, air and sea. This paper reviews the biogeochemical role of mineral dust in the Earth system and its interaction with climate, and, in particular, the potential importance of both past and possible future changes in aeolian delivery of the micro-nutrient iron to the ocean. For instance, if, in the future, there was to be a widespread stabilization of soils for the purpose of carbon sequestration on land, a reduction in aeolian iron supply to the open ocean would occur. The resultant weakening of the oceanic carbon sink could potentially offset much of the carbon sequestered on land. In contrast, during glacial times, enhanced dust supply to the ocean could have 'fertilized' the biota and driven atmospheric CO(2) lower. Dust might even play an active role in driving climatic change; since changes in dust supply may affect climate, and changes in climate, in turn, influence dust, a 'feedback loop' is formed. Possible feedback

  3. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desao, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2006-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the Stardust Mission Navigation Operations Phase upon final approach to Earth is described. In addition, how the predicted landing location and the resulting overall 99 percentile landing footprint ellipse obtained from a Monte Carlo analysis changed over the final days and hours prior to entry is also presented. The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area.

  4. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise

  5. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewczyński, D.; Tora, G.

    2014-08-01

    This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  6. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and...

  7. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...

  8. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...

  9. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...

  10. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...

  11. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and...

  12. 77 FR 50985 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... Forest System Land Management Rule. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System...

  13. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS...: (a) The BIA shall have a nationwide BMS for the federally and tribally owned IRR bridges that...

  14. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS...: (a) The BIA shall have a nationwide BMS for the federally and tribally owned IRR bridges that...

  15. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management...

  16. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...

  17. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...

  18. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  19. Analyzing the flared landing task with pitch-rate flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Yousefpor, Marduke

    1990-01-01

    A closed-loop handling qualities methodology is applied to an analysis of the flared landing task with pitch-rate flight control systems. A model of pilot behavior throughout approach and flare is developed which postulates the manner in which the pilot may move from pitch attitude to flight path angle control. Twenty-five configurations flight tested on the NC-131H Total In-flight Simulator aircraft are analyzed using a structural pilot model ad a handling qualities methodology previously reported in the literature. Closed-loop simulation of the simplified landing task is undertaken using the structural model. The pilot ratings from flight test extended the data base supporting the utility of a model-based handling qualities metric. A handling qualities sensitivity function is introduced which may have potential as a design tool.

  20. Retrieval of land parameters by multi-sensor information using the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gobron, Nadine; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Upcoming satellite constellations will substantially increase the amount of Earth Observation (EO) data, and presents us with the challenge of consistently using all these available information to infer the state of the land surface, parameterised through Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). A promising approach to this problem is the use of physically based models that describe the processes that generate the images, using e.g. radiative transfer (RT) theory. However, these models need to be inverted to infer the land surface parameters from the observations, and there is often not enough information in the EO data to satisfactorily achieve this. Data assimilation (DA) approaches supplement the EO data with prior information in the form of models or prior parameter distributions, and have the potential for solving the inversion problem. These methods however are computationally expensive. In this study, we show the use of fast surrogate models of the RT codes (emulators) based on Gaussian Processes (Gomez-Dans et al, 2016) embedded with the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) framework (Lewis et al 2012) in order to estimate the surface of the land surface from a heterogeneous set of optical observations. The study uses time series of moderate spatial resolution observations from MODIS (250 m), MERIS (300 m) and MISR (275 m) over one site to infer the temporal evolution of a number of land surface parameters (and associated uncertainties) related to vegetation: leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content, etc. These parameter estimates are then used as input to an RT model (semidiscrete or PROSAIL, for example) to calculate fluxes such as broad band albedo or fAPAR. The study demonstrates that blending different sensors in a consistent way using physical models results in a rich and coherent set of land surface parameters retrieved, with quantified uncertainties. The use of RT models also allows for the consistent prediction of fluxes

  1. A prototype Global Drought Information System based on multiple land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijssen, Bart; Shukla, Shrad; Lin, Chi-Yu; Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Droughts are pervasive natural hazards, which cause large economic losses and human suffering. While the absolute magnitude of these losses is greatest in the developed world, the relative impact is much higher in the developing world. Nonetheless, our ability to monitor and predict the development and occurrence of droughts at a global scale in near real-time is limited. This ability is of particular importance in estimating regional crop production and thus current and future prices of agricultural commodities, as well as the implementation of emergency measures in areas where the effects of drought threaten lives and livelihoods. We describe the implementation of a multi-model drought monitoring system, which provides near real-time estimates of soil moisture conditions for the global land areas between 50S and 50N with a latency of about one day. The system is an extension of similar systems developed by both the University of Washington and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction for use in the U.S. Drought Monitor. Global application of the protocols used in the U.S. systems poses new challenges, particularly with respect to the generation of meteorological forcings with which to drive the land surface models used in such a system. The global system we describe uses satellite-based precipitation (as contrasted with gridded station data in the U.S. systems) as well as temperature estimates based on global weather model analysis fields to track the evolution of soil moisture in near real-time at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree using multiple land surface models. By comparing the modeled, near real-time soil moisture values with the results from long-term retrospective simulations, the model estimates can be placed in historic context (as soil moisture percentiles) and used to monitor the development of droughts around the world. We evaluate the performance of our system for historic droughts, and compare with other drought analyses and analytical

  2. Top-down analysis of collated streamflow data from heterogeneous catchments leads to underestimation of land cover influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Peña-Arancibia, J. L.; (Sampurno) Bruijnzeel, L. A.

    2011-04-01

    Controlled experiments have provided strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation) can affect the water balance. However a similarly strong influence has not been detected in analyses of collated streamflow data from catchments with mixed land cover. We tried to explain this "land cover paradox" using streamflow observations from 278 Australian catchments, a "top-down" model (the Zhang formulation of the Budyko model); and a "bottom-up" dynamic hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model, AWRA-L). Analysis with the Zhang model confirmed the previously reported absence of a strong land cover signal. However, absence of evidence does not equate to the proof of absence, and AWRA-L was able to reconcile the streamflow data from the 278 catchments with experimental knowledge. Experiments were performed in which the Zhang model was used to analyse synthetic AWRA-L streamflow simulations for the 278 catchments. This demonstrated three reasons why the Zhang model did not accurately quantify the land cover signal: (1) measurement and estimation errors in land cover, precipitation and streamflow, (2) the importance of additional climate factors; (3) the presence of covariance in the streamflow and catchment attribute data. These methodological issues are likely to prevent the use of any top-down method to quantify land cover signal in data from catchments with mixed land cover. Our findings do not rule out physical processes that diminish land cover influence in catchments with mixed land cover, including atmospheric feedback associated with rainfall interception.

  3. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  4. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  5. The Land Potential Knowledge System: Application of earth observation data for sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africa is facing numerous challenges including a rapidly growing population, soil erosion, declining soil fertility and climate change. In the face of all these problems, the need to feed the growing population has led to expansion of land for agriculture and pasture production rather than increasin...

  6. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis, Phase 2 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL-Systems Analysis (SA) team that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable human and higher mass robotic missions to Mars. The findings, observations, and recommendations from the NESC are provided in this report.

  7. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) team, that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable higher mass robotic and human mission to Mars. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.

  8. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) team, that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable higher mass robotic and human mission to Mars. The appendices to the original report are contained in this document.

  9. Experimental and analytical studies of advanced air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, E. G. S.; Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Rutishauser, H. J.; Farley, H. L.; Fish, R. B.; Jeffcoat, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several concepts are developed for air cushion landing systems (ACLS) which have the potential for improving performance characteristics (roll stiffness, heave damping, and trunk flutter), and reducing fabrication cost and complexity. After an initial screening, the following five concepts were evaluated in detail: damped trunk, filled trunk, compartmented trunk, segmented trunk, and roll feedback control. The evaluation was based on tests performed on scale models. An ACLS dynamic simulation developed earlier is updated so that it can be used to predict the performance of full-scale ACLS incorporating these refinements. The simulation was validated through scale-model tests. A full-scale ACLS based on the segmented trunk concept was fabricated and installed on the NASA ACLS test vehicle, where it is used to support advanced system development. A geometrically-scaled model (one third full scale) of the NASA test vehicle was fabricated and tested. This model, evaluated by means of a series of static and dynamic tests, is used to investigate scaling relationships between reduced and full-scale models. The analytical model developed earlier is applied to simulate both the one third scale and the full scale response.

  10. Sustainability analysis of bioenergy based land use change under climate change and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Brouder, S. M.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Frankenberger, J.; Goforth, R. R.; Gramig, B. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability analyses of futuristic plausible land use and climate change scenarios are critical in making watershed-scale decisions for simultaneous improvement of food, energy and water management. Bioenergy production targets for the US are anticipated to impact farming practices through the introduction of fast growing and high yielding perennial grasses/trees, and use of crop residues as bioenergy feedstocks. These land use/land management changes raise concern over potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production scenarios, both in terms of water availability and water quality; impacts that may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. The objective of the study was to assess environmental, economic and biodiversity sustainability of plausible bioenergy scenarios for two watersheds in Midwest US under changing climate scenarios. The study considers fourteen sustainability indicators under nine climate change scenarios from World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and corn stover removal at various removal rates and their impacts on hydrology and water quality. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) developed to evaluate stream fish response to hydrology and water quality changes associated with land use change were used to quantify biodiversity sustainability of various bioenergy scenarios. The watershed-scale sustainability analysis was done in the St. Joseph River watershed located in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; and the Wildcat Creek watershed, located in Indiana. The results indicate streamflow reduction at watershed outlet with increased evapotranspiration demands for high-yielding perennial grasses. Bioenergy crops in general improved in-stream water quality compared to conventional cropping systems (maize-soybean). Water

  11. Analysis of coastal change in Marie Byrd Land and Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica, using Landsat imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, J.G.; Williams, R.S.; Rosanova, C.E.; Lucchitta, B.K.; Swithinbank, C.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is using Landsat imagery from the early 1970s and mid- to late 1980s/early 1990s to analyze glaciological features, compile a glacier inventory, measure surface velocities of outlet glaciers, ice streams and ice shelves, determine coastline change and calculate the area and volume of iceberg calving in Antarctica. Ice-surface velocities in Marie Byrd and Ellsworth Lands, West Antarctica, range from the fast-moving Thwaites, Pine Island, Land and DeVicq Glaciers to the slower-moving ice shelves. The average ice-front velocity during the time interval of Landsat imagery, for the faster-moving outlet glaciers, was 2.9 km a-1 for Thwaites Glacier, 2.4 km a-1 for Pine Island Glacier, 2.0 km a-1 for Land Glacier and 1.4 km a-1 for DeVicq Glacier. Evaluation of coastal change from the early 1970s to the early 1990s shows advance of the floating ice front in some coastal areas and recession in others, with an overall small average advance in the entire coastal study area, but no major trend towards advance or retreat. Comparison of average ice-surface velocities with changes in the ice front has yielded estimates of iceberg calving. The total iceberg calving from the Marie Byrd Land and Ellsworth Land coasts during the study period was greater than 8500 km2 (estimated volume of about 2400 km3) or an average of about 550 km2 a-1 (more than 150 km3 a-1). Almost 70% of this discharge is contributed by Thwaites and Pine Island Glaciers.

  12. Regional land salinization assessment and simulation through cellular automaton-Markov modeling and spatial pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Lin, Zhulu; Liu, Liming

    2012-11-15

    Land salinization and desalinization are complex processes affected by both biophysical and human-induced driving factors. Conventional approaches of land salinization assessment and simulation are either too time consuming or focus only on biophysical factors. The cellular automaton (CA)-Markov model, when coupled with spatial pattern analysis, is well suited for regional assessments and simulations of salt-affected landscapes since both biophysical and socioeconomic data can be efficiently incorporated into a geographic information system framework. Our hypothesis set forth that the CA-Markov model can serve as an alternative tool for regional assessment and simulation of land salinization or desalinization. Our results suggest that the CA-Markov model, when incorporating biophysical and human-induced factors, performs better than the model which did not account for these factors when simulating the salt-affected landscape of the Yinchuan Plain (China) in 2009. In general, the CA-Markov model is best suited for short-term simulations and the performance of the CA-Markov model is largely determined by the availability of high-quality, high-resolution socioeconomic data. The coupling of the CA-Markov model with spatial pattern analysis provides an improved understanding of spatial and temporal variations of salt-affected landscape changes and an option to test different soil management scenarios for salinity management.

  13. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  14. Dynamics of land change in India: a fine-scale spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiyappan, P.; Roy, P. S.; Sharma, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Ramachandran, R.; Joshi, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Land is scarce in India: India occupies 2.4% of worlds land area, but supports over 1/6th of worlds human and livestock population. This high population to land ratio, combined with socioeconomic development and increasing consumption has placed tremendous pressure on India's land resources for food, feed, and fuel. In this talk, we present contemporary (1985 to 2005) spatial estimates of land change in India using national-level analysis of Landsat imageries. Further, we investigate the causes of the spatial patterns of change using two complementary lines of evidence. First, we use statistical models estimated at macro-scale to understand the spatial relationships between land change patterns and their concomitant drivers. This analysis using our newly compiled extensive socioeconomic database at village level (~630,000 units), is 100x higher in spatial resolution compared to existing datasets, and covers over 200 variables. The detailed socioeconomic data enabled the fine-scale spatial analysis with Landsat data. Second, we synthesized information from over 130 survey based case studies on land use drivers in India to complement our macro-scale analysis. The case studies are especially useful to identify unobserved variables (e.g. farmer's attitude towards risk). Ours is the most detailed analysis of contemporary land change in India, both in terms of national extent, and the use of detailed spatial information on land change, socioeconomic factors, and synthesis of case studies.

  15. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS. (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...TECI-NICIAN jl. CCMPUTER SYSTEMS EVALLATOR ,13. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MANAGER 314. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MCNITOR A5o LCMPUTER TERMINAL OPERATOR j16. LCNFIGURATION...OPERATOR )27. DATA PROCESSING NCO )28. DATA PROCESSINIG TECHNICIAN 329e DATA SYSTEMS LIBRARIAN )35* DATA SYSTEMS OPERATICNS Cl-IEF 331. DATA SYSTEMS

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of the Land Surface Model NOAH-MP for Different Model Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thober, S.; Mai, J.; Samaniego, L. E.; Clark, M. P.; Mendoza, P. A.; Wulfmeyer, V. G.; Branch, O.; Attinger, S.; Kumar, R.; Cuntz, M.

    2014-12-01

    The land-atmosphere fluxes of water, energy and carbon, as computed by the Land Surface Model (LSM), are a critical component of Earth System Models and Numerical Weather Prediction models. Processes and parameters of LSMs are validated mostly against point measurements, for example from Eddy-covariance towers, with much attention given to biophysical processes and vegetation parameters. River discharge on the other hand is not considered very often although it provides an integrated signal of the hydrologic cycle over a catchment. Sensitivity analyses of hydrologic models have shown that soil parameters have then the largest impact on modeled river discharge. In this study, we quantify parametric sensitivities of the land surface model NOAH-MP simultaneously for model outputs at different spatial resolutions. NOAH-MP is a state-of-the-art LSM, which is used at regional scale as the land surface scheme of the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). NOAH-MP contains multiple process parameterizations (hence MP), yielding a considerable amount of parameters (> 500). Standard methods for sensitivity analysis such as Sobol indexes require too many model evaluations in case of many parameters. We therefore use first a recently developed inexpensive screening method based on Elementary Effects that has proven to identify the same informative parameters as the Sobol method but requires only 1% of model evaluations. This reduces the number of parameters to a feasible amount for a thorough sensitivity analysis. The study is conducted on twelve Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) catchments. This allows investigation of parametric sensitivities for distinct hydro-climatic characteristics, emphasizing different land-surface processes. The river basins range in size from 1020 to 4421 km^2, allowing fast model evaluation. The screening and sensitivity analysis identifies the most informative parameters of NOAH-MP for different model output variables

  17. Surface runoff estimation from various land use in Mapili Watershed using SCS Curve Number and Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malahayati Yusuf, Sri; Guluda, David; Jayanegara, Trisumitra

    2017-01-01

    Mapili watershed which is located in West Sulawesi is dominated by secondary forest and agriculture land. The condition of the watershed is affected by land use and soil type. Land use is a form of interaction between man and land in order to meet their needs. Soil is function from organism, climate, topographic, material, and time. This information then will affect the hydrological condition in the watershed, especially surface runoff. The objective of study is to analyze the surface runoff in Mapili watershed. SCS curve number method that integrates with geographic information system was used in the analysis. The highest surface runoff value is about 887.6 mm and the highest of surface runoff coefficient is about 0.31.

  18. Architecture of the global land acquisition system: applying the tools of network science to identify key vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, J. W.; Li Johansson, Emma; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2014-11-01

    Global land acquisitions, often dubbed ‘land grabbing’ are increasingly becoming drivers of land change. We use the tools of network science to describe the connectivity of the global acquisition system. We find that 126 countries participate in this form of global land trade. Importers are concentrated in the Global North, the emerging economies of Asia, and the Middle East, while exporters are confined to the Global South and Eastern Europe. A small handful of countries account for the majority of land acquisitions (particularly China, the UK, and the US), the cumulative distribution of which is best described by a power law. We also find that countries with many land trading partners play a disproportionately central role in providing connectivity across the network with the shortest trading path between any two countries traversing either China, the US, or the UK over a third of the time. The land acquisition network is characterized by very few trading cliques and therefore characterized by a low degree of preferential trading or regionalization. We also show that countries with many export partners trade land with countries with few import partners, and vice versa, meaning that less developed countries have a large array of export partnerships with developed countries, but very few import partnerships (dissassortative relationship). Finally, we find that the structure of the network is potentially prone to propagating crises (e.g., if importing countries become dependent on crops exported from their land trading partners). This network analysis approach can be used to quantitatively analyze and understand telecoupled systems as well as to anticipate and diagnose the potential effects of telecoupling.

  19. Application of scenario analysis and multiagent technique in land-use planning: a case study on Sanjiang wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan; Ni, Shi-Jun; Kong, Bo; He, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Jiang; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Pan, Xin; Xia, Chao-Xu; Li, Xuan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Land-use planning has triggered debates on social and environmental values, in which two key questions will be faced: one is how to see different planning simulation results instantaneously and apply the results back to interactively assist planning work; the other is how to ensure that the planning simulation result is scientific and accurate. To answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to analyze whether and how a bridge can be built between qualitative and quantitative approaches for land-use planning work and to find out a way to overcome the gap that exists between the ability to construct computer simulation models to aid integrated land-use plan making and the demand for them by planning professionals. The study presented a theoretical framework of land-use planning based on scenario analysis (SA) method and multiagent system (MAS) simulation integration and selected freshwater wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a case study area. Study results showed that MAS simulation technique emphasizing quantitative process effectively compensated for the SA method emphasizing qualitative process, which realized the organic combination of qualitative and quantitative land-use planning work, and then provided a new idea and method for the land-use planning and sustainable managements of land resources.

  20. Application of Scenario Analysis and Multiagent Technique in Land-Use Planning: A Case Study on Sanjiang Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shi-Jun; He, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Jiang; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Pan, Xin; Xia, Chao-Xu; Li, Xuan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Land-use planning has triggered debates on social and environmental values, in which two key questions will be faced: one is how to see different planning simulation results instantaneously and apply the results back to interactively assist planning work; the other is how to ensure that the planning simulation result is scientific and accurate. To answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to analyze whether and how a bridge can be built between qualitative and quantitative approaches for land-use planning work and to find out a way to overcome the gap that exists between the ability to construct computer simulation models to aid integrated land-use plan making and the demand for them by planning professionals. The study presented a theoretical framework of land-use planning based on scenario analysis (SA) method and multiagent system (MAS) simulation integration and selected freshwater wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a case study area. Study results showed that MAS simulation technique emphasizing quantitative process effectively compensated for the SA method emphasizing qualitative process, which realized the organic combination of qualitative and quantitative land-use planning work, and then provided a new idea and method for the land-use planning and sustainable managements of land resources. PMID:23818816

  1. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  2. Definition and testing of the hydrologic component of the pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, Robert M.; Sircar, Jayanta K.

    1987-01-01

    The specific aim was to develop within the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) software design environment, an easily implementable and user friendly geometric correction procedure to readily enable the georeferencing of imagery data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the NOAA series spacecraft. A software subsystem was developed within the guidelines set by the PLDS development environment utilizing NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Image Analysis Facility's (IAF's) Land Analysis Software (LAS) coding standards. The IAS current program development environment, the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE), operates under a VAX VMS operating system and was used as the user interface. A brief overview of the ICARUS algorithm that was implemented in the set of functions developed, is provided. The functional specifications decription is provided, and a list of the individual programs and directory names containing the source and executables installed in the IAF system are listed. A user guide is provided for the LAS system documentation format for the three functions developed.

  3. Seismic characterization of the Wasatch fault system beneath Salt Lake City using a land streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, B.; Liberty, L. M.; Gribler, G.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the active Wasatch fault system beneath downtown Salt Lake City by measuring p- and s-wave velocities and seismic reflection profiling. Our focus was on the segment boundary between the Warm Springs and East Bench faults. We collected 14.5 km along 9 west-east profiles in 3 field days using a 60 m aperture seismic land streamer and 200 kg weight drop system. From a p-wave refraction analysis, we measure velocities from 230-3900 m/s for the upper 20-25 meters. Shear wave velocities for the upper 30 m, derived from a multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) approach, show velocities that range from 100-1800 m/s. P-wave reflection images from the upper 100 m depth indicate offset and truncated (mostly) west-dipping strata (Bonneville Lake deposits?) that suggest active faults extend beneath the downtown urban corridor. We identify saturated sediments on the lower elevation (western) portions of the profiles and shallow high velocity (dry) strata to the east of the mapped faults. We observe slow p-wave velocities near identified faults that may represent the fault's colluvial wedge. These velocity results are best highlighted with Vp/Vs ratios. Analyzing shear wave velocities by NEHRP class, we estimate soft soil (NEHRP D) limited less than 1 m depth along most profiles, and stiff soil (NEHRP C) to up to 25 m depth in some locations. However near steep topographic slopes (footwall deposits), we identify NEHRP Class D stiff soil velocities to less than 2 m depth before transition to NEHRP Class C soft rock. Depth to hard rock (velocities >760 m/s) are as shallow as 20 m below the land surface on some steep slopes beneath north Salt Lake City and greater than our imaging depths along the western portions of our profiles. Our findings suggest large variations in seismic velocities beneath the Salt Lake City corridor and that multiple fault strands related to the Warm Springs fault segment extend beneath downtown.

  4. The Unparalleled Systems Engineering of MSL's Backup Entry, Descent, and Landing System: Second Chance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roumeliotis, Chris; Grinblat, Jonathan; Reeves, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Second Chance (SECC) was a bare bones version of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) flight software that ran on Curiosity's backup computer, which could have taken over swiftly in the event of a reset of Curiosity's prime computer, in order to land her safely on Mars. Without SECC, a reset of Curiosity's prime computer would have lead to catastrophic mission failure. Even though a reset of the prime computer never occurred, SECC had the important responsibility as EDL's guardian angel, and this responsibility would not have seen such success without unparalleled systems engineering. This paper will focus on the systems engineering behind SECC: Covering a brief overview of SECC's design, the intense schedule to use SECC as a backup system, the verification and validation of the system's "Do No Harm" mandate, the system's overall functional performance, and finally, its use on the fateful day of August 5th, 2012.

  5. Land use and land cover classification, changes and analysis in gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan E.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Elhaja, Mohamed E.; El Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2013-10-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. This research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The objective of the paper is to study the classification, changes and analysis of the land use and land cover in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State in Sudan. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season. The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Image classification (pixel-based) and accuracy assessment were applied. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use and land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% in the year 2007. The obvious changes and reciprocal conversions in the land use and land cover structure indicate the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. Also the study revealed that a drastic loss of forest resources occurred in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan during 1972 to 2007 (25% for Acacia senegal trees). The study concluded that, using of traditional Acacia senegal-based agro-forestry as one of the most successful form in the gum belt.

  6. Systems engineering and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, B.S.; Fabrycky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction to systems is provided and tools for systems analysis are considered, taking into account system definitions and concepts, approaches for bringing systems into being, models in systems analysis, economic analysis techniques, mathematical modeling and optimization, probability and statistics, queuing theory and analysis, and control concepts and techniques. The system design process is discussed along with the design for operational feasibility, systems engineering management, and system design case studies. Attention is given to conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development, system test and evaluation, design for reliability, design for maintainability, design for supportability, design for economic feasibility, communication system design, finite population system design, energy storage system design, and procurement-inventory system design.

  7. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the landing/deceleration subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, J. M.; Beaird, H. G.; Weissinger, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Landing/Deceleration Subsystem hardware. The Landing/Deceleration Subsystem is utilized to allow the Orbiter to perform a safe landing, allowing for landing-gear deploy activities, steering and braking control throughout the landing rollout to wheel-stop, and to allow for ground-handling capability during the ground-processing phase of the flight cycle. Specifically, the Landing/Deceleration hardware consists of the following components: Nose Landing Gear (NLG); Main Landing Gear (MLG); Brake and Antiskid (B and AS) Electrical Power Distribution and Controls (EPD and C); Nose Wheel Steering (NWS); and Hydraulics Actuators. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Due to the lack of redundancy in the Landing/Deceleration Subsystems there is a high number of critical items.

  8. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    spatial filters in a GIS (Geographical Information systems) to define regions of Mars where landing could be possible. We have used published geological maps of Mars to define areas that are of the appropriate age and integrated published catalogues of morphological indicators of standing water (e.g. delta-like landforms) and of layered terrains, and of the locations and spectral characteristics of minerals indicative of the action of water. Using this GIS we identified ~25 study areas that held promise scientifically, and into which one or more landing 'uncertainty ellipses' could be fitted without breaching the engineering constraints. For each of these, we obtained and processed imaging data (from the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 'CTX' instrument and the ESA Mars Express Orbiter 'HRSC' instrument), high resolution topographic data (again, from ESA's HRSC), and mineralogical data (based on infrared spectrometry data obtained by ESA's OMEGA instrument and NASA's CRISM instrument. Using these data we down-selected to five sites that had the highest potential and which, in some cases, had not been well-described previously in the peer-reviewed literature. At the time of writing, we are undertaking further geomorphological and mineralogical mapping of these sites, with the expectation of submitting 1-3 sites to ESA's ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group by the deadline set at end of February 2014. In this presentation we detail the GIS and terrain analysis element of the work we have done, and describe how the diverse data types and team abilities were harnessed to solve the challenging problem created by ExoMars' stringent scientific and engineering constraints.

  9. Landing Site Dispersion Analysis and Statistical Assessment for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Adams, Douglas; Craig, Lynn; Spencer, David A.; Strauss, William; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Arvidson, Ray; Heet, Tabatha

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander launched on August 4, 2007 and successfully landed on Mars 10 months later on May 25, 2008. Landing ellipse predicts and hazard maps were key in selecting safe surface targets for Phoenix. Hazard maps were based on terrain slopes, geomorphology maps and automated rock counts of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. The expected landing dispersion which led to the selection of Phoenix's surface target is discussed as well as the actual landing dispersion predicts determined during operations in the weeks, days, and hours before landing. A statistical assessment of these dispersions is performed, comparing the actual landing-safety probabilities to criteria levied by the project. Also discussed are applications for this statistical analysis which were used by the Phoenix project. These include using the statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of a pre-planned maneuver menu and calculating the probability of future maneuvers.

  10. Flight test evaluation of the Stanford University/United Airlines differential GPS Category 3 automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  11. Landing Characteristics of the Apollo Spacecraft with Deployed Heat Shield Impact Attenuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Landing Characteristics of the Apollo Spacecraft with Deployed Heat Shield Impact Attenuation Systems. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/4-scale dynamic model of the Apollo spacecraft command module using two different active (heat shield deployed prior to landing) landing systems for impact attenuation. One landing system (configuration 1) consisted of six hydraulic struts and eight crushable honeycomb struts. The other landing system (configuration 2), consisted of four hydraulic struts and six strain straps. Tests made on water and the hard clay-gravel composite landing surfaces simulated parachute letdown (vertical) velocities of 23 ft/sec (7.0 m/s) (full scale). Landings made on the sand landing surface simulated vertical velocities of 30 ft/sec (9.1 m/s). Horizontal velocities of from 0 to 50 ft/sec (15 m/s) were simulated. Landing attitudes ranged from -30'degrees to 20 degrees, and the roll attitudes were O degrees, 90 degrees, and 180 degrees. For configuration 1, maximum normal accelerations at the vehicle center of gravity for landings on water, sand, and the hard clay-gravel composite surface were 9g, 20g, and 18g, respectively. The maximum normal center-of-gravity acceleration for configuration 2 which was landed only on the hard clay-gravel landing surface was approximately 19g. Accelerations for configuration 2 were generally equal to or lower than accelerations for configuration 1 and normal. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030975. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  12. Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.

    2009-01-01

    EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

  13. Geostatistical Analysis of Population Density and the Change of Land Cover and Land Use in the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, I.; Lee, J.; Black, F. W.; Babamaaji, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in northeastern Nigeria is an important tributary of Lake Chad and has experienced significant changes in population density and land cover in recent decades. The present study focuses on the application of geostatistical methods to examine the land cover and population density dynamics in the river basin. The geostatistical methods include spatial autocorrelation, overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient, Moran's I index analysis, and indicator variogram analysis with rose diagram. The land cover and land use maps were constructed from USGS Landsat images and Globcover images from the European Space Agency. The target years of the analysis are 1970, 1986, 2000, 2005, and 2009. The calculation of net changes in land cover indicates significant variation in the changes of rainfed cropland, mosaic cropland, and grassland. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and Moran I index analysis showed that the distribution of land cover is highly clustered. A new GIS geostatistical tool was designed to calculate the overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient between the land use/land cover and population density datasets. The 10x10 neighborhood cell unit showed a clear correlation between the variables in certain zones of the study area. The ranges calculated from the indicator variograms of land use and land cover and population density showed that the cropland and sparse vegetation are most closely related to the spatial change of population density.

  14. Braking and cornering studies on an air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate several concepts for braking and steering a vehicle equipped with an air cushion landing system (ACLS). The investigation made use of a modified airboat equipped with an ACLS. Braking concepts were characterized by the average deceleration of the vehicle. Reduced lobe flow and cavity venting braking concepts were evaluated in this program. The cavity venting braking concept demonstrated the best performance, producing decelerations on the test vehicle on the same order as moderate braking with conventional wheel brakes. Steering concepts were evaluated by recording the path taken while attempting to follow a prescribed maneuver. The steering concepts evaluated included using rudders only, using differential lobe flow, and using rudders combined with a lightly loaded, nonsteering center wheel. The latter concept proved to be the most accurate means of steering the vehicle on the ACLS, producing translational deviations two to three times higher than those from conventional nose-gear steering. However, this concept was still felt to provide reasonably precise steering control for the ACLS-equipped vehicle.

  15. Global land information system (GLIS) access to worldwide Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Timothy B.; Goodale, Katherine L.

    1993-01-01

    The Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG) and the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) have encouraged Landsat receiving stations around the world to share information about their data holdings through the exchange of metadata records. Receiving stations forward their metadata records to the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) on a quarterly basis. The EDC maintains the records for each station, coordinates changes to the database, and provides metadata to the stations as requested. The result is a comprehensive international database listing most of the world's Landsat data acquisitions This exchange of information began in the early 1980's with the inclusion in the EDC database os scenes acquired by a receiving station in Italy. Through the years other stations have agreed to participate; currently ten of the seventeen stations actively share their metadata records. Coverage maps have been generated to depict the status of the database. The Worldwide Landsat database is also available though the Global Land Information System (GLIS).

  16. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...

  17. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...

  18. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...

  19. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...

  20. A role for AVIRIS in the Landsat and Advanced Land Remote Sensing Systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Simmonds, John J.

    1993-01-01

    As a calibrated imaging spectrometer flying at a 20 km altitude, AVIRIS may contribute to the Landsat and the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System efforts. These contributions come in the areas of: (1) on-orbit calibration, (2) specification of new spectral bands, (3) validation of algorithms, and (4) investigation of an imaging spectrometer of the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System.

  1. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... historical values of the structure. (d) For any bridge in the inventory or subset thereof, BMS reporting... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  2. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the BMS must meet the following requirements: (a) The tri-party partnership shall have a BMS for the FH...

  3. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... historical values of the structure. (d) For any bridge in the inventory or subset thereof, BMS reporting... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  4. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the BMS must meet the following requirements: (a) The tri-party partnership shall have a BMS for the FH...

  5. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  6. A causal analysis framework for land-use change and the potential role of bioenergy policy

    DOE PAGES

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Kline, Keith L.; Angelsen, Arild; ...

    2016-10-05

    Here we propose a causal analysis framework to increase the reliability of land-use change (LUC) models and the accuracy of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions calculations for biofuels. The health-sciences-inspired framework is used here to determine probable causes of LUC, with an emphasis on bioenergy and deforestation. Calculations of net GHG emissions for LUC are critical in determining whether a fuel qualifies as a biofuel or advanced biofuel category under national (U.S., U.K.), state (California), and European Union regulations. Biofuel policymakers and scientists continue to discuss whether presumed indirect land-use change (ILUC) estimates, which often involve deforestation, should be includedmore » in GHG accounting for biofuel pathways. Current estimates of ILUC for bioenergy rely largely on economic simulation models that focus on causal pathways involving global commodity trade and use coarse land cover data with simple land classification systems. ILUC estimates are highly uncertain, partly because changes are not clearly defined and key causal links are not sufficiently included in the models. The proposed causal analysis framework begins with a definition of the change that has occurred and proceeds to a strength-of-evidence approach based on types of epidemiological evidence including plausibility of the relationship, completeness of the causal pathway, spatial co-occurrence, time order, analogous agents, simulation model results, and quantitative agent response relationships.Lastly, we discuss how LUC may be allocated among probable causes for policy purposes and how the application of the framework has the potential to increase the validity of LUC models and resolve ILUC and biofuel controversies.« less

  7. A causal analysis framework for land-use change and the potential role of bioenergy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Kline, Keith L.; Angelsen, Arild; Dale, Virginia H.; Langeveld, Johannes W. A.; McBride, Allen

    2016-10-05

    Here we propose a causal analysis framework to increase the reliability of land-use change (LUC) models and the accuracy of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions calculations for biofuels. The health-sciences-inspired framework is used here to determine probable causes of LUC, with an emphasis on bioenergy and deforestation. Calculations of net GHG emissions for LUC are critical in determining whether a fuel qualifies as a biofuel or advanced biofuel category under national (U.S., U.K.), state (California), and European Union regulations. Biofuel policymakers and scientists continue to discuss whether presumed indirect land-use change (ILUC) estimates, which often involve deforestation, should be included in GHG accounting for biofuel pathways. Current estimates of ILUC for bioenergy rely largely on economic simulation models that focus on causal pathways involving global commodity trade and use coarse land cover data with simple land classification systems. ILUC estimates are highly uncertain, partly because changes are not clearly defined and key causal links are not sufficiently included in the models. The proposed causal analysis framework begins with a definition of the change that has occurred and proceeds to a strength-of-evidence approach based on types of epidemiological evidence including plausibility of the relationship, completeness of the causal pathway, spatial co-occurrence, time order, analogous agents, simulation model results, and quantitative agent response relationships.Lastly, we discuss how LUC may be allocated among probable causes for policy purposes and how the application of the framework has the potential to increase the validity of LUC models and resolve ILUC and biofuel controversies.

  8. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  9. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-07-01

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  10. An empirical analysis of land property lawsuits and rainfalls.

    PubMed

    Chou, Li-Chen; Fu, Chung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    This article using the database of Taiwanese land property lawsuits studies the economic effects of rainfalls on land property lawsuits during the period of Japanese colonial rule (1920-1941). The results obtained from basic ordinary least squares indicate that it shows no significant influences. However, an interesting result is that, when we adopt the approach of two stage least squares and use the variables of temperature and evaporation as the instrument variables of rainfalls, we find that there are highly significant influences on the lawsuits of land property. If 1 year comes with low average rainfalls, it means that the costs of productive inputs increase, because the available natural resource will decrease, and brings the distorted using of land property.

  11. Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

  12. The Environment Analysis in the CE-3 Landing Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, X.; Gao, X.; Yan, W.; Zou, X.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the environment and select detecting objects for the Yutu Rover, NAOC used the DEM and DOM data obtained by CE-2, geological data released by USGS, and high resolution image captured by CE-3 and LRO-NAC to analyze the topographical characteristic, geologic age, Geomorphological feathers and new dust distribution in two scale levels. The first level is 45km×75km, and another one is 4km×4km. The center of the study region is the CE-3 landing site (19.51°W, 44.12°N). The following is the initial conclusions: (1) CE-3 landed on a relatively flat region in the Mare Imbrium with an elevation of -2615m. The geological age of the landing site belongs to young Eratoshenian. 10km to the north of the landing site is the older Mare Imbrium stratum, and the location of the landing site is just on the intersection area of these two stratums. (2) The landing site lies on the edge of a lunar mountain with a decline tendency from west to east, and the topographic slope and roughness of the landing region is low, which is the typical characteristic of lunar mare. There is a big crater with diameter of 430 meters in the west of the landing site, and lots of stones in different colors on the rim of this crater, shown in the Figure2. (3) By comparing the images captured by LRO-NAC before and after the landing, much lunar dust was blown away by the engine plume during the landing of CE-3. The change scope is about 60m with from east-west and 135m length from south-north. The direction of landing is from south-north, so the length is larger than the width, shown in the figure 3. (4) In the initial stage, the Yutu Rover was suggested to move in south direction and late in north direction, which would get more scientific data and result.

  13. Validation of the Global Land Data Assimilation System based on measurements of soil temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Yingying; Yang, Kun; Chen, Deliang

    2016-04-01

    Soil temperature is a key parameter in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. It plays an important role in the land surface water and energy cycles, and has a major influence on vegetation growth and other hydrological aspects. We evaluated the accuracy of the soil temperature profiles from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) using nine observational networks across the world and aimed to find a reliable global soil temperature profile dataset for future hydrological and ecological studies. In general, the soil temperature profile data generated by the Noah model driven by the GLDAS forcing data (GLDAS_Noah10 and GLDAS_Noah10_v2) were found to have high skills in terms of daily, monthly, and mean seasonal variations, indicated by smaller bias and root-mean-square-error (RMSE) (both < 3 °C) and correlation coefficients larger than 0.90. Conversely, the Community Land Model (CLM) results (GLDAS_CLM10) generally showed larger bias and RMSE (both > 4°C). Further analysis showed that the overestimation by GLDAS_CLM10 was mainly caused by overestimation of the ground heat flux, determined by the thermal conductivity parameterization scheme, whereas the underestimation by GLDAS_Noah10 was due to underestimation of downward longwave radiation from the forcing data. Thus, more accurate forcing data should be required for the Noah model and an improved thermal parameterization scheme should be developed for the CLM. These approaches will improve the accuracy of simulated soil temperatures. To our knowledge, it is the first study to evaluate the GLDAS soil temperatures with comprehensive in situ observations across the world, and has a potential to facilitate an overall improvement of the GLDAS products (not only soil temperatures but also the related energy and water fluxes) as well as a refinement of the land surface parameterization used in GLDAS.

  14. Metallurgical analysis of fractured F-27 aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Witherell, C.E.

    1987-12-15

    The Materials Division of LLNL's Chemistry and Materials Science Department was asked to conduct a study of a fractured component of the main (starboard) landing gear on the F-27 aircraft (N768RL). The purpose of the study was to determine from metallurgical evidence the probable failure mode, its cause, and contribution to the recent landing incident at Livermore. 21 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. GIS-based Landing-Site Analysis and Passive Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Nass, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The increase of surface coverage and the availability and accessibility of planetary data allow researchers and engineers to remotely perform detailed studies on surface processes and properties, in particular on objects such as Mars and the Moon for which Terabytes of multi-temporal data at multiple spatial resolution levels have become available during the last 15 years. Orbiters, rovers and landers have been returning information and insights into the surface evolution of the terrestrial planets in unprecedented detail. While rover- and lander-based analyses are one major research aim to obtain ground truth, resource exploration or even potential establishment of bases using autonomous platforms are others and they require detailed investigation of settings in order to identify spots on the surface that are suitable for spacecraft to land and operate safely and over a long period of time. What has been done using hardcopy material in the past is today being carried by using either in-house developments or off-the-shelf spatial information system technology which allows to manage, integrate and analyse data as well as visualize and create user-defined reports for performing assessments. Usually, such analyses can be broken down (manually) by considering scientific wishes, engineering boundary conditions, potential hazards and various tertiary constraints. We here (1) review standard tasks of landing site analyses, (2) discuss issues inherently related to the analysis using integrated spatial analysis systems and (3) demonstrate a modular analysis framework for integration of data and for the evaluation of results from individual tasks in order to support decisions for landing-site selection.

  16. Bioenergy costs and potentials with special attention to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Dietrich, J.; Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Krause, M.; Beringer, T.; Gerten, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the coming decades, an increasing competition for global land and water resources can be expected, due to rising demand for agricultural products, goals of nature conservation, and changing production conditions due to climate change. Especially biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, is being proposed to play a substantial role in future energy systems if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements, land availability for biomass plantations, and implications for the land system. In order to explore the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low carbon transition with special attention to implications for the land system, we present a modeling framework with detailed biophysical and economic representation of the land and energy sector: We have linked the global dynamic vegetation and water balance model LPJmL (Bondeau et al. 2007, Rost et al. 2008), the global land and water use model MAgPIE (Lotze-Campen et al. 2008, Popp et al. 2010), and the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND (Leimbach et al. 2009). In this modeling framework LPJmL supplies spatially explicit (0.5° resolution) agricultural yields as well as carbon and water stocks and fluxes. Based on this biophysical input MAgPIE delivers cost-optimized land use patterns (0.5° resolution), associated GHG emissions and rates of future yield increases in agricultural production. Moreover, shadow prices are calculated for irrigation water (as an indicator for water scarcity), food commodities, and bioenergy (as an indicator for changes in production costs) under different land use constraints such as forest conservation for climate change mitigation and as a contribution to biodiversity conservation. The energy-economy-climate model ReMIND generates the demand for

  17. Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2011-08-01

    Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

  18. Massive land system changes impact water quality of the Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Rather, Mohmmad Irshad; Rashid, Irfan; Shahi, Nuzhat; Murtaza, Khalid Omar; Hassan, Khalida; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Shah, Irfan Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    The pristine aquatic ecosystems in the Himalayas are facing an ever increasing threat from various anthropogenic pressures which necessitate better understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of pollutants, their sources, and possible remedies. This study demonstrates the multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the multivariate statistical techniques, data from remote sensing, lab, and field-based observations for assessing the impact of massive land system changes on water quality of the river Jhelum. Land system changes over a period of 38 years have been quantified using multi-spectral satellite data to delineate the extent of different anthropogenically driven land use types that are the main non-point sources of pollution. Fifteen water quality parameters, at 12 sampling sites distributed uniformly along the length of the Jhelum, have been assessed to identify the possible sources of pollution. Our analysis indicated that 18% of the forested area has degraded into sparse forest or scrublands from 1972 to 2010, and the areas under croplands have decreased by 24% as people shifted from irrigation-intensive agriculture to orchard farming while as settlements showed a 397% increase during the observation period. One-way ANOVA revealed that all the water quality parameters had significant spatio-temporal differences (p < 0.01). Cluster analysis (CA) helped us to classify all the sampling sites into three groups. Factor analysis revealed that 91.84% of the total variance was mainly explained by five factors. Drastic changes in water quality of the Jhelum since the past three decades are manifested by increases in nitrate-nitrogen, TDS, and electric conductivity. The especially high levels of nitrogen (858 ± 405 μgL(-1)) and phosphorus (273 ± 18 μgL(-1)) in the Jhelum could be attributed to the reckless application of fertilizers, pesticides, and unplanned urbanization in the area.

  19. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting land cover change estimation by use of the National Land Cover Dataset and raingage network partitioning analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and developed an automated process for determining the area of the three land cover types, thereby allowing faster updating of future models, and for evaluating land cover changes by use of historical NLCD datasets. The study also carried out a raingage partitioning analysis so that the segmentation of land cover and rainfall in each modeled unit is directly applicable to the HSPF modeling. Historical and existing impervious, grass, and forest land acreages partitioned by percentages covered by two sets of raingages for the Lake Michigan diversion SCAs, gaged basins, and ungaged basins are presented.

  20. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement.

  1. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  2. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace the Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  3. An Extensible Global Land Data Assimilation System Based on NCAR's Community Land Model (CLM) and Data Assimilation Research Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kwon, Y.; Lin, P.; Zhao, L.; Hoar, T. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Toure, A. M.; Rodell, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land plays an important role in shaping regional and global climate and the water cycle. However, many of these processes are not well understood, which is largely due to the lack of high quality datasets. Over the past 5 years, we have developed a global-scale multi-sensor snow data assimilation system based on NCAR's Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) coupled to the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4); CLM4 can be replaced by CLM4.5 or the latest versions as they become available. This data assimilation system can be applied to all land areas to take advantage of high-resolution regional-specific observations. The DART data assimilation system has an unprecedented large ensemble (80-member) atmospheric forcing (temperature, precipitation, winds, humidity, radiation) with a quality of typical reanalysis products, which not only facilitates ensemble land data assimilation, but also allows a comprehensive study of many feedback processes (e.g. the snow albedo feedback and soil moisture-precipitation feedback). While initial findings were reported in the past AGU, AMS and GEWEX meetings, this paper will present comprehensive results from the CLM/DART with assimilating MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) snow cover fraction and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) terrestrial water storage. Besides our prototype snow data assimilation, the coupled CLM4/DART framework is useful for data assimilation involving other variables, such as soil moisture, skin temperature, and leaf area index from various satellite sources and ground observations. Such a truly multi-mission, multi-platform, multi-sensor, and multi-scale data assimilation system with DART will, ultimately, help constrain earth system models using all kinds of observations to improve their prediction skills from intraseasonal to interannual. Some preliminary results from using our snow data assimilation output in seasonal climate prediction will be presented as well.

  4. Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praveen

    Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence

  5. Land cover changes assessment using object-based image analysis in the Binah River watershed (Togo and Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badjana, Hèou Maléki; Helmschrot, Jörg; Selsam, Peter; Wala, Kpérkouma; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert; Afouda, Abel; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-10-01

    In this study, land cover changes between 1972 and 2013 were investigated in the Binah River watershed (North of Togo and Benin) using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Multitemporal satellite images—Landsat MSS (1972), TM (1987), and OLI-TIRS (2013)—were processed using object-based image analysis and post-classification comparison methods including landscape metrics and changes trajectories analysis. Land cover maps referring to five main land cover classes, namely, agricultural land, forest land, savannah, settlements, and water bodies, were produced for each acquisition date. The overall accuracies were 76.64% (1972), 83.52% (1987), and 88.84% (2013) with respective Kappa statistics of 0.69, 0.78, and 0.86. The assessment of the spatiotemporal pattern of land cover changes indicates that savannah, the main vegetation type, has undergone the most dominant change, decreasing from 67% of the basin area in 1972 to 56% in 1987 and 33% in 2013. At the same time, agricultural land has significantly increased from 15% in 1972 to 24% in 1987 and 43% in 2013, while some proportions of agricultural land were converted to savannah relating to fallow agriculture. In total, more than 55% of the landscape experienced changes between 1972 and 2013. These changes are primarily due to human activities and population growth. In addition, agricultural activities significantly contributed to the increase in the number of patches, degree of division, and splitting index of forest and savannah vegetations and the decrease in their effective mesh sizes. These results indicate further fragmentation of forest and savannah vegetations between 1972 and 2013. Further research is needed to quantitatively evaluate the influences of individual factors of human activities and to separate these from the impacts of climate change-driven disturbances.

  6. Development of automatic and manual flight director landing systems for the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in helicopter mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Hoh, R. H.; Jewell, W. F.; Teper, G. L.; Patel, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine IFR approach path and touchdown dispersions for manual and automatic XV-15 tilt rotor landings, and to develop missed approach criteria. Only helicopter mode XV-15 operation is considered. The analysis and design sections develop the automatic and flight director guidance equations for decelerating curved and straight-in approaches into a typical VTOL landing site equipped with an MLS navigation aid. These system designs satisfy all known pilot-centered, guidance and control requirements for this flying task. Performance data, obtained from nonstationary covariance propagation dispersion analysis for the system, are used to develop the approach monitoring criteria. The autoland and flight director guidance equations are programmed for the VSTOLAND 1819B digital computer. The system design dispersion data developed through analysis and the 1819B digital computer program are verified and refined using the fixed-base, man-in-the-loop XV-15 VSTOLAND simulation.

  7. An automated land-use mapping comparison of the Bayesian maximum likelihood and linear discriminant analysis algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Bayesian maximum likelihood parametric classifier has been tested against the data-based formulation designated 'linear discrimination analysis', using the 'GLIKE' decision and "CLASSIFY' classification algorithms in the Landsat Mapping System. Identical supervised training sets, USGS land use/land cover classes, and various combinations of Landsat image and ancilliary geodata variables, were used to compare the algorithms' thematic mapping accuracy on a single-date summer subscene, with a cellularized USGS land use map of the same time frame furnishing the ground truth reference. CLASSIFY, which accepts a priori class probabilities, is found to be more accurate than GLIKE, which assumes equal class occurrences, for all three mapping variable sets and both levels of detail. These results may be generalized to direct accuracy, time, cost, and flexibility advantages of linear discriminant analysis over Bayesian methods.

  8. Development and Flight Testing of an Autonomous Landing Gear Health-Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Coffey, Neil C.; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Brett, Rube R.; Woodman, Keith L.; Weathered, Brenton W.; Rollins, Courtney H.

    2003-01-01

    Development and testing of an adaptable vehicle health-monitoring architecture is presented. The architecture is being developed for a fleet of vehicles. It has three operational levels: one or more remote data acquisition units located throughout the vehicle; a command and control unit located within the vehicle; and, a terminal collection unit to collect analysis results from all vehicles. Each level is capable of performing autonomous analysis with a trained expert system. Communication between all levels is done with wireless radio frequency interfaces. The remote data acquisition unit has an eight channel programmable digital interface that allows the user discretion for choosing type of sensors; number of sensors, sensor sampling rate and sampling duration for each sensor. The architecture provides framework for a tributary analysis. All measurements at the lowest operational level are reduced to provide analysis results necessary to gauge changes from established baselines. These are then collected at the next level to identify any global trends or common features from the prior level. This process is repeated until the results are reduced at the highest operational level. In the framework, only analysis results are forwarded to the next level to reduce telemetry congestion. The system's remote data acquisition hardware and non-analysis software have been flight tested on the NASA Langley B757's main landing gear. The flight tests were performed to validate the following: the wireless radio frequency communication capabilities of the system, the hardware design, command and control; software operation; and, data acquisition, storage and retrieval.

  9. Statistics for Time-Series Spatial Data: Applying Survival Analysis to Study Land-Use Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ninghua Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional spatial analysis and data mining methods fall short of extracting temporal information from data. This inability makes their use difficult to study changes and the associated mechanisms of many geographic phenomena of interest, for example, land-use. On the other hand, the growing availability of land-change data over multiple time…

  10. Manifesting Destiny: A Land Education Analysis of Settler Colonialism in Jamestown, Virginia, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Globally, colonization has been and continues to be enacted in the take-over of Indigenous land and the subsequent conversion of agriculture from diverse food and useful crops to large-scale monoculture and cash crops. This article uses a land education analysis to map the rise of the ideology and practices of Manifest Destiny in Virginia.…

  11. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  12. Message handling system concepts and services in a land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barberis, S.; Settimo, F.; Giralda, A.; Mistretta, I.; Loisy, C.; Parmentier, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture containing the capabilities offered by the Message Handling System (MHS) to the PRODAT Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) is described taking into account the constraints of a preexisting satellite system which is going to become operational. The mapping between MHS services and PRODAT requirements is also reported and shows that the supplied performance can be significantly enhanced to both fixed and mobile users. The impact of the insertion of additional features on the system structure, especially on the centralized control unit, are also addressed.

  13. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  14. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : programmer's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, C. M.; Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  15. Some findings on the applications of ERTS and Skylab imagery for metropolitan land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work undertaken on a three-sensor land use data evaluation for a portion of the Phoenix area is reported. Analyses between land use data generated from 1970 high altitude photography and that detectable from ERTS and Skylab, especially in terms of changes in land use indicate that ERTS and Skylab imagery can be used effectively to detect and identify areas of post-1970 land use change, especially those documenting urban expansion at the rural-urban fringe. Significant preliminary findings on the utility of ERTS and Skylab data for metropolitan land use analysis, substantiated by evaluation with 1970 and 1972 ground control land use data are reported.

  16. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  17. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  18. The application of seismic risk-benefit analysis to land use planning in Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Chen, Liang-Chun

    2007-09-01

    In the developing countries of Asia local authorities rarely use risk analysis instruments as a decision-making support mechanism during planning and development procedures. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to enable planners to undertake such analyses. We illustrate a case study of seismic risk-benefit analysis for the city of Taipei, Taiwan, using available land use maps and surveys as well as a new tool developed by the National Science Council in Taiwan--the HAZ-Taiwan earthquake loss estimation system. We use three hypothetical earthquakes to estimate casualties and total and annualised direct economic losses, and to show their spatial distribution. We also characterise the distribution of vulnerability over the study area using cluster analysis. A risk-benefit ratio is calculated to express the levels of seismic risk attached to alternative land use plans. This paper suggests ways to perform earthquake risk evaluations and the authors intend to assist city planners to evaluate the appropriateness of their planning decisions.

  19. Surface Hydrological Load Displacements from the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO is currently developing forward displacement models from surface water stored in soil moisture, snowpack, and vegetation based on the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). UNAVCO already produces hydrological models from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), estimating the elastic loading from surface water at GPS coordinates for stations and processed by the GAGE Analysis Center. GLDAS incorporates satellite and ground observations into forcing parameters to be used for climate and weather models. The GLDAS forcing parameters include temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, wind, and pressure data at global 1º grid squares, excluding the oceanic surface. NLDAS uses the same set of forcing parameters but in an area restricted to the continental United States plus parts of Canada and Mexico and with a 0.125º grid. Research groups contribute Land Surface Models (LSMs) based on NLDAS or GLDAS to produce time series of modeled environmental parameters. Individual LSMs differ based on model equations and soil and vegetation properties. In this study we extract the parameters from the NLDAS LSMs to produce hydrologic displacement models at GPS station coordinates within the conterminous US. We check whether NLDAS displacement models can resolve regional variations due to topography that are smoothed in the GLDAS models. We compare the soil moisture, snowpack, and vegetation mass per area directly between the GLDAS and NLDAS LSMs, to see whether the mass variations between GLDAS and NLDAS are large enough to cause significant deformation changes. By comparing the hydrologic displacement models with GPS time series, we estimate how well the surface water loading predicts observed seasonal and secular GPS signals as opposed to tectonic signals. These comparisons will help us evaluate the NLDAS-derived displacement models as part of the process of developing a new model product for use in time series analysis, tectonic or hydrologic

  20. Land use impacts of low-carbon energy system transition - the case of UK bioenergy deployment under the Carbon Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.; Lupton, R.; Skelton, S.

    2015-12-01

    The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change has developed four low-carbon energy transition pathways - the Carbon Plan - towards achieving the legally binding 80% territorial greenhouse gas emissions reduction, stipulated in the 2008 Climate Change Act by 2050. All the pathways require increase in bioenergy deployment, of which a significant amount could be indigenously sourced from crops. But will increased domestic production of energy crops conflict with other land use and ecosystem priorities? To address this question, a coupled analysis of the four energy transition pathways and land use has been developed using an integrated resource accounting platform called ForeseerTM. The two systems are connected by the bioenergy component, and are projected forward in time to 2050, under different scenarios of energy crop composition and yield, and accounting for various constraints on land use for agriculture and ecosystem services. The results show between 7 and 61% of UK agricultural land could be required to meet bioenergy deployment projections under different combinations of crop yield and compositions for the transition pathways. This could result in competition for land for food production and other socio-economic and ecological land uses. Consequently, the potential role of bioenergy in achieving UK emissions reduction targets may face significant deployment challenges.

  1. Comparative analysis of algorithms for lunar landing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, B. I.; Likhachev, V. N.; Sazonov, V. V.; Sikharulidze, Yu. G.; Tuchin, A. G.; Tuchin, D. A.; Fedotov, V. P.; Yaroshevskii, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    For the descent from the pericenter of a prelanding circumlunar orbit a comparison of three algorithms for the control of lander motion is performed. These algorithms use various combinations of terminal and programmed control in a trajectory including three parts: main braking, precision braking, and descent with constant velocity. In the first approximation, autonomous navigational measurements are taken into account and an estimate of the disturbances generated by movement of the fuel in the tanks was obtained. Estimates of the accuracy for landing placement, fuel consumption, and performance of the conditions for safe lunar landing are obtained.

  2. A new satellite system for land mobile communications at EHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Marina; Valdoni, Francesco; Vatalaro, Francesco

    1990-10-01

    An architecture for a mobile satellite system proposed for integration with the pan-European GSM terrestrial cellular system is described. A cellular satellite system concept is outlined with emphasis on multispot coverage of the cell, and a carrier-to-interference analysis is performed. It is noted that a suitable payload structure is needed to allow the flexible management of the channels assigned to a certain cell, and a multiport transponder (MPT) payload architecture is introduced, where an MPT is a wideband transparent multibeam cell-transponder provided with an intrinsic soft-fail capability. A proposal for a comprehensive program encompassing an experiment including a propagation mission and a communication mission is discussed, and attention is focused on experiments with highly inclined orbit mobile-radio channels, statistical channel models, and mobile-terminal terrain antenna.

  3. Simulation of a Doppler lidar system for autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance during planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Scott E.; Chester, David B.

    2016-05-01

    The latest mission proposals for exploration of solar system bodies require accurate position and velocity data during the descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. During landing maneuvers, the accuracy of the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU) may not be reliable due to drift over extended travel times to destinations. NASA has proposed an advanced Doppler lidar system with multiple beams that can be used to accurately determine attitude and position of the landing vehicle during descent, and to detect hazards that might exist in the landing area. In order to assess the effectiveness of such a Doppler lidar landing system, it is valuable to simulate the system with different beam numbers and configurations. In addition, the effectiveness of the system to detect and map potential landing hazards must be understood. This paper reports the simulated system performance for a proposed multi-beam Doppler lidar using the LadarSIM system simulation software. Details of the simulation methods are given, as well as lidar performance parameters such as range and velocity accuracy, detection and false alarm rates, and examples of the Doppler lidars ability to detect and characterize simulated hazards in the landing site. The simulation includes modulated pulse generation and coherent detection methods, beam footprint simulation, beam scanning, and interaction with terrain.

  4. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  5. Decision Support Systems (DSSs) For Contaminated Land Management - Gaps And Challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plethora of information is available when considering decision support systems for risk-based management of contaminated land. Broad issues of what is contaminated land, what is a brownfield, and what is remediation are discussed in EU countries and the U.S. Making decisions ...

  6. Impact of agricultural land management systems on soil microbial diversity and plant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased diversity of fungal rDNA ITS-1 amplicons, as measured by the Shannon-Weiner index, was associated with land management practices that minimise soil disturbance (bahiagrass pasture and undisturbed weed fallow) when compared with organic or conventional land management systems. Diversity de...

  7. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General... mechanism and its supporting structure must be designed for maximum flight load factors with the gear retracted and must be designed for the combination of friction, inertia, brake torque, and air...

  8. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General... mechanism and its supporting structure must be designed for maximum flight load factors with the gear retracted and must be designed for the combination of friction, inertia, brake torque, and air...

  9. Land use planning and early warning systems for limiting drought impacts and promoting recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use planning and drought early warning systems both require an understanding of ecological potential and resilience, and how they vary across space and through time. A large body of literature and local knowledge has documented the importance of considering soil variability for land use plannin...

  10. Cartography and Information Systems for the Luna-Glob Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    We provide cartography and information system support to the LUNA-GLOB mission and assess candidate landing sites [1] on the basis of different available remote sensing data sets. The main goal of our work is to identify science opportunities in the sub-polar areas and to detect possible hazards for any landing spacecraft.

  11. Re-engineering land administration systems for sustainable development — from rhetoric to reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Ian P.

    Current land administration systems are the product of 19th century economic and land market paradigms and have failed to properly support sustainable development. The need for urgent reform is accepted, but the way forward unclear in many jurisdictions. This paper will discuss current international initiatives and research to develop a new land administration vision to promote sustainable development. Within this context, this paper describes the changing humankind to land relationship, identifies some of the growing environmental pressures facing modern society and the need for sustainable development, explores the evolving role of land administration in society and highlights the need for land administration systems to play a more proactive role in supporting sustainable development objectives. The process to re-engineer land administrations is briefly reviewed. The paper then highlights the development of a national land administration vision and strategy. In proposing strategies the paper draws on international trends and experiences such as highlighted in the recent United Nations — International Federation of Surveyors Declaration on Land Administration for Sustainable Development.

  12. Downscaling land use and land cover from the Global Change Assessment Model for coupling with Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Yannick; West, Tris O.; Link, Robert; Patel, Pralit

    2016-09-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used to project future societal and environmental scenarios, based on economic modeling and on a detailed representation of food and energy production systems. The terrestrial module in GCAM represents agricultural activities and ecosystems dynamics at the subregional scale, and must be downscaled to be used for impact assessments in gridded models (e.g., climate models). In this study, we present the downscaling algorithm of the GCAM model, which generates gridded time series of global land use and land cover (LULC) from any GCAM scenario. The downscaling is based on a number of user-defined rules and drivers, including transition priorities (e.g., crop expansion preferentially into grasslands rather than forests) and spatial constraints (e.g., nutrient availability). The default parameterization is evaluated using historical LULC change data, and a sensitivity experiment provides insights on the most critical parameters and how their influence changes regionally and in time. Finally, a reference scenario and a climate mitigation scenario are downscaled to illustrate the gridded land use outcomes of different policies on agricultural expansion and forest management. Several features of the downscaling can be modified by providing new input data or changing the parameterization, without any edits to the code. Those features include spatial resolution as well as the number and type of land classes being downscaled, thereby providing flexibility to adapt GCAM LULC scenarios to the requirements of a wide range of models and applications. The downscaling system is version controlled and freely available.

  13. Next-Generation Entry/Descent/Landing System for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, Sam W.

    2000-01-01

    Many important scientific objectives for Mars exploration require the ability to land safely at select sites. The 'first-generation' entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems used in previous missions imposed limitations on target site selection due to the delivery accuracy achievable and those systems' inability to recognize and avoid hazardous terrain. This abstract outlines key capabilities of a proposed second-generation EDL system, currently under development by a consortium of NASA centers, Industry, and academic institutions.

  14. A Graphical System for Introducing Estates in Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurence, Robert T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A method for introducing estates in land to first-year law students is presented in detail. A key element is its use of transparencies to graphically represent crucial concepts and appropriate language. The concepts are introduced in a systematic fashion to allow students to build an understanding gradually. (JMD)

  15. Atmosphere, ocean, and land: Critical gaps in Earth system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Hartley, Dana

    1992-01-01

    We briefly review current knowledge and pinpoint some of the major areas of uncertainty for the following fundamental processes: (1) convection, condensation nuclei, and cloud formation; (2) oceanic circulation and its coupling to the atmosphere and cryosphere; (3) land surface hydrology and hydrology-vegetation coupling; (4) biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases; and (5) upper atmospheric chemistry and circulation.

  16. Modeling, Calibration, and Sensitivity Analysis of Coupled Land-Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Gupta, H. V.; Bastidas, L. A.; Sorooshian, S.

    2002-12-01

    To better understand various land-surface hydrological processes, it is desirable and pressing to extend land-surface modeling from off-line modes to coupled modes to explore the significance of various land surface-atmospheric interactions in regulating the energy and water balance of the hydrologic cycle. While it is extremely difficult to directly test the parameterizations of a global climate model due to the complexity, a locally coupled single-column model provides a favorable environment for investigations into the complicated interactions between the land surface and the overlying atmosphere. In this research, the off-line NCAR LSM and the coupled NCAR Single-column Community Climate Model (NCAR SCCM) are used. Extensive efforts have been focused on the impacts that the coupling of the two systems may have on the sensitivities of the land-surface model to both land-surface parameters and land-surface parameterizations. Additional efforts are directed to the comparisons of results from off-line and coupled calibration experiments using the optimization algorithm MOCOM-UA and IOP data sets from the Atmosphere Radiation Measurement-Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) project. Possibilities of calibrating some atmospheric parameters in the coupled model are also explored. Preliminary results show that the parameterization of surface energy and water balance is crucial in coupled systems and that the land-atmosphere coupling can significantly affect the estimations of land-surface parameters. In addition, it has been found that solar radiation and precipitation play an extremely important role in a coupled land-surface model by dominating the two-way interactions within the coupled system. This study will also enable us to investigate into the feasibility of applying the parameter estimation methods used for point-validations of LSM over grid-boxes in a coupled environment, and facilitate following studies on the effects that a coupled environment would have

  17. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  18. A land use and environmental impact analysis of the Norfolk-Portsmouth SMSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchel, W. B.; Berlin, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remote sensing techniques for land use and environmental assessment in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area is discussed. Data cover the use of high altitude aircraft and satellite remote sensing data for: (1) identifying various heirarchial levels of land use, (2) monitoring land use changes for repetitive basis, (3) assessing the impact of competing land uses, and (4) identifying areas of potential environmental deterioration. High altitude aircraft photographs (scale 1:120,000) acquired in 1959, 1970, and 1972, plus Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) color composite images acquired in 1972 were used for the land use and environmental assessments. The high altitude aircraft photography, as expected, was successfully used to map Level 1, Level 2, as well as some urban Level 3 land use categories. However, the detail of land use analysis obtainable from the ERTS imagery exceeded the expectations for the U.S. Geological Survey's land use classification scheme. Study results are consistent with the initial investigation which determined Level 1 land use change to be 16.7 square km per year.

  19. Anticipating Forest and Range Land Development in Central Oregon (USA) for Landscape Analysis, with an Example Application Involving Mule Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Jeffrey D.; Moses, Alissa; Burcsu, Theresa

    2010-05-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide vegetation data and models to evaluate the integrated effects of disturbances and management activities on natural resource conditions in Oregon and Washington (USA). In this initial analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of forest and range land development in a four-county pilot study region in central Oregon. The empirical model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and new building construction as a function of population growth, existing development, topography, land-use zoning, and other factors. We used the model to create geographic information system maps of likely future development based on human population projections to inform complementary landscape analyses underway involving vegetation, habitat, and wildfire interactions. In an example application, we use the model and resulting maps to show the potential impacts of future forest and range land development on mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) winter range. Results indicate significant development encroachment and habitat loss already in 2000 with development located along key migration routes and increasing through the projection period to 2040. The example application illustrates a simple way for policymakers and public lands managers to combine existing data and preliminary model outputs to begin to consider the potential effects of development on future landscape conditions.

  20. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey D; Moses, Alissa; Burcsu, Theresa

    2010-05-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide vegetation data and models to evaluate the integrated effects of disturbances and management activities on natural resource conditions in Oregon and Washington (USA). In this initial analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of forest and range land development in a four-county pilot study region in central Oregon. The empirical model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and new building construction as a function of population growth, existing development, topography, land-use zoning, and other factors. We used the model to create geographic information system maps of likely future development based on human population projections to inform complementary landscape analyses underway involving vegetation, habitat, and wildfire interactions. In an example application, we use the model and resulting maps to show the potential impacts of future forest and range land development on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) winter range. Results indicate significant development encroachment and habitat loss already in 2000 with development located along key migration routes and increasing through the projection period to 2040. The example application illustrates a simple way for policymakers and public lands managers to combine existing data and preliminary model outputs to begin to consider the potential effects of development on future landscape conditions.