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Sample records for landsat overlay los

  1. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground. In this view, Antelope Valley is in the foreground, the Tehachapi Mountains form the left skyline, and ranges within the southernmost Sierra Nevada form the right skyline. Antelope Valley is directly north of Los Angeles and is the westernmost part of the Mojave Desert. It is a closed basin. Stream flow here ends at Rosamond and Rogers dry lakes, which appear bright white. Dry lakes like these are common where tectonic activity raises and lowers parts of the Earth's crust, and thus the topographic surface, faster than stream flow can fill depressions with water, and then overflow and cut escape channels to other basins and eventually to the sea. The Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi, and other mountains generally to the west create a rain shadow desert here. Thus, the area definitely has the active tectonics and low rainfall combination that leads to closed basin topography.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Shading of the SRTM elevation model was added to enhance topographic appearance. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  2. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  3. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  4. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  5. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Prominently displayed in this image, Mt. Pinos, at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) is the highest peak in the Los Padres National Forest. Named for the mantle of pine trees covering its slopes and summit, it offers one of the best stargazing sites in Southern California. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data were combined with Landsat data to generate this perspective view looking toward the northwest. Not only is the mountain popular with astronomers and astro-photographers, it is also popular for hiking trails and winter sports.

    The broad low relief area in the right foreground is Cuddy Valley. Cuddy Valley Road is the bright line on the right (north)side of the valley. Just to the left and paralleling the road is a scarp (cliff) formed by the San Andreas fault. The fault slices through the mountains here and then bends and continues onto the Carrizo Plain (right center horizon). This entire segment of the San Andreas fault broke in a major earthquake in 1857.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National

  6. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Fernando Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Fernando Valley (lower right of center) is part of Los Angeles and includes well over one million people. Two major disasters have occurred here in the last few decades: the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Both quakes caused major damage to homes, freeways, and other structures and included major injuries and fatalities. The Northridge earthquake was the one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history. Understanding earthquake risks requires understanding a location's geophysical setting, and topographic data are of substantial benefit in that regard. Landforms are often characteristic of specific tectonic processes, such as ground movement along faults. Elevation models, such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), are particularly useful in visualizing regional scale landforms that are too large to be seen directly on-site. They can also be used to model the propagation of damaging seismic waves, which helps in urban planning. In recent years, elevation models have also been a critical input to radar interferometric studies, which reveal detailed patterns of ground deformation from earthquakes that had never before been seen.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from SRTM. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect

  7. Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat, Los Angeles, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles, Calif., is one of the world's largest metropolitan areas with a population of about 15 million people. The urban areas mostly cover the coastal plains and lie within the inland valleys. The intervening and adjacent mountains are generally too rugged for much urban development. This in large part because the mountains are 'young', meaning they are still building (and eroding) in this seismically active (earthquake prone) region.

    Earthquake faults commonly lie between the mountains and the lowlands. The San Andreas fault, the largest fault in California, likewise divides the very rugged San Gabriel Mountains from the low-relief Mojave Desert, thus forming a straight topographic boundary between the top center and lower right corner of the image. We present two versions of this perspective image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM): one with and one without a graphic overlay that maps faults that have been active in Late Quaternary times (white lines). The fault database was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    For the annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 2 mB jpeg)

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on May 4, 2001, about seven weeks before the summer solstice, so natural terrain shading is not particularly strong. It is also not especially apparent given a view direction (northwest) nearly parallel to the sun illumination (shadows generally fall on the backsides of mountains). Consequently, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, with a false sun illumination from the left (southwest). This synthetic shading enhances the appearance of the topography.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and

  8. Perspective view, Landsat overlay San Andreas Fault, Palmdale, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is the San Andreas Fault. This segment of the fault lies near the city of Palmdale, California (the flat area in the right half of the image) about 60 kilometers (37 miles) north of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. The Lake Palmdale Reservoir, approximately 1.5 kilometers (0.9 miles) across, sits in the topographic depression created by past movement along the fault. Highway 14 is the prominent linear feature starting at the lower left edge of the image and continuing along the far side of the reservoir. The patterns of residential and agricultural development around Palmdale are seen in the Landsat imagery in the right half of the image. SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  9. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The volcanic nature of Mount Shasta is clearly evident in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the northwest. At over 4,300 meters (14,000 feet), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. The twin summits of Shasta and Shastina tower over a lava flow on the flank of the volcano. Cutting across the lava flow is the bright line of a railroad. The bright area at the right edge is the town of Weed.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an online mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  10. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of the population of Utah lives just west of the Wasatch Mountains in the north central part of the state. This broad east-northeastward view shows that region with the cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo seen from left to right. The Great Salt Lake (left) and Utah Lake (right) are quite shallow and appear greenish in this enhanced natural color view. Thousands of years ago ancient Lake Bonneville covered all of the lowlands seen here. Its former shoreline is clearly seen as a wave-cut bench and/or light colored 'bathtub ring' at several places along the base of the mountain front - evidence seen from space of our ever-changing planet.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  11. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Santa Barbara, California, is often called 'America's Riviera.' It enjoys a Mediterranean climate, a mountain backdrop, and a long and varied coastline. This perspective view of the Santa Barbara region was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat satellite image. The view is toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2526 m or 8286 feet) along the skyline. The coast here generally faces south. Consequently, Fall and Winter sunrises occur over the ocean, which is unusual for the U.S. west coast. The Santa Barbara 'back country' is very rugged and largely remains as undeveloped wilderness and an important watershed for local communities. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface.

    To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL

  12. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara Coastline, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the Santa Barbara, California, region provides a beautiful snapshot of the area's rugged mountains and long and varied coastline. Generated using data acquired from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat image this is a perspective view toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2,526 m or 8,286 feet) along the skyline at the left. On a clear day, a pilot might see a similar view shortly before touching down on the east-west runway of the Santa Barbara Airport, seen just to the left of the coastline near the center of image. This area is one of the few places along the U.S. West Coast where because of a south-facing beach, fall and winter sunrises occur over the ocean.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science

  13. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Palm Springs, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The city of Palm Springs nestles at the base of Mount San Jacinto in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the east. The many golf courses in the area show up as irregular green areas while the two prominent lines passing through the middle of the image are Interstate 10 and the adjacent railroad tracks. The San Andreas Fault passes through the middle of the sandy Indio Hills in the foreground.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 33.8 deg. North lat., 116.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking west Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond

  14. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At more than 4,300 meters (14,000 feet ), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. This computer-generated perspective viewed from the west also includes Shastina, a slightly smaller volcanic cone left of Shasta's summit and Black Butte, another volcano in the right foreground.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 41.4 deg. North lat., 122.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking east Image Data: Landsat Bands 3,2,1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Rann of Kachchh, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The earthquake that struck western India on January 26,2001, was the country's strongest in the past 50 years. This perspective view shows the area of the earthquake's epicenter in the lower left corner. The southern Rann of Kachchh appears in the foreground. The Rann is an area of low-lying salt flats that shows up with various shades of white and blue in this false-color Landsat image. The gray area on the middle of the image is called the Banni plains.

    The darker blue spots and curving lines in the Rann and the Banni plains are features that appeared after the January earthquake. Their true colors are shades of white and gray, but the infrared data used in the image gives them a blue or turquoise color. These features are the effects of liquefaction of wet soil, sand and mud layers caused by the shaking of the earthquake. The liquefaction beneath the surface causes water to be squeezed out at the surface forming mud volcanoes, sand blows and temporary springs. Some of the residents of this dry area were hopeful that they could use the water, but they found that the water was too salty in almost every place where it came to the surface.

    The city of Bhuj, India, appears as a gray area in the upper right of the image. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the January 2001 earthquake. This magnitude 7.7 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The city of Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image.

    The city of Anjar is in the dark gray area near the upper left of the image. Previously damaged by a magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 1956 that killed 152people, Anjar suffered again in the larger 2001 earthquake.

    The red hills in the center of the image are the Has and Karo Hills, which reach up to 300 m (900 feet

  16. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  17. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  18. SRTM Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay: Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph satellite image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands are a self-governing territory of France. A 'tombolo' (sand bar) unites Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island, located to the lower right, includes a harbor, an airport, and a small town. Glaciers once covered these islands and the direction of glacial flow is evident in the topography as striations and shoreline trends running from the upper right to the lower left. The darkest image features are freshwater lakes that fill glacially carved depressions and saltwater lagoons that are bordered by barrier beaches. The lakes and the lagoons are fairly calm waters and reflect less sunlight than do the wave covered and sediment laden nearshore ocean currents.

    The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over preliminary digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  19. Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left.

    The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30

  20. Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles)west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  1. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Mojave to Ventura, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Southern California's dramatic topography plays acritical role in its climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture, and habitability. This image of Southern California, from the desert at Mojave to the ocean at Ventura, shows a variety of landscapes and environments. Winds usually bring moisture to this area from the west, moving from the ocean, across the coastal plains, to the mountains, and then to the deserts. Most rainfall occurs as the air masses rise over the mountains and cool with altitude. Continuing east, and now drained of their moisture, the air masses drop in altitude and warm as they spread across the desert. The mountain rainfall supports forest and chaparral vegetation, seen here, and also becomes ground water and stream flow that supports citrus, avocado, strawberry, other crops, and a large and growing population on the coastal plains.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It shows the Tehachapi Mountains in the right foreground, the city of Ventura on the coast at the distant left, and the eastern most Santa Ynez Mountains forming the skyline at the distant right.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and

  2. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    San Joaquin, the name given to the southern portion of California's vast Central Valley, has been called the world's richest agricultural valley. In this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image, we are looking toward the southwest over a checkerboard pattern of agricultural fields. Mt. Pinos, a popular location for stargazing at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) looms above the valley floor and is visible on the left side of the image. The productive southern San Joaquin is in reality a desert, averaging less than 12.7 cm (5 inches) of rain per year. Through canals and irrigation, the region nurtures some two hundred crops including grapes, figs, apricots, oranges, and more than 4,047 square-km (1,000,000 acres) of cotton. The California Aqueduct, transporting water from the Sacramento River Delta through the San Joaquin, runs along the base of the low-lying Wheeler Ridge on the left side of the image. The valley is not all agriculture though. Kern County, near the valley's southern end, is the United States' number one oil producing county, and actually produces more crude oil than Oklahoma. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  3. Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After draining the northern flank of the Alps Mountains in Germany and Austria, the Danube River flows east as it enters this west-looking scene (upper right) and forms the border between Slovakia and Hungary. The river then leaves the border as it enters Hungary and transects the Transdanubian Mountains, which trend southwest to northeast. Upon exiting the mountains, the river turns southward, flowing past Budapest (purplish blue area) and along the western margin of the Great Hungarian Plain.

    South and west of the Danube, the Transdanubian Mountains have at most only about 400 meters (about 1300 feet) of relief but they exhibit varied landforms, which include volcanic, tectonic, fluvial (river), and eolian (wind) features. A thick deposit of loess (dust deposits likely blown from ancient glacial outwash) covers much of this area, and winds from the northwest, funneled between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are apparently responsible for a radial pattern of erosional streaks across the entire region.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The false colors of the scene result from displaying Landsat bands 1, 4, and 7 in blue, green, and red, respectively. Band 1 is visible blue light, but bands 4 and 7 are reflected infrared light. This band combination maximizes color contrasts between the major land cover types, namely vegetation (green), bare ground (red), and water (blue). Shading of the elevation model was used to further highlight the topographic features.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on

  4. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Manhattan Island, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of Manhattan, the city's skyscrapers appear as ghostly white spikes. The green patch in the middle of the image is Central park. The Hudson River is visible on the upper left-hand side and the east River on the upper right. Although not designed to measure the heights of buildings, the radar used by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was so sensitive that it easily detected the Manhattan skyscrapers but could not distinguish individual structures.

    The image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and enhanced true-color Landsat 5 satellite images. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 6X.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective, Manhattan is about 3.5 km (2.2 miles) across. Location: 40.8 deg. North lat., 74 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM)

  5. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  6. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  7. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.

    This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation

  8. Digital overlay of cartographic information on Landsat MSS data for soil surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Irons, J. R.; Petersen, G. W.; Sykes, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic soils data were digitized, spatially registered, and merged with processed Landsat image data. The Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) image data were used to generate a thematic map representing different soil surface characteristics and an enhanced image. The thematic map was generated using supervised and unsupervised classification procedures. The enhanced image was generated by performing a linear contrast stretch on data altered by a principal components transformation. Although both procedures yielded images useful for soil unit delineation, image enhancement was determined to be more suitable because it was more expedient and inexpensive. Enhanced images cost $0.06 per hectare, spectral classifications cost $0.08 per hectare. The overlay of cartographic data on Landsat data facilitates comparisons between the various processing methods used for soil unit boundary determination, delineation, and verification. This technique also provides for accurate and expedient spatial referencing for field observations and cartographic correlation.

  9. Digital overlaying of the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid with LANDSAT-data derived products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Software has been written in FORTRAN IV for a Varian 73 computer which reformats LANDSAT-data-derived surface classifications and pictorial representations into a digital array which corresponds to the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid.

  10. Digital overlaying of the universal transverse Mercator grid with LANDSAT data derived products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    Picture elements of data from the LANDSAT multispectral scanner are correlated with the universal tranverse Mercator grid. In the procedure, a series of computer modules was used to make approximations of universal transverse Mercator grid locations for all picture elements from the grid locations of a limited number of known control points and to provide display and digital storage of the data. The software has been written in FORTRAN 4 language for a Varian 70-series computer.

  11. SRTM Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay: Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This stereoscopic satellite image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands are a self-governing territory of France. A 'tombolo' (sand bar) unites Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island, located to the lower right, includes a harbor, an airport, and a small town. Glaciers once covered these islands and the direction of glacial flow is evident in the topography as striations and shoreline trends running from the upper right to the lower left. The darkest image features are freshwater lakes that fill glacially carved depressions and saltwater lagoons that are bordered by barrier beaches. The lakes and the lagoons are fairly calm waters and reflect less sunlight than do the wave covered and sediment laden nearshore ocean currents.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  12. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  13. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Caliente Range and Cuyama Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Before the arrival of Europeans, California's Cuyama Valley was inhabited by Native Americans who were culturally and politically tied to the Chumash tribes of coastal Santa Barbara County. Centuries later, the area remains the site of noted Native American rock art paintings. In the 1800s, when Europeans established large cattle and horse-breeding ranches in the valley, the early settlers reported the presence of small villages along the Cuyama River. This perspective view looks upstream toward the southeast through the Cuyama Valley. The Caliente Range, with maximum elevations of 1,550 meters (5,085 feet), borders the valley on the left. The Cuyama River, seen as a bright meandering line on the valley floor, enters the valley from headwaters more than 2,438 meters (8,000 feet) above sea level near Mount Abel and flows 154 kilometers (96 miles) before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river's course has been determined in large part by displacement along numerous faults.

    Today, the Cuyama Valley is the home of large ranches and small farms. The area has a population of 1,120 and is more than an hour and a half drive from the nearest city in the county.

    This image was generated by draping an enhanced Landsat satellite image over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Ventura, and Lake Casitas, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    .

    Distance to Horizon: 54.5 kilometers (33.8 miles) Location: 34.38 deg. North lat., 119.3 deg. West lon. View: Toward the North Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  16. The use of radar and LANDSAT data for mineral and petroleum exploration in the Los Andes region, Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    A geological study of a 27,500 sq km area in the Los Andes region of northwestern Venezuela was performed which employed both X-band radar mosaics and computer processed Landsat images. The 3.12 cm wavelength radar data were collected with horizontal-horizontal polarization and 10 meter spatial resolution by an Aeroservices SAR system at an altitude of 12,000 meters. The radar images increased the number of observable suspected fractures by 27 percent over what could be mapped by LANDSAT alone, owing mostly to the cloud cover penetration capabilities of radar. The approximate eight fold greater spatial resolution of the radar images made possible the identification of shorter, narrower fractures than could be detected with LANDSAT data alone, resulting in the discovery of a low relief anticline that could not be observed in LANDSAT data. Exploration targets for petroleum, copper, and uranium were identified for further geophysical work.

  17. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  18. Landsat: Space Activities for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Steven K.

    1979-01-01

    An aerospace education activity is described which is suitable for grades 3-12. Students piece together several images from the Landsat satellite to make a mosaic of their state. From the mosaic clear acetate overlay maps can be made relating to such subjects as agriculture, geology, hydrology, or urban planning. (BB)

  19. Overlay caching scheme for overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Minh; Tavanapong, Wallapak

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen a tremendous growth of interests in streaming continuous media such as video over the Internet. This would create an enormous increase in the demand on various server and networking resources. To minimize service delays and to reduce loads placed on these resources, we propose an Overlay Caching Scheme (OCS) for overlay networks. OCS utilizes virtual cache structures to coordinate distributed overlay caching nodes along the delivery path between the server and the clients. OCS establishes and adapts these structures dynamically according to clients' locations and request patterns. Compared with existing video caching techniques, OCS offers better performances in terms of average service delays, server load, and network load in most cases in our study.

  20. Lithography overlay controller formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, Christopher A.; Toprac, Anthony J.; Edwards, Richard D.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2000-08-01

    Lithography overlay refers to the measurement of the alignment of successive patterns within the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Control of overlay has become of great importance in semiconductor manufacturing, as the tolerance for overlay error is continually shrinking in order to manufacture next-generation semiconductor products. Run-to-run control has become an attractive solution to many control problems within the industry, including overlay. The term run-to-run control refers to any automated procedure whereby recipe settings are updated between successive process runs in order to keep the process under control. The following discussion will present the formulation of such a controller by examining control of overlay. A brief introduction of overlay will be given, highlighting the control challenge overlay presents. A data management methodology that groups like processes together in order to improve controllability, referred to as control threads, will then be presented. Finally, a discussion of linear model predictive control will show its utility in feedback run-to-run control.

  1. Landsat 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat era that began in 1972 will continue into the future, since the February 2013 launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (renamed Landsat 8 on May 30, 2013). The Landsat 8 satellite provides 16-bit high-quality land-surface data, with instruments advancing future measurement capabilities while ensuring compatibility with historical Landsat data. The Operational Land Imager sensor collects data in the visible, near infrared, and shortwave infrared wavelength regions as well as a panchromatic band. Two new spectral bands have been added: a deep-blue band for coastal water and aerosol studies (band 1), and a band for cirrus cloud detection (band 9). A Quality Assurance band is also included to indicate the presence of terrain shadowing, data artifacts, and clouds. The Thermal Infrared Sensor collects data in two long wavelength thermal infrared bands and has a 3-year design life.

  2. Secure Overlay Services (SOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    of Service ISP : Internet Service Provider SOAP: Secure Overlay Access Point P2P : Peer-to-Peer ( network ) IP: Internet Protocol POP: Point of...approved, as shown in Figure 1. These routers are “deep” enough in the network (typically in an ISP’s Point of Presence), that the attack traffic does...capabilities, and novel approaches to routing in overlays and peer-to-peer ( P2P ) networks . To the extent possible, we strive to use existing systems and

  3. Landsat Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1960's, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) embarked on an initiative to develop and launch the first Earth monitoring satellite to meet the needs of resource managers and earth scientists. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a partnership with NASA in the early 1970?s to assume responsibility for archiving data and distributing data products. On July 23, 1972, NASA launched the first in a series of satellites designed to provide repetitive global coverage of the Earth?s land masses. Designated initially as the "Earth Resources Technology Satellite-A" ("ERTS-A"), it used a Nimbus-type platform that was modified to carry sensor systems and data relay equipment. When operational orbit was achieved, it was designated "ERTS-1." The satellite continued to function beyond its designed life expectancy of 1 year and finally ceased to operate on January 6, 1978, more than 5 years after its launch date. The second in this series of Earth resources satellites (designated ?ERTS-B?) was launched January 22, 1975. It was renamed "Landsat 2" by NASA, which also renamed "ERTS-1" as "Landsat 1." Three additional Landsats were launched in 1978, 1982, and 1984 (Landsats 3, 4, and 5 ). (See table 1). NASA was responsible for operating the program through the early 1980?s. In January 1983, operation of the Landsat system was transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In October 1985, the Landsat system was commercialized and the Earth Observation Satellite Company, now Space Imaging EOSAT, assumed responsibility for its operation under contract to NOAA. Throughout these changes, the USGS EROS Data Center (EDC) retained primary responsibility as the Government archive of Landsat data. The Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-5555) officially authorized the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive and assigned responsibility to the Department of the Interior. In addition to its Landsat

  4. Functional Overlay: An Illegitimate Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Functional overlay is not a recognized psychiatric diagnosis. Evaluating functional overlay and differentiating between this concept and organic conditions is important in medicolegal areas in which financial values are placed on pain and disability. Functional overlay is not malingering: the former is based on preconscious or unconscious mechanisms, the latter is consciously induced. In considering psychologic reactions to pain and disability, a gradient of simulation, malingering, symptom exaggeration, overvaluation, functional overlay and hysteria is useful. The dynamics of overlay are a combination of anxiety from body-image distortion and depression from decreased efficiency of the body, as well as the resulting psychosocial disruption in a patient's life. PMID:516698

  5. Computer mapping of LANDSAT data for environmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Mckeon, J. B.; Reed, L. E.; Schmidt, N. F.; Schecter, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Land cover overlays and maps produced from LANDSAT are providing information on existing land use and resources throughout the 208 study area. The overlays are being used to delineate drainage areas of a predominant land cover type. Information on cover type is also being combined with other pertinent data to develop estimates of sediment and nutrients flows from the drainage area. The LANDSAT inventory of present land cover together with population projects is providing a basis for developing maps of anticipated land use patterns required to evaluate impact on water quality which may result from these patterns. Overlays of forest types were useful for defining wildlife habitat and vegetational resources in the region. LANDSAT data and computer assisted interpretation was found to be a rapid cost effective procedure for inventorying land cover on a regional basis. The entire 208 inventory which include acquisition of ground truth, LANDSAT tapes, computer processing, and production of overlays and coded tapes was completed within a period of 2 months at a cost of about 0.6 cents per acre, a significant improvement in time and cost over conventional photointerpretation and mapping techniques.

  6. Overlay quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir B.

    2012-03-01

    As overlay budget continues to shrink, an improved analysis of the different contributors to this budget is needed. A major contributor that has never been quantified is the accuracy of the measurements. KLA-Tencor developed a quality metric, that calculates and attaches an accuracy value to each OVL target. This operation is performed on the fly during measurement and can be applied without affecting MAM time or throughput. Using a linearity array we demonstrate that the quality metric identifies targets deviating from the intended OVL value, with no false alarms.

  7. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  8. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Flight performances of LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 are evaluated. The in-flight systems discussed are: (1) power supplies, (2) attitude control, (3) command/clock, (4) telemetry, (5) orbit adjust, (6) electrical interface, (7) thermal, (8) tape recorders, (9) multispectral scanner, (10) data collection and (11) magnetic moment compensating assembly. Tables are presented for easy reference.

  9. Opening the Landsat Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The USGS Landsat archive holds an unequaled 36-year record of the Earth's surface that is invaluable to climate change studies, forest and resource management activities, and emergency response operations. An aggressive effort is taking place to provide all Landsat imagery [scenes currently held in the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive, as well as newly acquired scenes daily] free of charge to users with electronic access via the Web by the end of December 2008. The entire Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) archive acquired since 1999 and any newly acquired Landsat 7 ETM+ images that have less than 40 percent cloud cover are currently available for download. When this endeavor is complete all Landsat 1-5 data will also be available for download. This includes Landsat 1-5 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) scenes, as well as Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes.

  10. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    PubMed

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  11. Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The flight performance of Landsat 1 and Landsat 2 is analyzed. Flight operations of the satellites are briefly summarized. Other topics discussed include: orbital parameters; power subsystem; attitude control subsystem; command/clock subsystem; telemetry subsystem; orbit adjust subsystem; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified s-band/premodulation processor; electrical interface subsystem; thermal subsystem; narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry subsystem; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collection subsystem.

  12. A Landsat study of water quality in Lake Okeechobee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Marshall, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper uses multiple regression techniques to investigate the relationship between Landsat radiance values and water quality measurements. For a period of over one year, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District sampled the water of Lake Okeechobee for chlorophyll, carotenoids, turbidity, and various nutrients at the time of Landsat overpasses. Using an overlay map of the sampling stations, Landsat radiance values were measured from computer compatible tapes using a GE image 100 and averaging over a 22-acre area at each station. These radiance values in four bands were used to form a number of functions (powers, logarithms, exponentials, and ratios), which were then compared with the ground measurements using multiple linear regression techniques. Several dates were used to provide generality and to study possible seasonal variations. Individual correlations were presented for the various water quality parameters and best fit equations were examined for chlorophyll and turbidity. The results and their relationship to past hydrological research were discussed.

  13. Landsat surface reflectance data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1972. Users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change and require consistent radiometric data processed to the highest science standards. In support of the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, the U.S. Geological Survey has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change studies. One such product is Landsat surface reflectance.

  14. LandsatLook images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonescheit, Linda

    2011-01-01

    LandsatLook images are full resolution JPEG files derived from Landsat Level 1 data products. The images are compressed and stretched to create an image optimized for image selection and visual interpretation; it is not recommended that they be used in digital analysis.

  15. Pasture monitoring with Landsat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While Landsat data has been used to monitor primary production in range and pasture areas, such monitoring has generally been intended to track broad changes across multiple years. With an 8-day return time and 30m resolution, Landsat data can be used to assess intra-annual changes, even within rota...

  16. Overlay metrology for double patterning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2009-03-01

    The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double

  17. Who will fund Landsat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    A first-ever joint hearing of the Science, Space, and Technology Committee and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence was held on June 26 to ascertain the true value of the civilian satellite program—Landsat—to the scientific, environmental, and military communities.Landsats collect multispectral images that are used for such purposes as environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and national security. Since the first launch in 1972, Landsat has provided a continuous data record that has proved invaluable in global change research. Currently, Landsats 4 and 5 are in orbit, with Landsat 6 still on schedule for a mid-1992 launch. No funding has been requested for any follow-on to Landsat 6, making users of the data uncertain that their future projects will go ahead.

  18. Analysis Of Overlay Distortion Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, John D.; Kirk, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive geometrical approach is presented for the least-squares analysis of overlay distortion patterns into useful, physically meaningful systematic distortion subpatterns and an essentially non-systematic residue. A scheme of generally useful distortion sub-patterns is presented in graphic and algorithmic form; some of these sub-patterns are additions to those already in widespread use. A graphic and geometric approach is emphasized rather than an algebraic or statistical approach, and an example illustrates the value in utilizing the pattern-detecting ability of the eye-brain system. The conditions are described under which different distortion sub-patterns may interact, possibly leading to misleading or erroneous conclusions about the types and amounts of different distortions present. Examples of typical interaction situations are given, and recommendations are made for analytic procedures to avoid misinterpretation. It is noted that the lower-order distortion patterns preserve straight-line linearity, but that higher-order distortion may result in straight lines becoming curved. The principle of least-squares analysis is outlined and a simple polynomial data-fitting example is used to illustrate the method. Algorithms are presented for least-squares distortion analysis of overlay patterns, and an APL2 program is given to show how this may easily be implemented on a digital computer. The appendix extends the treatment to cases where small-angle approximation is not permissible.

  19. Landsat and water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  20. Landsat wildland mapping accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Gehring, Dale G.; Haman, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    A Landsat-aided classification of ten wildland resource classes was developed for the Shivwits Plateau region of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Single stage cluster sampling (without replacement) was used to verify the accuracy of each class.

  1. LANDSAT data preprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The effect on LANDSAT data of a Sun angle correction, an intersatellite LANDSAT-2 and LANDSAT-3 data range adjustment, and the atmospheric correction algorithm was evaluated. Fourteen 1978 crop year LACIE sites were used as the site data set. The preprocessing techniques were applied to multispectral scanner channel data and transformed data were plotted and used to analyze the effectiveness of the preprocessing techniques. Ratio transformations effectively reduce the need for preprocessing techniques to be applied directly to the data. Subtractive transformations are more sensitive to Sun angle and atmospheric corrections than ratios. Preprocessing techniques, other than those applied at the Goddard Space Flight Center, should only be applied as an option of the user. While performed on LANDSAT data the study results are also applicable to meteorological satellite data.

  2. Landsat Earth Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, James J.

    1979-01-01

    The uses of NASA's Landsat in the areas of cartography, flood control, agricultural inventory, land use mapping, water runoff, urban planning, erosion, geology, and water quality monitoring are illustrated. (BB)

  3. Landsat's international partners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite 40 years ago, International Cooperators (ICs) have formed a key strategic alliance with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to not only engage in Landsat data downlink services but also to enable a foundation for scientific and technical collaboration. The map below shows the locations of all ground stations operated by the United States and IC ground station network for the direct downlink and distribution of Landsat 5 (L5) and Landsat 7 (L7) image data. The circles show the approximate area over which each station has the capability for direct reception of Landsat data. The red circles show the components of the L5 ground station network, the green circles show components of the L7 station network, and the dashed circles show stations with dual (L5 and L7) status. The yellow circles show L5 short-term ("campaign") stations that contribute to the USGS Landsat archive. Ground stations in South Dakota and Australia currently serve as the primary data capture facilities for the USGS Landsat Ground Network (LGN). The Landsat Ground Station (LGS) is located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Alice Springs (ASN) ground station is located at the Geoscience Australia facility in Alice Springs, Australia. These sites receive the image data, via X-band Radio Frequency (RF) link, and the spacecraft housekeeping data, via S-band RF link. LGS also provides tracking services and a command link to the spacecrafts.

  4. Overlays for plain jointed concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulden, W.; Brown, D.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes the construction and performance of 4 concrete and 16 asphalt overlay test sections after nine years of traffic. The test sections were placed on I-85 which carries a substantial number of heavy trucks to determine what treatments and overlay type and thickness would give acceptable performance. The concrete overlay sections were placed in 1975 and consisted of 3 inch, 4 1/2 inch, and 6 inch CRC and 6 inch jointed PCC with 15 ft. and 30 ft. joint spacing. The asphalt sections were placed in 1976 with the variables being overlay thickness of 2 inches, 4 inches, and 6 inches and the placement of two geotextiles and strips of a waterproofing membrane for each overlay thickness. An Arkansas base test section was also included in the experiment.

  5. CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

  6. Computation with physical values from Landsat digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat digital images are commonly analyzed by using the digital numbers for each pixel recorded on a computer-compatible magnetic tape. Although this procedure may be satisfactory when only a single, internally consistent image is used, the procedure may produce incorrect results if more than one image is used for analysis as in mosaics or temporal overlays. The digital numbers for each pixel should be converted to their dimensioned equivalents such as radiance, as measured at the satellite, in milliwatts per square centimetre per steradian, or reflectance.-from Author

  7. Landsat: building a strong future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Conceived in the 1960s, the Landsat program has experienced six successful missions that have contributed to an unprecedented 39-year record of Earth Observations that capture global land conditions and dynamics. Incremental improvements in imaging capabilities continue to improve the quality of Landsat science data, while ensuring continuity over the full instrument record. Landsats 5 and 7 are still collecting imagery. The planned launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission in December 2012 potentially extends the Landsat record to nearly 50 years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million Landsat images. All USGS Landsat data are available at no cost via the Internet. The USGS is committed to improving the content of the historical Landsat archive though the consolidation of Landsat data held in international archives. In addition, the USGS is working on a strategy to develop higher-level Landsat geo- and biophysical datasets. Finally, Federal efforts are underway to transition Landsat into a sustained operational program within the Department of the Interior and to authorize the development of the next two satellites — Landsats 9 and 10.

  8. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  9. Landsat Radiometry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes three years of work characterizing the radiometry of the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 Thematic Mappers. It is divided into six sections that are representative of the major areas of effort: 1) Internal Calibrator Lamp Monitoring; 2) Vicarious Calibration; 3) Relative Gain Analysis; 4) Outgassing; 5) Landsat 4 Absolute Calibration; and 6) Landsat 5 Scene Invariant Analysis. Each section provides a summary overview of the work that has been performed at SDSU. Major results are highlighted. In several cases, references are given to publications that have developed from this work, Several team members contributed to this report: Tim Ruggles, Dave Aaron, Shriharsha Madhavan, Esad Micijevic, Cory Mettler, and Jim Dewald. At the end of the report is a summary section.

  10. Root cause analysis of overlay metrology excursions with scatterometry overlay technology (SCOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, Karsten; Park, Dongsuk; Zhou, Yue; Cho, Winston; Ahn, Ki Cheol; Snow, Patrick; McGowan, Richard; Marciano, Tal; Ramanathan, Vidya; Herrera, Pedro; Itzkovich, Tal; Camp, Janay; Adel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel method to establish a root cause for an overlay excursion using optical Scatterometry metrology. Scatterometry overlay metrology consists of four cells (two per directions) of grating on grating structures that are illuminated with a laser and diffracted orders measured in the pupil plane within a certain range of aperture. State of art algorithms permit, with symmetric considerations over the targets, to extract the overlay between the two gratings. We exploit the optical properties of the target to extract further information from the measured pupil images, particularly information that maybe related to any change in the process that may lead to an overlay excursion. Root Cause Analysis or RCA is being developed to identify different kinds of process variations (either within the wafer, or between different wafers) that may indicate overlay excursions. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a collaboration between Globalfoundries and KLA-Tencor to identify a symmetric process variation using scatterometry overlay metrology and RCA technique.

  11. LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

  12. Qmerit-calibrated overlay to improve overlay accuracy and device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Md Zakir; Jazim, Mohamed Fazly Mohamed; Sim, Stella; Lim, Alan; Hiem, Biow; Chuen, Lieu Chia; Ang, Jesline; Lim, Ek Chow; Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Volkovitch, Roie; Tien, David; Choi, DongSub

    2015-03-01

    In advanced semiconductor industries, the overlay error budget is getting tighter due to shrinkage in technology. To fulfill the tighter overlay requirements, gaining every nanometer of improved overlay is very important in order to accelerate yield in high-volume manufacturing (HVM) fabs. To meet the stringent overlay requirements and to overcome other unforeseen situations, it is becoming critical to eliminate the smallest imperfections in the metrology targets used for overlay metrology. For standard cases, the overlay metrology recipe is selected based on total measurement uncertainty (TMU). However, under certain circumstances, inaccuracy due to target imperfections can become the dominant contributor to the metrology uncertainty and cannot be detected and quantified by the standard TMU. For optical-based overlay (OBO) metrology targets, mark asymmetry is a common issue which can cause measurement inaccuracy, and it is not captured by standard TMU. In this paper, a new calibration method, Archer Self-Calibration (ASC), has been established successfully in HVM fabs to improve overlay accuracy on image-based overlay (IBO) metrology targets. Additionally, a new color selection methodology has been developed for the overlay metrology recipe as part of this calibration method. In this study, Qmerit-calibrated data has been used for run-to-run control loop at multiple devices. This study shows that color filter can be chosen more precisely with the help of Qmerit data. Overlay stability improved by 10~20% with best color selection, without causing any negative impact to the products. Residual error, as well as overlay mean plus 3-sigma, showed an improvement of up to 20% when Qmerit-calibrated data was used. A 30% improvement was seen in certain electrical data associated with tested process layers.

  13. Diffraction based overlay and image based overlay on production flow for advanced technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancquaert, Yoann; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges for lithography step is the overlay control. For the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, the overlay budget becomes very tight. Two overlay techniques compete in our advanced semiconductor manufacturing: the Diffraction based Overlay (DBO) with the YieldStar S200 (ASML) and the Image Based Overlay (IBO) with ARCHER (KLA). In this paper we will compare these two methods through 3 critical production layers: Poly Gate, Contact and first metal layer. We will show the overlay results of the 2 techniques, explore the accuracy and compare the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) for the standard overlay targets of both techniques. We will see also the response and impact for the Image Based Overlay and Diffraction Based Overlay techniques through a process change like an additional Hardmask TEOS layer on the front-end stack. The importance of the target design is approached; we will propose more adapted design for image based targets. Finally we will present embedded targets in the 14 FDSOI with first results.

  14. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Several studies were performed using LANDSAT-4 and -5 simultaneous overpath data 40608-15472 and 50014-15465 over Pensacola, FL. The overlap region of these two scenes was determined visually on the IAT and then sampled into 32 x 32 segments. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for each segment were calculated. In general, the plots of the means of LANDSAT-4 versus LANDSAT-5 lie on the diagonal line. Some of the data lie out of the diagonal line, which indicates a possible bidirectional observation effect occurs. In addition to editing the five FCL files on CALDUMP tapes into seven 1000 minor frame (MF). CAL files, program LEE.FOR was modified to use information from start of shutter obscuration extracted from program START.FOR to create seven 200 MF.CAL files that can be run through the current TRAPP program for TM sensor characterization. The location of start of shutter obscuration was determined for both LANDSAT-4 and -5.

  15. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  16. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  17. Polymer concrete overlay on SH-51, bridge deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, T. M.

    1982-06-01

    A thin resinous overlay was placed on a sound bridge deck in Oklahoma to evaluate its performance over one year using various physical tests. The evaluation shows how well the overlay protects the reinforcing steel from corrosion due to deicing salts. The steps leading to the construction of the overlay are detailed as well as the actual placing of the overlay. The results of various physical tests are reported for both before and after the overlay.

  18. Correlation-aware multimedia content distribution in overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2006-01-01

    We address the question: What is the best way to construct a mesh overlay topology for multimedia content distribution, such that the highest streaming rate can be achieved? We model overlay capacity correlations as linear capacity constraints (LCC) and propose a distributed algorithm that constructs an overlay mesh which incorporates heuristically inferred linear capacity constraints. Our simulations results confirm the accuracy of representing overlays using our LCC model and show the LCC-overlay achieving substantial improvement in achievable flow rate.

  19. LANDSAT information for state planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of remote sensing technology for the digital processing of LANDSAT data to state and local agencies in Georgia and other southeastern states is discussed. The project consists of a series of workshops, seminars, and demonstration efforts, and transfer of NASA-developed hardware concepts and computer software to state agencies. Throughout the multi-year effort, digital processing techniques have been emphasized classification algorithms. Software for LANDSAT data rectification and processing have been developed and/or transferred. A hardware system is available at EES (engineering experiment station) to allow user interactive processing of LANDSAT data. Seminars and workshops emphasize the digital approach to LANDSAT data utilization and the system improvements scheduled for LANDSATs C and D. Results of the project indicate a substantially increased awareness of the utility of digital LANDSAT processing techniques among the agencies contracted throughout the southeast. In Georgia, several agencies have jointly funded a program to map the entire state using digitally processed LANDSAT data.

  20. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  1. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB`s.

  2. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  3. Overlay improvement by zone alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ai-Yi; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Yang, Richer; Yuan, Michael; Chen, Henry; Chang, Ray

    2008-03-01

    It is evident that DRAM ground rule continues to shrink down to 90nm and beyond, overlay performance has become more and more critical and important. Wafer edge shows different behavior from center by processes, e.g. a tremendous misalignment at wafer edge makes yield loss . When a conventional linear model is used for alignment correction, higher uncorrectable overlay residuals mostly happen at wafer edge. Therefore, it's obviously necessary to introduce an innovational alignment correction methdology to reduce unwanted wafer edge effect. In this study, we demonstrate the achievement of moderating poor overlay in wafer edge area by a novel zone-dependent alignment strategy, the so-called "Zone Alignment (ZA)". The main difference between the conventional linear model and zone alignment strategy is that the latter compensates an improper averaging effect from first modeling through weighting all surrounding marks with a nonlinear model. In addition, the effects of mark quantity and sampling distribution from "Zone Alignment" are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that ZA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual and improve wafer-to-wafer variation significantly. Furthermore, obvious yield improvement is verified by ZA strategy. In conclusion, Zone alignment is the noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, suitable alignment map and mark numbers should be taken into consideration carefully when ZA is applied for further technology node.

  4. Landsat Signature Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. N.; Mcguire, K. G.; Bland, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Landsat Signature Development Program, LSDP, is designed to produce an unsupervised classification of a scene from a Landsat tape. This classification is based on the clustering tendencies of the multispectral scanner data processed from the scene. The program will generate a character map that, by identifying each of the general classes of surface features extracted from the scene data with a specific line printer symbol, indicates the approximate locations and distributions of these general classes within the scene. Also provided with the character map are a number of tables each of which describes either some aspect of the spectral properties of the resultant classes, some inter-class relationship, the incidence of picture elements assigned to the various classes in the character map classification of the scene, or some significant intermediate stage in the development of the final classes.

  5. Landsat US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery of the continental U.S., Alaska and Hawaii acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  6. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  7. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  8. Finding international Landsat data online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) lists Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data available from the participating international ground stations shown below. These databases of the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) can be searched, but not ordered, using GLIS. To order Landsat scenes identified on the GLIS data search, contact the international ground station where those scenes are available, indicated by the second character of the Entity ID.

  9. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-04-18

    Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

  10. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  11. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  12. Optical Overlay Versus Electric Probe Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Keith Y.; Blachowicz, Betty A.

    1989-07-01

    The predominant method used in the past for the measurement of overlay has been manual reading of the "optical vernier." This method can be reasonably precise and has been sufficient for most semiconductor products made up until a few short years ago. The ever-increasing number of masking levels below 1.5-micron Minimum Feature Size (MFS) requires large statistical bases of overlay measurements with quick turnaround. No longer are 4 to 10 sites per wafer sufficient to accurately judge overlay, nor can we afford to wait 20 minutes for an operator to manually read these verniers. For years, Perkin-Elmer has used a unique and proprietary electrical probe system custom-built by Perkin-Elmer prior to the introduction of the Micralign Model 500. Capable of gathering large amounts of data and performing statistical analysis, it became a standard for overlay evaluation within Perkin-Elmer. An alternative to electrical probe is automated optical measurement. One such system is the Perkin-Elmer OMSTM. This system has the advantage of being "non destructive" and can be used to measure actual product wafers in process. This paper will provide a performance comparison of both techniques, optical and electrical. Using a mask with both optical and electrical probe patterns, a series of wafers was exposed. The evaluation compares accuracy, precision, speed, and statistical capabilities.

  13. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  14. Landsat science team meeting summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Maiersperger, Tom; Irons, James R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Science Team sponsored by the U.S. Geo- logical Survey (USGS) and NASA met in Mesa, AZ, from March 1-3, 2011. The team met in Mesa so that they could receive briefings and tours of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) spacecraft that is being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation in nearby Gilbert, AZ.

  15. The Next Landsat Satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat program is one of the longest running satellite programs for Earth observations from space. The program was initiated by the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972. Since then a series of six more Landsat satellites were launched and at least one of those satellites has been in operations at all times to continuously collect images of the global land surface. The Department of Interior (DOI) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) preserves data collected by all of the Landsat satellites at their Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This 40-year data archive provides an unmatched record of the Earth's land surface that has undergone dramatic changes in recent decades due to the increasing pressure of a growing population and advancing technologies. EROS provides the ability for anyone to search the archive and order digital Landsat images over the internet for free. The Landsat data are a public resource for observing, characterizing, monitoring, trending, and predicting land use change over time providing an invaluable tool for those addressing the profound consequences of those changes to society. The most recent launch of a Landsat satellite occurred in 1999 when Landsat 7 was placed in orbit. While Landsat 7 remains in operation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the DOI/ USGS are building its successor satellite system currently called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). NASA has the lead for building and launching the satellite that will carry two Earth-viewing instruments, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The OLI will take images that measure the amount of sunlight reflected by the land surface at nine wavelengths of light with three of those wavelengths beyond the range of human vision. T1RS will collect coincident images that measure light emitted by the land surface as a function of surface temperature at two longer wavelengths well beyond the

  16. Landsat still contributing to environmental research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Cochrane, Mark A.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Landsat data have enabled continuous global monitoring of both human-caused and other land cover disturbances since 1972. Recently degraded performance and intermittent service of the Landsat 7 and Landsat 5 sensors, respectively, have raised concerns about the condition of global Earth observation programs. However, Landsat imagery is still useful for landscape change detection and this capability should continue into the foreseeable future.

  17. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Irons, James; Dabney, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is currently under development and is on schedule to launch the 8th satellite in the Landsat series in December of 2012. LDCM is a joint project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). NASA is responsible for developing and launching the flight hardware and on-orbit commissioning and USGS is responsible for developing the ground system and operating the system onorbit after commissioning. Key components of the flight hardware are the Operational Land Imager (OLI), nearing completion by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp in Boulder, CO, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), being built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the spacecraft, undergoing integration at Orbital Sciences Corp in Gilbert, Arizona. The launch vehicle will be an Atlas-5 with launch services provided by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Key ground systems elements are the Mission Operations Element, being developed by the Hammers Corporation, and the Collection Activity Planning Element, Ground Network Element, and Data Processing and Archive System, being developed internally by the USGS Earth Resources Observations and Science (EROS) Center. The primary measurement goal of LDCM is to continue the global coverage of moderate spatial resolution imagery providing continuity with the existing Landsat record. The science goal for this imagery is to monitor land use and land cover, particularly as it relates to global climate change. Together the OLI and TIRS instruments on LDCM replace the ETM+ instrument on Landsat-7 with significant enhancements. The OLI is a pushbroom design instrument where the scanning mechanism of the ETM+ is effectively replaced by a long line of detectors. The OLI has 9 spectral bands with similar spatial resolution to ETM+: 7 of them similar to the reflective spectral bands on ETM+ and two new bands. The two new bands cover (1) the shorter wavelength blue part

  18. Status of worldwide Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warriner, Howard W.

    1987-01-01

    In cooperation with the International Landsat community, and through the Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG), NOAA is assembling information about the status of the Worldwide Landsat Archive. During LTWG 9, member nations agreed to participate in a survey of International Landsat data holding and of their archive experiences with Landsat data. The goal of the effort was two-fold; one, to document the Landsat archive to date, and, two, to ensure that specific nations' experience with long-term Landsat archival problems were available to others. The survey requested details such as amount of data held, the format of the archive holdings by Spacecraft/Sensor, and acquisition years; the estimated costs to accumulated process, and replace the data (if necessary); the storage space required, and any member nation's plans that would establish the insurance of continuing quality. As a group, the LTWG nations are concerned about the characteristics and reliability of long-term magnetic media storage. Each nation's experience with older data retrieval is solicited in the survey. This information will allow nations to anticipate and plan for required changes to their archival holdings. Also solicited were reports of any upgrades to a nation's archival system that are currently planned and all results of attempts to reduce archive holdings including methodology, current status, and the planned access rates and product support that are anticipated for responding to future archival usage.

  19. Bonded Concrete Overlays: Construction and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    report provides a review and summary of surface preparation of the existing slab, joint and crack treatment, bonding methods, concrete overlay mixtures...34Bonded, Thin-Lift Portland Cement Concrete Re- surfacing," Report on Project HRlgl, Clayton County and Iowa Highway Research Board, September 1977...34Resurfacing and Patching Concrete Pavement with Bonded Concrete ," Proceedings, Highway Research Board, Vol. 35, 1956. 8. Gillette, R. W.,"A 10-Year Report

  20. Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

    1988-01-01

    In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his

  1. LANDSAT (MSS): Image demographic estimations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Foresti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two sets of urban test sites, one with 35 cities and one with 70 cities, were selected in the State, Sao Paulo. A high degree of colinearity (0.96) was found between urban and areal measurements taken from aerial photographs and LANDSAT MSS imagery. High coefficients were observed when census data were regressed against aerial information (0.95) and LANDSAT data (0.92). The validity of population estimations was tested by regressing three urban variables, against three classes of cities. Results supported the effectiveness of LANDSAT to estimate large city populations with diminishing effectiveness as urban areas decrease in size.

  2. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis. [LANDSAT 5 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Reformatting software to handle LANDSAT 5 data in quadrant format was completed and tested. The sensor two-dimensional point spread function was estimated from scene data. Budget recalculations are discussed. Two publications done under this contract are named.

  3. CNPQ/INPE LANDSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. N.; Escada, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities is described and main accomplishments are outlined. Receiving, recording, and processing substations and data distribution centers are discussed. Examples of the preliminary TM product produced by the Brazilian station are given.

  4. 25 Years of Landsat 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  5. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  6. Detection of aspen-conifer forest mixes from LANDSAT digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Merola, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of LANDSAT data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlays and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single date LANDSAT analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second date analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  7. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal Landsat digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using Landsat multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of Landsat data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlayes and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single data Landsat analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second data analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  8. Improvement of EUV mix-match overlay for production implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sarohan; Lee, ByoungHoon; Lee, Byong-Seog; Lee, Inwhan; Lim, Chang-Moon

    2016-03-01

    The improvement of overlay control in extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography is one of critical issues for successful mass production by using it. Especially it is important to improve the mix and match overlay or matched machine overlay (MMO) between EUV and ArF immersion tool, because EUV process will be applied to specific layers that have more competitive cost edge against ArF immersion multiple patterning with the early mass productivity of EUVL. Therefore it is necessary to consider the EUV overlay target with comparing the overlay specification of double patterning technology (DPT) and spacer patterning technology (SPT). This paper will discuss about required overlay controllability and current performance of EUV, and challenges for future improvement.

  9. Metropolitan land cover inventory using multiseasonal Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Hill, R.N.; Henry, C.C.; Lake, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project (PNLRIDP), planners from State, regional, and local agencies in Oregon are working with scientists from the EROS Data Center (USGS), Ames Research Center (NASA), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) to obtain practical training and experience in the analysis of remotely sensed data collected from air and spacecraft. A 4,000 km2 area centered on metropolitan Portland was chosen as the demonstration site, and a four-date Landsat temporal overlay was created which contained January, April, July, and October data collected in 1973. Digital multispectral analysis of single dates and two-date combinations revealed that the spring-summer and summer-fall combinations were the most satisfactory for land cover inventory. Residential, commercial and industrial, improved open space, water, forested, and agriculture land cover categories were obtained consistently in the majority of classification iterations. Census tract and traffic zone boundaries were digitized and registered with the Landsat data to facilitate integration of the land cover information with socioeconomic and environmental data already available to Oregon planners.

  10. Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

  11. Landsat Data as a Tool for the Geosciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Tina

    1990-01-01

    Applications of the Landsat Thematic Mapper in the fields of pedology, geology, and geomorphology are described. The history of the Landsat program and Landsat products are discussed. Illustrations of different Landsat views are presented. (CW)

  12. Landsat 9: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Jenstrom, Del; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Dabney, Phil; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Barsi, Julia A.; Montanaro, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    The Landsat 9 mission, currently under development and proceeding towards a targeted launch in late 2020, will be very similar to the Landsat 8 mission, launched in 2013. Like Landsat 8, Landsat 9 is a joint effort between NASA and USGS with two sensors, the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2), essentially a copy of the OLI on Landsat 8 and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2), very similar to the TIRS on Landsat 8. The OLI-2, like OLI, provides 14-bit image data, though for Landsat 9, all 14 bits will be retained and transmitted to the ground. The focal plane modules to be used for OLI-2 were flight spares for OLI and are currently being retested by Ball Aerospace. Results indicate radiometric performance comparable to OLI. The TIRS was a class C instrument, with a 3-year design lifetime, and therefore had limited redundancy. TIRS-2 will be a class B instrument, with a 5-year design lifetime, like OLI (and OLI-2), necessitating design changes to increase redundancy. The stray light and Scene Select Mechanism (SSM) encoder problems observed on orbit with TIRS have also instigated a few design changes to TIRS-2. Stray light analysis and testing have indicated that additional baffles in the TIRS-2 optical system will suppress the out-of-field response. The SSM encoder problems have not been definitively traced to a route cause, though conductive anodic filament growth in the circuit boards is suspected. Improved designs for the encoder are being considered for TIRS-2. The spare Focal Plane Array (FPA) from TIRS is planned for use in TIRS-2; FPA spectral and radiometric performance testing is scheduled for September of this year at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

  13. Landsat 9: Status and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Jenstrom, Del; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Dabney, Phil; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Barsi, Julia A.; Montanaro, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Landsat 9 mission, currently under development and proceeding towards a targeted launch in late 2020, will be very similar to the Landsat 8 mission, launched in 2013. Like Landsat 8, Landsat 9 is a joint effort between NASA and USGS with two sensors, the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2), essentially a copy of the OLI on Landsat 8 and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2), very similar to the TIRS on Landsat 8. The OLI-2, like OLI, provides 14-bit image data, though for Landsat 9, all 14 bits will be retained and transmitted to the ground. The focal plane modules to be used for OLI-2 were flight spares for OLI and are currently being retested by Ball Aerospace. Results indicate radiometric performance comparable to OLI. The TIRS was a class C instrument, with a 3-year design lifetime, and therefore had limited redundancy. TIRS-2 will be a class B instrument, with a 5-year design lifetime, like OLI (and OLI-2), necessitating design changes to increase redundancy. The stray light and Scene Select Mechanism (SSM) encoder problems observed on orbit with TIRS have also instigated a few design changes to TIRS-2. Stray light analysis and testing have indicated that additional baffles in the TIRS-2 optical system will suppress the out-of-field response. The SSM encoder problems have not been definitively traced to a route cause, though conductive anodic filament growth in the circuit boards is suspected. Improved designs for the encoder are being considered for TIRS-2. The spare Focal Plane Array (FPA) from TIRS is planned for use in TIRS-2; FPA spectral and radiometric performance testing is scheduled for September of this year at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

  14. Satellite information on Orlando, Florida. [coordination of LANDSAT and Skylab data and EREP photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W.; Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.

    1975-01-01

    A land use map of Orange County, Florida was prepared from EREP photography while LANDSAT and EREP multispectral scanner data were used to provide more detailed information on Orlando and its suburbs. The generalized maps were prepared by tracing the patterns on an overlay, using an enlarging viewer. Digital analysis of the multispectral scanner data was basically the maximum likelihood classification method with training sample input and computer printer mapping of the results. Urban features delineated by the maps are discussed. It is concluded that computer classification, accompanied by human interpretation and manual simplification can produce land use maps which are useful on a regional, county, and city basis.

  15. Landsat TM and ETM+ thermal band calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F. D.; Helder, D.L.; Hook, S.J.; Markham, B.L.; Chander, G.; O'Donnell, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-5 has been imaging the Earth since March 1984, and Landsat-7 was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The Landsat Project Science Office and the Landsat-7 Image Assessment System have been monitoring the on-board calibration of Landsat-7 since launch. Additionally, two separate university teams have been evaluating the on-board thermal calibration of Landsat-7 through ground-based measurements since launch. Although not monitored as closely over its lifetime, a new effort is currently being made to validate the calibration of Landsat-5. Two university teams are beginning to collect ground truth under Landsat-5, along with using other vicarious calibration methods to go back into the archive to validate the history of the calibration of Landsat-5. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments. Though stable since launch, Landsat-7 had an initial calibration error of about 3 K, and changes were made to correct for this beginning 1 October 2000 for data processed with the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) and beginning 20 December 2000 for data processed with the Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS). Recent results from Landsat-5 vicarious calibration efforts show an offset of –0.7 K over the lifetime of the instrument. This suggests that historical calibration efforts may have been detecting errors in processing systems rather than changes in the instrument. A correction to the Landsat-5 processing has not yet been implemented but will be in the near future.

  16. An operational application of satellite snow cover observations, northwest United States. [using LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-1 imagery showing extent of snow cover was collected and is examined for the 1973 and 1974 snowmelt seasons for three Columbia River Basins. Snowlines were mapped and the aerial snow cover was determined using satellite data. Satellite snow mapping products were compared products from conventional information sources (computer programming and aerial photography was used). Available satellite data were successfully analyzed by radiance thresholding to determine snowlines and the attendant snow-covered area. Basin outline masks, contour elevation masks, and grid overlays were utilized as satellite data interpretation aids. Verification of the LANDSAT-1 data was generally good although there were exceptions. A major problem was lack of adequate cloud-free satellite imagery of high resolution and determining snowlines in forested areas.

  17. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  18. The next Landsat satellite; the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Interior United States Geological Survey (USGS) are developing the successor mission to Landsat 7 that is currently known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). NASA is responsible for building and launching the LDCM satellite observatory. USGS is building the ground system and will assume responsibility for satellite operations and for collecting, archiving, and distributing data following launch. The observatory will consist of a spacecraft in low-Earth orbit with a two-sensor payload. One sensor, the Operational Land Imager (OLI), will collect image data for nine shortwave spectral bands over a 185 km swath with a 30 m spatial resolution for all bands except a 15 m panchromatic band. The other instrument, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), will collect image data for two thermal bands with a 100 m resolution over a 185 km swath. Both sensors offer technical advancements over earlier Landsat instruments. OLI and TIRS will coincidently collect data and the observatory will transmit the data to the ground system where it will be archived, processed to Level 1 data products containing well calibrated and co-registered OLI and TIRS data, and made available for free distribution to the general public. The LDCM development is on schedule for a December 2012 launch. The USGS intends to rename the satellite "Landsat 8" following launch. By either name a successful mission will fulfill a mandate for Landsat data continuity. The mission will extend the almost 40-year Landsat data archive with images sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier missions to allow long-term studies of regional and global land cover change.

  19. LANDSAT-2 and LANDSAT-3 Flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Flight performance analysis of LANDSAT 2 and LANDSAT 3 are presented for the period July 1978 to October 1978. Spacecraft operations and orbital parameters are summarized for each spacecraft. Data are provided on the performance and operation of the following subsystems onboard the spacecraft: power; attitude control; command/clock; telemetry; orbit adjust; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified S band/premodulation processor; electrical interface; thermal narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collections.

  20. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated LANDSAT-D systems operation plan is presented and discussed with respect to functional elements, personnel, and procedures. Specifically, a review of the LANDSAT-D program, mission requirements and management, and flight operations is given.

  1. LANDSAT, a data supplement to forest survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiede, G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT in providing forest data on a county basis was investigated. Image interpretation and classification techniques and their accuracy are addressed. LANDSAT data was also used to detect and delineate defoliation caused by tent caterpillars.

  2. Next Generation Landsat Products Delivered Using Virtual Globes and OGC Standard Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiers, M.; Dwyer, J.; Neiers, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the next in the series of Landsat satellite missions and is tasked with the objective of delivering data acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI). The OLI instrument will provide data continuity to over 30 years of global multispectral data collected by the Landsat series of satellites. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS) Center has responsibility for the development and operation of the LDCM ground system. One of the mission objectives of the LDCM is to distribute OLI data products electronically over the Internet to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at no cost. To ensure the user community and general public can easily access LDCM data from multiple clients, the User Portal Element (UPE) of the LDCM ground system will use OGC standards and services such as Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Geographic encoding of Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) feeds for both access to and delivery of LDCM products. The USGS has developed and tested the capabilities of several successful UPE prototypes for delivery of Landsat metadata, full resolution browse, and orthorectified (L1T) products from clients such as Google Earth, Google Maps, ESRI ArcGIS Explorer, and Microsoft's Virtual Earth. Prototyping efforts included the following services: using virtual globes to search the historical Landsat archive by dynamic generation of KML; notification of and access to new Landsat acquisitions and L1T downloads from GeoRSS feeds; Google indexing of KML files containing links to full resolution browse and data downloads; WMS delivery of reduced resolution browse, full resolution browse, and cloud mask overlays; and custom data downloads using WCS clients. These various prototypes will be demonstrated and LDCM service implementation plans will be discussed during this session.

  3. Landsat applied to landslide mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauchyn, D. J.; Trench, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of features characteristic of rotational landslides may be identified on Landsat imagery. These include tonal mottling, tonal banding, major and secondary scarps, and ponds. Pseudostereoscopic viewing of 9 by 9 in. transparencies was useful for the detailed identification of landslides, whereas 1:250,000 prints enlarged from 70 mm negatives were most suitable for regional analysis. Band 7 is the most useful band for landslide recognition, due to accentuation of ponds and shadows. Examination of both bands 7 and 5, including vegetation information, was found to be most suitable. Although, given optimum terrain conditions, some landslides in Colorado may be recognized, many smaller landslides are not identifiable. Consequently, Landsat is not recommended for detailed regional mapping, or for use in areas similar to Colorado, where alternative (aircraft) imagery is available. However, Landsat may prove useful for preliminary landslide mapping in relatively unknown areas.

  4. Landsat image data quality studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, C. F.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of the Landsat-4 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program to characterize the data obtained using the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on board the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 satellites are reported. TM design specifications were compared to the obtained data with respect to four criteria, including spatial resolution; geometric fidelity; information content; and image relativity to Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. The overall performance of the TM was rated excellent despite minor instabilities and radiometric anomalies in the data. Spatial performance of the TM exceeded design specifications in terms of both image sharpness and geometric accuracy, and the image utility of the TM data was at least twice as high as MSS data. The separability of alfalfa and sugar beet fields in a TM image is demonstrated.

  5. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  6. LANDSAT-5 orbit adjust maneuver report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassett, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.

  7. The LANDSAT story: Module U-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A review of the various LANDSAT program elements which are relevant to user participation is provided. Sources for additional information and assistance where potential users may acquire more details and further guidance in using LANDSAT data are identified. The multispectral imagery capability of the LANDSAT satellites is emphasized.

  8. The Landsat-D Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracken, P. A.; Billingsley, J. B.; Lynch, T. J.; Quann, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The overall Landsat-D system is discussed with emphasis on the objectives, configuration, and capabilities of the Landsat-D Assessment System. This system is being developed to support investigations which demonstrate, evaluate, and assess the utility of Landsat-D data for a wide variety of earth observations applications.

  9. Radiometric calibration updates to the Landsat collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2016-09-01

    The Landsat Project is planning to implement a new collection management strategy for Landsat products generated at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The goal of the initiative is to identify a collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated images across the entire Landsat archive that is readily suitable for time-series analyses. In order to perform an accurate land change analysis, the data from all Landsat sensors must be on the same radiometric scale. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is calibrated to a radiance standard and all previous sensors are cross-calibrated to its radiometric scale. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is calibrated to both radiance and reflectance standards independently. The Landsat 8 OLI reflectance calibration is considered to be most accurate. To improve radiometric calibration accuracy of historical data, Landsat 1-7 sensors also need to be cross-calibrated to the OLI reflectance scale. Results of that effort, as well as other calibration updates including the absolute and relative radiometric calibration and saturated pixel replacement for Landsat 8 OLI and absolute calibration for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), will be implemented into Landsat products during the archive reprocessing campaign planned within the new collection management strategy. This paper reports on the planned radiometric calibration updates to the solar reflective bands of the new Landsat collection.

  10. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  11. Adaptive processing for LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. B.; Reyer, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical and test results on the use of adaptive processing on LANDSAT data are presented. The Kalman filter was used as a framework to contain different adapting techniques. When LANDSAT MSS data were used all of the modifications made to the Kalman filter performed the functions for which they were designed. It was found that adaptive processing could provide compensation for incorrect signature means, within limits. However, if the data were such that poor classification accuracy would be obtained when the correct means were used, then adaptive processing would not improve the accuracy and might well lower it even further.

  12. A legislator's guide to LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The LANDSAT satellite is an effective tool in meeting the natural resources data requirements of state and federal legislation. The availability of data from the satellite is beginning to have an impact on state legislature activities. An overview of the history, operation, and data analysis techniques, is presented as well as a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this method of remote sensing. Applications are discussed in the areas of (1) land resource planning and management; (2) coastal zone management; (3) agriculture; (4) forestry; (5) routing and siting; (6) environmental monitoring; and (7) geological exploration. National and state sources from which information about LANDSAT technology is available are listed.

  13. Vector statistics of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Underwood, D.

    1977-01-01

    A digitized multispectral image, such as LANDSAT data, is composed of numerous four dimensional vectors, which quantitatively describe the ground scene from which the data are acquired. The statistics of unique vectors that occur in LANDSAT imagery are studied to determine if that information can provide some guidance on reducing image processing costs. A second purpose of this report is to investigate how the vector statistics are changed by various types of image processing techniques and determine if that information can be useful in choosing one processing approach over another.

  14. Landsat 8: Promise and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) on February 11, 2013 placing the eighth satellite in the Landsat series in orbit. The U.S. Geological Survey assumed responsibility for operations following a 100-day commissioning period and promptly renamed the satellite Landsat 8 on May 30, 2013. The satellite and its sensor payload, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), have performed magnificently since launch. The OLI signal-to-noise performance, for example, exceeds specifications by factors greater than 1.5 for every spectral band. TIRS is providing data with noise-equivalent-changes-in-temperature of less then 0.1 Kelvin compared to requirements of 0.4 Kelvin for its two thermal bands. The geometry of the images is also excellent with band-to-band registration accuracy, for example, of no more than 3.0 m for the OLI bands. The Landsat 8 level 1 data products are orthorectified and registered to the Universal Transverse Mercator cartographic projection with an uncertainty less than 5 m for OLI 30 m pixels and less than 35 m for TIRS 100 m pixels. The only exception to full specification compliance lies with the TIRS radiometric calibration. Discrepancies have been noted between calibrated Landsat 8 thermal data, TIRS Bands 10 and 11, and surface water temperature measurements collected to validate thermal band calibration. Surface water temperatures derived from TIRS data, after correction for atmospheric transmission and emissivity, are warmer than measured surface water temperatures by 2 K or more. This indicates a possible bias or other error in TIRS calibration that places the calibration uncertainty beyond the specified performance of 2 percent. Analysts continue to compare TIRS data to surface temperature measurements to discover the source of the discrepancy. Updates to TIRS calibration coefficients will be incorporated into Landsat 8 data processing as soon

  15. A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

  16. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A flight performance analysis of the LANDSAT-1 spacecraft is presented, and some of the following were examined: (1) orbital parameters; (2) power subsystem; (3) attitude control subsystem; (4) command/clock subsystem; (5) narrowband tape recorders; and (6) magnetic moment compensating assembly.

  17. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  18. Multicast and Bulk Lookup in Structured Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, Ali

    Structured overlay networks are often used to implement a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) abstraction. In this chapter, we argue that structured overlay networks are suitable for doing efficient group communication. We provide algorithms that enable a node to efficiently broadcast a message to all other nodes in a structured overlay network, without inducing any redundant messages. We also provide algorithms that enasble any node to efficiently send a message to all nodes in a specified set of identifiers. Such algorithms have found usage in many structured overlay networks that implement range queries. Similarly, we provide algorithms that enable any node to efficiently send a message to the nodes responsible for any of the identifiers in a specified set of identifiers. Finally, we look at a case study of implementing efficient Application Level Multicast (ALM) using the group communication algorithms on top of structured overlay networks.

  19. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

  20. A constitutive model for an overlay coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Coatings are frequently applied to gas turbine blades and vanes to provide protection against oxidation and corrosion. The results of an experimental and analytical study to develop a constitutive model for an overlay coating is presented. Specimens were machined from a hot isostatically pressed billet of PWA 286. The tests consisted of isothermal stress relaxation cycles with monotonically increasing maximum strain and were conducted at various temperatures. The results were used to calculate the constants for various constitutive models, including the classical, the Walker isotropic, a simplified Walker, and Stowell models. A computerized regression analysis was used to calculate model constants from the data. The best fit was obtained for the Walker model, with the simplified Walker and classical models close behind.

  1. Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo, Map View with Lava, Landsat / ASTER / SRTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This Landsat satellite image shows the volcano (right of center), the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain. Image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red overlay), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shore of Lake Kivu. The city airport parallels, and is just right (east) of, the larger lava flow. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but much broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the upper left.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view and topographic shading derived from the SRTM

  2. Landsat 7 Science Data Processing: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiss, Robert J.; Daniel, Nathaniel E.; Derrick, Deborah K.

    2000-01-01

    The Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System, developed by NASA for the Landsat 7 Project, provides the science data handling infrastructure used at the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) Landsat Data Handling Facility (DHF) of the United States Department of Interior, United States Geological Survey (USGS) located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This paper presents an overview of the Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System and details of the design, architecture, concept of operation, and management aspects of systems used in the processing of the Landsat 7 Science Data.

  3. Landsat science team meeting: Summer 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    With over 60 participants in attendance, this was the largest LST meeting ever held. Meeting topics on the first day included Sustainable Land Imaging and Landsat 9 development, Landsat 7 and 8 operations and data archiving, the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) stray-light issue, and the successful Sentinel-2 launch. In addition, on days two and three the LST members presented updates on their Landsat science and applications research. All presentations are available at landsat.usgs.gov/science_LST_Team_ Meetings.php.

  4. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  5. LANDSAT-1 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flight performance analysis for the tenth quarter of operation orbit 11467 to 12745 of LANDSAT 1 are presented. Payload subsystems discussed include: power subsystem; attitude control subsystem; telemetry subsystem; electrical interface subsystem; narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry subsystem; return beam vidicon subsystem; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collection system.

  6. A Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaronson, A. C.; Buchman, P. E.; Wescott, T.; Fries, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program which was developed to identify, observe, and evaluate alarm conditions influencing Iowa corn production in 1976. Used in conjunction with climatic and field reports, studies were made of crop development, crop alarms (such as heavy rainfall, hail, tornadoes, and drought) and estimated crop yield.

  7. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  8. Covariance hypotheses for LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decell, H. P.; Peters, C.

    1983-01-01

    Two covariance hypotheses are considered for LANDSAT data acquired by sampling fields, one an autoregressive covariance structure and the other the hypothesis of exchangeability. A minimum entropy approximation of the first structure by the second is derived and shown to have desirable properties for incorporation into a mixture density estimation procedure. Results of a rough test of the exchangeability hypothesis are presented.

  9. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  10. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  11. Landsat eyes help guard the world's forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Jon

    2017-03-03

    SummaryThe Landsat program is a joint effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), but the partner agencies have distinct roles. NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, launches satellites, and validates their performance in orbit. The USGS owns and operates Landsat satellites in space and manages their data transmissions, including ground reception, archiving, product generation, and public distribution. In 2008, with support from the U.S. Department of the Interior, the USGS made its Landsat data free to anyone in the world.The current satellites in the Landsat program, Landsat 7 (launched in 1999) and Landsat 8 (launched in 2013), provide complete coverage of the Earth every eight days. A Landsat 9 satellite is scheduled for launch in late 2020.

  12. Envelopment technique and topographic overlays in bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Djeapragassam, Parimala; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan; Ramadoss, Koliyan; Jimsha, Vannathan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of our study were to compare four sequential overlays generated using the envelopment technique and to evaluate inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Materials and Methods: Dental stone models were prepared from impressions made from healthy individuals; photographs were taken and computer-assisted overlays were generated. The models were then enveloped in a different-color dental stone. After this, four sequential cuts were made at a thickness of 1mm each. Each sectional cut was photographed and overlays were generated. Thus, 125 overlays were generated and compared. Results: The scoring was done based on matching accuracy and the data were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare four sequential overlays and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to evaluate the inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Conclusion: Through our study, we conclude that the third and fourth cuts were the best among the four cuts and inter- and intraoperator reliability were found to be statistically significant at 5% level that is 95% confidence interval (P < 0.05). PMID:26816458

  13. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT-1 spacecraft was launched from the Western Test Range on 23 July 1972, at 18:08:06.508Z. The launch and orbital injection phase of the space flight was nominal and deployment of the spacecraft followed predictions. Orbital operations of the spacecraft and payload subsystems were satisfactory through Orbit 147, after which an internal short circuit disabled one of the Wideband Video Tape Recorders (WBVTR-2). Operations resumed until Orbit 196, when the Return Beam Vidicon failed to respond when commanded off. The RBV was commanded off via alternate commands. LANDSAT-1 continued to perform its imaging mission with the Multispectral Scanner and the remaining Wideband Video Tape Recorder providing image data.

  14. Bayesian networks in overlay recipe optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Reynolds, Greg; Rigden, Timothy C.; Watkins, Stephen; Soroka, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    Currently, overlay measurements are characterized by "recipe", which defines both physical parameters such as focus, illumination et cetera, and also the software parameters such as algorithm to be used and regions of interest. Setting up these recipes requires both engineering time and wafer availability on an overlay tool, so reducing these requirements will result in higher tool productivity. One of the significant challenges to automating this process is that the parameters are highly and complexly correlated. At the same time, a high level of traceability and transparency is required in the recipe creation process, so a technique that maintains its decisions in terms of well defined physical parameters is desirable. Running time should be short, given the system (automatic recipe creation) is being implemented to reduce overheads. Finally, a failure of the system to determine acceptable parameters should be obvious, so a certainty metric is also desirable. The complex, nonlinear interactions make solution by an expert system difficult at best, especially in the verification of the resulting decision network. The transparency requirements tend to preclude classical neural networks and similar techniques. Genetic algorithms and other "global minimization" techniques require too much computational power (given system footprint and cost requirements). A Bayesian network, however, provides a solution to these requirements. Such a network, with appropriate priors, can be used during recipe creation / optimization not just to select a good set of parameters, but also to guide the direction of search, by evaluating the network state while only incomplete information is available. As a Bayesian network maintains an estimate of the probability distribution of nodal values, a maximum-entropy approach can be utilized to obtain a working recipe in a minimum or near-minimum number of steps. In this paper we discuss the potential use of a Bayesian network in such a capacity

  15. Lithography aware overlay metrology target design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Lee, Joonseuk; Jung, Mirim; Lee, Honggoo; Kim, Youngsik; Han, Sangjun; Adel, Michael E.; Lee, Kangsan; Lee, Dohwa; Choi, Dongsub; Liu, Zephyr; Itzkovich, Tal; Levinski, Vladimir; Levy, Ady

    2016-03-01

    We present a metrology target design (MTD) framework based on co-optimizing lithography and metrology performance. The overlay metrology performance is strongly related to the target design and optimizing the target under different process variations in a high NA optical lithography tool and measurement conditions in a metrology tool becomes critical for sub-20nm nodes. The lithography performance can be quantified by device matching and printability metrics, while accuracy and precision metrics are used to quantify the metrology performance. Based on using these metrics, we demonstrate how the optimized target can improve target printability while maintaining the good metrology performance for rotated dipole illumination used for printing a sub-100nm diagonal feature in a memory active layer. The remaining challenges and the existing tradeoff between metrology and lithography performance are explored with the metrology target designer's perspective. The proposed target design framework is completely general and can be used to optimize targets for different lithography conditions. The results from our analysis are both physically sensible and in good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1997-12-01

    The author has established a range of compositions for these alloys within which hot cracking resistance is very good, and within which cold cracking can be avoided in many instances by careful control of welding conditions, particularly preheat and postweld heat treatment. For example, crack-free butt welds have been produced for the first time in 12-mm thick wrought Fe{sub 3}Al plate. Cold cracking, however, still remains an issue in many cases. The author has developed a commercial source for composite weld filler metals spanning a wide range of achievable aluminum levels, and are pursuing the application of these filler metals in a variety of industrial environments. Welding techniques have been developed for both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes, and preliminary work has been done to utilize the wire arc process for coating of boiler tubes. Clad specimens have been prepared for environmental testing in-house, and a number of components have been modified and placed in service in operating kraft recovery boilers. In collaboration with a commercial producer of spiral weld overlay tubing, the author is attempting to utilize the new filler metals for this novel application.

  17. Geologic mapping using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegal, B. S.; Abrams, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of automated classification for lithologic mapping with LANDSAT digital data was evaluated using three classification algorithms. The two supervised algorithms analyzed, a linear discriminant analysis algorithm and a hybrid algorithm which incorporated the Parallelepiped algorithm and the Bayesian maximum likelihood function, were comparable in terms of accuracy; however, classification was only 50 per cent accurate. The linear discriminant analysis algorithm was three times as efficient as the hybrid approach. The unsupervised classification technique, which incorporated the CLUS algorithm, delineated the major lithologic boundaries and, in general, correctly classified the most prominent geologic units. The unsupervised algorithm was not as efficient nor as accurate as the supervised algorithms. Analysis of spectral data for the lithologic units in the 0.4 to 2.5 microns region indicated that a greater separability of the spectral signatures could be obtained using wavelength bands outside the region sensed by LANDSAT.

  18. Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.

    1997-04-22

    Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

  19. Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

  20. Stereocorrelation of Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Manfred; Welch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) developed from Landsat TM images of a rugged terrain area in north Georgia by automated stereocorrelation techniques yielded an rms error (z), RMSE(z), value of + or - 42 m. Based on the B/H ratio of 0.18 for the Landsat data, this Z-error corresponds to a planimetric correlation accuracy of about + or - 0.3 pixels, confirming that precise correlation can be achieved with operational satellite data. Contours at a 100-m interval interpolated from the DEM show a deviation of + or - 33 m from reference contours obtained from existing 1:24,000-scale maps. The 28.5-m pixel resolution and the weak B/H ratio impose limitations on the accuracy that can be achieved with Landsat TM data. However, it is anticipated that RMSE(z) values of + or - 10 m or less can be achieved with SPOT-1 panchromatic stereo images of 10-m resolution recorded at B/H ratios of 0.5 to 1.0. DEMs generated by stereocorrelation techniques can be used to create orthoimages, perspective views, and topographic map products.

  1. Measurement of irrigated acreage in Western Kansas from LANDSAT images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keene, K.M.; Conley, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the past four decades, irrigated acreage in western Kansas has increased rapidly. Optimum utilization of vital groundwater supplies requires implementation of long-term water-management programs. One important variable in such programs is up-to-date information on acreage under irrigation. Conventional ground survey methods of estimating irrigated acreage are too slow to be of maximum use in water-management programs. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT images permits more rapid measurement of irrigated acreage, but procedures are tedious and still relatively slow. For example, using a LANDSAT false-color composite image in areas of western Kansas with few landmarks, it is impossible to keep track of fields by examination under low-power microscope. Irrigated fields are more easily delineated on a photographically enlarged false-color composite and are traced on an overlay for measurement. Interpretation and measurement required 6 weeks for a four-county (3140 mi2, 8133 km2) test area. Video image-analysis equipment permits rapid measurement of irrigated acreage. Spectral response of irrigated summer crops in western Kansas on MSS band 5 (visible red, 0.6-0.7 ??m) images is low in contrast to high response from harvested and fallow fields and from common soil types. Therefore, irrigated acreage in western Kansas can be uniquely discriminated by video image analysis. The area of irrigated crops in a given area of view is measured directly. Sources of error are small in western Kansas. After preliminary preparation of the images, the time required to measure irrigated acreage was 1 h per county (average area, 876 ml2 or 2269 km2). ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. ``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. |; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K.; Suo, Z.

    1998-02-01

    In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

  3. Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records (CDRs) are high level Landsat data products that support land surface change studies. Climate Data Records, as defined by the National Research Council, are a time series of measurements with sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to identify climate variability and change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is using the valuable 40-year Landsat archive to create CDRs that can be used to document changes to Earth’s terrestrial environment.

  4. Evaluation of temporal registration of Landsat scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R.; Grebowsky, G.

    1982-01-01

    The registration of Landsat images is important for multitemporal classification and for detecting change. Landsat data are now rectified to a ground coordinate system during preprocessing, hence scenes obtained over the same area are registered. The machine responsible for preprocessing the Landsat multispectral scanner data is the master data processor (MDP). This paper describes the rectification approach taken by the MDP, reviews the accuracy standards of the resultant product, and provides an assessment of the accuracy of the scene to scene registration of two Landsat images.

  5. Wheat yield forecasts using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Several considerations of winter wheat yield prediction using LANDSAT data were discussed. In addition, a simple technique which permits direct early season forecasts of wheat production was described.

  6. Acquisition and preprocessing of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, T. N.; Brown, L. E.; Anonsen, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The original configuration of the GSFC data acquisition, preprocessing, and transmission subsystem, designed to provide LANDSAT data inputs to the LACIE system at JSC, is described. Enhancements made to support LANDSAT -2, and modifications for LANDSAT -3 are discussed. Registration performance throughout the 3 year period of LACIE operations satisfied the 1 pixel root-mean-square requirements established in 1974, with more than two of every three attempts at data registration proving successful, notwithstanding cosmetic faults or content inadequacies to which the process is inherently susceptible. The cloud/snow rejection rate experienced throughout the last 3 years has approached 50%, as expected in most LANDSAT data use situations.

  7. Landsat: Making a Difference, One User at a Time

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission will continue and improve upon the 40-year-old Landsat program. This video examines two uses of Landsat data to monitor agriculture. Both wineries and timber com...

  8. Device-correlated metrology for overlay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei

    2014-10-01

    One of the main issues with accuracy is the bias between the overlay (OVL) target and actual device OVL. In this study, we introduce the concept of device-correlated metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantify and overcome the bias between target-based OVL results and device OVL values. In order to systematically quantify the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence on the actual device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between the target and device on the same layer after etch inspection (AEI) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and after develop inspection for limited cases such as double-patterning layers. The results have shown that for the innovative process compatible hybrid targets the bias between the target and device is small, within the order of CD-SEM noise. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation between CD-SEM and optical OVL measurements at certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for the imaging base OVL method using several target types advance imaging metrology, advance imaging metrology in die OVL, and the scatterometrybase OVL method. Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer process conditions such as pattern density. Additionally, for memory devices we are developing hybrid targets which enable other methods of accuracy verification.

  9. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  10. A system for processing Landsat and other georeferenced data for resource management applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Laboratory has developed a transferrable system for processing Landsat and disparate data with capabilities for digital data classification, georeferencing, overlaying, and data base management. This system is known as the Earth Resources Data Analysis System. The versatility of the system has been demonstrated with applications in several disciplines. A description is given of a low-cost data system concept that is suitable for transfer to one's available in-house minicomputer or to a low-cost computer purchased for this purpose. Software packages are described that process Landsat data to produce surface cover classifications and that geographically reference the data to the UTM projection. Programs are also described that incorporate several sets of Landsat derived information, topographic information, soils information, rainfall information, etc., into a data base. Selected application algorithms are discussed and sample products are presented. The types of computers on which the low-cost data system concept has been implemented are identified, typical implementation costs are given, and the source where the software may be obtained is identified.

  11. Classification and area estimation of land covers in Kansas using ground-gathered and LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A.; Holko, M. L.; Anderson, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-gathered data and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data from 1981 were analyzed to produce a classification of Kansas land areas into specific types called land covers. The land covers included rangeland, forest, residential, commercial/industrial, and various types of water. The analysis produced two outputs: acreage estimates with measures of precision, and map-type or photo products of the classification which can be overlaid on maps at specific scales. State-level acreage estimates were obtained and substate-level land cover classification overlays and estimates were generated for selected geographical areas. These products were found to be of potential use in managing land and water resources.

  12. Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

  13. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Perspective View with Lava SRTM / ASTER / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: View width 21 kilometers (13 miles), View distance 42 kilometers (26 miles) Location: 1.5 degrees South latitude, 29.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: View east-northeast, 5 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. ASTER Band 12 (thermal) shown as red overlay. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet). ASTER (thermal) 90 meters (295 feet). Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), December 11, 2001 (Landsat), January 28, 2002 (ASTER)

  14. Characteristics of the Landsat Multispectral Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat satellites were launched into orbit in 1972 and 1975. Additional Landsat satellites are planned for launch in 1978 and 1981. The satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 900 km and each can obtain repetitive coverage of cloud-free areas every 18 days. A sun-synchronous orbit is used to insure repeatable illumination conditions. Repetitive satellite coverage allows optimal cover conditions for geologic applications to be identified. Seasonal variations in solar illumination must be analyzed to select the best Landsat data for geologic applications. Landsat data may be viewed in stereo where there is sufficient sidelap and sufficient topographic relief. Landsat-1 ceased operation on January 10, 1978. Landsat-2 detects, only solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface in visible and near-visible wavelengths. The third Landsat will also detect emitted thermal radiation. The multispectral scanner (MSS) was the only sensing instrument used on the first two satellites. The MSS on Landsats-1 and -2 detect radiation which is reflected from a 79 m by 79 m area, and the data are formatted as if the measurement was made from a 56 m by 79 m area. The MSS integrates spectral response from all cover types within the 79 m by 79 m area. The integrated spectral signature often does not resemble the spectral signature from individual cover types, and the integrated signature is also modified by the atmosphere. Landsat-1 and -2 data are converted to 70 mm film and computer compatible tapes (CCT's) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); these are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) for duplication and distribution to users. Landsat-C data will be converted to 241 mm-wide film and CCT's at EDC. Landsat-D data will be relayed from the satellite directly to geosynchronous satellites and then to the United States from any location on Earth.

  15. LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

  16. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  17. Landsat-4 data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been analyzed in order to ascertain data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations have tested band-to-band registration accuracy, and the TM's overall system resolution was evaluated for the case of image objects with high contrast, sharp edge responses. The information content evaluation employed clustering, principal components, and the transformed divergence separability measured on data from Iowa and Chicago, Illinois. The MSS classification analysis compared MSS and TM information contents for a large number of science classes.

  18. Trophic status of inland lakes from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, L. T.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    A first-cut assessment of the trophic status of inland lakes in Wisconsin was obtained from LANDSAT data. To satisfy the criteria of the project, a large and versatile computer program was developed to gain access to LANDSAT data. This analysis technique has proven to be a cost-effective method of classifying inland lakes in Wisconsin.

  19. Land Measurement from Future Landsat Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, J. R.; Masek, J. G.; Ochs, W. R.; Gao, F.

    2005-12-01

    The current strategy for implementing a successor mission to Landsat 7 involves the integration of Landsat sensors onto satellites under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Unlike the data from other sensors planned for NPOESS satellites, Landsat data are not yet incorporated into algorithms for the generation of environmental data records. Placing the Landsat program into the NPOESS system creates the opportunity for defining and implementing environmental data records which fuse high resolution Landsat data with coarser resolution observations from the other sensors to create a suite of useful land measurement products. For example, a prototype product has been developed merging Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) data with Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to create synthetic "daily" high resolution land reflectance images. This product is regarded as a preliminary step in creating annual, global land cover and land cover change maps meeting the needs of the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and other national and international environmental monitoring programs. The strategy for continuing the Landsat mission, the prototype land reflectance product, and the potential for using Landsat data to operationally produce a suite of land cover / land use change data records will be discussed.

  20. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Portions of the LANDSAT-D systems operation plan are presented. An overview of the data processing operations, logistics and other operations support, prelaunch and post-launch activities, thematic mapper operations during the scrounge period, and LANDSAT-D performance evaluation is given.

  1. LANDSAT non-US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  2. Landsat sensor performance: history and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Storey, James C.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The current Thematic Mapper (TM) class of Landsat sensors began with Landsat-4, which was launched in 1982. This series continued with the nearly identical sensor on Landsat-5, launched in 1984. The final sensor in the series was the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which was carried into orbit in 1999. Varying degrees of effort have been devoted to the characterization of these instruments and data over the past 22 years. Extensive short-lived efforts early in the history, very limited efforts in the middle years, and now a systematic program for continuing characterization of all three systems are apparent. Currently, both the Landsat-5 TM and the Landsat-7 ETM+ are operational and providing data. Despite 20+ years of operation, the TM on Landsat-5 is fully functional, although downlinks for the data are limited. Landsat-7 ETM+ experienced a failure of its Scan Line Corrector mechanism in May 2003. Although there are gaps in the data coverage, the data remain of equivalent quality to prefailure data. Data products have been developed to fill these gaps using other ETM+ scenes.

  3. LANDSAT D operations control center study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L.; Brown, G.; Clemson, B.; Efner, J.; Engelberg, N.; Owen, J.; Winchester, T.

    1977-01-01

    Various aspects of the planned LANDSAT D system are discussed. LANDSAT D incorporates the Thematic Mapper (TM) as a sensor, it utilizes the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS), it makes use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and it employs a more advanced ground system. Each of these represent significant improvements in the state-of-the-art.

  4. Overlay metrology solutions in a triple patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Mao, Ming; Baudemprez, Bart; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology tool suppliers are offering today several options to their customers: Different hardware (Image Based Overlay or Diffraction Based Overlay), different target designs (with or without segmentation) or different target sizes (from 5 um to 30 um). All these variations are proposed to resolve issues like robustness of the target towards process variations, be more representative of the design or increase the density of measurements. In the frame of the development of a triple patterning BEOL scheme of 10 nm node layer, we compare IBO targets (standard AIM, AIMid and multilayer AIMid). The metrology tools used for the study are KLA-Tencor's nextgeneration Archer 500 system (scatterometry- and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool). The overlay response and fingerprint of these targets will be compared using a very dense sampling (up to 51 pts per field). The benefit of indie measurements compared to the traditional scribes is discussed. The contribution of process effects to overlay values are compared to the contribution of the performance of the target. Different targets are combined in one measurement set to benefit from their different strengths (performance vs size). The results are summarized and possible strategies for a triple patterning schemes are proposed.

  5. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  6. Landsat International Cooperators and Global Archive Consolidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-04-07

    Landsat missions have always been an important component of U.S. foreign policy, as well as science and technology policy. The program’s longstanding network of International Cooperators (ICs), which operate numerous International Ground Stations (IGS) around the world, embodies the United States’ policy of peaceful use of outer space and the worldwide dissemination of civil space technology for public benefit. Thus, the ICs provide an essential dimension to the Landsat mission.In 2010, the Landsat Global Archive Consolidation (LGAC) effort began, with a goal to consolidate the Landsat data archives of all international ground stations, make the data more accessible to the global Landsat community, and significantly increase the frequency of observations over a given area of interest to improve scientific uses such as change detection and analysis.

  7. Radiometric calibration status of Landsat-7 and Landsat-5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.; Chander, G.

    2007-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, Landsat-7 ETM+ continues to acquire data globally. The Scan Line Corrector in failure in 2003 has affected ground coverage and the recent switch to Bumper Mode operations in April 2007 has degraded the internal geometric accuracy of the data, but the radiometry has been unaffected. The best of the three on-board calibrators for the reflective bands, the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, has indicated slow changes in the ETM+, but this is believed to be due to contamination on the panel rather then instrument degradation. The Internal Calibrator lamp 2, though it has not been used regularly throughout the whole mission, indicates smaller changes than the FASC since 2003. The changes indicated by lamp 2 are only statistically significant in band 1, circa 0.3% per year, and may be lamp as opposed to instrument degradations. Regular observations of desert targets in the Saharan and Arabian deserts indicate the no change in the ETM+ reflective band response, though the uncertainty is larger and does not preclude the small changes indicated by lamp 2. The thermal band continues to be stable and well-calibrated since an offset error was corrected in late-2000. Launched in 1984, Landsat-5 TM also continues to acquire global data; though without the benefit of an on-board recorder, data can only be acquired where a ground station is within range. Historically, the calibration of the TM reflective bands has used an onboard calibration system with multiple lamps. The calibration procedure for the TM reflective bands was updated in 2003 based on the best estimate at the time, using only one of the three lamps and a cross-calibration with Landsat-7 ETM+. Since then, the Saharan desert sites have been used to validate this calibration model. Problems were found with the lamp based model of up to 13% in band 1. Using the Saharan data, a new model was developed and implemented in the US processing system in April 2007. The TM thermal band was found to have a

  8. Constructing Overlay Networks with Short Paths and Low Communication Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makikawa, Fuminori; Tsuchiya, Tatsuhiro; Kikuno, Tohru

    A Peer-To-Peer (P2P) application uses an overlay network which is a virtual network constructed over the physical network. Traditional overlay construction methods do not take physical location of nodes into consideration, resulting in a large amount of redundant traffic. Some proximity-aware construction methods have been proposed to address this problem. These methods typically connect nearby nodes in the physical network. However, as the number of nodes increases, the path length of a route between two distant nodes rapidly increases. To alleviate this problem, we propose a technique which can be incorporated in existing overlay construction methods. The idea behind this technique is to employ long links to directly connect distant nodes. Through simulation experiments, we show that using our proposed technique, networks can achieve small path length and low communication cost while maintaining high resiliency to failures.

  9. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  10. Using Mobile Agents and Overlay Networks to Secure Electrical Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, Neal A.; Prosser, Bryan J.; Fulp, Errin W.; McKinnon, Archibald D.

    2013-02-11

    ABSTRACT The use of wandering, mobile agents can provide a robust approach for managing, monitoring, and securing electrical distribution networks. However, the topological structure of electrical networks can affect system performance. For example, if the multi-agent system relies on a regular inspection rate (on average, points of interest are inspected with equal frequency), then locations that are not well connected will on average be inspected less frequently. This paper discusses creation and use of overlay networks that create a virtual grid graph can provide faster coverage and a more uniform average agent sampling rate. Using overlays agents wander a virtual neighborhood consisting of only points of interest that are interconnected in a regular fashion (each point has the same number of neighbors). Experimental results will show that an overlay can often provide better network coverage and a more uniform inspection rate, which can improve cyber security by providing a faster detection of threats.

  11. Using Mobile Agents and Overlay Networks to Secure Electrical Netoworks

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, Neal A.; Prosser, Bryan J.; Fulp, Errin W.; McKinnon, Archibald D.

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT The use of wandering, mobile agents can provide a robust approach for managing, monitoring, and securing electrical distribution networks. However, the topological structure of electrical networks can affect system performance. For example, if the multi-agent system relies on a regular inspection rate (on average, points of interest are inspected with equal frequency), then locations that are not well connected will on average be inspected less frequently. This paper discusses creation and use of overlay networks that create a virtual grid graph can provide faster coverage and a more uniform average agent sampling rate. Using overlays agents wander a virtual neighborhood consisting of only points of interest that are interconnected in a regular fashion (each point has the same number of neighbors). Experimental results will show that an overlay can often provide better network coverage and a more uniform inspection rate, which can improve cyber security by providing a faster detection of threats

  12. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  13. Overview of the Landsat-7 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Darrel; Irons, James; Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jefery

    1999-01-01

    Landsat-7 is scheduled for launch on April 15 from the Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on a Delta-H expendable launch vehicle. The Landsat 7 satellite consists of a spacecraft bus being provided by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (Valley Forge, Pa.) and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus instrument built by Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (Santa Barbara, Calif.). The instrument on board Landsat 7 is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). ETM+ improves upon the previous Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments on Landsat's 4 and 5 (Fig. la and lb). It includes the previous 7 spectral bands measuring reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal emissions but, in addition, includes a new 15 in panchromatic (visible-near infrared) band. The spatial resolution of the thermal infrared band has also been improved to 60 m. Both the radiometric precision and accuracy of the sensor are also improved from the previous TM sensors. After being launched into a sun-synchronous polar orbit, the satellite will use on-board propulsion to adjust its orbit to a circular altitude of 438 miles (705 kilometers) crossing the equator at approximately 10 a.m. on its southward track. This orbit will place Landsat 7 along the same ground track as previous Landsat satellites. The orbit will be maintained with periodic adjustments for the life of the mission. A three-axis attitude control subsystem will stabilize the satellite and keep the instrument pointed toward the Earth to within 0.05 degrees. Later this year, plans call for the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) Terra (AM-1) observatory and the experimental EO-1 mission to closely follow Landsat-7's orbit to support synergistic research and applications from this new suite of terrestrial sensor systems. Landsat is the United States' oldest land-surface observation satellite system, with satellites continuously operating since 1972. Although the program has scored numerous successes in

  14. Implementing a Trust Overlay Framework for Digital Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Paul; McGibney, Jimmy; Botvich, Dmitri; McLaughlin, Mark

    Digital Ecosystems, being decentralised in nature, are inherently untrustworthy environments. This is due to the fact that these environments lack a centralised gatekeeper and identity provider. In order for businesses to operate in these environments there is a need for security measures to support accountability and traceability. This paper describes a trust overlay network developed in the OPAALS project to allow entities participating in digital ecosystems to share experience through the exchange of trust values and to leverage on this network to determine reputation based trustworthiness of unknown and initially untrusted entities. An overlay network is described together with sample algorithms and a discussion on implementation.

  15. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E.

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80 GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  16. Flexible TWDM PON with WDM overlay for converged services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ning

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of flexible TWDM PON (time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network) with pluggable transceivers for pay-as-you-grow deployment, load balancing, channel protection and power saving. Different architectures for TWDM PON with WDM (wavelength division multiplexed) overlay for converged broadband services are discussed and experimental results are presented for WDM overlay using low-cost self-seeded RSOA (reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers). Challenging issues and possible solutions for future evolution toward software defined flexible PONs (FlexPONs) are also discussed with respect to dynamic lambda flow, elastic bandwidth and flexible reach.

  17. Landsat - Current and future capabilities for agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    The potential of the Landsat spacecraft in applications related to agriculture is demonstrated by the examples of assessing the damage to the Brazilian coffee crop due to freezing temperatures on July 17-18, 1975; and damage assessment in the state of Iowa, following a tornado which struck a corn and soybean producing region on June 13, 1976. Some techniques which have been used to measure snow covers on the basis of Landsat data are also noted. The advantages that are expected to accrue from the installation of sophisticated equipment on the third and fourth Landsat spacecraft, scheduled to be launched in 1978 and 1981, respectively, are reviewed.

  18. Stratification of Landsat data by clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Davis, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Full realization of the potential advantages of the synoptic coverage provided by Landsat will require the development and use of data analysis techniques which take into account the large variation and diversity of patterns found over many Landsat scenes. Stratification of the scene into units which are internally homogeneous is recommended as a first step in the analysis of data for whole or multiple frames of Landsat data. The use of clustering as an objective and efficient method of dividing scenes into areas which are spectrally similar (strata) is discussed and initial results, including classification performances and comparisons of spectral strata with major physical factors, are presented.

  19. LANDSAT D user data processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The major expected users of the LANDSAT D system and a preliminary system design of their required facilities are investigated. This system design will then be costed in order to provide an estimate of the incremental user costs necessitated by LANDSAT D. One major use of these cost estimates is as part of an overall economic cost/benefit argument being developed for the LANDSAT D system. The implication of this motive is key; the system design (and corresponding cost estimates) must be a credible one, but not necessarily an optimum one.

  20. Combined synthetic aperture radar/Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marque, R. E.; Maurer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into merging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images using optical and digital merging techniques. The unique characteristics of airborne and orbital SAR and Landsat MSS imagery are discussed. The case for merging the imagery is presented and tradeoffs between optical and digital merging techniques explored. Examples of Landsat and airborne SAR imagery are used to illustrate optical and digital merging. Analysis of the merged digital imagery illustrates the improved interpretability resulting from combining the outputs from the two sensor systems.

  1. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  2. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacharintanakul, Peera

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

  3. 12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ON UPSTREAM EMBANKMENT OF DAM (FROM REPAIRS COMPLETED IN 1977) - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  4. Efficient loss recovery in application overlay stored media streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhi-ping; Zheng, Geng-sheng; He, Gui-ming

    2005-07-01

    As the Internet does not widely support Internet protocol multicast, and content distribution networks are costly, application overlay has emerged as an alternative for deploying large scale streaming systems. Loss recovery in such architecture is a great challenge because of the correlation of packet losses results from the relaying nature, the variation of accumulated loss rates, and the dynamics of overlay structure, which is inevitable. Since each overlay node is capable of buffering a certain length of media data it has received, and there exists a temporal dependency between the buffers of nodes along a transmitting path, it is highly desirable to make full use of this buffering capability to carry out loss recovery. To this purpose, a retransmission-based approach is proposed in this paper. First, packet losses at a node are classified into two categories according to whether they can be repaired from the immediate upstream node, then, by making upstream nodes propagate loss information downstream, the proposed scheme enables each node efficiently recognize the nature of the loss it detects, and accordingly determine appropriate repair source, thus suppresses unnecessary retransmission requests. The proposed scheme is supported by theoretical analysis of the temporal dependency between overlay nodes, and its performance is verified by experimental results.

  5. Investigations of magnetic overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Yu, S.-W.; Butterfield, M.T.; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, G.D.

    2010-08-27

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy, including spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source. Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  6. Investigations of Magnetic Overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Butterfield, M T

    2009-06-26

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XMCD-ABS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES), including Spin-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SRPES), at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  7. Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Andrew Jacob

    2012-01-01

    I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

  8. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Section 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  9. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 December 1975. [LANDSAT imagery for December, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  10. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 April 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for April, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  11. Landsat Science Team: 2017 Winter Meeting Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Todd A.; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2017-01-01

    The summer meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held July 26-28, 2016, at South Dakota State University (SDSU) in Brookings, SD. LST co-chair Tom Loveland [USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS)] and Kevin Kephart [SDSU] welcomed more than 80 participants to the three-day meeting. That attendance at such meetings continues to increase—likely due to the development of new data products and sensor systems—further highlights the growing interest in the Landsat program. The main objectives of this meeting were to provide a status update on Landsat 7 and 8, review team member research activities, and to begin identifying priorities for future Landsat missions.

  12. Quantitative water quality with LANDSAT and Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation studies were completed between LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) band ratios derived from computer compatible tape (CCT) and 170 water samples taken from three large Kansas reservoirs, coincident with 16 different LANDSAT passes over a 13 month period. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) LANDSAT MSS reflectance levels are useful for quantitative measurement of suspended solids up to at least 900 ppm, (2) MSS band ratios derived from CCT can measure suspended solids with 67% confidence level accuracy of 12 ppm over the range 0-80 ppm and 35 ppm over the range 0900 ppm, (3) suspended solids contour maps can be easily constructed from CCT for water bodies larger than approximately 100 acres, (4) rationing suppresses MSS reflectance level dependence on seasonal sun angle variation and permits measurement of suspended load the year round in the middle latitudes. SKYLAB imagery from a single pass over three reservoirs compares favorably to LANDSAT results up to 100 ppm.

  13. LANDSAT-4 Scientific Characterization: Early Results Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiometric calibration, geometric accuracy, spatial and spectral resolution, and image quality are examined for the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanner on LANDSAT 4. Sensor performance is evaluated.

  14. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Classification performance from LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS data is evaluated using the SECHO computer program. The data accuracy is compared using forest, corn, soybeans, bare soil, grass, water, and urban areas as classes for investigation.

  15. Landsat: A Space Age Water Gauge

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water specialists Rick Allen, Bill Kramber and Tony Morse use Landsat thermal band data to measure the amount of water evaporating from the soil and transpiring from plants’ leaves – a process call...

  16. Oriented Overlays for Clustering Client Requests to Data-Centric Network Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    peer-to-peer ( P2P ) overlay network for data-sharing has been well studied by many researchers. Proposed approaches fall into two main cate- gories...structured [11]–[17], [21], [22] P2P overlay networks that we discussed in Section I, researchers have also examined construction of overlay

  17. Volgograd and vicinity: a Landsat view

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dando, William A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    1981-01-01

    Many diverse features can be discerned on the Landsat image of Volgograd and vicinity. Some of these features have resulted directly from man's alteration of the land surface in accordance with Stalin's and Khrushchev's plans for control of climate and for development in Volgograd and the surrounding area. Landsat images such as the one in this example provide the opportunity to inventory and assess man's imprint upon the land on a regional basis from a unique perspective.

  18. The ORSER LANDSAT Data Base of Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A mosaicked LANDSAT data base for Pennsylvania, installed at the computation center of the Pennsylvania State University is described. Initially constructed by Penn State's Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) for the purpose of assisting in state-wide mapping of gypsy moth defoliation, the data base will be available to a variety of potential users. It will provide geometrically correct LANDSAT data accessible by political, jurisdictional, or arbitrary boundaries.

  19. Landsat radiometric continuity using airborne imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Angal, A.; Thome, K.; Cook, B.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) includes a scanning lidar, an imaging spectrometer and a thermal camera. The Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The SIRCUS-based calibration facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere facilitated a radiance-based calibration for the detectors in the reflective solar bands. The transfer of the SIRCUS-based laboratory calibration of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer to the Landsat sensors (Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI) is demonstrated using simultaneous overpasses over the Red Lake Playa and McClaw's Playa sites during the commissioning phase of Landsat 8 in March 2013. Solar Lunar Absolute Imaging Spectrometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar instrument of CLARREO. A portable version of SOLARIS, known as Suitcase SOLARIS, also calibrated using a SIRCUS-based setup, was deployed for ground measurements as a part of both the field campaigns. Simultaneous measurements of SOLARIS allow cross-comparison with G-LiHT and Landsat sensors. The transfer of the lab-based calibration of G-LiHT to Landsat sensors show that the sensors agree within 5% with a 1-3% calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer.

  20. Landsat: A global land-observing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Landsat represents the world’s longest continuously acquired collection of space-based land remote sensing data. The Landsat Project is a joint initiative of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designed to gather Earth resource data from space. NASA developed and launched the spacecrafts, while the USGS handles the operations, maintenance, and management of all ground data reception, processing, archiving, product generation, and distribution.Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth’s surface for more than thirty years. Landsat’s Global Survey Mission is to repeatedly capture images of the Earth’s land mass, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs, and to ensure that sufficient data are acquired to support the observation of changes on the Earth’s land surface and surrounding environment. NASA launched the first Landsat satellite in 1972, and the most recent one, Landsat 7, in 1999. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of additional images of the Earth’s surface each day. These images provide a valuable resource for people who work

  1. Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo, Map View with Lava, Landsat / ASTER / SRTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This Landsat satellite image shows the volcano (right of center), the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain. Image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red overlay), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shore of Lake Kivu. The city airport parallels, and is just right (east) of, the larger lava flow. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but much broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the upper left.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view and topographic shading derived from the SRTM

  2. LANDSAT 2 cumulative US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality, are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  3. LANDSAT 1 non US cumulative catalog, 1976/1977. [LANDSAT imagery for 1976/1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT 1 non-U. S. Cumulative Catalog lists non-U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  4. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog 1-31 December 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date required, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  5. LANDSAT: US Standard Catalog, 1-31 December 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  6. Landsat and water: case studies of the uses and benefits of landsat imagery in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serbina, Larisa O.; Miller, Holly M.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat program has been collecting and archiving moderate resolution earth imagery since 1972. The number of Landsat users and uses has increased exponentially since the enactment of a free and open data policy in 2008, which made data available free of charge to all users. Benefits from the information Landsat data provides vary from improving environmental quality to protecting public health and safety and informing decision makers such as consumers and producers, government officials and the public at large. Although some studies have been conducted, little is known about the total benefit provided by open access Landsat imagery. This report contains a set of case studies focused on the uses and benefits of Landsat imagery. The purpose of these is to shed more light on the benefits accrued from Landsat imagery and to gain a better understanding of the program’s value. The case studies tell a story of how Landsat imagery is used and what its value is to different private and public entities. Most of the case studies focus on the use of Landsat in water resource management, although some other content areas are included.

  7. Characterization of Landsat-7 to Landsat-8 Reflective Wavelength and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Continuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, D. P.; Kovalskyy, V.; Zhang, H. K.; Vermote, E. F.; Yan, L.; Kumar, S. S.; Egorov, A.

    2016-01-01

    At over 40 years, the Landsat satellites provide the longest temporal record of space-based land surface observations, and the successful 2013 launch of the Landsat-8 is continuing this legacy. Ideally, the Landsat data record should be consistent over the Landsat sensor series. The Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) has improved calibration, signal to noise characteristics, higher 12-bit radiometric resolution, and spectrally narrower wavebands than the previous Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). Reflective wavelength differences between the two Landsat sensors depend also on the surface reflectance and atmospheric state which are difficult to model comprehensively. The orbit and sensing geometries of the Landsat- 8 OLI and Landsat-7 ETM+ provide swath edge overlapping paths sensed only one day apart. The overlap regions are sensed in alternating backscatter and forward scattering orientations so Landsat bi-directional reflectance effects are evident but approximately balanced between the two sensors when large amounts of time series data are considered. Taking advantage of this configuration a total of 59 million 30m corresponding sensor observations extracted from 6,317 Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 OLI images acquired over three winter and three summer months for all the conterminous United States (CONUS) are compared. Results considering different stages of cloud and saturation filtering, and filtering to reduce one day surface state differences, demonstrate the importance of appropriate per-pixel data screening. Top of atmosphere (TOA) and atmospherically corrected surface reflectance for the spectrally corresponding visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared bands, and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), are compared and their differences quantified. On average the OLI TOA reflectance is greater than the ETM+ TOA reflectance for all bands, with greatest differences in the near-infrared (NIR) and the shortwave infrared bands

  8. Comparative evaluations of the geodetic accuracy and cartographic potential of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Jordan, T. R.; Ehlers, M.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is conducted by NASA. One part of this program forms studies which are being performed with the objective to evaluate the geometric fidelity of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in computer tape (CCT-pt) formats. It is pointed out that the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 systems provide image data of significantly better geometric fidelity than were obtained from the earlier Landsat missions. Attention is given to the factors which influence the geometric fidelity of the Landsat TM data, the study areas and data sets, the rectification procedures, the rectification of Landsat-4 TM data and comparisons of the Scrounge and the TM Image Processing System (TIPS), the rectification of system and scene corrected Landsat-5 data processed on TIPS, and the cartographic potential of TM data.

  9. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  10. Stepper Overlay Calibration Using Alignment To A Latent Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmark, Karl W.; Ausschnitt, Christopher P.

    1985-07-01

    We describe a method which minimizes the time required to set up and sustain optimum overlay performance of the DSW step-and-repeat system throughout a product wafer run. Improvement in both system performance and productivity is realized. Fundamental to the technique are the latent image formed by the exposure of photoresist, the AWA' global alignment system and the laser-metered stages of the DSW system. We eliminate the need to develop wafers and to read verniers during the DSW system set-up. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential for on-the-fly calibration using product reticles and product wafers. The approach is generally applicable to the overlay calibration of optical exposure tools.

  11. CodedStream: live media streaming with overlay coded multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiang; Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2003-12-01

    Multicasting is a natural paradigm for streaming live multimedia to multiple end receivers. Since IP multicast is not widely deployed, many application-layer multicast protocols have been proposed. However, all of these schemes focus on the construction of multicast trees, where a relatively small number of links carry the multicast streaming load, while the capacity of most of the other links in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media distribution system based on end-system overlay multicast. In CodedStream, we construct a k-redundant multicast graph (a directed acyclic graph) as the multicast topology, on which network coding is applied to work around bottlenecks. Simulation results have shown that the combination of k-redundant multicast graph and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media at the end receivers.

  12. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  13. Validation of the 2008 Landsat Burned Area Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 Burned Area ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene areas overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference burned area polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic Burned Area Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic Burned Area Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.

  14. HVM capabilities of CPE run-to-run overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Gutjahr, Karsten; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Sparka, Christian; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Ramanathan, Vidya; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of N2x and N1x process nodes, leading-edge factories are facing challenging demands of shrinking design margins. Previously un-corrected high-order signatures, and un-compensated temporal changes of high-order signatures, carry an important potential for improvement of on-product overlay (OPO). Until recently, static corrections per exposure (CPE), applied separately from the main APC correction, have been the industry's standard for critical layers [1], [2]. This static correction is setup once per device and layer and then updated periodically or when a machine change point generates a new overlay signature. This is a non-ideal setup for two reasons. First, any drift or sudden shift in tool signature between two CPE update periods can cause worse OPO and a higher rework rate, or, even worse, lead to yield loss at end of line. Second, these corrections are made from full map measurements that can be in excess of 1,000 measurements per wafer [3]. Advanced overlay control algorithms utilizing Run-to-Run (R2R) CPE can be used to reduce the overlay signatures on product in High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) environments. In this paper, we demonstrate the results of a R2R CPE control scheme in HVM. The authors show an improvement up to 20% OPO Mean+3Sigma values on several critical immersion layers at the 28nm and 14 nm technology nodes, and a reduction of out-of-spec residual points per wafer (validated on full map). These results are attained by closely tracking process tool signature changes by means of APC, and with an affordable metrology load which is significantly smaller than full wafer measurements.

  15. Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromaticities differ.

    PubMed

    Lightstone, A; Lightstone, T; Wilkins, A

    1999-07-01

    Some individuals read more fluently when the text is coloured: i.e., when coloured sheets of plastic (overlays) are placed upon the page, or when coloured lenses are worn. Overlays provide a surface colour whereas lenses mimic a change in the colour of a light source. The neural mechanisms that underlie colour constancy ensure that the chromaticity of overlays and lenses is processed differently by the visual system. We investigated (1) the relationship between the optimal colours of overlays and lenses, and (2) how reading rate is affected by a particular colour in overlays and lenses. In 100 patients we noted (1) the overlay(s) chosen from among the 29 combinations of the 10 IOO Intuitive Overlays which sample chromaticity systematically and (2) the chromaticity co-ordinates of the lenses subsequently chosen using the intuitive Colorimeter, a device providing a light source that can be adjusted in hue, saturation and luminance independently. The relationship between the chromaticities of the overlays and the lenses showed considerable variation. In a second study, patients attending the Specific Learning Difficulties clinic at the Institute of Optometry, London, were given overlays to use for two months. Seventeen who derived benefit were examined using the Intuitive Colorimeter. Patients were asked to read aloud randomly ordered common words (Wilkins Rate of Reading Test): (1) with no colour, (2) with the chosen overlay, (3) with lenses matching the chosen overlay and (4) with lenses matching the Colorimeter setting. The aids increased reading rate significantly only in conditions (2) and (4). There was no significant improvement when lenses matching the overlay colour were used, and under this condition the reading rate was significantly poorer than in conditions (2) and (4). The colour of a lens will improve reading only if it is selected under conditions that mimic a change in the colour of a light source: coloured overlays give no clinically reliable guide

  16. Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    1999-01-01

    Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

  17. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  18. An Overlapping Structured P2P for REIK Overlay Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Song, Jingjing; Yu, Jiguo

    REIK is based on a ring which embedded an inverse Kautz digraph, to enable multi-path P2P routing. It has the constant degree and the logarithmic diameter DHT scheme with constant congestion and Byzantine fault tolerance. However, REIK did not consider the interconnection of many independent smaller networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach to build overlay network, OLS-REIK which is an overlapping structured P2P for REIK overlay network. It is a more flexible interconnecting different REIK network. Peers can belong to several rings, allowing this interconnection. By connecting smaller structured overlay networks in an unstructured way, it provides a cost effective alternative to hierarchical structured P2P systems requiring costly merging. Routing of lookup messages is performed as in REIK within one ring, but a peer belonging to several rings forwards the request to the different rings it belongs to. Furthermore a small number of across point is enough to ensure a high exhaustiveness level.

  19. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

    2013-12-01

    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had

  20. Landsat-7 Mission and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, S. Kenneth; Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Barker, John L.; Markham, Brian L.; Bolek, Joseph T.; Scott, Steven S.; Thompson, R. J.; Rapp, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    The Landsat-7 mission has the goal of acquiring annual data sets of reflective band digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth at a spatial resolution of 30 meters for a period of five years using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager on the Landsat-7 satellite. The satellite was launched on April 15, 1999. The mission builds on the 27-year continuous archive of thematic images of the Earth from previous Landsat satellites. This paper will describe the ETM+ instrument, the spacecraft, and the ground processing system in place to accomplish the mission. Results from the first few months in orbit will be given, with emphasis on performance parameters that affect image quality, quantity, and availability. There will also be a discussion of the Landsat Data Policy and the user interface designed to make contents of the archive readily available, expedite ordering, and distribute the data quickly. Landsat-7, established by a Presidential Directive and a Public Law, is a joint program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Enterprise and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observing System (EROS) Data Center.

  1. Landsat's Decades-Long Look at El Paso, Texas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Landsat satellites have captured hundreds of images of the regionsurrounding El Paso, Texas since the program started in 1972. On May30, 2013, Landsat 8 began adding to the program’s extensive ...

  2. CNPq/INPE-LANDSAT system report of activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities and the results achieved are presented. In addition, a LANDSAT product sales/distribution analysis is provided. Data recording and processing capabilities and planned products are addressed.

  3. LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface description, revision 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The radiometric requirements, internal calibration, sensor output format, geometric characteristics, and data processing constants for the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner and thematic mapper are described. In addition, telemetry format, onboard computer reports, and LANDSAT 4 communications are discussed.

  4. Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 thematic mapper band 6 historical performance and calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Higgs, N.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat-4 and -5 Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. However, these sensors and their data products were not subjected to the type of intensive monitoring that has been part of the Landsat-7 system since its launch in 1999. With Landsat-4's 11 year and Landsat-5's 20+ year data record, there is a need to understand the historical behavior of the instruments in order to verify the scientific integrity of the archive and processed products. Performance indicators of the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands have recently been extracted from a processing system database allowing for a more complete study of thermal band characteristics and calibration than was previously possible. The database records responses to the internal calibration system, instrument temperatures and applied gains and offsets for each band for every scene processed through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS). Analysis of this database has allowed for greater understanding of the calibration and improvement in the processing system. This paper will cover the trends in the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands, the effect of the changes seen in the trends, and how these trends affect the use of the thermal data.

  5. Some observations about LANDSAT digital analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Several hypotheses concerning LANDSAT data are analyzed. These hypotheses are: (1) LANDSAT does not discriminate vegetation types, but mostly sees chlorophyl and canopy cover. (2) A majority of the features in the ground scene possess linearly proportional amounts of color from each spectral band. (3) The data are continuous and as a result there is no true separability of ground scene features in the data, but some features possess an excess of color in a particular band pair. (4) There are relatively few features present in the spectral data, and these do not correspond to the conventional definitions that are used. (5) Aside from seasonal effects, in a distributional sense all LANDSAT data are essentially the same. The only difference is the way the data are spatially arranged in the image.

  6. Landsat Science Team: 2016 winter meeting summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The winter meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held January 12-14, 2016, at Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg, VA. LST co-chairs Tom Loveland [USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Data Center (EROS)—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist] welcomed more than 50 participants to the three-day meeting. The main objectives of this meeting focused on identifying priorities and approaches to improve the global moderate-resolution satellite record. Overall, the meeting was geared more towards soliciting team member recommendations on several rapidly evolving issues, than on providing updates on individual research activities. All the presentations given at the meeting are available at landsat.usgs. gov//science_LST_january2016.php.

  7. Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) project is creating a record of forest disturbance and regrowth for North America from the Landsat satellite record, in support of the carbon modeling activities. LEDAPS relies on the decadal Landsat GeoCover data set supplemented by dense image time series for selected locations. Imagery is first atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance, and then change detection algorithms are used to extract disturbance area, type, and frequency. Reuse of the MODIS Land processing system (MODAPS) architecture allows rapid throughput of over 2200 MSS, TM, and ETM+ scenes. Initial ("Beta") surface reflectance products are currently available for testing, and initial continental disturbance products will be available by the middle of 2006.

  8. Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E. (Editor); Oberholtzer, J. D. (Editor); Anuta, P. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint.

  9. Status of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, James R.; Ochs, William R.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to begin implementing a successor mission to Landsat 7, called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), suffered a set back in 2003. NASA and the Department of Interior (DOI)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) currently manage the Landsat Program as an interagency partnership. The two agencies had planned to purchase data meeting LDCM specifications from a privately owned and commercially operated satellite system beginning in March, 2007. This approach represented a departure from the traditional procurement of a government owned and operated satellite system. NASA, however, cancelled a Request-for-Proposals (RFP) for providing the required data after an evaluation of proposals received from private industry. NASA concluded that the proposals failed to meet a key objective and expectation of the RFP, namely, to form a fair and equitable partnership between the Government and private industry. Alternative strategies for implementing an LDCM are now under consideration. The Executive Office of the President formed an interagency working group on the LDCM following the RFP cancellation. The working group is considering other options for implementing a successor system to Landsat 7 consistent with the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-555). This Act lists four management options for consideration: 1) private sector funding and management; 2) an international consortium; 3) funding and management by the U.S. Government; and 4) a cooperative effort between the US. Government and the private sector. The working group is currently attempting to minimize the risk of a Landsat data gap through development of a strategy that leads to a Landsat 7 successor mission. The selected strategy and the status of the mission will be presented at the Symposium.

  10. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 5: (Payload)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrew, H.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT-D flight segment payload is the thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner. Narrative and visual descriptions of the LANDSAT-D payload data handling hardware and data flow paths from the sensing instruments through to the GSFC LANDSAT-D data management system are provided. Key subsystems are examined.

  11. Landsat classification of coastal wetlands in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, R. J.; Mcculloch, S.; Harwood, P.

    1981-01-01

    Through a multiagency study of Landsat imagery applications, an analysis of Texas coastal wetlands shows that five Level III categories of wetlands can be delineated using image interpretation: topographically low marshes, topographically high marshes, tidal flats, sea grass and algal flats, and vegetated dredged material. Image interpretation involves optical enlargement of 1:1,000,000 scale, Landsat transparencies to a scale of 1:125,000 and mapping on a stable film base. Digital classification procedures, resulting in 1:24,000 scale line printer maps as output, require several iterations to display welands effectively. Accuracies of 65% were achieved for all wetland categories combined.

  12. Study of atmospheric diffusion using LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torsani, J. A.; Viswanadham, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of diffusion patterns of atmospheric pollutants under different conditions were investigated for use in the Gaussian model for calculation of pollution concentration. Value for the divergence pattern of concentration distribution along the Y axis were determined using LANDSAT images. Multispectral scanner images of a point source plume having known characteristics, wind and temperature data, and cloud cover and solar elevation data provided by LANDSAT, were analyzed using the 1-100 system for image analysis. These measured values are compared with pollution transport as predicted by the Pasquill-Gifford, Juelich, and Hoegstroem atmospheric models.

  13. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. E. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.; Bresnahan, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large area LANDSAT yield estimates were generated. These results were compared with estimates computed using a meteorological yield model (CCEA). Both of these estimates were compared with Kansas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (KCLRS) estimates of yield, in an attempt to assess the relative and absolute accuracy of the LANDSAT and CCEA estimates. Results were inconclusive. A large area direct wheat prediction procedure was implemented. Initial results have produced a wheat production estimate comparable with the KCLRS estimate.

  14. The LANDSAT/global positioning system project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Terri

    1988-01-01

    A GPSPAC/LANDSAT-D Interface (GLI) Ground Support System was built to validate the performance and to calibrate the accuracy of the experimental navigation package, GPSPAC, flown on the LANDSAT-4 and 5 spacecraft. Although the GLI system operated successfully to give the orbit information needed to validate the GPSPAC, it also detected two anomalies: one is characteristic of the GLI system and the other is characteristic of the pre-operational phase of GPS. Several methods were applied to resolve or reduce the anomalies. This paper presents a description of the problems, the methods applied to resolve or reduce them, and the results.

  15. USGS Releases Landsat Orthorectified State Mosaics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Remote Sensing Data Archive, located at the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, maintains the Landsat orthorectified data archive. Within the archive are Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data that have been pansharpened and orthorectified by the Earth Satellite Corporation. This imagery has acquisition dates ranging from 1999 to 2001 and was created to provide users with access to quality-screened, high-resolution satellite images with global coverage over the Earth's landmasses.

  16. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 April - 23 July 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    LANDSAT 1 and 2 operations were described, giving detailed charts and tables of their performances since 1972. Orbital parameters, attitude control subsystem, telemetry subsystem, orbit adjust subsystem, and magnetic moment compensating assembly were some of the main parameters discussed.

  17. Innovative fast technique for overlay accuracy estimation using archer self calibration (ASC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Pai, Yuan Chi; Amit, Eran; Yap, Lipkong; Itzkovich, Tal; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2014-04-01

    As overlay margins shrink for advanced process nodes, a key overlay metrology challenge is finding the measurement conditions which optimize the yield for every device and layer. Ideally, this setup should be found in-line during the lithography measurements step. Moreover, the overlay measurement must have excellent correlation to the device electrical behavior. This requirement makes the measurement conditions selection even more challenging since it requires information about the response of both the metrology target and device to different process variations. In this work a comprehensive solution for overlay metrology accuracy, used by UMC, is described. This solution ranks the different measurement setups by their accuracy, using Qmerit, as reported by the Archer 500. This ranking was verified to match device overlay using electrical tests. Moreover, the use of Archer Self Calibration (ASC) allows further improvement of overlay measurement accuracy.

  18. Mission to Earth: Landsat Views the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Nicholas M.; And Others

    Presented is a compendium of the outstanding Landsat scenes of the Earth's surface. It is directed to college and high school teachers, resource specialists, researchers, outdoorsmen, travelers, the general public, and serious students of geology or geography. The images are presented in color and at a scale and resolution that specify many…

  19. LANDSAT D data processing facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Mission planning of the LANDSAT D is discussed which will present several major advances in the spacecraft, sensor (Thematic Mapper), ground systems and overall system design. The system provides for two data links-direct satellite to ground, and via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.

  20. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Landsat non-US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which was processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  2. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  3. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Zack; Farve, Catharine L.; Harvey, Craig

    2003-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of .5 in latitude by .6 in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bitmap file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  4. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods were developed for estimating point spread functions from image data. Roads and bridges in dark backgrounds are being examined as well as other smoothing methods for reducing noise in the estimated point spread function. Tomographic techniques were used to estimate two dimensional point spread functions. Reformatting software changes were implemented to handle formats for LANDSAT-5 data.

  5. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, G. F.; Tilton, E. L., III

    1982-01-01

    The design and testing program for the airborne Landsat-D thematic-mapper simulator (TMS) is summarized. The TMS is intended to provide data similar enough to those expected from Landsat-D to facilitate the development of data-processing software. The design process comprised mainly modifications on the existing MSS-simulator fiber optics, dichroics, and detectors to provide 7-channel coverage of the 0.45-12.3-micron range at 60-deg angle of view, corresponding to a 418-element, 13.8-km-wide ground swath. The TMS is carried on a Lear 23 aircraft operating at 750 km/h and 12-m altitude and equipped with a 15.2-cm aerial mapping camera and a ground-updated inertial navigational system. Agricultural, forestry, and geological trial applications are reviewed, and some sample results are given. The significant improvements predicted for the Landsat-D thematic mapper (relative to the Landsat MSS) are seen as confirmed, with the possible exception of the 120-m-resolution version of channel 7.

  6. Utilization of LANDSAT images in cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Alburquerque, P. C. G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of multispectral imagery obtained from LANDSAT for mapping purposes is discussed with emphasis on geometric rectification, image resolution, and systematic topographic mapping. A method is given for constructing 1:250,000 scale maps. The limitations for satellite cartography are examined.

  7. LANDSAT activities in the Republic of Zaire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilunga, S.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the LANDSAT data utilization program of the Republic of Zaire is presented. The program emphasizes topics of economic significance to the national development program of Zaire: (1) agricultural land use capability analysis, including evaluation of the effects of large-scale burnings; (2) mineral resources evaluation; and (3) production of mapping materials for poorly covered regions.

  8. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An initial demonstration was made of the capability to make direct production forecasts for winter wheat using early season LANDSAT data. The approach offers the potential to make production forecasts quickly and simply, possibly avoiding some of the complexities of alternate procedures.

  9. LANDSAT data and interactive computer mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The integration of image processing capabilities with interactive computer mapping systems is discussed. It is noted that the accomplishment of this integration will result in powerful geographic information systems which will enhance the applicatons of LANDSAT and other types of remotely sensed data in solving problems in the resource planning and management domain.

  10. Bandwidth auction for SVC streaming in dynamic multi-overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yanting; Zou, Junni; Xiong, Hongkai

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal bandwidth allocation for scalable video coding (SVC) streaming in multiple overlays. We model the whole bandwidth request and distribution process as a set of decentralized auction games between the competing peers. For the upstream peer, a bandwidth allocation mechanism is introduced to maximize the aggregate revenue. For the downstream peer, a dynamic bidding strategy is proposed. It achieves maximum utility and efficient resource usage by collaborating with a content-aware layer dropping/adding strategy. Also, the convergence of the proposed auction games is theoretically proved. Experimental results show that the auction strategies can adapt to dynamic join of competing peers and video layers.

  11. Employing Multicast in P2P Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, Mario

    The work on multicast has evolved from bottom IP layer multicast to Application Layer Multicast. While there are issues with the dep-loyment of IP layer multicast, it outperforms Application Layer Multicast. However, the latter has the advantage of an easier dep-loyment. Furthermore, as will be illustrated later in this Chapter, IP layer multicast has the potential to make parallel overlay operations more efficient. Application Layer Multicast is primarily used to send application specific messages/data to a number of nodes.

  12. Using overlay network architectures for scalable video distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrikakis, Charalampos Z.; Despotopoulos, Yannis; Fafali, Paraskevi; Cha, Jihun; Kim, Kyuheon

    2004-11-01

    Within the last years, the enormous growth of Internet based communication as well as the rapid increase of available processing power has lead to the widespread use of multimedia streaming as a means to convey information. This work aims at providing an open architecture designed to support scalable streaming to a large number of clients using application layer multicast. The architecture is based on media relay nodes that can be deployed transparently to any existing media distribution scheme, which can support media streamed using the RTP and RTSP protocols. The architecture is based on overlay networks at application level, featuring rate adaptation mechanisms for responding to network congestion.

  13. A Landau-Ginzburg Description of Sb Overlayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Heusler alloy NiMnSb is investigated in terms of the Landau-Ginzburg approach. The half -metallic semi- Heusler alloy NiMnSb acts as a ferromagnetic...NiMnSb layers covered by Sb overlayers. NiMnSb is a halfmetallic semi- Heusler alloy crystallizing in the cubic Cib structure. It may be considered as a...derivate of the parent Heusler alloy Ni2 MnSb and has a I band gap of less than about 0.5 eV [1]. Antimony is a semimetal characterized by a very small

  14. Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers

    PubMed Central

    Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

  15. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for 3D interconnect overlay metrology.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

    2013-08-12

    One of the main challenges for 3D interconnect metrology of bonded wafers is measuring through opaque silicon wafers using conventional optical microscopy. We demonstrate here the use infrared microscopy, enhanced by implementing the differential interference contrast (DIC) technique, to measure the wafer bonding overlay. A pair of two dimensional symmetric overlay marks were processed at both the front and back sides of thinned wafers to evaluate the bonding overlay. A self-developed analysis algorithm and theoretical fitting model was used to map the overlay error between the bonded wafers and the interconnect structures. The measurement accuracy was found to be better than 1.0 micron.

  16. Surface plasmon response of metal spherical nanoshells coated with dielectric overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peihong; Bao, Jilong; Wu, Ligang; Li, Xue; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhu, Renxiang; Wang, Jinxia; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-11-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) characteristics of metal spherical nanoshells coated with different dielectric overlayers were investigated in this Letter. Besides band position, it is found that the line width of the symmetric dipole SP resonance is affected by the overlayer coating when the coupling strength of the inner surface cavity mode and outer surface sphere mode is strong. When the surrounding dielectric constant is comparative to that of core silica, narrowest damping width is expected. The computation results also demonstrate that the quality factors and electromagnetic field distribution are dependent on the overlayer coating. Consequently, an appropriate dielectric overlayer coating may be an important way of tuning SP characteristics of metal nanoshells.

  17. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  18. Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

  19. Dynamic bi-overlay rotation for streaming with heterogeneous devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongyu; Chen, Songqing; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Recently Internet P2P/overlay streaming has gained increasing popularity. While plenty of research has focused on streaming performance study, it is not quite known yet on how to efficiently serve heterogeneous devices that have different limitations on display size, color depth, bandwidth capacities, CPU and battery power, than desktop computers. Although previous work1 proposes to reuse intermediate information (metadata) produced during transcoding to facilitate runtime content adaption to serve heterogeneous clients by reducing total computing load, unbalanced resource contribution may pre-maturely exhaust the limited power of mobile devices, and adversely affect the performance of participating nodes and subsequently threaten the robustness of the whole system. In this work, we propose a Dynamic Bi-Overlay Rotation (DOOR) scheme, in which, we further consider resource consumption of participating nodes to design a dynamic rotation scheme that reacts to dynamic situations and balances across multiple types of resources on individual nodes. Based on the computing load and transcoding quality parameters obtained through real transcoding sessions, we drive large scale simulations to evaluate DOOR. The results show clear improvement of DOOR over earlier work.

  20. Coded multiple chirp spread spectrum system and overlay service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Junghwan; Pratt, Timothy; Ha, Tri T.

    1988-01-01

    An asynchronous spread-spectrum system called coded multiple chirp is proposed, and the possible spread-spectrum overlay over an analog FM-TV signal is investigated by computer simulation. Multiple single-sloped up and down chirps are encoded by a pseudonoise code and decoded by dechirpers (pulse-compression filters) followed by a digital code correlator. The performance of the proposed system, expressed in terms of in probability of bit error and code miss probability, is similar to that of FSK (frequency shift keying) using codewords if sufficient compression gain is used. When chirp is used to overlay an FM-TV channel, two chirp signals with data rate up to 25 kb/s could be overlaid in a 36-MHz satellite transponder without significant mutual interference. Performance estimates for a VSAT (very small aperture terminal) earth station operating at C-band show that a 2.4-m antenna and 300-mW transmitter could send a 2.4-kb/s signal to a large central earth station over an occupied channel.

  1. Virtual overlay metrology for fault detection supported with integrated metrology and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Goo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kim, Min-Suk; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Ryan, Kevin; Theeuwes, Thomas; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Slotboom, Daan; Kubis, Michael; Staecker, Jens

    2015-03-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing moves toward the 7nm node for logic and 15nm node for memory, an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing the influence known contributors have toward the on product overlay budget. With a machine learning technique known as function approximation, we use a neural network to gain insight to how known contributors, such as those collected with scanner metrology, influence the on product overlay budget. The result is a sufficiently trained function that can approximate overlay for all wafers exposed with the lithography system. As a real world application, inline metrology can be used to measure overlay for a few wafers while using the trained function to approximate overlay vector maps for the entire lot of wafers. With the approximated overlay vector maps for all wafers coming off the track, a process engineer can redirect wafers or lots with overlay signatures outside the standard population to offline metrology for excursion validation. With this added flexibility, engineers will be given more opportunities to catch wafers that need to be reworked, resulting in improved yield. The quality of the derived corrections from measured overlay metrology feedback can be improved using the approximated overlay to trigger, which wafers should or shouldn't be, measured inline. As a development or integration engineer the approximated overlay can be used to gain insight into lots and wafers used for design of experiments (DOE) troubleshooting. In this paper we will present the results of a case study that follows the machine learning function approximation approach to data analysis, with production overlay measured on an inline metrology system at SK hynix.

  2. Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to

  3. Landsat 8: The plans, the reality, and the legacy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Irons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Landsat 8, originally known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership that continues the legacy of continuous moderate resolution observations started in 1972. The conception of LDCM to the reality of Landsat 8 followed an arduous path extending over nearly 13 years, but the successful launch on February 11, 2013 ensures the continuity of the unparalleled Landsat record. The USGS took over mission operations on May 30, 2013 and renamed LCDM to Landsat 8. Access to Landsat 8 data was opened to users worldwide. Three years following launch we evaluate the science and applications impact of Landsat 8. With a mission objective to enable the detection and characterization of global land changes at a scale where differentiation between natural and human-induced causes of change is possible, LDCM promised incremental technical improvements in capabilities needed for Landsat scientific and applications investigations. Results show that with Landsat 8, we are acquiring more data than ever before, the radiometric and geometric quality of data are generally technically superior to data acquired by past Landsat missions, and the new measurements, e.g., the coastal aerosol and cirrus bands, are opening new opportunities. Collectively, these improvements are sparking the growth of science and applications opportunities. Equally important, with Landsat 7 still operational, we have returned to global imaging on an 8-day cycle, a capability that ended when Landsat 5 ceased operational Earth imaging in November 2011. As a result, the Landsat program is on secure footings and planning is underway to extend the record for another 20 or more years.

  4. Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  5. Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

  6. Reducing LANDSAT data to parameters with physical significance and signature extension: A view of LANDSAT capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon-Drexler, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    The premise is the LANDSAT is capable of sensing only a few physical parameters. Much of the contrast provided in LANDSAT data is provided by differences in vegetation cover. Although dominant, vegetation is not the only physical parameter that can be detected with LANDSAT; a ratio of MSS Channel 5 to MSS Channel 4 (R5,4), two visible channels, separates materials by color hue. Additional information is attained by the addition of MSS channels 5 and 4 to approximate brightness, permitting separation of materials by color value. Other spectral combinations may provide correlations with these physical parameters or new ones. An iron absorption in the infrared can also be recognized in LANDSAT data when iron content is present in sufficient percentages, Although by color, limonite-rich soils are distinctive as bright yellow, they are not unique in the R5,4. A fairly strong iron absorption is present in the infrared band MSS Channel 7 for these soils, although the wideband configuration of LANDSAT is not optimal for its enhancement and the effects of vegetation often obscure it.

  7. Landsat 2 on-board computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesko, J. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Landsat Spacecraft Project (formerly known as ERTS) was based essentially on the use of Nimbus spacecraft hardware. It was soon recognized that the availability of only 30 stored command locations (which were sufficient for the Nimbus mission) would limit the operation of the Landsat 1 mission with much higher power sensors, recorders, and wideband communications being cycled on and off throughout the orbit. The solution described is a simple memory with hard wired logic, of a design that can interface with the existing hardware, without modifications. The design was implemented using an existing APO (Advanced Onboard Processor) and a 4096 word X 18 bit plated wire memory. (The AOP has been subsequently designated the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer.)

  8. Landsat: a global land-imaging mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Across four decades since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space. NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a long-term record of natural and human induced changes on the global landscape.

  9. Landsat-1 imagery for geologic evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the geologic evaluation of the North Carolina coastal plain using Landsat-1 imagery as related to a general study of the geomorphology to assess the imagery as a tool for upgrading the understanding of the coastal plain, along with recognition of subsurface structures. Among the more prominent features displayed on the Landsat imagery are the scarps and beach ridges associated with former positions of the shoreline. Compilations of various types of lineaments reveal two dominant trends, one northwest-southeast and the other northeast-southwest, which are significant in the tectonic development of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The synoptic view recorded by the satellite allows a perspective that aids geologic studies of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  10. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, Antarctica was at best a distant acquaintance. Now, with the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), we are on intimate terms. In stunning, up-close and personal detail, LIMA brings Antarctica to life. Explore this virtually cloudless, seamless, most geometrically accurate, and highest resolution satellite mosaic of Antarctica. A team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Antarctic Survey, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with funding from the National Science Foundation, created LIMA in support of the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007?08). As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA truly fulfills the IPY goals. LIMA is an international effort, supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening in this southernmost environment. Researchers and the general public can download LIMA and all component Landsat scenes at no charge.

  11. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Objective measurements of percent green wheat cover on May 21 were significantly correlated with yield, as were measurements of green LAI and LANDSAT data. Three data sets from the Finney test site were analyzed from LANDSAT passes on 22 November 1974, 15 April 1975, and 21 May 1975. After mean signal values in each band were computed for each sufficiently large wheat field, the mean values were correlated with the farmer estimates of wheat grain yield in order to assess relative information content. It is clear that the single best spectral temporal band for predicting yield is the 15 April red band (0.6-0.7 microns, band 5), with the 15 April green band (0.5-0.6 microns, band 4) a close second.

  12. Landsat: A Global Land-Imaging Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Headley, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Across nearly four decades since 1972, Landsat satellites continuously have acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space; consequently, NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, then launches and validates the satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground-data reception, archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a visible, long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  13. Landsat: A global land-imaging mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Across four decades since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space. NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a long-term record of natural and human induced changes on the global landscape.

  14. Landsat: a global land imaging program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs across four decades. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space. In practice, NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, launches satellites, and validates their performance. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground-data reception, archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a visible, long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  15. SAR/LANDSAT image registration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphrey, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

  16. Investigations using data from LANDSAT-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A land use map was prepared of Dacca-Narayanganj-Demra area on a scale of 1:50,000. LANDSAT imageries of Dinajpur and Rangpur districts were studied. The difference between the exposed Pleistocene red clay, this clay under alluvial cover, and recent alluvium were noted. Different types of soils, crops, etc. were delineated on the ERTS imagery.

  17. Interpretation of Hydrographic Features Using Landsat Images,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    environment in the west and act and are imaged in each of the four the resulting deposition and accretion spectral channels on Landsat. The tem- of...tories, sense the earth’s surface in reflect IR radiation and will not four regions of the electromagnetic appear black. However, in the visible spectrum...Operation shows thle composite scan pattern (U.S. Geological Survey, 1976). The MSS gathers data by iciaging tile surface of the earth in four spectral

  18. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  19. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Storey, James C.; Morfitt, Ron; Knight, Ed; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2008-01-01

    The primary payload for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the Operational Land Imager (OLI), being built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies, under contract to NASA. The OLI has spectral bands similar to the Landsat-7 ETM+, minus the thermal band and with two new bands, a 443 nm band and 1375 nm cirrus detection band. On-board calibration systems include two solar diffusers (routine and pristine), a shutter and three sets of internal lamps (routine, backup and pristine). Being a pushbroom opposed to a whiskbroom design of ETM+, the system poses new challenges for characterization and calibration, chief among them being the large focal plane with 75000+ detectors. A comprehensive characterization and calibration plan is in place for the instrument and the data throughout the mission including Ball, NASA and the United States Geological Survey, which will take over operations of LDCM after on-orbit commissioning. Driving radiometric calibration requirements for OLI data include radiance calibration to 5% uncertainty (1 q); reflectance calibration to 3% uncertainty (1 q) and relative (detector-to-detector) calibration to 0.5% (J (r). Driving geometric calibration requirements for OLI include bandto- band registration of 4.5 meters (90% confidence), absolute geodetic accuracy of 65 meters (90% CE) and relative geodetic accuracy of 25 meters (90% CE). Key spectral, spatial and radiometric characterization of the OLI will occur in thermal vacuum at Ball Aerospace. During commissioning the OLI will be characterized and calibrated using celestial (sun, moon, stars) sources and terrestrial sources. The USGS EROS ground processing system will incorporate an image assessment system similar to Landsat-7 for characterization and calibration. This system will have the added benefit that characterization data will be extracted as part of the normal image data processing, so that the characterization data available will be significantly larger than for Landsat-7 ETM+.

  20. Landsat detection of oil from natural seeps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, M.; Estes, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Oil on the ocean surface from the natural seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, could not be detected on frames of any of the four bands of standard Landsat positive or negative film transparencies, nor could the slicks be detected using digital scaling, density slicing, or ratioing techniques. Digital contrast-stretch enhancement, however, showed the distribution of oil on the surface. - from Authors

  1. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  2. Techniques for improving overlay accuracy by using device correlated metrology targets as reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzai, Wei Jhe; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Howard; Chen, Charlie; Pai, Yuan Chi; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Chia Ching; Itzkovich, Tal; Yap, Lipkong; Amit, Eran; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2014-10-01

    The performance of overlay metrology as total measurement uncertainty, design rule compatibility, device correlation, and measurement accuracy has been challenged at the 2× nm node and below. The process impact on overlay metrology is becoming critical, and techniques to improve measurement accuracy become increasingly important. We present a methodology for improving the overlay accuracy. A propriety quality metric, Qmerit, is used to identify overlay metrology measurement settings with the least process impacts and reliable accuracies. Using the quality metric, a calibration method, Archer self-calibration, is then used to remove the inaccuracies. Accuracy validation can be achieved by correlation to reference overlay data from another independent metrology source such as critical dimension-scanning electron microscopy data collected on a device correlated metrology hybrid target or by electrical testing. Additionally, reference metrology can also be used to verify which measurement conditions are the most accurate. We provide an example of such a case.

  3. Innovative techniques for improving overlay accuracy by using DCM (device correlated metrology) targets as reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzai, Wei-Jhe; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Howard; Chen, Charlie; Pai, Yuan Chi; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Chia Ching; Itzkovich, Tal; Yap, Lipkong; Amit, Eran; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2014-04-01

    Overlay metrology performance as Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), design rule compatibility, device correlation and measurement accuracy are been challenged at 2x nm node and below. Process impact on overlay metrology becoming critical, and techniques to improve measurement accuracy becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we present an innovative methodology for improving overlay accuracy. A propriety quality metric, Qmerit, is used to identify overlay metrology measurement settings with least process impacts and reliable accuracies. Using the quality metric, an innovative calibration method, ASC (Archer Self Calibration) is then used to remove the inaccuracies. Accuracy validation can be achieved by correlation to reference overlay data from another independent metrology source such as CDSEM data collected on DCM (Device Correlated Metrology) hybrid target or electrical testing. Additionally, reference metrology can also be used to verify which measurement conditions are the most accurate. In this paper we bring an example of such use case.

  4. LANDSAT imagery of the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komer, C. A.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The central Andes of South America extend from approximately 14 deg. S to 28 deg. S as an unbroken chain of mountains and volcanoes over 2000 km long. It is here that the Nazca plate dives under the South American plate at angles varying from 10 deg to 30 deg. Very little is known about the volcanoes comprising this classic, subduction-type plate margin. A catalogue of the volcanoes in the central Andes is being prepared by Dr. P.W. Francis and Dr. C.A. Wood at the NASA Lunar and Planetary Institute. At present, more than 800 volcanoes of Cenozoic age have been recognized in the chain, with an estimated 75-80 major, active Quarternary volcanoes. Approximately one hundred 1536 x 1536 pixel color composite Optronics positives were produced from six full LANDSAT Thermatic Mapper scenes and three partial TM scenes. These positives cover a large portion of the central Andes. The positives were produced from LANDSAT data using the VAX imaging package, LIPS. The scenes were first transferred from magnetic tape to disk. The LIPS package was then used to select volcanically interesting areas which were then electronically enhanced. Finally, the selected areas were transferred back to tape and printed on the Optronics equipment. The pictures are color composites using LANDSAT TM bands 7,4, and 2 in the red, green, and blue filters, respectively.

  5. Contingency plans set for Landsat 5 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    With the Landsat 5 Earth observation satellite failing due to a rapidly degrading electronic component, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is exploring ways to alleviate a data gap if both Landsat 5 and 7 fail prior to the planned launch of Landsat 8—known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission—in 2013. USGS director Marcia McNutt told Eos that although the satellite's engineering team has "brought Landsat 5 back from death's doorstep several times over the last 27 years" during its mission—which has extended far beyond its design life—"another miracle recovery is becoming less likely." She added that the survey is looking forward to a successful launch of Landsat 8 "and to establishing a more consistent land imaging program."

  6. ECHO: a community video streaming system with interactive visual overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Gene; Tan, Wai-tian; Shen, Bo; Ortega, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We describe a networked video application where personalized avatars, controlled by a group of "hecklers", are overlaid on top of a real-time encoded video stream of an Internet game for multicast consumption. Rather than passively observing the streamed content individually, the interactivity of the controllable avatars, along with heckling voice exchange, engenders a sense of community during group viewing. We first describe how the system splits video into independent regions with and without avatars for processing in order to minimize complexity. Observing that the region with avatars is more delay-sensitive due to their interactivity, we then show that the regions can be logically packetized into separable sub-streams, and be transported and buffered with different delay requirements, so that the interactivity of the avatars can be maximized. The utility of our system extends beyond Internet game watching to general community streaming of live or pre-encoded video with visual overlays.

  7. Ubiquitous map-image access through wireless overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianfei; Huang, Haijie; Ni, Zefeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2004-10-01

    With the availability of various wireless link-layer technologies, such as Bluetooth, WLAN and GPRS, in one wireless device, ubiquitous communications can be realized through managing vertical handoff in the environment of wireless overlay networks. In this paper, we propose a vertical handoff management system based on mobile IPv6, which can automatically manage the multiple network interfaces on the mobile device, and make decisions on network interface selection according to the current situation. Moreover, we apply our proposed vertical handoff management with JPEG-2000 codec to the wireless application of map image access. The developed system is able to provide seamless communications, as well as fast retrieve any interested map region with any block size, in different resolutions and different color representations directly from the compressed bitstream.

  8. The Pegasus Overture alternating-pressure mattress overlay.

    PubMed

    Fox, C

    Pressure sores affect approximately 10% of the adult population and occur in various hospitals and community settings (Department of Health, 1992). It is therefore essential to adopt a logical approach when selecting the optimum piece of equipment for patients at risk of pressure sore development. Alternating-pressure mattresses have been used for many years in both hospitals and community environments to prevent and treat pressure sores. In September 1995, Pegasus Airwave Limited launched a new alternating-pressure mattress overlay, the Overture. It is designed for use with patients who have mobility problems and are at low to medium risk of developing pressure sores or have superficial tissue damage. This article describes the features of the Overture and its suitability for use in different care settings.

  9. Pressure reduction with a hospitalized population using a mattress overlay.

    PubMed

    Suarez, C H; Reynolds, A

    1995-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent each year on treating pressure ulcers. With healthcare costs climbing and reform the order of the day, it is essential for researchers to identify a device which reduces pressure, is easy to use and is cost effective. This study used a Mini-Tipe pressure sensor to measure pressure readings over the sacral and trochanter areas of 17 subjects identified as being at risk for skin breakdown. Pressures were compared on a standard hospital mattress and an anatomically contoured mattress overlay. There was a 48 percent reduction in mean pressures over the sacral area and a 23 percent reduction over the trochanter. No correlations between pressures and demographic data were identified. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of variables found in an "at risk" population on pressure reduction with various products.

  10. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    PubMed

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition.

  11. Accuracy of overlay measurements: tool and mark asymmetry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Daniel J.; Larson, Patricia J.; Lopata, Alexander D.; Muth, William A.; Starikov, Alexander

    1990-06-01

    Results of recent Investigations uncovering significant errors in overlay (O/L) measurements are reported. The two major contributors are related to the failures of symmetry of the overlay measurement tool and of the mark. These may result In measurement errors on the order of 100 nm. Methodology based on the conscientious verification of assumptions of symmetry is shown to be effective in identifying the extent and sources of such errors. This methodology can be used to arrive at an estimate of the relative accuracy of the O/L measurements, even in absence of certified O/L reference materials. Routes to improve the accuracy of O/L measurements are outlined and some examples of improvements are given. Errors in O/L measurements associated with the asymmetry of the metrology tool can be observed by comparing the O/L measurements taken at 0 and 180 degree orientations of the sample in reference to the tool. Half the difference of these measurements serves as an estimate of such tool related bias in estimating O/L. This is called tool induced shift (TIS). Errors of this kind can be traced to asymmetries of tool components, e. g., camera, illumination misalignment, residual asymmetric aberrations etc. Tool asymmetry leads to biased O/L estimates even on symmetric O/L measurement marks. Its impact on TIS depends on the optical properties of the structure being measured, the measurement procedure and on the combination of tool and sample asymmetries. It is also a function of design and manufacture of the O/L metrology tool. In the absence of certified O/L samples, measurement accuracy and repeatability may be improved by demanding that TIS be small for all tools on all structures.

  12. Experimental Assessment of Improved Spatial Resolution Landsat Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    Enhanced Landsat MSS Image Showing Variegated Land Use ( Bangladesh Subscene) 41 FIGURE 12 Computer Enhanced Landsat MSS Image Showing High 42 Relief...areas, the power to trace sediment plumes. Figure 14 shows * -40- FIGURE ii -41- When you purchase EarthSat Landsat Photomaps, here’s what EarthSat...border features such as agri- cultural field boundaries, land use interfaces, geologic faults, marked relief or structural changes, water body limits, soil

  13. Small forest cuttings mapped with Landsat digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E.; Dodge, A. G.; Eger, M. J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Cooperative Landsat Applications Research Group used computer classification of Landsat digital data to map forest cuttings (clearcuts) in northern New Hampshire. Cuttings as small as 3 hectares were identified. Several ages or conditions of clearcuts could be distinguished. Progress in two methods of duplicating classification categories from one Landsat pass to another are discussed. One method was used in making maps of areas in 1973, 1975, and 1978.

  14. Midseason mapping of sunflowers using Landsat digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, W.H.; Ohlen, D.O.; Fairaizl, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The mapping results suggest that for the midsummer Landsat data used, there was not a sufficiently reliable relationship between Landsat-derived spectral clusters and sunflowers to allow 'automated' production of useful sunflower location maps. The occurrence of sunflower pixels in all cluster classes was a consequence of the diversity in sunflower appearance at the point in the growing season when the Landsat image used for digital processing was acquired. -Authors

  15. Use of LANDSAT data to assess waterfowl habitat quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Gilmer, D. S. (Principal Investigator); Work, E. A., Jr.; Rebel, D. L.; Roller, N. E. G.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The capability of mapping ponds over a very large area was demonstrated, with multidate, multiframe LANDSAT imagery. A small double sample of aircraft data made it possible to adjust a LANDSAT large area census. Terrain classification was improved by using multitemporal LANDSAT data. Waterfowl production was estimated, using remotely determined pond data, in conjunction with FWS estimates of breeding population. Relative waterfowl habitat quality was characterized on a section by section basis.

  16. Value of Landsat in urban water resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation had the objective to evaluate the utility of satellite multispectral remote sensing in urban water resources planning. The results are presented of a study which was conducted to determine the economic impact of Landsat data. The use of Landsat data to estimate hydrologic model parameters employed in urban water resources planning is discussed. A decision regarding an employment of the Landsat data has to consider the tradeoff between data accuracy and cost. Bayesian decision theory is used in this connection. It is concluded that computer-aided interpretation of Landsat data is a highly cost-effective method of estimating the percentage of impervious area.

  17. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of land surface change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Matthew D.

    1990-01-01

    This booklet provides an overview of the Landsat program and shows the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To show changes that have taken place within the last 20 years or less, image pairs were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical global record of the land surface from the early 1970's to present. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to present.

  18. Application of Landsat imagery to metallic mineral exploration in Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Smith, A. F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard interpretive techniques were used to study the mosaic of two Landsat images of north central Utah including several major mining districts. Correlation of major Landsat-identified lineaments with the major metallic mining districts suggests that the Landsat-identified lineaments are fractures and that their distribution may be a valuable guide for identifying other mineralized areas. The imagery provides a more complete understanding of the geological information for identifying major tectonic and structural trends in the area. Several of the major mines are located on or closely adjacent to the intersections of at least two major lineaments. Landsat data should therefore be used to complement current mineral exploration programs.

  19. LANDSAT: US standard catalog no. U-34. [LANDSAT imagery for June 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  20. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog no. N-30. [LANDSAT imagery for February, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  1. LANDSAT: US standard catalog no. U-35. [LANDSAT imagery for July, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility in published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  2. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  3. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog no. N-36. [LANDSAT imagery for August, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  4. Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 evaluation report, 23 January 1975 to 23 April 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A description of the work accomplished with the Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 satellites during the period 23 Jan. - 23 Apr. 1975 was presented. The following information was given for each satellite: operational summary, orbital parameters, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, command/clock subsystem, telemetry subsystem, orbit adjust subsystem, magnetic moment compensating assembly, unified S-band/premodulation processor, electrical interface subsystem, thermal subsystem, narrowband tape recorders, wideband telemetry subsystem, attitude measurement sensor, wideband video tape recorders, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner subsystem, and data collection subsystem.

  5. LANDSAT non-US standard catalog no. N-35. [LANDSAT imagery July, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  6. Interim report on Landsat national archive activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, John E.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has the responsibility to preserve and to distribute most Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data that have been acquired by the five Landsat satellites operational since July 1972. Data that are still covered by exclusive marketing rights, which were granted by the U.S. Government to the commercial Landsat operator, cannot be distributed by the DOI. As the designated national archive for Landsat data, the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) has initiated two new programs to protect and make available any of the 625,000 MSS scenes currently archived and the 200,000 TM scenes to be archived at EDC by 1995. A specially configured system has begun converting Landsat MSS data from obsolete high density tapes (HDT's) to more dense digital cassette tapes. After transcription, continuous satellite swaths are (1) divided into standard scenes defined by a world reference system, (2) geographically located by latitude and longitude, and (3) assessed for overall quality. Digital browse images are created by subsampling the full-resolution swaths. Conversion of the TM HDT's will begin in the fourth quarter of 1992 and will be conducted concurrently with MSS conversion. Although the TM archive is three times larger than the entire MSS archive, conversion of data from both sensor systems and consolidation of the entire Landsat archive at EDC will be completed by the end of 1994. Some MSS HDT's have deteriorated, primarily as a result of hydrolysis of the pigment binder. Based on a small sample of the 11 terabytes of post-1978 MSS data and the 41 terabytes of TM data to be converted, it appears that to date, less than 2 percent of the data have been lost. The data loss occurs within small portions of some scenes; few scenes are lost entirely. Approximately 10,000 pre-1979 MSS HDT's have deteriorated to such an extent, as a result of hydrolysis, that the data cannot be recovered without special treatment of

  7. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  8. SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (front to back) of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Elevation is shown with 1.5x scaled vertical exaggeration. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as very light shades of blue. Tropical vegetation appears green, and developed areas appear in shades of brown and white.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  9. Diffraction based overlay metrology: accuracy and performance on front end stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Michael; Marchelli, Anat; Vakshtein, Irina; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2008-03-01

    The overlay metrology budget is typically 1/10 of the overlay control budget resulting in overlay metrology total measurement uncertainty requirements of 0.57 nm for the most challenging use cases of the 32nm technology generation. Theoretical considerations show that overlay technology based on differential signal scatterometry (SCOL TM) has inherent advantages, which will allow it to achieve the 32nm technology generation requirements and go beyond it. In this work we present results of an experimental and theoretical study of SCOL. We present experimental results, comparing this technology with the standard imaging overlay metrology. In particular, we present performance results, such as precision and tool induced shift, for different target designs. The response to a large range of induced misalignment is also shown. SCOL performance on these targets for a real stack is reported. We also show results of simulations of the expected accuracy and performance associated with a variety of scatterometry overlay target designs. The simulations were carried out on several stacks including FEOL and BEOL materials. The inherent limitations and possible improvements of the SCOL technology are discussed. We show that with the appropriate target design and algorithms, scatterometry overlay achieves the accuracy required for future technology generations.

  10. Tighter process control of poly- and active-to-contact overlay registration via multilayer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Peter M. C.; Knutrud, Paul C.

    2000-06-01

    As process technology in high volume production fabs hits the 180 nm window, overlay metrology of the most critical layers needs to be managed very carefully. As feature sizes and other device characteristics shrink, the overlay requirement becomes a larger component of the overall process specification. It is no longer sufficient to measure overlay for only two layers at a time. In no other part of the process is this more critical than the poly and active layer to first contact. The contact layer needs to be aligned to both active and poly within tight tolerances. Since adjustments to overlay for these levels are not independent, it is essential to understand the relationship between all three layers. TSMC in particular, because it is a foundry, is not able to optimize customer circuit design that would allow two-layer registration to be sufficient. Previously, the only method to accomplish this has been to make two sets of overlay measurements and having an engineer analyze the relative overlay between the three layers. The proposed solution to solve this problem is a multi-layer overlay measurement algorithm and measurement target. This paper will report on the analysis of the process improvements that have and can be achieved using this unique measurement capability.

  11. The Growth of Metal Overlayers on Oxide Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jeffrey Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The structural and chemical properties of metals on oxides have been analyzed by examining two very different adsorption systems. The first, Ni/SiO_2 , is representative of systems with a rather weak interaction between the metal overlayer and oxide substrate. The second system analyzed, Ti/TiO_2, is an example with very strong reactive adsorbate/substrate interaction. The surface and interface behavior of both systems are investigated using basic thermodynamic and kinetic concepts. The surface diffusion of nickel on a thermally -grown silicon dioxide thin film (5-50A), and the bulk diffusion of Ni through the SiO_2 film into the single crystal silicon substrate have been studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nickel agglomeration on the oxide occurs in the 100-850K regime, while bulk Ni diffusion through the thin oxide layer occurs in the 700-1050K regime. The onset of bulk Ni diffusion is dependent on oxide thickness; thicker oxides reduce the rate of Ni penetration. Above 950-1100K, the oxide desorbs leaving nickel disilicide on silicon. The study of nickel disilicide island formation on Si(111) (an outgrowth of the Ni/SiO_2 experiments) is reported. The kinetics of this system control a rather interesting series of metastable growth structures. Visually striking NiSi_2 crystallites are observed on the Si(111) surface by AFM. The nickel disilicide islands coalesce following a high temperature anneal (~1260K). The islands differ from those formed at lower temperature in both shape and orientation. These differences are explained by kinetically limited growth accompanying phase and surface segregation of Ni from the bulk silicon wafer, and condensation of a Ni-rich NiSi_{rm 2-x} liquid phase at the surface. Condensation from the liquid phase to NiSi_2 is concluded to be responsible for the structure of the crystallites

  12. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 July - 23 October 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT-1 spacecraft was launched from the Western Test Range on 23 July 1972, at 18:08:06.508Z. The launch and orbital injection phase of the space flight was nominal, and deployment of the spacecraft followed predictions. Performance evaluation of the spacecraft is presented.

  13. LANDSAT-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation report, 23 October 1976 to 23 January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Performance analyses for LANDSAT 1 and 2, launched respectively in 1972 and 1975, are reported. Operational controls are evaluated, as well as orbital parameters and various subsystems. Both satellites continue to perform their missions normally, in spite of past minor operational malfunctions.

  14. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1 October - 31 October 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for Oktober 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U. S. standard catalog lists U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  15. Generating Daily Synthetic Landsat Imagery by Combining Landsat and MODIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-01-01

    Owing to low temporal resolution and cloud interference, there is a shortage of high spatial resolution remote sensing data. To address this problem, this study introduces a modified spatial and temporal data fusion approach (MSTDFA) to generate daily synthetic Landsat imagery. This algorithm was designed to avoid the limitations of the conditional spatial temporal data fusion approach (STDFA) including the constant window for disaggregation and the sensor difference. An adaptive window size selection method is proposed in this study to select the best window size and moving steps for the disaggregation of coarse pixels. The linear regression method is used to remove the influence of differences in sensor systems using disaggregated mean coarse reflectance by testing and validation in two study areas located in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that the MSTDFA algorithm can generate daily synthetic Landsat imagery with a high correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.646 to 0.986 between synthetic images and the actual observations. We further show that MSTDFA can be applied to 250 m 16-day MODIS MOD13Q1 products and the Landsat Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) data by generating a synthetic NDVI image highly similar to actual Landsat NDVI observation with a high R of 0.97. PMID:26393607

  16. Toward multidisciplinary use of LANDSAT: Interfacing computerized LANDSAT analysis systems with geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT-geographic information system (GIS) interface must summarize the results of the LANDSAT classification over the same cells that serve as geographic referencing units for the GIS, and output these summaries on a cell-by-cell basis in a form that is readable by the input routines of the GIS. The ZONAL interface for cell-oriented systems consists of two primary programs. The PIXCEL program scans the grid of cells and outputs a channel of pixels. Each pixel contains not the reflectance values but the identifier of the cell in which the center of the pixel is located. This file of pixelized cells along with the results of a pixel-by-pixel classification of the scene produced by the LANDSAT analysis system are input to the CELSUM program which then outputs a cell-by-cell summary formatted according to the requirements of the host GIS. Cross-correlation of the LANDSAT layer with the other layers in the data base is accomplished with the analysis and display facilities of the GIS.

  17. LANDSAT Non-US standard catalog, 1-31 December 1975. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  18. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for August 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The non-U. S. Standard Catalog lists non-U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  19. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 September 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for September, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U. S. Standard Catalog lists U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  20. Geospatial Method for Computing Supplemental Multi-Decadal U.S. Coastal Land-Use and Land-Cover Classification Products, Using Landsat Data and C-CAP Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Smoot, James; Ellis, Jean; Hilbert, Kent; Swann, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of a geospatial data processing method and multi-decadal Landsat time series for computing general coastal U.S. land-use and land-cover (LULC) classifications and change products consisting of seven classes (water, barren, upland herbaceous, non-woody wetland, woody upland, woody wetland, and urban). Use of this approach extends the observational period of the NOAA-generated Coastal Change and Analysis Program (C-CAP) products by almost two decades, assuming the availability of one cloud free Landsat scene from any season for each targeted year. The Mobile Bay region in Alabama was used as a study area to develop, demonstrate, and validate the method that was applied to derive LULC products for nine dates at approximate five year intervals across a 34-year time span, using single dates of data for each classification in which forests were either leaf-on, leaf-off, or mixed senescent conditions. Classifications were computed and refined using decision rules in conjunction with unsupervised classification of Landsat data and C-CAP value-added products. Each classification's overall accuracy was assessed by comparing stratified random locations to available reference data, including higher spatial resolution satellite and aerial imagery, field survey data, and raw Landsat RGBs. Overall classification accuracies ranged from 83 to 91% with overall Kappa statistics ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. The accuracies are comparable to those from similar, generalized LULC products derived from C-CAP data. The Landsat MSS-based LULC product accuracies are similar to those from Landsat TM or ETM+ data. Accurate classifications were computed for all nine dates, yielding effective results regardless of season. This classification method yielded products that were used to compute LULC change products via additive GIS overlay techniques.

  1. Influence of the process-induced asymmetry on the accuracy of overlay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Tetyana; Schulz, Bernd; Itzkovich, Tal; Durran, Sean; Haupt, Ronny; Cangiano, Agostino; Bringoltz, Barak; Ruhm, Matthias; Cotte, Eric; Seltmann, Rolf; Hertzsch, Tino; Hajaj, Eitan; Hartig, Carsten; Efraty, Boris; Fischer, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In the current paper we are addressing three questions relevant for accuracy: 1. Which target design has the best performance and depicts the behavior of the actual device? 2. Which metrology signal characteristics could help to distinguish between the target asymmetry related overlay shift and the real process related shift? 3. How does uncompensated asymmetry of the reference layer target, generated during after-litho processes, affect the propagation of overlay error through different layers? We are presenting the correlation between simulation data based on the optical properties of the measured stack and KLA-Tencor's Archer overlay measurements on a 28nm product through several critical layers for those accuracy aspects.

  2. Prosthodontic management of worn dentition in pediatric patient with complete overlay dentures: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Jyoti; Jain, Chandni; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2012-01-01

    Overlay complete dentures are simple, reversible and economical treatment modality for patients with congenital or acquired disorders that severely affect the tooth development. It satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated. In pediatric patients, the overlay dentures establish a relatively stable occlusion that improves patient's tolerance to the future treatment procedures for worn dentition. This clinical report highlights the imperative need of appropriate treatment strategy and application of maxillary and mandibular overlay dentures in a pediatric patient who suffered from congenitally mutilated and worn dentition. PMID:23236577

  3. Overlay target selection for 20-nm process on A500 LCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Vidya; Subramany, Lokesh; Itzkovich, Tal; Gutjhar, Karsten; Snow, Patrick; Cho, Chanseob; Yap, Lipkong

    2015-03-01

    Persistently shrinking design rules and increasing process complexity require tight overlay control thereby making it imperative to choose the most suitable overlay measurement technique and complementary target design. In this paper we describe an assessment of various target designs from FEOL to BEOL on 20-nm process. Both scatterometry and imaging based methodology were reviewed for several key layers on A500LCM tool, which enables the use of both technologies. Different sets of targets were carefully designed and printed, taking into consideration the process and optical properties of each layer. The optimal overlay target for a given layer was chosen based on its measurement performance.

  4. Landsat: The Backbone for Mapping and Monitoring Global Ecological Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term ecological monitoring requires consistent observation of key variables, long-term measurement continuity, and open and affordable access to measurements. The Landsat series of Earth observation missions uniquely meet those criteria, and Landsat's 30m-observation scale permits the detection and differentiation of natural versus human-caused land change. Landsat is the longest and most comprehensive record of the state of the global land surface in existence. No other high-resolution satellite program is either capable or committed to the systematic monitoring of global scale human and natural land change. Beginning with Landsat 1 in 1972, six Landsat missions have continuously recorded images of the Earth. As we near the fortieth anniversary of Landsat, we now have an archive of millions of repetitive images of the Earth with multispectral properties suited to assessing both biotic and abiotic conditions and at a scale appropriate for resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million scenes and all are available to users at no cost. Furthermore, the entire Landsat record, Landsats 1-7, is now calibrated to a common radiometric standard and the majority of the data are orthorectified - enabling immediate assessment of long-term ecological conditions and land change. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to collect imagery and together they provide the potential to cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surfaces every eight days. Both of these missions now use a long-term acquisition plan designed to improve the collection of seasonal global coverage. Furthermore, recent agreements with international Landsat receiving stations are bringing previously inaccessible contemporary Landsat 5 data into the EROS archive. The amount of global coverage being acquired annually is the highest level in the history of the Landsat program. The EROS global historical archive is

  5. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  6. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  7. Lake water quality mapping from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The lakes in three LANDSAT scenes were mapped by the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. Field checking the maps by three separate individuals revealed approximately 90-95% correct classification for the lake categories selected. Variations between observers was about 5%. From the MDAS color coded maps the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. This lake was closely checked and a pollution source of 100 cows was found in the springs which fed this lake. The theory, lab work and field work which made it possible for this demonstration project to be a practical lake classification procedure are presented.

  8. LANDSAT-4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric integrity of the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper (TM) thermal infrared channel (band 6) data was evaluated to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Primary data analysis was spent in evaluating the line to line and detector to detector variation in the thermal infrared data. The data studied was in the core area of Lake Ontario where very stable temperatures were expected. The detectors and the scan direction were taken as separate parameters and an analysis of variance was conducted. The data indicate that significant variability exists both between detectors and between scan directions.

  9. Landsat 7 Solar Array Testing Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This paper covers the extensive Landsat 7 solar array flight qualification testing effort. Details of the mechanical design of the solar array and its retention/release system are presented. A testing chronology is provided beginning with the onset of problems encountered at the subsystem level and carrying through the third and final powered-spacecraft ground deployment test. Design fixes and other changes are explained in the same order as they became necessary to flight-qualify the array. Some interesting lessons learned are included along with key references.

  10. California coastal processes study, LANDSAT 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The authors have identified the following significant results. By using suspended sediments as tracers, objectives were met by qualitative definition of the nearshore circulation along the entire coast of California with special study sites at Humboldt Bay, the mouth of the Russian River, San Francisco Bay, Monterey Bay, and the Santa Barbara Channel. Although LANDSAT primarily imaged fines and silts in the surface waters, the distribution of sediments allowed an examination of upwelling, convergences and coastal erosion and deposition. In Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, these coastal phenomena were used to trace seasonal trends in surface currents.

  11. Optimal Landsat transforms for forest applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, T. L.; Strahler, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven transformations of data from four Landsat MSS channels were investigated to find if any of the transforms accentuated the separability of natural vegetation classes in regions of varying topographical relief. Attention was given to the divergence analysis and classification accuracy of information content of the eleven transforms and four channels. A useful scaling function was observed with the second eigenvector being the denominator in the divergence values obtained. The second eigenvector was found to reduce the effects of shadowing and differential illumination of vegetation signatures, thereby enhancing the divergence values. The highest accuracies in crop identification were provided by the averages of channels 4, 6, and 7 divided by the second eigenvector.

  12. Operational alternatives for LANDSAT in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Data integration is defined and examined as the means of promoting data sharing among the various governmental and private geobased information systems in California. Elements of vertical integration considered included technical factors (such as resolution and classification) and institutional factors (such as organizational control, and legal and political barriers). Attempts are made to fit the theoretical elements of vertical integration into a meaningful structure for looking at the problem from a statewide focus. Both manual (mapped) and machine readable data systems are included. Special attention is given to LANDSAT imagery because of its strong potential for integrated use and its primary in the California Integrated Remote Sensing System program.

  13. State recommendations on approaches to LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bay, S. M.; Wubker, P.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of continuing the LANDSAT program is contingent upon the success of the technology transfer process to state and local governments. The focus of these concerns can be generally expressed in terms of these issue areas: (1) user needs, in terms of awareness, technical capabilities, and training; (2) product availability and pricing; and (3) roles and communication links, in terms of federal and state governments, the private sector, and the universities. The perspective of the states on these issues are classified. Where possible, alternative strategies for accomplishing the satellite technology transfer for effective state implementation are suggested. Those suggestions are based on the recommendations offered by the state and local user community.

  14. Landsat - What is operational in water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Munday, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of Landsat data in hydrology and water quality measurement were examined to determine which applications are operational. In hydrology, the principal applications have been surface water inventory, and land cover analysis for (1) runoff modeling and (2) abatement planning for non-point pollution and erosion. In water quality measurement, the principal applications have been: (1) trophic state assessment, and (2) measurement of turbidity and suspended sediment. The following applications were found to be operational: mapping of surface water, snow cover, and land cover (USGS Level 1) for watershed applications; measurement of turbidity, Secchi disk depth, suspended sediment concentration, and water depth.

  15. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-10-13

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  16. A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, Frank Don

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

  17. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 November 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which las been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  18. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of the Earth's changing surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has managed the Landsat data archive for more than two decades. This archive provides a rich collection of information about the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface of the planet can be detected, measured, and analyzed using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The information obtainable from the historical and current Landsat data play a key role in studying surface changes through time. This document provides an overview of the Landsat program and illustrates the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To reveal changes that have taken place within the past 20 years, pairs and triplicates of images were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical record of the Earth's land surface from the early 1970's to the early 1990's. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to the present.

  19. Improved forest change detection with terrain illumination corrected landsat images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An illumination correction algorithm has been developed to improve the accuracy of forest change detection from Landsat reflectance data. This algorithm is based on an empirical rotation model and was tested on the Landsat imagery pair over Cherokee National Forest, Tennessee, Uinta-Wasatch-Cache N...

  20. LANDSAT 1 cumulative US standard catalog, 1976/1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT 1 U.S. Cumulative Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  1. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 March 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  2. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 May 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. standard catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  3. LANDSAT-4 World Reference System (WRS) users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A functional description of the new LANDSAT-4 World Reference System (WRS) with an overview of the main orbital parameters and instrument coverages is presented to provide the data user with the primary information required to understand LANDSAT-4 orbital characteristics, to effectively use the WRS indexing scheme, and to request specific geographic coverage on the desired observation dates.

  4. Excerpts from selected LANDSAT 1 final reports in geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Smith, A.; Baker, R.

    1976-01-01

    The standard formats for the summaries of selected LANDSAT geological data are presented as checklists. These include: (1) value of LANDSAT data to geology, (2) geologic benefits, (3) follow up studies, (4) cost benefits, (5) optimistic working scales, (6) statistical analysis, and (7) enhancement effects.

  5. Sharpening landsat 8 thermal imagery for field scale ET mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing provides valuable information for mapping land surface energy flux and evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 8 carries a TIR instrument with two thermal bands that can provide a more accurate estimate of land surface temperature (LST) than prior landsat satellites. H...

  6. Analyzing remote sensing data in R: the landsat package

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and development on atmospheric and topographic correction methods for multispectral satellite data such as Landsat images has far outpaced the availability of those methods in Geographic Information Systems software. As Landsat and other data become more widely available, demand for these i...

  7. LANDSAT 2 cumulative non-US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referred month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  8. Improved LANDSAT to give better view of earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch data of LANDSAT 3 is announced. The improved capability of the spacecrafts' remote sensors (the return beam vidicon and the multispectral scanner) and application of LANDSAT data to the study of energy supplies, food production, and global large-scale environmental monitoring are discussed along with the piggyback amateur radio communication satellite-OSCAR-D, the plasma Interaction Experiment, and the data collection system onboard LANDSAT 3. An assessment of the utility of LANDSAT multispectral data is given based on the research results to data from studies of LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Areas studied include agriculture, rangelands, forestry, water resources, environmental and marine resources, environmental and marine resources, cartography, land use, demography, and geological surveys and mineral/petroleum exploration.

  9. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  10. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  11. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework.

  12. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework. PMID:27584732

  13. A genetic algorithm for flexible molecular overlay and pharmacophore elucidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gareth; Willett, Peter; Glen, Robert C.

    1995-12-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed for the superimposition of sets of flexible molecules. Molecules are represented by a chromosome that encodes angles of rotation about flexible bonds and mappings between hydrogen-bond donor proton, acceptor lone pair and ring centre features in pairs of molecules. The molecule with the smallest number of features in the data set is used as a template, onto which the remaining molecules are fitted with the objective of maximising structural equivalences. The fitness function of the GA is a weighted combination of: (i) the number and the similarity of the features that have been overlaid in this way; (ii) the volume integral of the overlay; and (iii) the van der Waals energy of the molecular conformations defined by the torsion angles encoded in the chromosomes. The algorithm has been applied to a number of pharmacophore elucidation problems, i.e., angiotensin II receptor antagonists, Leu-enkephalin and a hybrid morphine molecule, 5-HT1D agonists, benzodiazepine receptor ligands, 5-HT3 antagonists, dopamine D2 antagonists, dopamine reuptake blockers and FKBP12 ligands. The resulting pharmacophores are generated rapidly and are in good agreement with those derived from alternative means.

  14. RelEx: Visualization for Actively Changing Overlay Network Specifications.

    PubMed

    Sedlmair, M; Frank, A; Munzner, T; Butz, A

    2012-12-01

    We present a network visualization design study focused on supporting automotive engineers who need to specify and optimize traffic patterns for in-car communication networks. The task and data abstractions that we derived support actively making changes to an overlay network, where logical communication specifications must be mapped to an underlying physical network. These abstractions are very different from the dominant use case in visual network analysis, namely identifying clusters and central nodes, that stems from the domain of social network analysis. Our visualization tool RelEx was created and iteratively refined through a full user-centered design process that included a full problem characterization phase before tool design began, paper prototyping, iterative refinement in close collaboration with expert users for formative evaluation, deployment in the field with real analysts using their own data, usability testing with non-expert users, and summative evaluation at the end of the deployment. In the summative post-deployment study, which entailed domain experts using the tool over several weeks in their daily practice, we documented many examples where the use of RelEx simplified or sped up their work compared to previous practices.

  15. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35 years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures

  16. LANDSAT non-U.S. standard catalog, 1 January 1977 through 31 January 1977. [LANDSAT imagery January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which was processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  17. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1 February 1977 - 28 February 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for the month of February 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  18. A comparison of alignment and overlay performance with varying hardmask materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sangho; Ha, Soon Mok; Nam, Young Min; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

    2012-03-01

    In recent semiconductor manufacturing, hardmask is unavoidable requirement to further transfer the patterning from thin photoresist to underlayer. While several types of hardmask materials have been investigated, amorphous carbon has been attractive for good etching resistance and high-aspect-ratio resolution. However, it has fatal problem with lowering overlay controllability due to its high extinction coefficient (k). Thus, the correlation of alignment and overlay performance with varying hardmask materials is required to meet a tight overlay budget of 2x nm node and beyond. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of the hardmask materials with respect to the optical properties on the performance of overlay applicable to 2x nm memory devices.

  19. A Preliminary Study of Building a Transmission Overlay for Regional US Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Yin; Li, Yalong; Liu, Yilu; Tomsovic, Kevin; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Many European countries have taken steps toward a Supergrid in order to transmit large amount of intermittent and remote renewable energy over long distance to load centers. In the US, as the expected increase in renewable generation and electricity demand, similar problem arises. A potential solution is to upgrade the transmission system at a higher voltage by constructing a new overlay grid. This paper will first address basic requirements for such an overlay grid. Potential transmission technologies will also be discussed. A multi-terminal VSC HVDC model is developed in DSATools to implement the overlay grid and a test case on a regional NPCC system will be simulated. Another test system of entire US power grid, with three different interconnections tied together using back-to-back HVDC, is also introduced in this paper. Building an overlay system on top of this test case is ongoing, and will be discussed in future work.

  20. Modification of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of ultrathin Co films due to the presence of overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungkyun; Lee, Sukmock; Falco, Charles M.

    2002-05-01

    In order to understand the effect of interfacial strain on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of ultrathin Co films, ex situ Brillouin light scattering measurements were performed for various overlayer materials. The samples were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and Cu, Al, and Au were used as overlayer materials. We observed a decrease in PMA of the Co with the Cu and Al overlayers. In addition, we found an unexpected result that the PMA is significantly reduced when an Au overlayer of 35 Å is covered by an extra Al capping layer. The amount of this reduction depends on the thickness of the Al layer. Our results lead us to speculate that misfit strain at the interface between the Al and the Au can be propagated through the Au layer to affect the magnetic properties of Co.

  1. Overlayer effects on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Au/Cu films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sukmock; Park, Sungkyun; Falco, Charles M.

    2001-03-01

    We have performed Brillouin light scattering measurements to investigate the effect on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of overlayers on ultra--thin Co films prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The overlayer materials used for these studies were Al and Au. We observed a systematic decrease in PMA when using Al instead of Au overlayers, and will present results of the uniaxial anisotropies of the films as a function of Au underlayer thickness. In addition, we found the unexpected result that the PMA is significantly reduced when an Au overlayer of 3.5 nm is covered by an extra Al capping layer. The amount of this reduction depends on the thickness of the Al layer. We speculate that misfit strain at the interface between the Al and the Au can be propagated through the Au layer to affect the magnetic properties of Co.

  2. How to minimize CD variation and overlay degradation induced by film stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Yung; Lim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Shin-Ae; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoo, Jung-A.; Pyi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin-Woong

    2012-03-01

    It is getting harder to minimize feature size to satisfy bit growth requirement. 3D NAND flash memory has been developed to meet bit growth requirement without shrinking feature size. To increase the number of memory cells per unit area without shrinking feature size, we should increase the number of stacked film layers which finally become memory cells. Wafer warpage is induced by the stress between film and wafer. Both of film stress and wafer warpage increase in proportion to stacked film layers, and the increase of wafer warpage makes CD uniformity worse. Overlay degradation has no relation with wafer warpage, but has indirect relation with film stress. Wafer deformation in film deposition chamber is the source of overlay degradation. In this paper, we study the reasons why CD uniformity and overlay accuracy are affected by film stress, and suggest the methods which keep CD uniformity and overlay accuracy safe without additional processes.

  3. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibration status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hook, Simon J.; Schott, John R.; Haque, Md. Obaidul

    2016-09-01

    Now in its 17th year of operation, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+), on board the Landsat-7 satellite, continues to systematically acquire imagery of the Earth to add to the 40+ year archive of Landsat data. Characterization of the ETM+ on-orbit radiometric performance has been on-going since its launch in 1999. The radiometric calibration of the reflective bands is still monitored using on-board calibration devices, though the Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) method has proven to be an effective tool as well. The calibration gains were updated in April 2013 based primarily on PICS results, which corrected for a change of as much as -0.2%/year degradation in the worst case bands. A new comparison with the SADE database of PICS results indicates no additional degradation in the updated calibration. PICS data are still being tracked though the recent trends are not well understood. The thermal band calibration was updated last in October 2013 based on a continued calibration effort by NASA/Jet Propulsion Lab and Rochester Institute of Technology. The update accounted for a 0.036 W/m2 sr μm or 0.26K at 300K bias error. The updated lifetime trend is now stable to within +/- 0.4K.

  4. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  5. Landsat-5 bumper-mode geometric correction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scan mirror was switched from its primary operating mode to a backup mode in early 2002 in order to overcome internal synchronization problems arising from long-term wear of the scan mirror mechanism. The backup bumper mode of operation removes the constraints on scan start and stop angles enforced in the primary scan angle monitor operating mode, requiring additional geometric calibration effort to monitor the active scan angles. It also eliminates scan timing telemetry used to correct the TM scan geometry. These differences require changes to the geometric correction algorithms used to process TM data. A mathematical model of the scan mirror's behavior when operating in bumper mode was developed. This model includes a set of key timing parameters that characterize the time-varying behavior of the scan mirror bumpers. To simplify the implementation of the bumper-mode model, the bumper timing parameters were recast in terms of the calibration and telemetry data items used to process normal TM imagery. The resulting geometric performance, evaluated over 18 months of bumper-mode operations, though slightly reduced from that achievable in the primary operating mode, is still within the Landsat specifications when the data are processed with the most up-to-date calibration parameters.

  6. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  7. Progress Towards a 2012 Landsat Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, Jim; Sabelhaus, Phil; Masek, Jeff; Cook, Bruce; Dabney, Phil; Loveland, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is on schedule for a December 2012 launch date. The mission is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NASA leads the development and launch of the satellite observatory while leads ground system development. USGS will assume responsibility for operating the satellite and for collecting, archiving, and distributing the LDCM data following launch. When launched the satellite will carry two sensors into orbit. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will coincidently collect data for two thermal infrared bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it?s manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The ground data processing system is in development at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite system, provide the status of system development, and present prelaunch performance data for OLI and TIRS. The USGS has committed to renaming the satellite as Landsat 8 following launch.

  8. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  9. Landsat image registration for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.; Wacker, A. G.; Kaneko, T.

    1982-01-01

    An image registration system has been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to spatially align multi-temporal Landsat acquisitions for use in agriculture and forestry research. Working in conjunction with the Master Data Processor (MDP) at the Goddard Space Flight Center, it functionally replaces the long-standing LACIE Registration Processor as JSC's data supplier. The system represents an expansion of the techniques developed for the MDP and LACIE Registration Processor, and it utilizes the experience gained in an IBM/JSC effort evaluating the performance of the latter. These techniques are discussed in detail. Several tests were developed to evaluate the registration performance of the system. The results indicate that 1/15-pixel accuracy (about 4m for Landsat MSS) is achievable in ideal circumstances, sub-pixel accuracy (often to 0.2 pixel or better) was attained on a representative set of U.S. acquisitions, and a success rate commensurate with the LACIE Registration Processor was realized. The system has been employed in a production mode on U.S. and foreign data, and a performance similar to the earlier tests has been noted.

  10. LANDSAT-D investigations in snow hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. (Principal Investigator); Davis, R. E.; Dubayah, R. O.; Frew, J. E.; Li, S.; Marks, D.; Milliff, R. F.; Rousseau, D. D.; Wan, Z. M.

    1985-01-01

    Work undertaken during the contract and its results are described. Many of the results from this investigation are available in journal or conference proceedings literature - published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. For these the reference and the abstract are given. Those results that have not yet been submitted separately for publication are described in detail. Accomplishments during the contract period are summarized as follows: (1) analysis of the snow reflectance characteristics of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, including spectral suitability, dynamic range, and spectral resolution; (2) development of a variety of atmospheric models for use with LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data. These include a simple but fast two-stream approximation for inhomogeneous atmospheres over irregular surfaces, and a doubling model for calculation of the angular distribution of spectral radiance at any level in an plane-parallel atmosphere; (3) incorporation of digital elevation data into the atmospheric models and into the analysis of the satellite data; and (4) textural analysis of the spatial distribution of snow cover.

  11. Landsat 3 return beam vidicon response artifacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Clark, B.

    1981-01-01

    The return beam vidicon (RBV) sensing systems employed aboard Landsats 1, 2, and 3 have all been similar in that they have utilized vidicon tube cameras. These are not mirror-sweep scanning devices such as the multispectral scanner (MSS) sensors that have also been carried aboard the Landsat satellites. The vidicons operate more like common television cameras, using an electron gun to read images from a photoconductive faceplate.In the case of Landsats 1 and 2, the RBV system consisted of three such vidicons which collected remote sensing data in three distinct spectral bands. Landsat 3, however, utilizes just two vidicon cameras, both of which sense data in a single broad band. The Landsat 3 RBV system additionally has a unique configuration. As arranged, the two cameras can be shuttered alternately, twice each, in the same time it takes for one MSS scene to be acquired. This shuttering sequence results in four RBV "subscenes" for every MSS scene acquired, similar to the four quadrants of a square. See Figure 1. Each subscene represents a ground area of approximately 98 by 98 km. The subscenes are designated A, B, C, and D, for the northwest, northeast, southwest, and southeast quarters of the full scene, respectively. RBV data products are normally ordered, reproduced, and sold on a subscene basis and are in general referred to in this way. Each exposure from the RBV camera system presents an image which is 98 km on a side. When these analog video data are subsequently converted to digital form, the picture element, or pixel, that results is 19 m on a side with an effective resolution element of 30 m. This pixel size is substantially smaller than that obtainable in MSS images (the MSS has an effective resolution element of 73.4 m), and, when RBV images are compared to equivalent MSS images, better resolution in the RBV data is clearly evident. It is for this reason that the RBV system can be a valuable tool for remote sensing of earth resources.Until recently

  12. Integrated scatterometry for tight overlay and CD control to enable 20-nm node wafer manufacturing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benschop, Jos; Engelen, Andre; Cramer, Hugo; Kubis, Michael; Hinnen, Paul; van der Laan, Hans; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Mulkens, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The overlay, CDU and focus requirements for the 20nm node can only be met using a holistic lithography approach whereby full use is made of high-order, field-by-field, scanner correction capabilities. An essential element in this approach is a fast, precise and accurate in-line metrology sensor, capable to measure on product. The capabilities of the metrology sensor as well as the impact on overlay, CD and focus will be shared in this paper.

  13. Application of overlay modeling and control with Zernike polynomials in an HVM environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, JaeWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Nabeth, Jeremy; Jeon, Sanghuck; Heo, Hoyoung; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill

    2016-03-01

    Shrinking technology nodes and smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Generally, overlay measurement results are modeled with Cartesian polynomial functions for both intra-field and inter-field models and the model coefficients are sent to an advanced process control (APC) system operating in an XY Cartesian basis. Dampened overlay corrections, typically via exponentially or linearly weighted moving average in time, are then retrieved from the APC system to apply on the scanner in XY Cartesian form for subsequent lot exposure. The goal of the above method is to process lots with corrections that target the least possible overlay misregistration in steady state as well as in change point situations. In this study, we model overlay errors on product using Zernike polynomials with same fitting capability as the process of reference (POR) to represent the wafer-level terms, and use the standard Cartesian polynomials to represent the field-level terms. APC calculations for wafer-level correction are performed in Zernike basis while field-level calculations use standard XY Cartesian basis. Finally, weighted wafer-level correction terms are converted to XY Cartesian space in order to be applied on the scanner, along with field-level corrections, for future wafer exposures. Since Zernike polynomials have the property of being orthogonal in the unit disk we are able to reduce the amount of collinearity between terms and improve overlay stability. Our real time Zernike modeling and feedback evaluation was performed on a 20-lot dataset in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. The measured on-product results were compared to POR and showed a 7% reduction in overlay variation including a 22% terms variation. This led to an on-product raw overlay Mean + 3Sigma X&Y improvement of 5% and resulted in 0.1% yield improvement.

  14. An overlay gel method for identification and isolation of bacterial beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Rafiee, Roya

    2006-01-01

    A modification of the iodometric technique using an overlay gel was employed for fast identification and isolation of beta-lactamase types TEM, SHV and AmpC from non-denaturing gels. Osmotic shock preparations of the three beta-lactamases were run on polyacrylamide gels without SDS and ampicillin containing overlay gels were flooded with the iodine solution before being placed on polyacrylamide gel strips. Distinct clear bands appeared in dark blue backgrounds indicating beta-lactamase activity.

  15. Application Oriented Flow Routing Algorithm for VoIP Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipusitwarakun, Komwut; Chimmanee, Sanon

    Overlay networks which are dynamically created over underlying IP networks are becoming widely used for delivering multimedia contents since they can provide several additional user-definable services. Multiple overlay paths between a source-destination overlay node pair are designed to improve service robustness against failures and bandwidth fluctuation of the underlying networks. Multimedia traffic can be distributed over those multiple paths in order to maximize paths' utilization and to increase application throughputs. Most of flow-based routing algorithms consider only common metrics such as paths' bandwidth or delay, which may be effective for data applications but not for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), in which different levels of such performance metrics may give the same level of the performance experienced by end users. This paper focuses on such VoIP overlay networks and proposes a novel alternative path based flow routing algorithm using an application-specific traffic metric, i.e. “VoIP Path Capacity (VPCap), ” to calculate the maximum number of QoS satisfied VoIP flows which may be distributed over each available overlay path at a moment. The simulation results proved that more QoS-satisfied VoIP sessions can be established over the same multiple overlay paths, comparing to traditional approaches.

  16. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member’s departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  17. Assessment and prediction of drying shrinkage cracking in bonded mortar overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Beushausen, Hans Chilwesa, Masuzyo

    2013-11-15

    Restrained drying shrinkage cracking was investigated on composite beams consisting of substrate concrete and bonded mortar overlays, and compared to the performance of the same mortars when subjected to the ring test. Stress development and cracking in the composite specimens were analytically modeled and predicted based on the measurement of relevant time-dependent material properties such as drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, tensile relaxation and tensile strength. Overlay cracking in the composite beams could be very well predicted with the analytical model. The ring test provided a useful qualitative comparison of the cracking performance of the mortars. The duration of curing was found to only have a minor influence on crack development. This was ascribed to the fact that prolonged curing has a beneficial effect on tensile strength at the onset of stress development, but is in the same time not beneficial to the values of tensile relaxation and elastic modulus. -- Highlights: •Parameter study on material characteristics influencing overlay cracking. •Analytical model gives good quantitative indication of overlay cracking. •Ring test presents good qualitative indication of overlay cracking. •Curing duration has little effect on overlay cracking.

  18. Landsat and agriculture—Case studies on the uses and benefits of Landsat imagery in agricultural monitoring and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, Colin R.; Serbina, Larisa O.; Miller, Holly M.

    2017-03-29

    Executive SummaryThe use of Landsat satellite imagery for global agricultural monitoring began almost immediately after the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972, making agricultural monitoring one of the longest-standing operational applications for the Landsat program. More recently, Landsat imagery has been used in domestic agricultural applications as an input for field-level production management. The enactment of the U.S. Geological Survey’s free and open data policy in 2008 and the launch of Landsat 8 in 2013 have both influenced agricultural applications. This report presents two primary sets of case studies on the applications and benefits of Landsat imagery use in agriculture. The first set examines several operational applications within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the second focuses on private sector applications for agronomic management.  Information on the USDA applications is provided in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Uses of Landsat Imagery for Global and Domestic Agricultural Monitoring section of the report in the following subsections:Estimating Crop Production.—Provides an overview of how Landsat satellite imagery is used to estimate crop production, including the spectral bands most frequently utilized in this application.Monitoring Consumptive Water Use.—Highlights the role of Landsat imagery in monitoring consumptive water use for agricultural production. Globally, a significant amount of agricultural production relies on irrigation, so monitoring water resources is a critical component of agricultural monitoring. National Agricultural Statistics Service—Cropland Data Layer.—Highlights the use of Landsat imagery in developing the annual Cropland Data Layer, a crop-specific land cover classification product that provides information on more than 100 crop categories grown in the United States. Foreign Agricultural Service—Global Agricultural Monitoring.—Highlights Landsat’s role in monitoring global agricultural

  19. Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

    1982-01-01

    For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Mapper (TM), will have seven channels and provide data with 30 m spatial resolution. Two of the spectral channels (1.6 micron and 2.2 micron) should allow detection of hydrous minerals. Possible applications of Landsat-D TM data for copper exploration were studied on the basis of a comparison of Landsat data with simulated TM data acquired using an aircraft scanner instrument. Three porphyr copper deposits in Arizona were selected for the study. It is concluded that the new Landsat-D TM scanner will provide Exploration geologists with a new improved tool for surveying mineral resources on a global basis.

  20. Focus, edge detection, and CCD camera characterization for development of an optical overlay calibration standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Stephen Harris

    2000-11-01

    In order to ensure continued growth and development, a consortium of IC manufacturers has produced a ``roadmap'' of critical technologies immediately needed, and predicted to be needed, by the industry in the near future. Reduction of critical dimensions (the smallest dimensions of an IC, typically the CMOS gate length) necessitate tighter control over the alignment of one mask (i.e., lithographic) level relative to another. Measurement of the relative alignment of two such masks is known as ``overlay metrology.'' Reference standards for calibration of present and planned overlay metrology tools must be developed for the IC industry to meet their anticipated needs. This work contributes to the development of calibration standards and methods for overlay metrology by consideration and characterization of several aspects of overlay measurement that introduce error into the measurement. Unavoidable variations in the focus response of an overlay tool lead to errors due to coupling of lateral motion of the measuring microscope with its focus motion, and its variation of optical aberrations with focus. We consider various algorithms available for autofocus of an optical microscope. The algorithms have been tested with simulated and real data. We have found that an algorithm's response depends crucially on the material system being investigated. We also determined an optimal algorithm of those tested for use on the NIST optical overlay metrology tool. Detection of feature edges and their positions on the IC are critical to overlay metrology. We investigated various algorithms for edge detection appropriate for the optical overlay metrology tool at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Results comparing the performance of the recommended algorithm against various algorithms used in the industry are presented. Length standards are normally calibrated with a scanning photometric stage monitored by laser interferometry. Optical overlay patterns are

  1. Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgeson, W.T.; Batson, R.M.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

  2. Manual versus digital Landsat analysis for modeling river flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R.; Hafker, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    The comparative value of manual versus digital image analysis for determining flood boundaries is being examined in a study of the use of Landsat data for modeling flooding of the Black River, in northern New York. The work is an extension of an earlier study in which Black River flooding was assessed through visually interpreted, multi-date Landsat band 7 images. Based on the results to date, it appears that neither color-additive viewing nor digital analysis of Landsat data provide improvement in accuracy over visual analysis of band 7 images, for delineating the boundaries of flood-affected areas.

  3. Water-management model in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition and dissemination network and its effectiveness in improving and/or solving hydrologic problems in southern Florida are evaluated. The network utilized LANDSAT MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by LANDSAT-DCS. Results show water level and rain fall measurements were collected and disseminated in less than two hours, a significant improvement over conventional methods which took up to two months. Improved network performance has also aided the development of water budgets and water distribution to the people, funa, and flora in the area. Imagery from LANDSAT was also found to enhance the utility of ground measurements.

  4. Landsat ecosystem disturbance adaptive processing system (LEDAPS) algorithm description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Gail; Jenkerson, Calli; Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) software was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland to produce top-of-atmosphere reflectance from LandsatThematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Level 1 digital numbers and to apply atmospheric corrections to generate a surface-reflectance product.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the LEDAPS algorithm for producing the Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record.This report discusses the LEDAPS algorithm, which was implemented by the USGS.

  5. Monitoring vegetation conditions from LANDSAT for use in range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.; Deering, D. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Schell, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the LANDSAT Great Plains Corridor projects and the principal results are presented. Emphasis is given to the use of satellite acquired phenological data for range management and agri-business activities. A convenient method of reducing LANDSAT MSS data to provide quantitative estimates of green biomass on rangelands in the Great Plains is explained. Suggestions for the use of this approach for evaluating range feed conditions are presented. A LANDSAT Follow-on project has been initiated which will employ the green biomass estimation method in a quasi-operational monitoring of range readiness and range feed conditions on a regional scale.

  6. Enumeration of prairie wetlands with Landsat and aircraft data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Work, E.A.; Colwell, J.E.; Rebel, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for making an estimate of wetland numbers in the glaciated prairie region. A double-phase sampling approach is used which consists of first making a total census of wetlands using Landsat data, and then adjusting the Landsat results on the basis of samples derived from high resolution aircraft data. The method is relatively simple to use and has general applicability for estimating habitat features not consistently detectable or resolvable on Landsat imagery because their size range includes features less than the resolution capability of the satellite's sensor.

  7. Landsat for practical forest type mapping - A test case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E.; Dodge, A. G., Jr.; Warren, S. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer classified Landsat maps are compared with a recent conventional inventory of forest lands in northern Maine. Over the 196,000 hectare area mapped, estimates of the areas of softwood, mixed wood and hardwood forest obtained by a supervised classification of the Landsat data and a standard inventory based on aerial photointerpretation, probability proportional to prediction, field sampling and a standard forest measurement program are found to agree to within 5%. The cost of the Landsat maps is estimated to be $0.065/hectare. It is concluded that satellite techniques are worth developing for forest inventories, although they are not yet refined enough to be incorporated into current practical inventories.

  8. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat

  9. The landsat program: Its origins, evolution, and impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Morain, S.A.; Salomonson, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Landsat 1 began an era of space-based resource data collection that changed the way science, industry, governments, and the general public view the Earth. For the last 25 years, the Landsat program - despite being hampered by institutional problems and budget uncertainties - has successfully provided a continuous supply of synoptic, repetitive, multi-spectral data of the Earth's land areas. These data have profoundly affected programs for mapping resources, monitoring environmental changes, and assessing global habitability. The societal applications this program generated are so compelling that international systems have proliferated to carry on the tasks initiated with Landsat data.

  10. LANDSAT-D thermal analysis and design support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Detailed thermal models of the LANDSAT-D Earth Sensor Assembly Module (ESAM), the Dummy Thematic Mapper (DTM), and a small thermal model of the LANDSAT-D spacecraft for a heater analysis were developed. These models were used to develop and verify the thermal design of the ESAM and DTM, to evaluate the aeroheating effects on ESAM during launch and to evaluate the thermal response of the LANDSAT-D assuming the hard-line heaters failed on with the spacecraft in the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter bay. Results of model applications are summarized.

  11. Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

  12. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

    2004-01-01

    A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

  13. LANDSAT-D band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A filter, fabricated to match the spectral response of the LANDSAT band 6 sensors, was received and the combined system response function computed. The half power points for the aircraft system are 10.5 micrometer and 11.55 micrometer compared to the 10.4 and 11.6 micrometer values for the satellite. These discrepancies are considered acceptable; their effect on the apparent temperature observed at the satellite is being evaluated. The filter was installed in the infrared line scanner and the line scanner was installed in the aircraft and field checked. A daytime underflight of the satellite is scheduled for the next clear overpass and the feasibility of a nightime overpass is being discussed with NASA. The LOWTRAN 5 computer code was obtained from the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory and is being implemented for use on this effort.

  14. Monitoring tropical vegetation succession with LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, V. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The shadowing problem, which is endemic to the use of LANDSAT in tropical areas, and the ability to model changes over space and through time are problems to be addressed when monitoring tropical vegetation succession. Application of a trend surface analysis model to major land cover classes in a mountainous region of the Phillipines shows that the spatial modeling of radiance values can provide a useful approach to tropical rain forest succession monitoring. Results indicate shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral responses. These variations can be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data. Using the model to estimate both elevation and spectral terrain surface as a posteriori inputs in the classification process leads to improved classification accuracy for vegetation of cover of this type. Spatial patterns depicted by the MSS data reflect the measurement of responses to spatial processes acting at several scales.

  15. Information expectations from Landsat-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Williams, D. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The first satellite of the Landsat-D Project is to be launched in the third quarter of 1982 with a second satellite to be prepared for launch 12 to 15 months later. Both spacecraft are to include the familiar Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the advanced multispectral scanner called the Thematic Mapper (TM). The ground data processing system for the MSS data is to be ready to produce 200 scenes a day in 1982. The data processing systems for the TM are to be fully operational at the 50 to 100 scenes a day level in early 1985. The fabrication of the system components has proceeded well in recent months, and integration of the total system is under way. The procedures for processing the data and meeting specifications are nearly completed for the MSS and are outlined in detail for the TM. An outline of an investigation program stressing systems performance has been developed for the period 1982 to 1985.

  16. A LANDSAT digital image rectification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.; Stein, M.

    1976-01-01

    DIRS is a digital image rectification system for the geometric correction of LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital image data. DIRS removes spatial distortions from the data and brings it into conformance with the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection. Scene data in the form of landmarks are used to drive the geometric correction algorithms. Two dimensional least squares polynominal and spacecraft attitude modeling techniques for geometric mapping are provided. Entire scenes or selected quadrilaterals may be rectified. Resampling through nearest neighbor or cubic convolution at user designated intervals is available. The output products are in the form of digital tape in band interleaved, single band or CCT format in a rotated UTM projection. The system was designed and implemented on large scale IBM 360 computers.

  17. An industrial perspective of the LANDSAT opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of enhancing LANDSAT products to provide the greatest usability low cost data possible can be determined through government sponsorship and finance of one or more task forces composed of a critical number of experts in multiple disciplines from many industries and academia. The synergism of multiple minds addressing singular problems without the creation of permanent or perpetual structures must yield output in the form of implementable specifications, even if presented as alternatives. Changes are needed within the spacecraft in order to account for Sun angle changes. The use of pointing accuracy to make geometric corrections (and possible radiometric corrections, is needed more than onboard data reduction and information extraction, which assume a proper knowledge of application and reduce potential utilization. Multilinear arrays need to be investigated and methods for sensor calibration and for determining the effects of atmospheric inversion, as well as the best way to back out the modulation transfer function must be determined.

  18. Landsat analysis of east-central Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.; Kent, R.; Noel, J.A.; Sers, S.

    1986-05-01

    Regional Landsat analysis was completed in an area of east-central Tennessee, about 65 mi southeast of Nashville. The study area encompassed the eastern edge of the Great Basin, the Highland Rim, and the western edge of the Cumberland Plateau. The area is roughly bounded on the north by Interstate 40 and on the south by US Highway 41. The study was undertaken to learn the relationships between the fracture production of gas from the McMinnville field and the surface areal extent and orientation of the fractures, if any. Production from the McMinnville gas field is primarily from fractures in the Trenton limestone. Density logs show that formations penetrated have very low interstitial porosity. The eastern edge of the Great Basin is underlain by sediments of lower paleozoic age, which are successively overlain by limestone and shale of Mississippian age in the Highland Rim. Sandstone, shale, and coal of Pennsylvanian age top the Cumberland Plateau and its erosional outliers on the eastern edge of the Highland Rim. Three sets of lineaments were evident on the enhanced Landsat imagery. The dominant set trends northeast-southwest, and parallels the thrust faults of the Sequatchie Valley and the Valley and Ridge province to the east. The second set trends at right angles to the first, and the third set trends at some angle to the other two. On the west side of the study area is a broad arcuate anomaly that is not expressed on topographic maps nor in the outcrop patterns of geologic maps, but may be a feature of the rim of the Great Basin. Subsurface mapping of the McMinnville field, which is still proprietary, indicates that the field is a small dome of low closure with several normal faults located parallel to the lineament systems.

  19. Evaluation of Tizian overlays by means of a swept source optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Stoica, Eniko Tunde; Topala, Florin; Duma, Virgil Florin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The teeth affected by pathologic attrition can be restored by a minimally invasive approach, using Tizian overlays. In this study we prove the advantages of a fast swept source (SS) OCT system in the evaluation of Tizian overlays placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces. 12 maxillary first premolars were extracted and prepared for overlays. The Tizian overlays were subjected to 3000 alternating cycles of thermo-cycling (from -10°C to +50°C) and to mechanical occlusal overloads (at 800 N). A fast SS OCT system was used to evaluate the Tizian overlays before and after the mechanical and thermal straining. The SS (Axsun Technologies, Billerica, MA) has a central wavelength of 1060 nm, sweeping range of 106 nm (quoted at 10 dB) and a 100 kHz line rate. The depth resolution of the system, measured experimentally in air was 10 μm. The imaging system used for this study offers high spatial resolutions in both directions, transversal and longitudinal of around 10 μm, a high sensitivity, and it is also able to acquire entire tridimensional (3D)/volume reconstructions as fast as 2.5 s. Once the full dataset was acquired, rendered high resolutions en-face projections could be produced. Using them, the overlay (i.e., cement) abutment tooth interfaces were remarked both on B-scans/two-dimensional (2D) sections and in the 3D reconstructions. Using the system several open interfaces were possible to detect. The fast SS OCT system thus proves useful in the evaluation of zirconia reinforced composite overlays, placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces.

  20. Characterization and mitigation of overlay error on silicon wafers with nonuniform stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, T.; Menon, V.; Wong, C.; Felix, N.; Pike, M.; Gluschenkov, O.; Belyansky, M.; Vukkadala, P.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Klein, S.; Hoo, C. H.; Sinha, J.

    2014-03-01

    Process-induced overlay errors are a growing problem in meeting the ever-tightening overlay requirements for integrated circuit production. While uniform process-induced stress is easily corrected, non-uniform stress across the wafer is much more problematic, often resulting in non-correctable overlay errors. Measurements of the wafer geometry of free, unchucked wafers give a powerful method for characterization of such non-uniform stress. We will describe a Patterned Wafer Geometry (PWG) tool, which uses optical methods to measure the geometry of in-process wafers. PWG data can be related to In-Plane Distortion (IPD) of the wafer through the PIR (Predicted IPD Residual) metric. This paper will explore the relationship between the PIR data and measured overlay data on Engineered Stress Monitor (ESM) wafers containing various designed stress variations. The process used to fabricate ESM wafers is quite versatile and can mimic many different stress variation signatures. For this study, ESM wafers were built with strong across-wafer stress variation and another ESM wafer set was built with strong intrafield stress variation. IPD was extensively characterized in two different ways: using standard overlay error metrology and using PWG metrology. Strong correlation is observed between these two independent sets of data, indicating that the PIR metric is able to clearly see wafer distortions. We have taken another step forward by using PIR data from the PWG tool to correct process-induced overlay error by feedforward to the exposure tool, a novel method that we call PWG-FF. We conclude that appropriate wafer geometry measurements of in-process wafers have strong potential to characterize and reduce process-induced overlay errors.

  1. Simultaneous overlay and CD measurement for double patterning: scatterometry and RCWA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Zhuan; Rabello, Silvio; Dasari, Prasad; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine; Park, Jungchul; Singh, Lovejeet

    2009-03-01

    As optical lithography advances to 32 nm technology node and beyond, double patterning technology (DPT) has emerged as an attractive solution to circumvent the fundamental optical limitations. DPT poses unique demands on critical dimension (CD) uniformity and overlay control, making the tolerance decrease much faster than the rate at which critical dimension shrinks. This, in turn, makes metrology even more challenging. In the past, multi-pad diffractionbased overlay (DBO) using empirical approach has been shown to be an effective approach to measure overlay error associated with double patterning [1]. In this method, registration errors for double patterning were extracted from specially designed diffraction targets (three or four pads for each direction); CD variation is assumed negligible within each group of adjacent pads and not addressed in the measurement. In another paper, encouraging results were reported with a first attempt at simultaneously extracting overlay and CD parameters using scatterometry [2]. In this work, we apply scatterometry with a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) approach to characterize two double-patterning processes: litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) and litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE). The advantage of performing rigorous modeling is to reduce the number of pads within each measurement target, thus reducing space requirement and improving throughput, and simultaneously extract CD and overlay information. This method measures overlay errors and CDs by fitting the optical signals with spectra calculated from a model of the targets. Good correlation is obtained between the results from this method and that of several reference techniques, including empirical multi-pad DBO, CD-SEM, and IBO. We also perform total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis to evaluate the overall performance. We demonstrate that scatterometry provides a promising solution to meet the challenging overlay metrology requirement in DPT.

  2. Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

    2014-09-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay.

  3. A Markov Model for the EpiChord Peer-to-Peer Overlay in an XCAST Enabled Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    overlay. Previous work showed that P2P networks benefit from the integration of the overlay network with the underlay network in which multi-destination...multicast routes between peers in different ISP networks . With larger P2P overlays, the use of host-group multicast in DHT creates too much traffic and...on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA’04) Vol. 2, 2004. [9] T. Oh-ishi, K. Sakai, K. Kikuma, and A. Kurokawa, Study of the

  4. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Guindon, B.; Murphy, J.; Butlin, J. M.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.; Grieve, G.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of registration errors in LANDSAT MSS data is discussed as well as the development of a revised algorithm for the radiometric calibration of TM data and the production of a geocoded TM image.

  5. Landsat: 25 Years in the Pacific Northwest Forest

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows a sequence of Landsat-based data in the Pacific Northwest. There is one data set for each year representing an aggregate of the approximate peak of the growing season (arou...

  6. LANDSAT data for state planning. [of transportation for Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an effort to generate and apply automated classification of LANDSAT digital data to state of Georgia problems are presented. This phase centers on an analysis of the usefulness of LANDSAT digital data to provide land-use data for transportation planning. Hall County, Georgia was chosen as a test site because it is part of a seventeen county area for which the Georgia Department of Transportation is currently designing a Transportation Planning Land-Use Simulation Model. The land-cover information derived from this study was compared to several other existing sources of land-use data for Hall County and input into this simulation. The results indicate that there is difficulty comparing LANDSAT derived land-cover information with previous land-use information since the LANDSAT data are acquired on an acre by acre grid basis while all previous land-use surveys for Hall County used land-use data on a parcel basis.

  7. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  8. The global Landsat archive: Status, consolidation, and direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Loveland, Thomas; Woodcock, Curtis; Belward, Alan; Cohen, Warren B.; Fosnight, Eugene A.; Shaw, Jerad; Masek, Jeffery G.; Roy, David P.

    2016-01-01

    New and previously unimaginable Landsat applications have been fostered by a policy change in 2008 that made analysis-ready Landsat data free and open access. Since 1972, Landsat has been collecting images of the Earth, with the early years of the program constrained by onboard satellite and ground systems, as well as limitations across the range of required computing, networking, and storage capabilities. Rather than robust on-satellite storage for transmission via high bandwidth downlink to a centralized storage and distribution facility as with Landsat-8, a network of receiving stations, one operated by the U.S. government, the other operated by a community of International Cooperators (ICs), were utilized. ICs paid a fee for the right to receive and distribute Landsat data and over time, more Landsat data was held outside the archive of the United State Geological Survey (USGS) than was held inside, much of it unique. Recognizing the critical value of these data, the USGS began a Landsat Global Archive Consolidation (LGAC) initiative in 2010 to bring these data into a single, universally accessible, centralized global archive, housed at the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The primary LGAC goals are to inventory the data held by ICs, acquire the data, and ingest and apply standard ground station processing to generate an L1T analysis-ready product. As of January 1, 2015 there were 5,532,454 images in the USGS archive. LGAC has contributed approximately 3.2 million of those images, more than doubling the original USGS archive holdings. Moreover, an additional 2.3 million images have been identified to date through the LGAC initiative and are in the process of being added to the archive. The impact of LGAC is significant and, in terms of images in the collection, analogous to that of having had twoadditional Landsat-5 missions. As a result of LGAC, there are regions of the globe that now have markedly improved

  9. LANDSAT-1 data, its use in a soil survey program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Frazee, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The following applications of LANDSAT imagery were investigated: assistance in recognizing soil survey boundaries, low intensity soil surveys, and preparation of a base map for publishing thematic soils maps. The following characteristics of LANDSAT imagery were tested as they apply to the recognition of soil boundaries in South Dakota and western Minnesota: synoptic views due to the large areas covered, near-orthography and lack of distortion, flexibility of selecting the proper season, data recording in four parts of the spectrum, and the use of computer compatible tapes. A low intensity soil survey of Pennington County, South Dakota was completed in 1974. Low intensity inexpensive soil surveys can provide the data needed to evaluate agricultural land for the remaining counties until detailed soil surveys are completed. In using LANDSAT imagery as a base map for publishing thematic soil maps, the first step was to prepare a mosaic with 20 LANDSAT scenes from several late spring passes in 1973.

  10. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 μm thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the

  11. Electronic structures of tungsten surfaces with barium overlayers by field emission and photofield emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Zahraa A. S. A.

    The total energy distributions (TEDs) in field emission (FE) and photofield emission (PFE) and the work functions have been measured at room temperature for the (100), (110) and (111) W facets with Ba overlayers in the range of coverage from 0 to 1 monolayer. In order to interpret the experimental data, the full-potential linear augmented plane wave method for calculating the electronic structures of periodic lattices within the LDA has been extended to obtain the TEDs in FE and PFE from W/vacuum and W/Ba/vacuum interfaces. A prominent peak observed experimentally at -1.90 eV in PFE from W(100) with a c(2x2) Ba overlayer is attributed, in contrast to previous work, to hybridization of dz2 -like surface states of clean W(100) with s -like states of the overlayer. It is suggested that a prominent asymmetrical peak observed at -0.65 eV in FE from W(111) is due to two bands of dz 2 -like surface resonances, and a prominent peak observed at about -2.0 eV in PFE from W(111) with a (1x1) Ba overlayer is attributed to hybridization of these same resonances with s -like states of the overlayer. It is shown that several of the peaks observed in PFE are induced by the reduced symmetry of the overlayer. It is found that when an isolated (31/2x3 1/2) Ba layer is adsorbed on W(111) it undergoes a nonmetal-to-metal transition and the surface electronic structure is dominated by inter-layer W-Ba interactions. The atomically-denser isolated (1x1) Ba layer is metallic, and when it is adsorbed on W(111) the surface electronic structure is dominated by intra-layer Ba-Ba interactions. These properties are also discussed for Ba overlayers on W(100) and W(110). A c(2x2) Ba overlayer on W(100) induces a strong electric dipole layer between the substrate and the overlayer and a weak oppositely-directed dipole layer outside the surface, which together account quantitatively for the observed reduction in work function. In view of the success of the present method in interpreting the TEDs in

  12. LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

  13. Analysis of the private market for LANDSAT products and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The private sector was examined and evaluated to develop base line strategies and mechanisms for its increased utilization of LANDSAT (and future satellite) technologies as both consumer and producer of products and services. Methodologies used to assess the digital analysis service and national mapping industries are described. Private sector users in business and industry are identified and the potential U.S. industry role in the foreign LANDSAT market is considered.

  14. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  15. Hydrography synthesis using LANDSAT remote sensing and the SCS models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R. M.; Jackson, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The land cover requirements of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Model used for hydrograph synthesis in urban areas were modified to be LANDSAT compatible. The Curve Numbers obtained with these alternate land cover categories compare well with those obtained in published example problems using the conventional categories. Emergency spillway hydrographs and synthetic flood frequency flows computed for a 21.1 sq. mi. test area showed excellent agreement between the conventional aerial photo-based and the Landsat-based SCS approaches.

  16. Full scale LANDSAT-D antenna pattern measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design verification of the LANDSAT-D antenna subsystem is addressed. In particular, the analysis of the antenna radiation patterns utilizing a full scale mockup of the LANDSAT-D satellite is discussed. Test antennas included two S-Band shaped beam antennas, two S-Band omni unit radiators (to operate in array), a GPS antenna, an X-Band shaped beam antenna, and one S-Band high-gain parabolic antenna.

  17. Agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrick, D. L.; Fries, R. E.; Egbert, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Agricultural crop identification and acreage determination analysis of LANDSAT digital data was performed for two study areas. A multispectral image processing and analysis system was utilized to perform the manmachine interactive analysis. The developed techniques yielded crop acreage estimate results with accuracy greater than 90% and as high as 99%. These results are encouraging evidence of agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data.

  18. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  19. Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

  20. Remote sensing: Physical principles, sensors and products, and the LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Steffen, C. A.; Lorenzzetti, J. A.; Stech, J. L.; Desouza, R. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques of data acquisition by remote sensing are introduced in this teaching aid. The properties of the elements involved (radiant energy, topograph, atmospheric attenuation, surfaces, and sensors) are covered. Radiometers, photography, scanners, and radar are described as well as their products. Aspects of the LANDSAT system examined include the characteristics of the satellite and its orbit, the multispectral band scanner, and the return beam vidicon. Pixels (picture elements), pattern registration, and the characteristics, reception, and processing of LANDSAT imagery are also considered.

  1. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  2. Compensation of overlay errors due to mask bending and non-flatness for EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandhok, Manish; Goyal, Sanjay; Carson, Steven; Park, Seh-Jin; Zhang, Guojing; Myers, Alan M.; Leeson, Michael L.; Kamna, Marilyn; Martinez, Fabian C.; Stivers, Alan R.; Lorusso, Gian F.; Hermans, Jan; Hendrickx, Eric; Govindjee, Sanjay; Brandstetter, Gerd; Laursen, Tod

    2009-03-01

    EUV blank non-flatness results in both out of plane distortion (OPD) and in-plane distortion (IPD) [3-5]. Even for extremely flat masks (~50 nm peak to valley (PV)), the overlay error is estimated to be greater than the allocation in the overlay budget. In addition, due to multilayer and other thin film induced stresses, EUV masks have severe bow (~1 um PV). Since there is no electrostatic chuck to flatten the mask during the e-beam write step, EUV masks are written in a bent state that can result in ~15 nm of overlay error. In this article we present the use of physically-based models of mask bending and non-flatness induced overlay errors, to compensate for pattern placement of EUV masks during the e-beam write step in a process we refer to as E-beam Writer based Overlay error Correction (EWOC). This work could result in less restrictive tolerances for the mask blank non-flatness specs which in turn would result in less blank defects.

  3. Overlay control methodology comparison: field-by-field and high-order methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Chiu, Chui-Fu; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Healthy; Choi, DongSub; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2012-03-01

    Overlay control in advanced integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing is becoming one of the leading lithographic challenges in the 3x and 2x nm process nodes. Production overlay control can no longer meet the stringent emerging requirements based on linear composite wafer and field models with sampling of 10 to 20 fields and 4 to 5 sites per field, which was the industry standard for many years. Methods that have emerged include overlay metrology in many or all fields, including the high order field model method called high order control (HOC), and field by field control (FxFc) methods also called correction per exposure. The HOC and FxFc methods were initially introduced as relatively infrequent scanner qualification activities meant to supplement linear production schemes. More recently, however, it is clear that production control is also requiring intense sampling, similar high order and FxFc methods. The added control benefits of high order and FxFc overlay methods need to be balanced with the increased metrology requirements, however, without putting material at risk. Of critical importance is the proper control of edge fields, which requires intensive sampling in order to minimize signatures. In this study we compare various methods of overlay control including the performance levels that can be achieved.

  4. Digital classification of Landsat data for vegetation and land-cover mapping in the Blackfoot River watershed, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper documents the procedures, results, and final products of a digital analysis of Landsat data used to produce a vegetation and landcover map of the Blackfoot River watershed in southeastern Idaho. Resource classes were identified at two levels of detail: generalized Level I classes (for example, forest land and wetland) and detailed Levels II and III classes (for example, conifer forest, aspen, wet meadow, and riparian hardwoods). Training set statistics were derived using a modified clustering approach. Environmental stratification that separated uplands from lowlands improved discrimination between resource classes having similar spectral signatures. Digital classification was performed using a maximum likelihood algorithm. Classification accuracy was determined on a single-pixel basis from a random sample of 25-pixel blocks. These blocks were transferred to small-scale color-infrared aerial photographs, and the image area corresponding to each pixel was interpreted. Classification accuracy, expressed as percent agreement of digital classification and photo-interpretation results, was 83.0:t 2.1 percent (0.95 probability level) for generalized (Level I) classes and 52.2:t 2.8 percent (0.95 probability level) for detailed (Levels II and III) classes. After the classified images were geometrically corrected, two types of maps were produced of Level I and Levels II and III resource classes: color-coded maps at a 1:250,000 scale, and flatbed-plotter overlays at a 1:24,000 scale. The overlays are more useful because of their larger scale, familiar format to users, and compatibility with other types of topographic and thematic maps of the same scale.

  5. An Overview of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), currently with a launch readiness date of December, 2012, will see evolutionary changes in the Landsat data products available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The USGS initiated a revolution in 2009 when EROS began distributing Landsat data products at no cost to requestors in contrast to the past practice of charging the cost of fulfilling a request; that is, charging $600 per Landsat scene. To implement this drastic change, EROS terminated data processing options for requestors and began to produce all data products using a consistent processing recipe. EROS plans to continue this practice for the LDCM and will required new algorithms to process data from the LDCM sensors. All previous Landsat satellites flew multispectral scanners to collect image data of the global land surface. Additionally, Landsats 4, 5, and 7 flew sensors that acquired imagery for both reflective spectral bands and a single thermal band. In contrast, the LDCM will carry two pushbroom sensors; the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for reflective spectral bands and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) for two thermal bands. EROS is developing the ground data processing system that will both calibrate and correct the data from the thousands of detectors employed by the pushbroom sensors and that will also combine the data from the two sensors to create a single data product with registered data for all of the OLI and TIRS bands.

  6. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 28, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  7. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 10, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  8. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 24, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  9. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 11, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  10. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 30, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  11. Impact of CD and overlay errors on double-patterning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeyre, Céline; Barnola, Sébastien; Servin, Isabelle; Gaugirana, Stéphanie; Salvetat, Vincent; Magome, Nobutaka; Hazelton, Andrew J.; McCallum, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Double patterning (DP) is today the main solution to extend immersion lithography to the 32 nm node and beyond. Pitch splitting process with hardmask transfer and spacer process have been developed at CEA-LETI-Minatec. This paper focuses on experimental data using dry ArF lithography with a k1 factor of 0.20 ; the relative impact of each DP step on overlay and CD uniformity budgets is analyzed. In addition, topography issues related to the presence of the patterned hard mask layer during the second imaging step is also investigated. Tool-to-itself overlay, image placement on the reticle and wafer deformation induced by this DP process are evaluated experimentally and resulting errors on CD budget have been determined. CD uniformity error model developed by Nikon describing the relationship between CD and overlay in different DP processes is validated experimentally.

  12. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  13. Laser-induced desorption of overlayer films off a heated metal substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiang; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2007-02-01

    The temperature-induced desorption of adsorbed overlayer films with thicknesses between 4 and 200 ML off a suddenly heated metal substrate is studied using molecular-dynamics simulation. We observe that the rapid heating vaporizes the surface-near part of the overlayer film. The initial heating-induced thermoelastic pressure and the vapor pressure in the vapor film drive the remaining film as a large relatively cold cluster away from the surface. In our simulations, the material present in the developing vapor film amounts to roughly 2 ML and is quite independent of the overlayer film thickness. For cluster thicknesses beyond 40 ML, the desorption time increases only little with film thickness, while the resulting cluster velocity decreases only slightly.

  14. Characterizing the Global Impact of P2P Overlays on the AS-Level Underlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Amir Hassan; Rejaie, Reza; Willinger, Walter

    This paper examines the problem of characterizing and assessing the global impact of the load imposed by a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay on the AS-level underlay. In particular, we capture Gnutella snapshots for four consecutive years, obtain the corresponding AS-level topology snapshots of the Internet and infer the AS-paths associated with each overlay connection. Assuming a simple model of overlay traffic, we analyze the observed load imposed by these Gnutella snapshots on the AS-level underlay using metrics that characterize the load seen on individual AS-paths and by the transit ASes, illustrate the churn among the top transit ASes during this 4-year period, and describe the propagation of traffic within the AS-level hierarchy.

  15. Effects of indium and tin overlayers on the photoluminescence spectrum of mercuric iodide

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.B. ); Bao, X.J.; Schlesinger, T.E. ); Ortale, C.; Cheng, A.Y. )

    1990-03-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2} ) crystals with semitransparent metal overlayers of indium and tin were characterized using low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL spectra were found to differ for points beneath the thin metal overlayers and points that were masked off during each deposition. The photoluminescence data were compared with PL measurements taken on HgI{sub 2} photodetectors with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) entrance electrodes. The similarities of the spectra for the HgI{sub 2} samples with In, Sn, and ITO conducting overlayers indicate that the regions in the ITO-contacted photodetectors with relatively poor photoresponses are associated with the interaction of indium or tin with the mercuric iodide substrate.

  16. A safety evaluation for overlay disbonding of high-temperature and pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Ryuichi; Nakajima; Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Shunzo; Fujii, Tadaomi

    1995-11-01

    Hydrogen induced disbonding test (autoclave test) of stainless weld-overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the calculations of residual hydrogen contents at the fusion boundary in the specimens and actual vessels, were performed. The effects of microstructure of weld overlay near the fusion boundary and postweld heat treatment on disbonding resistance were clarified, and critical hydrogen content values in weld overlay to prevent disbonding were obtained. A simple evaluation method for disbonding in actual vessels using Tempering Parameter was established.

  17. Metrology target design simulations for accurate and robust scatterometry overlay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dov, Guy; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Gready, David; Ghinovker, Mark; Adel, Mike; Herzel, Eitan; Oh, Soonho; Choi, DongSub; Han, Sang Hyun; El Kodadi, Mohamed; Hwang, Chan; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Seung Yoon; Lee, Kuntack

    2016-03-01

    Overlay metrology target design is an essential step prior to performing overlay measurements. This step is done through the optimization of target parameters for a given process stack. A simulation tool is therefore used to improve measurement performances. This work shows how our Metrology Target Design (MTD) simulator helps significantly in the target design process. We show the role of film and Optical CD measurements in improving significantly the fidelity of the simulations. We demonstrate that for various target design parameters we are capable of predicting measured performance metrics by simulations and correctly rank various designs performances.

  18. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-04-18

    Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

  19. An Integrated Dynamic Online Management Framework for QoS-Sensitive Multimedia Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwook; Choi, Myungwhan; Kim, Sungchun

    New multimedia services over cellular/WLAN overlay networks require different Quality of Service (QoS) levels. Therefore, an efficient network management system is necessary in order to realize QoS sensitive multimedia services while enhancing network performance. In this paper, we propose a new online network management framework for overlay networks. Our online approach to network management exhibits dynamic adaptability, flexibility, and responsiveness to the traffic conditions in multimedia networks. Simulation results indicate that our proposed framework can strike the appropriate balance between performance criteria under widely varying diverse traffic loads.

  20. A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanfear, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

  1. Landsat classification of Argentina summer crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Gargantini, C. E.; Redondo, F. V.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat MSS and TM classification approach based on three features derived from the greenness profile has proved very effective in separating and identifying corn, soybeans, and other ground cover classes in the U.S. The objective of this study is to investigate the separation of summer crops in Argentina, one of the most important commodity exporters, using the same greenness profile features that have proved effective in the U.S. Corn Belt. The area chosen for study is a more complex cropping practice area located in the north-west corner of Buenos Aires province in Pampa Humeda, where corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, and pastures are cultivated. It is shown that the profile features can provide very effective separation, except in the case of corn from sorghum. Separation between corn and soybeans was found to be greater than in the U.S. This study suggests that the automatic, unsupervised classification approach developed in the U.S., with relatively minor modification, can be used for summer crop area estimation in Argentina.

  2. LITHOLOGIC MAPPING USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The paper is in abstract form. It discusses the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1. 65 mu m and 2. 20 mu m and spatial resolution of 30 m, which has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O and CO//3 absorption bands in the 2. 1-2. 4 mu m regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking the infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the beach sands along the east coast of Florida; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada.

  3. Landsat Data Continuity Mission - Launch Fever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, James R.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Markham, Brian L.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cook, Bruce; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The year 2013 will be an exciting period for those that study the Earth land surface from space, particularly those that observe and characterize land cover, land use, and the change of cover and use over time. Two new satellite observatories will be launched next year that will enhance capabilities for observing the global land surface. The United States plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in January. That event will be followed later in the year by the European Space Agency (ESA) launch of the first Sentinel 2 satellite. Considered together, the two satellites will increase the frequency of opportunities for viewing the land surface at a scale where human impact and influence can be differentiated from natural change. Data from the two satellites will provide images for similar spectral bands and for comparable spatial resolutions with rigorous attention to calibration that will facilitate cross comparisons. This presentation will provide an overview of the LDCM satellite system and report its readiness for the January launch.

  4. Science Writer's Guide to Landsat 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), the centerpiece of NASA's Earth science program, is a suite of spacecraft and interdisciplinary science investigations dedicated to advancing our understanding of global change. The flagship EOS satellite, Terra (formerly EOS AM-1), scheduled for launch in July 1999, will provide key measurements of the physical and radiative properties of clouds; air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and water; trace gases; and volcanoes. Flying in formation with Terra, Landsat 7 will make global high spatial resolution measurements of land surface and surrounding coastal regions. Other upcoming EOS missions and instruments include QuikSCAT, to collect sea surface wind data; the Stratospheric Gas and Aerosol Experiment (SAGE III), to create global profiles of key atmospheric gases; and the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitors (ACRIM) to measure the energy output of the Sun. The second of the major, multi-instrument EOS platforms, PM-1, is scheduled for launch in 2000. Interdisciplinary research projects sponsored by EOS use specific Earth science data sets for a broader investigation into the function of Earth systems. Current EOS research spans a wide range of sciences, including atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, land use, and marine ecosystems. The EOS program has been managed since 1990 by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., for NASA's Office of Earth Science in Washington, D. C. Additional information on the program can be found on the EOS Project Science Office Web site (http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  5. LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.; Davis, W. M.; Stanley, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Representative data spans covering a little more than a year since the LANDSAT-4 launch were analyzed to evaluate the flight performance of the satellite's horizon scanner. High frequency noise was filtered out by 128-point averaging. The effects of Earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and residual systematic errors are analyzed. A model for the predicted radiance effects is compared with the flight data and deficiencies in the radiance effects modeling are noted. Correction coefficients are provided for a finite Fourier series representation of the systematic errors in the data. Analysis of the seasonal dependence of the coefficients indicates the effects of some early mission problems with the reference attitudes which were computed by the onboard computer using star trackers and gyro data. The effects of sun and moon interference, unexplained anomalies in the data, and sensor noise characteristics and their power spectrum are described. The variability of full orbit data averages is shown. Plots of the sensor data for all the available data spans are included.

  6. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Work done on evaluating the geometric and radiometric quality of early LANDSAT-4 sensor data is described. Band to band and channel to channel registration evaluations were carried out using a line correlator. Visual blink comparisons were run on an image display to observe band to band registration over 512 x 512 pixel blocks. The results indicate a .5 pixel line misregistration between the 1.55 to 1.75, 2.08 to 2.35 micrometer bands and the first four bands. Also a four 30M line and column misregistration of the thermal IR band was observed. Radiometric evaluation included mean and variance analysis of individual detectors and principal components analysis. Results indicate that detector bias for all bands is very close or within tolerance. Bright spots were observed in the thermal IR band on an 18 line by 128 pixel grid. No explanation for this was pursued. The general overall quality of the TM was judged to be very high.

  7. Lithologic mapping using Landsat thematic mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1.65 μm and 2.20 μm and spatial resolution of 30 m has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O- and CO3 absorption bands in the 2.1-2.4 μm regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the back sands along the east coast of Floridia; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada. These results show that the additional spectral bands in the near-infrared region and increased spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper provide a valuable tool for distinguishing several significant geologic materials not distinguishable from space using previous imaging systems. They also show that TM data can be successfully used in a variety of geologic environments.

  8. Characterization of the LANDSAT sensors' spatial responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) sensors on LANDSATs 4 and 5 affecting their spatial responses are described, and functions defining the response of the system to an arbitrary input spatial pattern are derived, i.e., transfer functions (TF) and line spread functions (LSF). These design LSF's and TF's were modified based on prelaunch component and system measurements to provide improved estimates. Prelaunch estimates of LSF/FT's are compared to in-orbit estimates. For the MSS instruments, only limited prelaunch scan direction square-wave response (SWR) data were available. Design estimates were modified by convolving in Gaussian blur till the derived LSF/TF's produced SWR's comparable to the measurements. The two MSS instruments were comparable at their temperatures of best focus; separate calculations were performed for bands 1 and 3, band 2 and band 4. The pre-sample nadir effective instantaneous field's of view (EIFOV's) based on the .5 modulation transfer function (MTF) criteria vary from 70 to 75 meters in the track direction and 79 to 82 meters in the scan direction. For the TM instruments more extensive prelaunch measurements were available. Bands 1 to 4, 5 and 7, and 6 were handled separately as were the two instruments. Derived MTF's indicate nadir pre-sample EIFOV's of 32 to 33 meter track (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 36 meter scan (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 1245 meter track (band 6) and 141 meter scan (band 6) for both TM's.

  9. Landsat data conversion cut from budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The conversion of a set of early Landsat data from wide band videotape to digitized, computer-compatible form is slated to end prematurely when this fiscal year ends on September 30, 1986. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is shutting down the project to save money because of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit reduction act (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41) and in view of the strain on NASA's budget caused by the loss of the space shuttle Challenger, according to Joseph Bishop, program manager for data processing in NASA's Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems. Moreover, the only equipment that can be used to read the wide band videotape data and convert it to computer-compatible tape (CCT) has become obsolete, and the tapes themselves are deteriorating, so it seems unlikely that this project could be renewed in the future, according to Allen H. Watkins, chief of the Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey in Sioux Falls, S. Dak.

  10. Landsat-7 Simulation and Testing Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, E.; Ha, K.; Hawkins, K.; Lombardo, J.; Ram, M.; Sabelhaus, P.; Scott, S.; Phillips, R.

    1999-01-01

    A spacecraft Attitude Control and Determination Subsystem (ACDS) is heavily dependent upon simulation throughout its entire development, implementation and ground test cycle. Engineering simulation tools are typically developed to design and analyze control systems to validate the design and software simulation tools are required to qualify the flight software. However, the need for simulation does not end here. Operating the ACDS of a spacecraft on the ground requires the simulation of spacecraft dynamics, disturbance modeling and celestial body motion. Sensor data must also be simulated and substituted for actual sensor data on the ground so that the spacecraft will respond by sending commands to the actuators as they will on orbit. And finally, the simulators is the primary training tool and test-bed for the Flight Operations Team. In this paper various ACDS simulation, developed for or used by the Landsat 7 project will be described. The paper will include a description of each tool, its unique attributes, and its role in the overall development and testing of the ACDS. Finally, a section is included which discusses how the coordinated use of these simulation tools can maximize the probability of uncovering software, hardware and operations errors during the ground test process.

  11. Landsat Science: 40 Years of Innovation and Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Irons, James R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat satellites have provided unparalleled Earth-observing data for nearly 40 years, allowing scientists to describe, monitor and model the global environment during a period of time that has seen dramatic changes in population growth, land use, and climate. The success of the Landsat program can be attributed to well-designed instrument specifications, astute engineering, comprehensive global acquisition and calibration strategies, and innovative scientists who have developed analytical techniques and applications to address a wide range of needs at local to global scales (e.g., crop production, water resource management, human health and environmental quality, urbanization, deforestation and biodiversity). Early Landsat contributions included inventories of natural resources and land cover classification maps, which were initially prepared by a visual interpretation of Landsat imagery. Over time, advances in computer technology facilitated the development of sophisticated image processing algorithms and complex ecosystem modeling, enabling scientists to create accurate, reproducible, and more realistic simulations of biogeochemical processes (e.g., plant production and ecosystem dynamics). Today, the Landsat data archive is freely available for download through the USGS, creating new opportunities for scientists to generate global image datasets, develop new change detection algorithms, and provide products in support of operational programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD). In particular, the use of dense (approximately annual) time series to characterize both rapid and progressive landscape change has yielded new insights into how the land environment is responding to anthropogenic and natural pressures. The launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) satellite in 2012 will continue to propel innovative Landsat science.

  12. Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

  13. Evaluation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays for Erosion-Corrosion Resistant Boiler Tube Coatings in Low NOx Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, J.R.; Lim, M.; Barbosa, N., DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    2000-04-28

    Iron aluminide weld overlays containing ternary additions and thermal spray coatings are being investigated for corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NO{sub x} burners. The primary objective of the research is to identify overlay and thermal spray compositions that provide corrosion protection of waterwall boiler tubes.

  14. C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Alda; Mohamed, Ashraf; Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther; Wallace, Michael J.

    2009-07-15

    C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

  15. Users and uses of Landsat 8 satellite imagery—2014 survey results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Holly M.

    2016-04-18

    To explore the effect of the availability of Landsat 8 imagery on Landsat imagery use in general, established users (those who had consistently used Landsat imagery both before and after Landsat 8 imagery became available) using Landsat 8 imagery were asked about changes in the amount of Landsat imagery they used. The majority of established users using Landsat 8 imagery (60 percent) reported an average increase of 51 percent in the number of scenes obtained after Landsat 8 imagery became available. Landsat 8 users were asked if they had encountered challenges in using Landsat 8 whereas non-Landsat 8 users were asked if such challenges had played a role in why they were not using Landsat 8 imagery. Although many users did not encounter challenges when using or trying to use Landsat 8 data, slightly less than 30 percent did encounter issues with processing the data to a usable point. The most common issue reported was not being able to create or have access to a surface reflectance corrected product. Other challenges were related to the file sizes of images being too large to download, store, or analyze. There were no statistically significant differences between Landsat 8 and non-Landsat 8 users in terms of challenges encountered when using or trying to use the imagery, which indicates that users were not unduly discouraged by the challenges they may have encountered. When asked about potential consequences of not using Landsat 8, more than half of the non-Landsat 8 users did not report detrimental effects on their work from not using the imagery. Of those who did report detrimental effects, decreased quality of work, decreased scope of work, and increased time spent on work were the most common.   

  16. Rice crop monitoring with multitemporal MODIS-Landsat data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2014-05-01

    Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and is the major crop in Taiwan. However, it is a challenge because rice fields are generally small and fragmental, while crop mapping requires information of crop phenology associating with the high spatiotemporal resolution of remote-sensing data. This problem can be partially overcome by a spatiotemporal fusion to create a new dataset that has a better spatiotemporal resolution. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat imageries were used because MODIS data, which a spatial resolution of land bands of 500 m and temporal resolution of 1-2 days, were able to achieve the phenological information of rice crops at a large region; while Landsat data demonstrate the effectiveness to collectively map small patches of crop fields at the subnational level due to its spatial resolution of 30 m. However, the temporal resolution of Landsat data is lower (16 days), making it difficult to investigate temporal responses of crop phenology from rice fields. The main objective of this study was to take into account of advantages of MODIS and Landsat imageries to generate a synthetic dataset at Landsat spatial resolution and MODIS temporal resolution for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. The methodology comprised five steps: (1) satellite data for 2011 were pre-processed to account for geometric and radiometric correction of MODIS and Landsat data, (2) MODIS-Landsat data fusion using the Spatial Temporal Adaptive Fusion Model (STARFM), (3) construct the smooth time-series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data using wavelet transform, (4) rice crop classification using phenological information of crop phenology, and (5) accuracy assessment. The data fusion results for day of year (DOY) 153 were compared with the reference Landsat data (DOY 153) indicated a close correlation (R2 = 0.81). The phenology-based classification results compared with the ground reference data

  17. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  18. Towards decadal soil salinity mapping using Landsat time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xingwang; Weng, Yongling; Tao, Jinmei

    2016-10-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil problems around the world. However, decadal variation in soil salinization has not yet been extensively reported. This study exploited thirty years (1985-2015) of Landsat sensor data, including Landsat-4/5 TM (Thematic Mapper), Landsat-7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), for monitoring soil salinity of the Yellow River Delta, China. The data were initially corrected for atmospheric effects, and then matched the spectral bands of EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager). Subsequently, soil salinity maps were derived with a previously developed PLSR (Partial Least Square Regression) model. On intra-annual scale, the retrievals showed that soil salinity increased in February, stabilized in March, and decreased in April. On inter-annual scale, soil salinity decreased within 1985-2000 (-0.74 g kg-1/10a, p < 0.001), and increased within 2000-2015 (0.79 g kg-1/10a, p < 0.001). Our study presents a new perspective for use of multiple Landsat data in soil salinity retrieval, and further the understanding of soil salinization development over the Yellow River Delta.

  19. Characterizing the LANDSAT Global Long-Term Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, T.; Goward, S. N.; Williams, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of global climate change are fast becoming politically, sociologically, and personally important: increasing storm frequency and intensity, lengthening cycles of drought and flood, expanding desertification and soil salinization. A vital asset in the analysis of climate change on a global basis is the 34-year record of Landsat imagery. In recognition of its increasing importance, a detailed analysis of the Landsat observation coverage within the US archive was commissioned. Results to date indicate some unexpected gaps in the US-held archive. Fortunately, throughout the Landsat program, data have been downlinked routinely to International Cooperator (IC) ground stations for archival, processing, and distribution. These IC data could be combined with the current US holdings to build a nearly global, annual observation record over this 34-year period. Today, we have inadequate information as to which scenes are available from which IC archives. Our best estimate is that there are over four million digital scenes in the IC archives, compared with the nearly two million scenes held in the US archive. This vast pool of Landsat observations needs to be accurately documented, via metadata, to determine the existence of complementary scenes and to characterize the potential scope of the global Landsat observation record. Of course, knowing the extent and completeness of the data record is but the first step. It will be necessary to assure that the data record is easy to use, internally consistent in terms of calibration and data format, and fully accessible in order to fully realize its potential.

  20. On-Orbit ACDS Performance of the Landsat 7 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip; Bolek, Joseph; Scott, Steve; Holmes, Eric; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Storey, James

    2001-01-01

    Landsat 7 is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The ESE is committed to developing an understanding of the total Earth system, the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment, and how natural processes affect humans and how humans affect them. The Landsat 7 satellite consists of the spacecraft bus which was provided under a NASA contract with Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space in Philadelphia, PA, and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) instrument, procured under a NASA contract with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, in Santa Barbara, CA. The Landsat 7 Attitude Control and Determination System (ACDS) provides many essential functions for the operation of the spacecraft bus and for ETM+. The ACDS maintains the required attitude and orbit at the degree of accuracy necessary for power generation, command and telemetry, thermal balance, image acquisition, Gimbaled X-Band Antenna (GXA) pointing and data for image post-processing. Descriptions of the Landsat 7 mission and the ACDS modes and requirements are presented. A brief summary of significant events of the on-orbit initialization and validation period are provided. Finally, the Landsat 7 product generation system is described and the impact that the ACDS performance has on the ground based image processing system is explored.

  1. Data Specifications for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, J.R.; Speciale, N.J.; Douglas, McCuistion J.; Masek, J.G.; Markham, B.L.; Storey, J.C.; Lencioni, D.E.; Ryan, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to procure data from a privately-owned and commercially-operated remote sensing system for the next Landsat mission, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). Data requirements are documented in an LDCM Data Specification. The specifications require delivery of data covering 250 Landsat scenes on a daily basis. The data are to be acquired in a manner that affords seasonal coverage of the global land mass. Data are required for the heritage reflective Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral bands plus two new bands, a blue band for coastal zone observations and a short wave infrared band for cirrus cloud detection. The specifications do not require thermal data, representing a departure from the TM heritage. The specification also requires data providing a 30 m ground sample distance for each of the spectral bands with the exception of the new cirrus cloud band at 120 m. An absolute uncertainty of 5 percent or less is required for radiometrically corrected LDCM data and the commercial operator is required to deliver data that can be registered to a cartographic projection with an uncertainty of 65 m or less. Procuring data from a commercial operator represents a new approach for the 30-year-old Landsat Program. The LDCM Data Specification will ensure that the procured data provides continuity of the Landsat data stream and advances the mission.

  2. Rock type discrimination techniques using Landsat and Seasat image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, R.; Abrams, M.; Conrad, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a sedimentary rock type discrimination project using Seasat radar and Landsat multispectral image data of the San Rafael Swell, in eastern Utah, are presented, which has the goal of determining the potential contribution of radar image data to Landsat image data for rock type discrimination, particularly when the images are coregistered. The procedure employs several images processing techniques using the Landsat and Seasat data independently, and then both data sets are coregistered. The images are evaluated according to the ease with which contacts can be located and rock units (not just stratigraphically adjacent ones) separated. Results show that of the Landsat images evaluated, the image using a supervised classification scheme is the best for sedimentary rock type discrimination. Of less value, in decreasing order, are color ratio composites, principal components, and the standard color composite. In addition, for rock type discrimination, the black and white Seasat image is less useful than any of the Landsat color images by itself. However, it is found that the incorporation of the surface textural measures made from the Seasat image provides a considerable and worthwhile improvement in rock type discrimination.

  3. Global land information system (GLIS) access to worldwide Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Timothy B.; Goodale, Katherine L.

    1993-01-01

    The Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG) and the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) have encouraged Landsat receiving stations around the world to share information about their data holdings through the exchange of metadata records. Receiving stations forward their metadata records to the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) on a quarterly basis. The EDC maintains the records for each station, coordinates changes to the database, and provides metadata to the stations as requested. The result is a comprehensive international database listing most of the world's Landsat data acquisitions This exchange of information began in the early 1980's with the inclusion in the EDC database os scenes acquired by a receiving station in Italy. Through the years other stations have agreed to participate; currently ten of the seventeen stations actively share their metadata records. Coverage maps have been generated to depict the status of the database. The Worldwide Landsat database is also available though the Global Land Information System (GLIS).

  4. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Derhami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions. PMID:26929544

  5. Disbond detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors in RC structures strengthened with FRP composite overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Harries, Kent; Petrou, Michael; Bost, Joel; Quattlebaum, Josh B.

    2003-12-01

    The capability of embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to perform in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for structural health monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite overlays is explored. First, the disbond detection method were developed on coupon specimens consisting of concrete blocks covered with an FRP composite layer. It was found that the presence of a disbond crack drastically changes the electromechanical (E/M) impedance spectrum measured at the PWAS terminals. The spectral changes depend on the distance between the PWAS and the crack tip. Second, large scale experiments were conducted on a RC beam strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite overlay. The beam was subject to an accelerated fatigue load regime in a three-point bending configuration up to a total of 807,415 cycles. During these fatigue tests, the CFRP overlay experienced disbonding beginning at about 500,000 cycles. The PWAS were able to detect the disbonding before it could be reliably seen by visual inspection. Good correlation between the PWAS readings and the position and extent of disbond damage was observed. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of PWAS technology for SHM of RC structures strengthened with FRP composite overlays.

  6. Precision-guided surgical navigation system using laser guidance and 3D autostereoscopic image overlay.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongen; Ishihara, Hirotaka; Tran, Huy Hoang; Masamune, Ken; Sakuma, Ichiro; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a precision-guided surgical navigation system for minimally invasive surgery. The system combines a laser guidance technique with a three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic image overlay technique. Images of surgical anatomic structures superimposed onto the patient are created by employing an animated imaging method called integral videography (IV), which can display geometrically accurate 3D autostereoscopic images and reproduce motion parallax without the need for special viewing or tracking devices. To improve the placement accuracy of surgical instruments, we integrated an image overlay system with a laser guidance system for alignment of the surgical instrument and better visualization of patient's internal structure. We fabricated a laser guidance device and mounted it on an IV image overlay device. Experimental evaluations showed that the system could guide a linear surgical instrument toward a target with an average error of 2.48 mm and standard deviation of 1.76 mm. Further improvement to the design of the laser guidance device and the patient-image registration procedure of the IV image overlay will make this system practical; its use would increase surgical accuracy and reduce invasiveness.

  7. Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: An Emerging Security Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelasity, Márk; Bilicki, Vilmos

    In recent years peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable communication medium for self-organization and survival. It has been shown that malicious P2P networks would be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant number of fixed overlay connections per node for communication. While overlay networks of a small constant maximal degree are generally considered to be unscalable, we argue in this paper that it is possible to design them to be scalable, efficient and robust. This is an important finding from a security point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover with state-of-the-art methods is a plausible threat. In this paper we discuss algorithms and theoretical results that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic simulations using an event based implementation of a proof-of-concept system. Besides P2P botnets, our results are also applicable in scenarios where relying on a large number of overlay connections per node is not feasible because of cost or the limited number of communication channels available.

  8. Overlay Transmission System on Wireless LAN with RTS/CTS Exchange Taking into Account Timing Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kilsoo; Yano, Kazuto; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Taromaru, Makoto

    This paper proposes a new overlay transmission system for wireless LAN with RTS/CTS exchange. Conventional timing synchronization schemes may fail in the presence of inter-system interference, because they have not been designed for overlay transmission. In the proposed system, a transmitter estimates the transmission timing of the next wireless LAN DATA frame, and then sends its DATA frame at almost the same time as the estimated transmission timing to easily establish timing synchronization at the receiver. Moreover, we employ a tapped delay line adaptive array antenna at both transmitter and receiver to effectively suppress interference due to overlay transmission in a rich multipath propagation environment. The frame error rate performances of the proposed system and the IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN are evaluated through computer simulations that assume an exponentially decaying 8-path non-line-of-sight fading channel and include a timing synchronization process. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve overlay transmission while avoiding interference in a rich multipath propagation environment.

  9. Colored Overlays Enhance Visual Perceptual Performance in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, A. K.; Wilkins, A. J.; Heaton, P.

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), together with controls matched for age and ability participated in three experiments that assessed the therapeutic benefit of colored overlays. The findings from the first experiment showed that a significantly greater proportion of children with ASD, than controls, increased reading speed when using…

  10. Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

  11. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Final technical progress report, July 1992--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-10-15

    The erosion behavior of weld overlay coatings has been studied. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400{degrees}C at 90{degrees} and 30{degrees} particle impact angles. The microstructure of each coating was characterized before erosion testing. A relative ranking of the coatings erosion resistance was developed by determining the steady state erosion rates. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at both impact angles. It was found that weld overlays that exhibit good abrasion resistance did not show good erosion resistance. Erosion tests were also performed for selected wrought materials with chemical composition similar to weld overlays. Eroded surfaces of the wrought and weld alloys were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine size of the plastically deformed region. It was found that one group of coatings experienced significant plastic deformation as a result of erosion while the other did not. It was also established that, in the steady state erosion regime, the size of the plastically deformed region is constant.

  12. Semantic Overlays in Educational Content Networks--The hylOs Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Michael; Hildebrand, Arne; Lange, Dagmar; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to introduce an educational content management system, Hypermedia Learning Objects System (hylOs), which is fully compliant to the IEEE LOM eLearning object metadata standard. Enabled through an advanced authoring toolset, hylOs allows the definition of instructional overlays of a given eLearning object mesh.…

  13. A Novel Approach to Overlay Multicasting Schemes for Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Namhi; Oh, Jejun; Kim, Younghan

    Multicast is an efficient transport mechanism for group-based community communications and mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) is recently regarded as a promising solution for supporting ubiquitous computing as an underlying network technology. However, it is challenging to deploy the multicast mechanism used in a wired network directly into MANET owing to scarce resources in wireless networks and unpredictable changes in network topology. Several multicast mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to overcome these limitations. In MANET, especially, overlay multicasting schemes present several advantages over network-based multicasting schemes. However we have observed a common limitation of previously proposed overlay multicasting schemes. They introduce redundant data transmissions that waste network bandwidth and the battery of relay nodes. The observation motivated us to propose an efficient way to create and maintain a “semi-overlay structure” that utilizes a few nonmember nodes selected as branch nodes. The proposed scheme, called “SOMRP (Semi-overlay multicast routing protocol),” has been evaluated by using extensive network simulation in two different scenarios, comparing the performance of SOMRP with two previously proposed schemes. Simulation results show that SOMRP outperforms the two schemes in terms of the packet delivery ratio, transmission cost and end-to-end delay.

  14. Passivation of hematite nanorod photoanodes with a phosphorus overlayer for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Dehua; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-09-01

    Hematite (i.e., α-Fe2O3) nanorod photoanodes passivated with a phosphorus overlayer have been fabricated by decomposing sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2) at a low temperature over the hematite nanorod surface. Extensive scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and UV-vis spectroscopy characterizations confirm that conformal deposition of an amorphous phosphorus overlayer does not change the crystal structure, morphology, and optical absorption properties of hematite photoanodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that phosphorus in the deposited overlayer exists in an oxidized state. Comprehensive steady-state polarization, transient photocurrent response, and impedance spectroscopy measurements as well as Mott-Schottky analysis manifest that the phosphorus overlayer is able to effectively passivate surface states and suppress electron-hole recombination, substantially enhancing the photocurrent for water oxidation. Combining the phosphorization treatment with two-step thermal activation, a photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm-2 is achieved at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode under illumination of 100 mW cm-2, ca 55 times higher than that of the non-activated pristine hematite photoanode measured under the same conditions. The simple and fast phosphorization strategy we present here can be readily applied to passivate surfaces of other semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve their photoelectrochemical performance.

  15. The Effect of Coloured Overlays on Reading Ability in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Amanda K.; Wilkins, Arnold J.; Heaton, Pam

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of colour perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders have been widely reported anecdotally. However, there is little empirical data linking difficulties in colour perception with academic achievement. The Wilkins Rate of Reading Test was administered with and without "Intuitive Coloured Overlays" to 19 children with…

  16. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 29, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 12, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 30, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  19. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  20. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 26, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.