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Sample records for landsat tm image

  1. Stereocorrelation of Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Manfred; Welch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) developed from Landsat TM images of a rugged terrain area in north Georgia by automated stereocorrelation techniques yielded an rms error (z), RMSE(z), value of + or - 42 m. Based on the B/H ratio of 0.18 for the Landsat data, this Z-error corresponds to a planimetric correlation accuracy of about + or - 0.3 pixels, confirming that precise correlation can be achieved with operational satellite data. Contours at a 100-m interval interpolated from the DEM show a deviation of + or - 33 m from reference contours obtained from existing 1:24,000-scale maps. The 28.5-m pixel resolution and the weak B/H ratio impose limitations on the accuracy that can be achieved with Landsat TM data. However, it is anticipated that RMSE(z) values of + or - 10 m or less can be achieved with SPOT-1 panchromatic stereo images of 10-m resolution recorded at B/H ratios of 0.5 to 1.0. DEMs generated by stereocorrelation techniques can be used to create orthoimages, perspective views, and topographic map products.

  2. BOREAS RSS-7 Landsat TM LAI IMages of the SSA and NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images processed at CCRS to produce images of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for the BOREAS study areas. Two images acquired on 06-Jun and 09-Aug-1991 were used for the SSA, and one image acquired on 09-Jun-1994 was used for the NSA. The LAI images are based on ground measurements and Landsat TM Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR) images. The data are stored in binary image-format files.

  3. DIGITAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR IMAGE MAPPING WITH LANDSAT TM AND SPOT SIMULATOR DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, Pat S.; ,

    1984-01-01

    To overcome certain problems associated with the visual selection of Landsat TM bands for image mapping, the author used a quantitative technique that ranks the 20 possible three-band combinations based upon their information content. Standard deviations and correlation coefficients can be used to compute a value called the Optimum Index Factor (OIF) for each of the 20 possible combinations. SPOT simulator images were digitally processed and compared with Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) images covering a semi-arid region in northern Arizona and a highly vegetated urban area near Washington, D. C. Statistical comparisons indicate the more radiometric or color information exists in certain TM three-band combinations than in the three SPOT bands.

  4. Cartographic feature extraction with integrated SIR-B and Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Ehlers, Manfred

    1988-01-01

    A digital cartographic multisensor image database of excellent geometry and improved resolution was created by registering SIR-B images to a rectified Landsat TM reference image and applying intensity-hue-saturation enhancement techniques. When evaluated against geodetic control, RMSE(XY) values of approximately + or - 20 m were noted for the composite SIR-B/TM images. The completeness of cartographic features extracted from the composite images exceeded those obtained from separate SIR-B and TM image data sets by approximately 10 and 25 percent, respectively, indicating that the composite images may prove suitable for planimetric mapping at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller. At present, the most effective method for extracting cartographic information involves digitizing features directly from the image processing display screen.

  5. Image restoration techniques as applied to Landsat MSS and TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, David

    1987-01-01

    Two factors are primarily responsible for the loss of image sharpness in processing digital Landsat images. The first factor is inherent in the data because the sensor's optics and electronics, along with other sensor elements, blur and smear the data. Digital image restoration can be used to reduce this degradation. The second factor, which further degrades by blurring or aliasing, is the resampling performed during geometric correction. An image restoration procedure, when used in place of typical resampled techniques, reduces sensor degradation without introducing the artifacts associated with resampling. The EROS Data Center (EDC) has implemented the restoration proceed for Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data. This capability, developed at the University of Arizona by Dr. Robert Schowengerdt and Lynette Wood, combines restoration and resampling in a single step to produce geometrically corrected MSS and TM imagery. As with resampling, restoration demands a tradeoff be made between aliasing, which occurs when attempting to extract maximum sharpness from an image, and blurring, which reduces the aliasing problem but sacrifices image sharpness. The restoration procedure used at EDC minimizes these artifacts by being adaptive, tailoring the tradeoff to be optimal for individual images.

  6. Mapping crop coefficients in irrigated areas from Landsat TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, Guido; Menenti, Massimo

    1995-11-01

    It is well known that reflectance of Earth surface largely depends upon amount of biomass, crop type, development stage, ground coverage. The knowledge of these parameters -- together with groundbased meteorological data -- allows for the estimate of crop water requirements and their spatial distribution. Recent research has shown the possibility of using multispectral satellite images in combination with other information for mapping crop coefficients in irrigated areas. This approach is based on the assumption that crop coefficients (Kc) are greatly influenced by canopy development and vegetation fractional ground cover; since these parameters directly affect the reflectance of cropped areas, it is possible to establish a correlation between multispectral measurements of canopies reflectance and the corresponding Kc values. Within this frame, two different approaches may be applied: (1) definition of spectral classes corresponding to different crop coefficient values and successive supervised classification for the derivation of crop coefficients maps; (2) use of analytical relationships between the surface reflectance and the corresponding values of vegetation parameters, i.e., the leaf area index, the albedo and the surface roughness, needed for the calculation of the potential evapotranspiration according to the combination type equation. The two different techniques are discussed with reference to the results of their application to specific case-studies. The aim of this report is to illustrate the suitability of remote sensing techniques as an operational tool for assessing crop water demand at regional scale.

  7. Evaluation of a rule-based compositing technique for Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lück, W.; van Niekerk, A.

    2016-05-01

    Image compositing is a multi-objective optimization process. Its goal is to produce a seamless cloud and artefact-free artificial image. This is achieved by aggregating image observations and by replacing poor and cloudy data with good observations from imagery acquired within the timeframe of interest. This compositing process aims to minimise the visual artefacts which could result from different radiometric properties, caused by atmospheric conditions, phenologic patterns and land cover changes. It has the following requirements: (1) image compositing must be cloud free, which requires the detection of clouds and shadows, and (2) the image composite must be seamless, minimizing artefacts and visible across inter image seams. This study proposes a new rule-based compositing technique (RBC) that combines the strengths of several existing methods. A quantitative and qualitative evaluation is made of the RBC technique by comparing it to the maximum NDVI (MaxNDVI), minimum red (MinRed) and maximum ratio (MaxRatio) compositing techniques. A total of 174 Landsat TM and ETM+ images, covering three study sites and three different timeframes for each site, are used in the evaluation. A new set of quantitative/qualitative evaluation techniques for compositing quality measurement was developed and showed that the RBC technique outperformed all other techniques, with MaxRatio, MaxNDVI, and MinRed techniques in order of performance from best to worst.

  8. BOREAS TE-18 Landsat TM Physical Classification Image of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team focused its efforts on using remotely sensed data to characterize the successional and disturbance dynamics of the boreal forest for use in carbon modeling. The objective of this classification is to provide the BOREAS investigators with a data product that characterizes the land cover of the NSA. A Landsat-5 TM image from 21-Jun-1995 was used to derive the classification. A technique was implemented that uses reflectances of various land cover types along with a geometric optical canopy model to produce spectral trajectories. These trajectories are used in a way that is similar to training data to classify the image into the different land cover classes. The data are provided in a binary, image file format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  9. BOREAS TE-18 Landsat TM Maximum Likelihood Classification Image of the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team focused its efforts on using remotely sensed data to characterize the successional and disturbance dynamics of the boreal forest for use in carbon modeling. The objective of this classification is to provide the BOREAS investigators with a data product that characterizes the land cover of the SSA. A Landsat-5 TM image from 02-Sep- 1994 was used to derive the classification. A technique was implemented that uses reflectances of various land cover types along with a geometric optical canopy model to produce spectral trajectories. These trajectories are used as training data to classify the image into the different land cover classes. These data are provided in a binary image file format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

  10. BOREAS TE-18 Landsat TM Physical Classification Image of the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team focused its efforts on using remotely sensed data to characterize the successional and disturbance dynamics of the boreal forest for use in carbon modeling. The objective of this classification is to provide the BOREAS investigators with a data product that characterizes the land cover of the SSA. A Landsat-5 TM image from 02-Sep-1994 was used to derive the classification. A technique was implemented that uses reflectances of various land cover types along with a geometric optical canopy model to produce spectral trajectories. These trajectories are used as training data to classify the image into the different land cover classes. These data are provided in a binary image file format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kayanne, Hajime

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  12. Comparison of remote sensing image processing techniques to identify tornado damage areas from Landsat TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and objectoriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. ?? 2008 by MDPI.

  13. Comparison of Remote Sensing Image Processing Techniques to Identify Tornado Damage Areas from Landsat TM Data

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Soe W.; Yuan, May; Cerveny, Randall S.; Giri, Chandra P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and object-oriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. PMID:27879757

  14. BOREAS TE-18 Landsat TM Maximum Likelihood Classification Image of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team focused its efforts on using remotely sensed data to characterize the successional and disturbance dynamics of the boreal forest for use in carbon modeling. The objective of this classification is to provide the BOREAS investigators with a data product that characterizes the land cover of the NSA. A Landsat-5 TM image from 20-Aug-1988 was used to derive this classification. A standard supervised maximum likelihood classification approach was used to produce this classification. The data are provided in a binary image format file. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. LANDSAT TM image data quality analysis for energy-related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Foote, H. P.; Petrie, G. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Eliason, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    This project represents a no-cost agreement between National Aeronautic Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA GSFC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL is a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory operted by Battelle Memorial Institute at its Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate LANDSAT's thematic mapper (TM) data quality and utility characteristics from an energy research and technological perspective. Of main interest is the extent to which repetitive TM data might support DOE efforts relating to siting, developing, and monitoring energy-related facilities, and to basic geoscientific research. The investigation utilizes existing staff and facility capabilities, and ongoing programmatic activities at PNL and other DOE national laboratories to cooperatively assess the potential usefulness of the improved experimental TM data. The investigation involves: (1) both LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data, (2) qualitative and quantitative use consideration, and 3) NASA P (corrected) and A (uncorrected) CCT analysis for a variety of sites of DOE interest. Initial results were presented at the LANDSAT Investigator's Workshops and at specialized LANDSAT TM sessions at various conferences.

  16. An Improved Automatic Classification of a Landsat/TM Image from Kansas (FIFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Taylor, Will

    1994-01-01

    This research note shows the results of applying a new massively parallel version of the automatic classification program (AutoClass IV) to a particular Landsat/TM image. The previous results for this image were produced using a "subsampling" technique because of the image size. The new massively parallel version of AutoClass allows the complete image to be classified without "subsampling", thus yielding improved results. The area in question is the FIFE study area in Kansas, and the classes AutoClass found show many interesting subtle variations in types of ground cover. Displays of the spatial distributions of these classes make up the bulk of this report. While the spatial distribution of some of these classes make their interpretation easy, most of the classes require detailed knowledge of the area for their full interpretation. We hope that some who receive this document can help us in understanding these classes. One of the motivations of this exercise was to test the new version of AutoClass (IV) that allows for correlation among the variables within a class. The scatter plots associated with the classes show that this correlation information is important in separating the classes. The fact that the spatial distribution of each of these classes is far from uniform, even though AutoClass was not given information about positions of pixels, shows that the classes are due to real differences in the image.

  17. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Guindon, B.; Murphy, J.; Butlin, J. M.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.; Grieve, G.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of registration errors in LANDSAT MSS data is discussed as well as the development of a revised algorithm for the radiometric calibration of TM data and the production of a geocoded TM image.

  18. [Estimating forest canopy cover by combining spaceborne ICESat-GLAS waveforms and mul- tispectral Landsat-TM images].

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution of forest canopy cover is a critical indicator for evaluating the forest productivity and decomposition rates. With the Wangqing Forest Region in Jilin Province of China as the study area, this study first estimated the forest canopy cover using spaceborne LiDAR IC- ESat-GLAS waveforms and Landsat-TM multispectral images, respectively, and then GLAS data and TM images were combined to further estimate forest canopy cover by using multiple linear regression and BP neural network. The results showed that when the forest canopy cover was estimated with single data source, the determination coefficient of model was 0.762 for GLAS data and 0.598 for TM data. When the forest canopy cover was estimated by combining GLAS data and TM data, the determination coefficient of model was 0.841 for multiple linear regression, and the simulation precision was 0.851 for BP neural network. The study indicated that the combination of ICESat-GLAS data and Landsat-TM images could exploit the advantages of multi-source remote sensing data and improve the estimating accuracy of forest canopy cover, and it was expected to provide a promising way for spatially continuous mapping of forest canopy cover in future.

  19. LANDSAT-4 TM image data quality analysis for energy-related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Foote, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data performance and utility characteristics from an energy research and technology perspective is evaluated. The program focuses on evaluating applicational implications of using such data, in combination with other digital data, for current and future energy research and technology activities. Prime interest is in using TM data for siting, developing and operating federal energy facilities. Secondary interests involve the use of such data for resource exploration, environmental monitoring and basic scientific initiatives such as in support of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

  20. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for the Interpretation of California's Agricultural Resources. [Central Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data was determined by analyzing TM spectral and spatial performance in terms of spectral variability of natural targets and the TM-ground instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) variability in level and mountainous terrain; and by assessing the suitability of TM and MSS image products for characterizing renewable resourse features. The TM data should be extremelly valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation; undating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000 scale and smaller, field boundary definition; and determining the size and location of individual farmsteads. Ongoing research activities are focused on making spectral and spatial analyses of both MSS and TM analytical film products. The improved spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data, should promote a renewed emphasis and interest in direct visual interpretation of these image products, both for updating and improving land stratification in support of resource inventory and for enhancing the image analyst's contribution to computer-assisted analysis procedures.

  1. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  2. Application of LANDSAT TM images to assess circulation and dispersion in coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, B.; Jensen, J. R.; Magill, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    The main objectives are formulated around a four pronged work approach, consisting of tasks related to: image processing and analysis of LANDSAT thematic mapping; numerical modeling of circulation and dispersion; hydrographic and spectral radiation field sampling/ground truth data collection; and special efforts to focus the investigation on turbid coastal/estuarine fronts.

  3. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.

  4. Landsat image data quality studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, C. F.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of the Landsat-4 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program to characterize the data obtained using the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on board the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 satellites are reported. TM design specifications were compared to the obtained data with respect to four criteria, including spatial resolution; geometric fidelity; information content; and image relativity to Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. The overall performance of the TM was rated excellent despite minor instabilities and radiometric anomalies in the data. Spatial performance of the TM exceeded design specifications in terms of both image sharpness and geometric accuracy, and the image utility of the TM data was at least twice as high as MSS data. The separability of alfalfa and sugar beet fields in a TM image is demonstrated.

  5. A Comparative Study of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Classification in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; de Miranda, Evaristo E.; Moran, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Complex forest structure and abundant tree species in the moist tropical regions often cause difficulties in classifying vegetation classes with remotely sensed data. This paper explores improvement in vegetation classification accuracies through a comparative study of different image combinations based on the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data, as well as the combination of spectral signatures and textures. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to classify the different image combinations into thematic maps. This research indicated that data fusion based on HRG multispectral and panchromatic data slightly improved vegetation classification accuracies: a 3.1 to 4.6 percent increase in the kappa coefficient compared with the classification results based on original HRG or TM multispectral images. A combination of HRG spectral signatures and two textural images improved the kappa coefficient by 6.3 percent compared with pure HRG multispectral images. The textural images based on entropy or second-moment texture measures with a window size of 9 pixels × 9 pixels played an important role in improving vegetation classification accuracy. Overall, optical remote-sensing data are still insufficient for accurate vegetation classifications in the Amazon basin. PMID:19789716

  6. A Comparative Study of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Classification in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; de Miranda, Evaristo E; Moran, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    Complex forest structure and abundant tree species in the moist tropical regions often cause difficulties in classifying vegetation classes with remotely sensed data. This paper explores improvement in vegetation classification accuracies through a comparative study of different image combinations based on the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data, as well as the combination of spectral signatures and textures. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to classify the different image combinations into thematic maps. This research indicated that data fusion based on HRG multispectral and panchromatic data slightly improved vegetation classification accuracies: a 3.1 to 4.6 percent increase in the kappa coefficient compared with the classification results based on original HRG or TM multispectral images. A combination of HRG spectral signatures and two textural images improved the kappa coefficient by 6.3 percent compared with pure HRG multispectral images. The textural images based on entropy or second-moment texture measures with a window size of 9 pixels × 9 pixels played an important role in improving vegetation classification accuracy. Overall, optical remote-sensing data are still insufficient for accurate vegetation classifications in the Amazon basin.

  7. Landsat TM image segmentation for delineating geological zone correlated vegetation stratification in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyati, Christopher; Ratshibvumo, Thihanedzwi; Ogola, Jason

    Image classification approaches are widely used in mapping vegetation on remotely sensed images. Vegetation assemblages are equivalent to habitats. Whereas sub-pixel classification approaches potentially can produce more realistic, homogenous habitat maps, pixel-based hard classifier approaches often result in non-homogenous habitat zones. This salt-and-pepper habitat mapping is particularly a challenge on images of savannas, given the characteristic patchy texture of scattered trees and grass. Image segmentation techniques offer possibilities for homogenous habitat classification. This study aimed at establishing the extent to which established, field surveyed and geology-related vegetation types in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) can be reproduced using image segmentation. Rain season Landsat TM images were used, selected to coincide with the peak in vegetation productivity, which was deemed the time of year when discrimination between key habitats in KNP is most likely to be successful. The multiresolution segmentation mode in eCognition 5.0 was employed, object classification accomplished using the nearest neighbour (NN) classifier, using object texture and training area mean values in the NN feature space. Compared to delineations of the vegetation types of KNP on a digital map of the vegetation zones that was tested, image segmentation successfully mapped the zones (overall accuracy 85.3%, K^ = 82.7%) despite slight shifts in the location of vegetation zone boundaries. Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) of the same images was only 37% accurate (K^ = 24.2%). Whereas the vegetation zones resulting from MLC were non-homogenous, with considerable spectral confusion among the vegetation zones, image segmentation produced more homogenous vegetation zones, comparably more useful for conservation management, because realistic and meaningful habitat maps are important in biodiversity conservation as input data upon which to base management decisions

  8. Landsat TM and ETM+ thermal band calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F. D.; Helder, D.L.; Hook, S.J.; Markham, B.L.; Chander, G.; O'Donnell, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-5 has been imaging the Earth since March 1984, and Landsat-7 was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The Landsat Project Science Office and the Landsat-7 Image Assessment System have been monitoring the on-board calibration of Landsat-7 since launch. Additionally, two separate university teams have been evaluating the on-board thermal calibration of Landsat-7 through ground-based measurements since launch. Although not monitored as closely over its lifetime, a new effort is currently being made to validate the calibration of Landsat-5. Two university teams are beginning to collect ground truth under Landsat-5, along with using other vicarious calibration methods to go back into the archive to validate the history of the calibration of Landsat-5. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments. Though stable since launch, Landsat-7 had an initial calibration error of about 3 K, and changes were made to correct for this beginning 1 October 2000 for data processed with the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) and beginning 20 December 2000 for data processed with the Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS). Recent results from Landsat-5 vicarious calibration efforts show an offset of –0.7 K over the lifetime of the instrument. This suggests that historical calibration efforts may have been detecting errors in processing systems rather than changes in the instrument. A correction to the Landsat-5 processing has not yet been implemented but will be in the near future.

  9. Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to

  10. Exploring the possibility of estimating the aboveground biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L. using Landsat TM image in Dahuchi, Jiangxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guofeng; de Leeuw, Jan; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Liu, Yaolin

    2005-10-01

    The provision of food to breeding and migrating waterfowl is one of the major functions of submerged aquatic vegetation in shallow lakes. Vallisneria spiralis L. is a submerged aquatic plant species widely distributed within Jiangxi Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve, China. More than 95% of the world population of the endangered Siberian crane as well as significant numbers of Bewick's swan and swan goose over winter in this area, while foraging on the tubers of Vallisneria. The objective of this paper was to explore the possibility of estimating the aboveground biomass of Vallisneria in Dahuchi Lake using Landsat TM image. The relations between aboveground biomass and the bands of a Landsat TM image and their derived variables were investigated using uni- and multivariate linear and non-linear regression models. The results revealed significant but very weak relations between aboveground biomass and the remotely sensed variables. Hence Landsat TM imagery offered little potential to predict aboveground biomass of Vallisneria in this particular region. Possible reasons which could have caused these results were discussed, including: 1) the possible influence of suspended matter in the water; 2) the less accurate field sampling; 3) the limitations of spatial and spectral resolutions of Landsat TM image; 4) the methods used are not appropriate; 5) the homogeneously spatial distribution of aboveground biomass. We propose considering two alternative methods to improve the estimation of aboveground biomass of Vallisneria. First of all, results might be improved while combining alternative data sources (hyperspectral or high spatial resolution images) with innovative methods and more accurate sampling data; Secondly we propose assessing aboveground biomass while using productivity simulation models of submerged aquatic vegetation integrated with geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing.

  11. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  12. Mass balance investigation of alpine glaciers through LANDSAT TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayr, Klaus J.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees in the Austrian Alps was undertaken and compared with meteorological data of nearby weather stations. Alpine or valley glaciers can be used to study regional and worldwide climate changes. Alpine glaciers respond relatively fast to a warming or cooling trend in temperature through an advance or a retreat of the terminus. In addition, the mass balance of the glacier is being affected. Last year two TM scenes of the Pasterze Glacier of Aug. 1984 and Aug. 1986 were used to study the difference in reflectance. This year, in addition to the scenes from last year, one MSS scene of Aug. 1976 and a TM scene from 1988 were examined for both the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees. During the overpass of the LANDSAT on 6 Aug. 1988 ground truthing on the Pasterze Glacier was undertaken. The results indicate that there was considerable more reflectance in 1976 and 1984 than in 1986 and 1988. The climatological data of the weather stations Sonnblick and Rudolfshuette were examined and compared with the results found through the LANDSAT data. There were relations between the meteorological and LANDSAT data: the average temperature over the last 100 years showed an increase of .4 C, the snowfall was declining during the same time period but the overall precipitation did not reveal any significant change over the same period. With the use of an interactive image analysis computer, the LANDSAT scenes were studied. The terminus of the Pasterze Glacier retreated 348 m and the terminus of the Kleines Fleisskees 121 m since 1965. This approach using LANDSAT MSS and TM digital data in conjunction with meteorological data can be effectively used to monitor regional and worldwide climate changes.

  13. BOREAS RSS-8 Snow Maps Derived from Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.; Chien, Janeet Y. L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-8 team utilized Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to perform mapping of snow extent over the Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set consists of two Landsat TM images that were used to determine the snow-covered pixels over the BOREAS SSA on 18 Jan 1993 and on 06 Feb 1994. The data are stored in binary image format files. The RSS-08 snow map data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  14. BOREAS Level-3p Landsat TM Imagery: Geocoded and Scaled At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the level-3p Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to supplement the level-3s Landsat TM products. Along with the other remotely sensed images, the Landsat TM images were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Although very similar to the level-3s Landsat TM products, the level-3p images were processed with ground control information, which improved the accuracy of the geographic coordinates provided. Geographically, the level-3p images cover the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). Temporally, the four images cover the period of 20-Aug-1988 to 07-Jun-1994. Except for the 07-Jun-1994 image, which contains seven bands, the other three contain only three bands.

  15. LandsatLook images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonescheit, Linda

    2011-01-01

    LandsatLook images are full resolution JPEG files derived from Landsat Level 1 data products. The images are compressed and stretched to create an image optimized for image selection and visual interpretation; it is not recommended that they be used in digital analysis.

  16. Evaluating Wetland Mapping Techniques for New Brunswick Using Landsat-5 TM, ALOS-Palsar and Radarsat-2 Dual-Polarized Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRocque, A.; Leblon, B.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; McCarty, J. L.; Mordini, M.; French, N. H. F.; Landon, A.; Woodward, R.; Huntington, T. G.; Camill, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of dual-polarized (HH, HV) RADARSAT-2 C-band and ALOS-PALSAR L-band SAR images with LANDSAT-5 TM and a digital elevation model (DEM) for mapping wetland areas in New Brunswick. The resulting maps were compared to GPS field data that were collected in 2012 as well as to two wetland maps currently in use by the Province of New Brunswick, namely the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) wetland map and the forested wetland classes of the DNR forest map (called hereafter "DNR forested wetland map"). Overall the Random Forests classifier gave better classification accuracies than the maximum likelihood classifier. The comparison with the 146 wetland ground truth sites shows that 73.3% are correctly identified using the LANDSAT-5 TM classified image. For the SAR-based classified images, the number of correctly identified wetland ground truth sites is higher when the image acquired during the flooding is considered, the difference being higher with the ALOS-PALSAR images than with the RADARSAT-2 images. The number of correctly identified ground truth wetland sites is the highest when both the ALOS-PALSAR images and RADARSAT-2 images are used (98.6%). This percentage is well above the one obtained with the DNR wetland and forested wetland maps (44.5%). For both SAR-based classifications, the majority of the misidentifications are due to wetlands not being classified in the right wetland class and very few are wetland sites being classified as a non-wetland class. For the DNR maps, about half of the misclassifications are field-validated wetlands that are not mapped as wetland on the DNR maps, the remaining half are wetland sites classified in the wrong wetland class.

  17. Water residence time affecting phytoplankton blooms: study case in Ibitinga Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) using Landsat/TM images.

    PubMed

    Londe, L R; Novo, E M L M; Barbosa, C; Araujo, C A S

    2016-05-03

    Satellite images are an effective tool for the detection of phytoplankton blooms, since they cause striking changes in water color. Bloom intensity can be expressed in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration. Previous studies suggest the use of Landsat TM4/TM3 reflectance ratio to retrieve surface chlorophyll-a concentration from aquatic systems. In this study we assumed that a remote sensing trophic state index can be applied to investigate how changes in HRT along the hydrologic year affect the spatial distribution of the phytoplankton blooms at Ibitinga's reservoir surface. For that, we formulated two objectives: (1) apply a semi-empirical model which uses this reflectance ratio to map chlorophyll-a concentration at Ibitinga reservoir along the 2005 hydrologic year and (2) assess how changes in hydraulic residence time (HRT) affect the spatial distribution of phytoplankton blooms at Ibitinga Reservoir. The study site was chosen because previous studies reported seasonal changes in the reservoir limnology which might be related to the reservoir seasonality and hydrodynamics. Six Landsat/TM images were acquired over Ibitinga reservoir during 2005 and water flow measurements provided by the Brazilian Electric System National Operator - ONS were used to compute the reservoir´s residence time, which varied from 5.37 to 52.39 days during 2005. The HRT in the date of image acquisition was then compared to the distribution of chlorophyll-a in the reservoir. The results showed that the HRT increasing implies the increasing of the reservoir surface occupied by phytoplankton blooms.

  18. Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

  19. Chromitite Prospecting Using Landsat TM and Aster Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.; Pournamdari, M.

    2015-10-01

    Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF) and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7) of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF) used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite) were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  20. Comparative evaluations of the geodetic accuracy and cartographic potential of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Jordan, T. R.; Ehlers, M.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is conducted by NASA. One part of this program forms studies which are being performed with the objective to evaluate the geometric fidelity of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in computer tape (CCT-pt) formats. It is pointed out that the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 systems provide image data of significantly better geometric fidelity than were obtained from the earlier Landsat missions. Attention is given to the factors which influence the geometric fidelity of the Landsat TM data, the study areas and data sets, the rectification procedures, the rectification of Landsat-4 TM data and comparisons of the Scrounge and the TM Image Processing System (TIPS), the rectification of system and scene corrected Landsat-5 data processed on TIPS, and the cartographic potential of TM data.

  1. Algorithm for PM10 Mapping using Landsat TM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul K.; Chow Jeng, C. J.

    section A new algorithm was developed for detecting and mapping air pollution from Landsat TM images PM10 measumenets were collected simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition The algorithm was derived based on the aerosol optical reflectance model and it was calibrated to measure the concentration of the pollutants The measured satellite reflectance at the top of the atmosphere rho TOA was subtracted by the amount given by the surface reflectance to obtain the atmospheric reflectance A total of 7 dates of Landsat TM satellite images were analysed in this study The atmospheric reflectance values corresponding to the locations of the PM10 measurements of the each image ware combined and related to their PM10 values The collected PM10 measurements were combined for algorithm calibration The coefficients of the calibrated algorithm were determined and used to generate the air quality maps for all images This newly developed algorithm was used to estimate PM10 concentration over Penang and produced a high degree of accuracy

  2. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. BOREAS TE-18, 60-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 2 1 Jun-1995. The 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18-Sep-1994 in the SSA and 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (1991). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, the full-resolution (30-m) images may not be publicly distributed. However, this spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images may be openly distributed and is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. After the radiometric rectification processing, the original data were degraded to a 60-m pixel size from the original 30-m pixel size by averaging the data over a 2- by 2-pixel window. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  4. Quantifying the Physical Composition of Urban Morphology throughout Wales by analysing a Time Series (1989-2011) of Landsat TM/ETM+ images and Supporting GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Douglas; Petropoulos, George

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of impervious surface areas (ISA) and on their changes in magnitude, location, geometry and morphology over time is significant for a range of practical applications and research alike from local to global scale. It is a key indicator of global environmental change and is also important parameter for urban planning and environmental resources management, especially within a European context due to the policy recommendations given to the European Commission by the Austrian Environment Agency in 2011. Despite this, use of Earth Observation (EO) technology in mapping ISAs within the European Union (EU) and in particular in the UK is inadequate. In the present study, selected study sites across Wales have been used to test the use of freely distributed EO data from Landsat TM/ETM+ sensors in retrieving ISA for improving the current European estimations of international urbanization and soil sealing. A traditional classifier and a linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) were both applied to a series of Landsat TM/ETM+ images acquired over a period spanning 22 years to extract ISA. Aerial photography with a spatial resolution of 0.4m, acquired over the summer period in 2005 was used for validation purposes. The Welsh study areas provided a unique chance to detect largely dispersed urban morphology within an urban-rural frontier context. The study also presents an innovative method for detecting clouds and cloud shadow layers, detected with an overall accuracy of around 97%. The process tree built and presented in this study is important in terms of moving forward into a biennial program for the Welsh Government and is comparable to currently existing products. This EO-based product also offers a much less subjectively static and more objectively dynamic estimation of ISA cover. Our methodology not only inaugurates the local retrieval of ISA for Wales but also meliorates the existing EU international figures, and expands relatively stationary 'global' US

  5. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-D MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Collins, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Accomplishments in the evaluation of LANDSAT 4 data are reported. The objectives of the Canadian proposal are: (1) to quantify the LANDSAT-4 sensors and system performance for the purpose of updating the radiometric and geometric correction algorithms for MSS and for developing and evaluating new correction algorithms to be used for TM data processing; (2) to compare and access the degree to which LANDSAT-4 MSS data can be integrated with MSS imagery acquired from earlier LANDSAT missions; and (3) to apply image analysis and information extraction techniques for specific user applications such as forestry or agriculture.

  6. Characterization of radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch internal calibrator, image, and background data is to characterize the radiometric performance of the LANDSAT-4 TM and to recommend improved procedures for radiometric calibration. All but two channels (band 2, channel 4; band 5, channel 3) behave normally. Gain changes relative to a postlaunch reference for channels within a band vary within 0.5 percent as a group. Instrument gain for channels in the cold focal plane oscillates. Noise in background and image data ranges from 0.5 to 1.7 counts. Average differences in forward and reverse image data indicate a need for separate calibration processing of forward and reverse scans. Precision is improved by increasing the pulse integration width from 31 to 41 minor frames, depending on the band.

  7. Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

    1982-01-01

    For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Mapper (TM), will have seven channels and provide data with 30 m spatial resolution. Two of the spectral channels (1.6 micron and 2.2 micron) should allow detection of hydrous minerals. Possible applications of Landsat-D TM data for copper exploration were studied on the basis of a comparison of Landsat data with simulated TM data acquired using an aircraft scanner instrument. Three porphyr copper deposits in Arizona were selected for the study. It is concluded that the new Landsat-D TM scanner will provide Exploration geologists with a new improved tool for surveying mineral resources on a global basis.

  8. Using Landsat TM data to model corn and soybean yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candanedo Guevara, Martin Edmundo

    2001-07-01

    Early research in agriculture used remotely sensed data mostly for the identification of spectral signatures, where crop type/area classification would depend on data acquired from hand-held or truck-mounted instruments. Through time different approaches were taken for crop type/area classification, such as a systematic sampling of inventory ground data that were used later for training and testing using image processing techniques. Later, technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were used for application to precision agriculture. These new tools provided a better meaning to understand and analyze the complex variability of the crop-soil-atmosphere system to estimate crop yields. The present research used data collected in the Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) in 1998 and two Landsat thematic Mapper images (July and August) to analyze the crop variability. Ground truth parameters, such as chlorophyll, leaf area index (LAI), and electricity conductivity, were collected throughout the growing season. In addition, vegetation indexes (VI) such as the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), simple vegetation index (SVI), soil adjusted ratio vegetation index (SARVI), were computed for the two images. Both ground truth data and VI's were statistically analyzed with yield measurements taken with an on-the-go yield monitor to estimate a best fit yield model for use with soybeans and corn. The correlation analysis within a Landsat pixel reported SVI52 (r = 0.62), SVI53 (r = 0.56), and SVI54 (r = 0.53) as the most significant relationships. The results from the ground truth data vs. on-the-go yields reported total clay (%) (r = 0.90), leaf area (r = 0.76), and tissue plant analysis (r = 0.73) A stepwise regression analysis was performed using the Landsat TM images and the VI's selected. A series of linear models were evaluated taking into account the Landsat TM and yield while varying the scale (1 pixel to

  9. A protocol for improving mapping and assessing of seagrass abundance along the West Central Coast of Florida using Landsat TM and EO-1 ALI/Hyperion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Seagrass habitats are characteristic features of shallow waters worldwide and provide a variety of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing techniques can help collect spatial and temporal information about seagrass resources. In this study, we evaluate a protocol that utilizes image optimization algorithms followed by atmospheric and sunglint corrections to the three satellite sensors [Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion (HYP)] and a fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique to map and assess seagrass abundance in Pinellas County, FL, USA. After image preprocessed with image optimization algorithms and atmospheric and sunglint correction approaches, the three sensors' data were used to classify the submerged aquatic vegetation cover (%SAV cover) into 5 classes with a maximum likelihood classifier. Based on three biological metrics [%SAV, leaf area index (LAI), and Biomass] measured from the field, nine multiple regression models were developed for estimating the three biometrics with spectral variables derived from the three sensors' data. Then, five membership maps were created with the three biometrics along with two environmental factors (water depth and distance-to-shoreline). Finally, seagrass abundance maps were produced by using a fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique and five membership maps. The experimental results indicate that the HYP sensor produced the best results of the 5-class classification of %SAV cover (overall accuracy = 87% and Kappa = 0.83 vs. 82% and 0.77 by ALI and 79% and 0.73 by TM) and better multiple regression models for estimating the three biometrics (R2 = 0.66, 0.62 and 0.61 for %SAV, LAI and Biomass vs. 0.62, 0.61 and 0.55 by ALI and 0.58, 0.56 and 0.52 by TM) for creating seagrass abundance maps along with two environmental factors. Combined our results demonstrate that the image optimization algorithms and the fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique were effective in mapping

  10. Obtaining land cover changes information from multitemporal analysis of Landsat-TM images: results from a case study in West African dryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutini, F.; Boschetti, M.; Brivio, P. A.; Antoninetti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a semiarid region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the livelihood of local populations particularly in rangeland areas, as happens during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by rainfall scarcity. The monitoring of natural resources and rainfed agricultural activities, with the aim to provide information to support Sahelian food security action, needs the production of detailed thematic maps as emphasized by several scientific papers. In this framework, a study was conducted to develop a method to exploit time series of remote sensed satellite data to 1) provide reliable land cover (LC) map at local scale in a dry region and 2) obtain a LC change (LCC) map that contribute to identify the plausible causes of local environmental instability. Satellite images used for this work consist in a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) (path row 195-50) acquired in the 2000 (6 scenes) and 2007 (9 scenes) from February (Dry season) to September (end of wet season). The study investigates the different contribution provided by spectra information of a single Landsat TM image and by time series of derived NDVI. Different tests have been conducted with different combination of data set (spectral and temporal)in order to identify the best approach to obtain a LC map in five classes of interest: Shrubland, Cultivated Land, Water body, Herbaceous vegetation and Bare soil. The best classification approach is exposed and applied on two years in the last decade. The comparison between this two LC results in land cover change map, that displays the changes of vegetation patterns that have been characterized the area. The discussed results show a largely stable dryland region, but locally characterized by hot-spot of decreasing in natural vegetation inside the rangelands and an increasing of cultivations along fossil valleys where human activities are slightly intense. The discussion shows that this hot

  11. Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

    2014-10-01

    The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

  12. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Classification of forest growth stage using Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Gerard, Patrick D.; Evans, David L.

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the utility of polytomous logistic regression in pixel classification of remotely sensed images by the growth stage of forests. For a population of grouped continuous categories, the assumption of normal distribution of independent variables, which is often required in multivariate classification methods, may not be appropriate. Two types of polytomous logistic regression procedures, multinomial and cumulative logistic regression, were used to classify Landsat TM data by growth stage (regeneration-immature, intermediate, and mature) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest in the east central Mississippi. Multinomial logistic regression is typically used for analysis of unordered categorical data. Cumulative logistic regression is one of the most commonly used methods of ordinal logistic regression which is generally preferred to analyze ordered categorical data, although, it imposes restrictions on the data. Three hundred sample points were located randomly throughout the study site and vectors of pixel values of four bands of Landsat TM data were used to predict growth stage at each sample location. The results were compared to that of parametric and nonparametric discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbor method. Non-normal distribution of independent variables indicated a violation of the assumptions for parametric discriminant analysis. Classification with cumulative logistic regression using four bands was performed first. However, the assumption of the model was not met. So, the classification was also performed using only band 4 which appeared to meet the assumption. The error rate of cumulative logistic regression was 39.12% with all the bands and 37.70% with band 4 alone. Although error rate with cumulative logistic regression with band 4 alone resulted in the lowest error rate, the improvement over other methods was marginal. The error rate of k-nearest neighbor method varied from 38.68 to 48.06% depending on choice of the value of k.

  14. BOREAS Level-3b Landsat TM Imagery: At-sensor Radiances in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the level-3b Landsat TM data, along with the other remotely sensed images, were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as FPAR and LAI. Although very similar in content to the level-3a Landsat TM products, the level-3b images were created to provide users with a directly usable at-sensor radiance image. Geographically, the level-3b images cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. Temporally, the images cover the period of 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jul-1996. The images are available in binary, image format files.

  15. Fine-scale characterization of juniper expansion via LiDAR data and fusion with Landsat 5 TM image

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper encroachment into rangelands is one of the most prominent land cover changes occurring in the western North America. Development of image-based methods to assess juniper encroachment over large areas is needed to identify priority areas for juniper intensive management. We fused lidar dat...

  16. Synergistic use of MOMS-01 and Landsat TM data. [Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, David A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Imagery covering the Socompa volcano and debris avalanche deposit in northern Chile was acquired by MOMS-01 when the sun was low in the western sky. Illumination from the west shows many important topographic features to advantage. These are inconspicuous or indistinguishable on Landsat TM images acquired at higher solar elevation. The effective spatial resolution of MOMS-01 is similar to that of the TM and its capacity for spectral discrimination is less. A technique has been developed to combine the multispectral information offered by TM with the topographic detail visible on MOMS-01 imagery recorded at a time of low solar elevation.

  17. Summary of Current Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of- Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  18. Summary of current radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  19. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  20. Identification of central Kenyan Rift Valley Fever virus vector habitats with Landsat TM and evaluation of their flooding status with airborne imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, K. O.; Sheffner, E. J.; Linthicum, K. J.; Bailey, C. L.; Logan, T. M.; Kasischke, E. S.; Birney, K.; Njogu, A. R.; Roberts, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects livestock and humans in Africa. Landsat TM data are shown to be effective in identifying dambos, intermittently flooded areas that are potential mosquite breeding sites, in an area north of Nairobi, Kenya. Positive results were obtained from a limited test of flood detection in dambos with airborne high resolution L, C, and X band multipolarization SAR imagery. L and C bands were effective in detecting flooded dambos, but LHH was by far the best channel for discrimination between flooded and nonflooded sites in both sedge and short-grass environments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined passive and active remote sensing program for monitoring the location and condition of RVF vector habitats, thus making future control of the disease more promising.

  1. Atmospheric correction of LANDSAT TM thermal band using surface energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Alain; Devaux-Ros, Claire; Moran, M. Susan

    1994-01-01

    Thermal infrared data of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) are hardly used, probably due to the difficulties met when trying to correct them for atmospheric effects. A method for correcting these data was designed, based on surface energy balance estimation of known wet and dry targets included in the TM image to be corrected. This method, only using the image itself and local meteorological data was tested and validated on various surfaces: agricultural, forest and rangeland. The root mean square error on corrected temperatures is on the order of 1C.

  2. Monitoring marine ecological changes on the east coast of Bahrain with Landsat TM

    SciTech Connect

    Zainal, A.J.M.; Dalby, D.H.; Robinson, I.S. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    An evaluation is made of the potential of Landsat TM imagery for detecting and quantifying the changes occurring in the marine habitat of a reef complex on the east coast of Bahrain. The study gives attention to TM images acquired during 1985-1992 under various tidal conditions; principal component and false color composites of the temporal images were applied to these to identify changed areas. Then, postclassification comparisons were employed together with digital elevation data to quantify the magnitude of habitat change. 11 refs.

  3. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  4. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  5. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with LANDSAT TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1990-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R(sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of LANDSAT TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  6. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy. PMID:26473739

  7. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy.

  8. BOREAS Level-3a Landsat TM Imagery: Scaled At-sensor Radiance in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the level-3a Landsat TM data, along with the other remotely sensed images, were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as FPAR and LAI. Although very similar in content to the level-3s Landsat TM products, the level-3a images were created to provide users with a more usable BSQ format and to provide information that permitted direct determination of per-pixel latitude and longitude coordinates. Geographically, the level-3a images cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. Temporally, the images cover the period of 22-Jun-1984 to 30-Jul-1996. The images are available in binary, image-format files. With permission from CCRS and RSI, several of the full-resolution images are included on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. Due to copyright issues, the images not included on the CD-ROM may not be publicly available. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to acquire the data. Information about the images not on the CD-ROMs is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs.

  9. Complementarity of ResourceSat-1 AWiFS and Landsat TM/ETM+ sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goward, S.N.; Chander, G.; Pagnutti, M.; Marx, A.; Ryan, R.; Thomas, N.; Tetrault, R.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest has been given to forming an international collaboration to develop a virtual moderate spatial resolution land observation constellation through aggregation of data sets from comparable national observatories such as the US Landsat, the Indian ResourceSat and related systems. This study explores the complementarity of India's ResourceSat-1 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) with the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The analysis focuses on the comparative radiometry, geometry, and spectral properties of the two sensors. Two applied assessments of these data are also explored to examine the strengths and limitations of these alternate sources of moderate resolution land imagery with specific application domains. There are significant technical differences in these imaging systems including spectral band response, pixel dimensions, swath width, and radiometric resolution which produce differences in observation data sets. None of these differences was found to strongly limit comparable analyses in agricultural and forestry applications. Overall, we found that the AWiFS and Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery are comparable and in some ways complementary, particularly with respect to temporal repeat frequency. We have found that there are limits to our understanding of the AWiFS performance, for example, multi-camera design and stability of radiometric calibration over time, that leave some uncertainty that has been better addressed for Landsat through the Image Assessment System and related cross-sensor calibration studies. Such work still needs to be undertaken for AWiFS and similar observatories that may play roles in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems Land Surface Imaging Constellation.

  10. Estimating tropical forest biomass with a combination of SAR image texture and Landsat TM data: An assessment of predictions between regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, M. E. J.; Boyd, D. S.; Foody, G. M.; Vetrivel, A.

    2012-06-01

    Quantifying the above ground biomass of tropical forests is critical for understanding the dynamics of carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as monitoring ecosystem responses to environmental change. Remote sensing remains an attractive tool for estimating tropical forest biomass but relationships and methods used at one site have not always proved applicable to other locations. This lack of a widely applicable general relationship limits the operational use of remote sensing as a method for biomass estimation, particularly in high biomass ecosystems. Here, multispectral Landsat TM and JERS-1 SAR data were used together to estimate tropical forest biomass at three separate geographical locations: Brazil, Malaysia and Thailand. Texture measures were derived from the JERS-1 SAR data using both wavelet analysis and Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix methods, and coupled with multispectral data to provide inputs to artificial neural networks that were trained under four different training scenarios and validated using biomass measured from 144 field plots. When trained and tested with data collected from the same location, the addition of SAR texture to multispectral data showed strong correlations with above ground biomass (r = 0.79, 0.79 and 0.84 for Thailand, Malaysia and Brazil respectively). Also, when networks were trained and tested with data from all three sites, the strength of correlation (r = 0.55) was stronger than previously reported results from the same sites that used multispectral data only. Uncertainty in estimating AGB from different allometric equations was also tested but found to have little effect on the strength of the relationships observed. The results suggest that the inclusion of SAR texture with multispectral data can go someway towards providing relationships that are transferable across time and space, but that further work is required if satellite remote sensing is to provide robust and reliable

  11. Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

  12. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  13. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Classification performance from LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS data is evaluated using the SECHO computer program. The data accuracy is compared using forest, corn, soybeans, bare soil, grass, water, and urban areas as classes for investigation.

  14. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with Landsat TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1992-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using Lnandsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R (sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of Landsat TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  15. BOREAS Level-3s Landsat TM Imagery Scaled At-sensor Radiance in LGSOWG Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS),the level-3s Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, along with the other remotely sensed images,were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy,detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Leaf area Index (LAI). CCRS collected and supplied the level-3s images to BOREAS for use in the remote sensing research activities. Geographically,the bulk of the level-3s images cover the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) with a few images covering the area between the NSA and SSA. Temporally,the images cover the period of 22-Jun-1984 to 30-Jul-1996. The images are available in binary,image-format files.

  16. Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.

    1991-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

  17. Utilization of LANDSAT-TM and SPOT multispectral raw and integrated data for land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salajanu, Dumitru

    The work of this dissertation presents results obtained from using LANDSAT-TM and SPOT multispectral raw and integrated image data for land cover/use classification with an emphasis on forest type discrimination. The main objective of this study was to find out to what degree information from satellites with different spectral and spatial resolution can be integrated and used to improve the overall and individual (cover type) classification accuracy particularly in forestry. Three hypotheses were formulated in order to test the main objective. The test site located in northwestern Washtenaw County, Michigan includes areas within and outside of Stinchfield Woods and consists of a large diversity of species especially conifer plantations. The LANDSAT-TM and SPOT-XS raw data were registered to the SPOT Panchromatic data. Conjugate ground control points collected from both images were used to produce image to image registration. Once the images were registered to each other several algorithms were used to merge the two images into a new one. Raw and integrated image data were subjected to radiometric and spectral enhancements (contrast stretching, NDVI ratio) and finally used in supervised and unsupervised classifications. Several supervised classification trials were completed for each hypothesis tested using raw and integrated data and the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The masking process was used to segment the test area into more homogeneous cover types, which resulted in improved overall classification accuracy. Reference maps were prepared for both (TM and SPOT-XS) raw and integrated classified images from two enlarged aerial photographs. Classified maps from both raw and integrated data were tested and evaluated by interpreting contingency tables using several statistics (PCC, Cohen's Kappa) to characterize overall classification accuracy. Based on the test results the following conclusions were drawn. Overall classification accuracy from satellite data

  18. New results for geologic units mapping of Utah test sites using Landsat TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Marcell, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper continues a study on the accuracy of geological mapping using Landsat Thematic Mapper data (Short, 1984). In June 1976, both the White Mountain alteration zone and the Waterpocket Fold sedimentary rock sites in Utah were surveyed by the Bendix 24-band scanner on a NASA NC-130B aircraft. Mid-June 1984 TM data for these two sites have been processed like the 1976 data to test the quality of simulation of TM data. Principal-components (PC) color composite images for White Mountain show close correspondence to the Bendix PC images. At this site carbonate strata are uniquely discriminated in both Bendix and TM composites that use an inverted PC 3 image. Alunite/kaolinite and hematite/limonite alteration zones developed on volcanic flows are also sharply separated, but iron oxide and silicified zones are less so. The accuracy of rock-units mapping at the Waterpocket Fold site by supervised classification of the June TM data is significantly better, reaching 70 percent in the best case, than for January 1983 data for that site.

  19. Fine-scale characterization of juniper expansion via lidar data and fusion with Landsat 5 TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, T. T.; Glenn, N. F.; Shrestha, R.; Hardegree, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Juniper encroachment into rangelands is one of the most prominent land cover changes occurring in western North America. Development of image-based methods to assess juniper encroachment over large areas is needed to identify priority areas for juniper intensive management. We fused lidar data with multi-temporal Landsat 5 TM image and detected 85% juniper expansion since 1965, which was corroborated with tree-ring data. Lidar applications for characterizing juniper encroachment phases at finer scales were also explored. Lidar point cloud data were used to separate overlapping juniper tree canopies and to estimate juniper tree height, age, density, and canopy percent cover. Fusion approaches for both pixel-level and sub-pixel juniper cover classifications were compared. Among them, a multiple regression-based approach performed best. Lidar data fused with Landsat 5 TM data produced superior results in both juniper presence/absence and sub-pixel juniper cover classifications than either one of the image sources alone. However, the improvement via the fusion was marginal (up to 6% increase) over the lidar data alone. Lidar-derived estimates can be sufficiently used alone for pixel-level and sub-pixel juniper cover classifications, but spectral data are necessary for locating juvenile junipers dispersed amongst shrubs.

  20. Using aerial video to train the supervised classification of Landsat TM imagery for coral reef habitats mapping.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pineda, J; Liceaga-Correa, M A; Hernández-Núñez, H; Ponce-Hernández, R

    2005-06-01

    Management of coral reef resources is a challenging task, in many cases, because of the scarcity or inexistence of accurate sources of information and maps. Remote sensing is a not intrusive, but powerful tool, which has been successfully used for the assessment and mapping of natural resources in coral reef areas. In this study we utilized GIS to combine Landsat TM imagery, aerial photography, aerial video and a digital bathymetric model, to assess and to map submerged habitats for Alacranes reef, Yucatán, México. Our main goal was testing the potential of aerial video as the source of data to produce training areas for the supervised classification of Landsat TM imagery. Submerged habitats were ecologically characterized by using a hierarchical classification of field data. Habitats were identified on an overlaid image, consisting of the three types of remote sensing products and the bathymetric model. Pixels representing those habitats were selected as training areas by using GIS tools. Training areas were used to classify the Landsat TM bands 1, 2 and 3 and the bathymetric model by using a maximum likelihood algorithm. The resulting thematic map was compared against field data classification to improve habitats definition. Contextual editing and reclassification were used to obtain the final thematic map with an overall accuracy of 77%. Analysis of aerial video by a specialist in coral reef ecology was found to be a suitable source of information to produce training areas for the supervised classification of Landsat TM imagery in coral reefs at a coarse scale.

  1. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

  2. Improving classification of crop residues using digital land ownership data and Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Swain, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Plant residue on the surface of cultivated soils in Miami County, Indiana is analyzed in terms of quantity and type with Landsat TM data to generate information for a conservation program for agricultural soil. The Landsat data are enhanced with land-ownership data in a geographic information system to facilitate classification with maximum-likelihood, minimum-distance, and neural-network classifiers. The most effective classifications resulted from the use of the neural network on the enhanced TM data.

  3. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments using artificial targets (polyethylene sheets) to help calibrate and evaluate atmospheric effects as well as the radiometric precision and spatial characteristics of the NS-001 and TM sensor systems were attempted and show the technical feasibility of using plastic targets for such studies, although weather precluded successful TM data acquisition. Tapes for six LANDSAT 4 TM scenes were acquired and data processing began. Computer enhanced TM simulator and LANDSAT 4 TM data were compared for a porphyry copper deposit in Southern Arizona. Preliminary analyses performed on two TM scenes acquired in the CCT-PT format, show the TM data appear to contain a marked increase in geologically useful information; however, a number of instrumental processing artifacts may well limit the ability of the geologist to fully extract this information.

  4. Remodeling census population with spatial information from Landsat TM imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Limp, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    In geographic information systems (GIS) studies there has been some difficulty integrating socioeconomic and physiogeographic data. One important type of socioeconomic data, census data, offers a wide range of socioeconomic information, but is aggregated within arbitrary enumeration districts (EDs). Values reflect either raw counts or, when standardized, the mean densities in the EDs. On the other hand, remote sensing imagery, an important type of physiogeographic data, provides large quantities of information with more spatial details than census data. Based on the dasymetric mapping principle, this study applies multivariable regression to examine the correlation between population counts from census and land cover types. The land cover map is classified from LandSat TM imagery. The correlation is high. Census population counts are remodeled to a GIS raster layer based on the discovered correlations coupled with scaling techniques, which offset influences from other than land cover types. The GIS raster layer depicts the population distribution with much more spatial detail than census data offer. The resulting GIS raster layer is ready to be analyzed or integrated with other GIS data. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring change in the Bering Glacier region, Alaska: Using Landsat TM and ERS-1 imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.F.; Coffeen, M.; Macleod, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Bering Glacier is the largest (5,180 km{sup 2}) and longest (191 km) glacier in continental North America. This glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge. Surges at the Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle. The objective of this project was to extract information regarding the position of the terminus of the glacier from historic aerial photography, early 20{sup th} century ground photography, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data, and European Space Agency, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (ERS-1 SAR) data and integrate it into a single digital database that would lend itself to change detection analysis. ERS-1 SAR data was acquired from six dates between 1992-95 and was terrain corrected and co-registered A single Landsat TM image from June 1991 was used as the base image for classifying land cover types. Historic locations of the glacier terminus were generated using traditional photo interpretation techniques from aerial and ground photography. The result of this platform combination, along with the historical data, is providing land managers with the unique opportunity to generate complete assessments of glacial movement this century and determine land cover changes which may impact wildlife and recreational opportunities.

  6. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  7. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 30, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  8. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 1, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  9. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  10. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 17, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  11. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 4, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  12. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 7, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  13. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 9, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  14. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 23, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  15. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 27, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  16. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 29, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 21, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for November 8, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  19. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 6, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  20. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 25, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  1. An integrtated approach to the use of Landsat TM data for gold exploration in west central Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Myers, J. S.; Miller, N. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper represents an integration of several Landsat TM image processing techniques with other data to discriminate the lithologies and associated areas of hydrothermal alteration in the vicinity of the Paradise Peak gold mine in west central Nevada. A microprocessor-based image processing system and an IDIMS system were used to analyze data from a 512 X 512 window of a Landsat-5 TM scene collected on June 30, 1984. Image processing techniques included simple band composites, band ratio composites, principal components composites, and baseline-based composites. These techniques were chosen based on their ability to discriminate the spectral characteristics of the products of hydrothermal alteration as well as of the associated regional lithologies. The simple band composite, ratio composite, two principal components composites, and the baseline-based composites separately can define the principal areas of alteration. Combined, they provide a very powerful exploration tool.

  2. Comparison of three different methods to merge multiresolution and multispectral data: Landsat TM and SPOT panchromatic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.; Sides, S.C.; Anderson, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The merging of multisensor image data is becoming a widely used procedure because of the complementary nature of various data sets. Ideally, the method used to merge data sets with high-spatial and high-spectral resolution should not distort the spectral characteristics of the high-spectral resolution data. This paper compares the results of three different methods used to merge the information contents of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) panchromatic data. The comparison is based on spectral characteristics and is made using statistical, visual, and graphical analyses of the results. The three methods used to merge the information contents of the Landsat TM and SPOT panchromatic data were the Hue-Intensity-Saturation (HIS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and High-Pass Filter (HPF) procedures. The HIS method distorted the spectral characteristics of the data the most. The HPF method distorted the spectral characteristics the least; the distortions were minimal and difficult to detect. -Authors

  3. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 29, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  4. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 12, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  5. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  6. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 26, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  7. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 7, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  8. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 18, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  9. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 16, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  10. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 20, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  11. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 29, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  12. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 28, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  13. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 25, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  14. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 2, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  15. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 22, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  16. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 30, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 16, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

    1984-01-01

    The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

  19. Discrimination of lithologic units using geobotanical and LANDSAT TM spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnie, R. W.; Defeo, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data were correlated with lithologic units, geobotanical forest associations, and geomorphic site parameters in the Ridge and Valley Province of Pennsylvania. Both the TM and forest association data can be divided into four groups based on their lithology (sandstone or shale) and geomorphic aspect (north or south facing). In this clastic sedimentary terrane, geobotanical associations are useful indicators of lithology and these different geobotanical associations are detectable in LANDSAT TM data.

  20. A complete transformation of a forest environment detected by the fusion of 11 Spot and Landsat-TM images over 15 years: the example of a pioneer front in Peten, Guatemala.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleron, Gilles

    2005-10-01

    The experimentation takes place in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, in the heart of the Peten region in Guatemala. In this natural area intermingled rivers and lakes, the forest which was in balance with environmental conditions dominated all the space. However, the landscape has just suffered a real transformation for the last 15 years. Since 1987, populating has settle up regularly by succesive waves. They have appropriated, cleared and changed the native forest in pasture and milpa (field of corn). This process of systematic deforestation by large fires, permits the creation of new rural societies, a new area of distinctly diverse uses. But the sudden and non control setting up of these populations threaten environment conditions. A conflict for the land has been appeared around and inside of the Maya Biosphere Reserve, whitch is itself threatened. The State of Guatemala, as the NGO need a local and regional perception. And yet, faced with this speedy phenomenon non finished, the lack of updated cartographic data in a area little known and badly statistical informed, high resolution remote sensing becomes an irreplaceable tool to understand such radical transformations. To understand spatio temporal process of this new rural pioneer front, to make a dynamic diagnosis, to date, to follow, to map, to update environmental and statistical data, the method of image processing proposed is based on satellite data fusions--Landsat-TM and Spot--by multidated approaches (11 images over 15 years), multi-scale (from local to regional) and multispectral (only one image resultant of 41 georeferenced channels) ; the results have been ratified by field work.

  1. Landsat-TM identification of Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) habitats in Guadeloupe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hugh-Jones, M.; Barre, N.; Nelson, G.; Wehnes, K.; Warner, J.; Garvin, J.; Garris, G.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of identifying specific habitats of the African bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, from Landsat-TM images was investigated by comparing remotely sensed images of visible farms in Grande Terre (Guadeloupe) with field observations made in the same period of time (1986-1987). The different tick habitates could be separated using principal component analysis. The analysis clustered the sites by large and small variance of band values, and by vegetation and moisture indexes. It was found that herds in heterogeneous sites with large variances had more ticks than those in homogeneous or low variance sites. Within the heterogeneous sites, those with high vegetation and moisture indexes had more ticks than those with low values.

  2. Forest aboveground biomass estimation in Zhejiang Province using the integration of Landsat TM and ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Panpan; Lu, Dengsheng; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Lijuan; Li, Dengqiu; Zhu, Jinru; Yu, Shuquan

    2016-12-01

    In remote sensing-based forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation research, data saturation in Landsat and radar data is well known, but how to reduce this problem for improving AGB estimation has not been fully examined. Different vegetation types have their own species composition and stand structure, thus they have different data saturation values in Landsat or radar data. Optical and radar data also have different characteristics in representing forest stand structures, thus effective use of their features may improve AGB estimation. This research examines the effects of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and ALOS PALSAR L-band data and their integrations in forest AGB estimation of Zhejiang Province, China, and the roles of textural images from both datasets. The linear regression models of AGB were conducted by using (1) Landsat TM alone, (2) ALOS PALSAR data alone, (3) their combination as extra bands, and (4) their data fusion, based on non-stratification and stratification of vegetation types, respectively. The results show that (1) overall, Landsat TM data perform better than PALSAR data, but the latter can produce more accurate estimates for bamboo and shrub, and for forests with AGB values less than 60 Mg/ha; (2) the combination of TM and PALSAR data as extra bands can greatly improve AGB estimation performance, but their fusion using the modified high-pass filter resolution-merging technique cannot; (3) textures are indeed valuable in AGB estimation, especially for forests with complex stand structures such as mixed forests and pine forests with understories of broadleaf species; (4) stratification of vegetation types can improve AGB estimation performance; and (5) the results from the linear regression models are characterized by overestimation and underestimation for the smaller and larger AGB values, respectively, and thus, selecting non-linear models or non-parametric algorithms may be needed in future research.

  3. A First Evaluation of LANDSAT TM Data to Monitor Suspended Sediments in Lakes. [Lake Chicot, Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiebe, F. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Boatwright, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT to monitor and track changes in the water quality of Lake Chicot, Arizona was assessed using MSS and TM digital data from nine water sites. Results show that: (1) TM Bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 appear to be providing information on concentrations of particulate matter suspended in surface waters. These bands are also highly interrelated for water samples; (2) preliminary evaluation indicates that TM Band 3 showed the best relationship to surface suspended solids; (3) TM Bands 5 and 7 are useful for separating water from nonwater areas; (4) the MSS Bands 2 and 3 can be related to suspended solids in surface water, as has already been shown from previous LANDSAT research; and (5) analysis of TM Band 6 indicates that while synoptic temperature patterns may be discerned, the digital sensitivity to a two degree temperature difference is low.

  4. Regional Geolgical Mapping in Tropical Environments Using Landsat TM and Srtm Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data were used to produce geological maps in tropical environments. Lineament, lithology and landform maps were produced for all states in peninsular Malaysia in this study. Kedah, Perak and Terengganu states have been selected as case studies to demonstrate the results of the data and techniques used. Directional filtering technique was applied to Landsat TM bands 4, 5 and 3 for lineament mapping. The lithology map was produced using Landsat TM bands combination consist of bands 4, 3 and 2. Digital elevation model and landform map were produced using SRTM data in 3 Dimension (3D) and 2 Dimension (2D) perspective views, respectively. The produced geological maps and the remote sensing data and methods applied in this study are mostly appropriate for hazard risk mapping applications and mineral exploration projects in the peninsular Malaysia and tropical environments.

  5. Land Surface Temperature in Łódź Obtained from Landsat 5TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jędruszkiewicz, Joanna; Zieliński, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present the spatial differentiation of Land Surface Temperature LST in Łódź based on Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (L5TM) images. Analysis was performed for all L5TM images from 2011, with clear sky over Łódź. Land surface temperature (LST) play an important role in determination of weather conditions in boundary layer of atmosphere, especially connected with convection. Environmental satellites from Landsat series delivers the high resolution images of Earth's surface and according to the estimations made on the ground of it are precise. LST depends widely on surface emissivity. In this paper the emissivity was estimated from MODIS sensor as well as NDVI index, then both method were compared. The processed images allowed to determine the warmest and the coldest areas in the administrative boundaries of Łódź. The highest LST values has been found in industrial areas and the in the heart of the city. However, there are some places lying in city outskirts, where the LST values are as high, for instance Lodz Airport. On the contrary the lowest LST values occur mostly in terrains covered with vegetation i.e. forests or city parks. Głównym celem tego opracowania było oszacowanie temperatury powierzchni Ziemi w Łodzi, na podstawie obrazów satelitarnych pochodzących z satelity Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (L5TM). Analizę wykonane dla obrazów wszystkich dostępnych obrazów z 2011 roku, na których zachmurzenie nie wystąpiło nad obszarem Łodzi. Temperatura powierzchni Ziemi odgrywa istotną rolę w kształtowaniu warunków pogodowych w warstwie granicznej, szczególnie związanych z konwekcją. Satelity środowiskowe z serii Landsat dostarczają obrazów w dużej rozdzielczości, dzięki czemu pozwalają na stosunkowo dokładne oszacowanie tego parametru. Wielkość temperatury w dużym stopniu zależy od emisyjności danej powierzchni. W niniejszym opracowaniu porównano temperaturę powierzchniową obliczoną dla emisyjno

  6. [Application of five atmospheric correction models for Landsat TM data in vegetation remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-wei; Guan, Dong-sheng

    2008-04-01

    Based on the Landsat TM image of northeast Guangzhou City and north Huizhou City on July 18, 2005, and compared with apparent reflectance model, five atmospheric correction models including four dark object subtraction models and 6S model were evaluated from the aspects of vegetation reflectance, surface reflectance, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The results showed that the dark object subtraction model DOS4 produced the highest accurate vegetation reflectance, and had the largest information loads for surface reflectance and NDVI, being the best for the atmospheric correction in the study areas. It was necessary to analyze and to compare different models to find out an appropriate model for atmospheric correction in the study of other areas.

  7. Mapping micro-urban heat islands using LANDSAT TM and a GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniello, Cathy; Morgan, Ken; Busbey, Arthur; Newland, Leo

    1995-10-01

    LANDSAT TM satellite data and GIS software were used to map micro-urban heat islands in a portion of Dallas, Texas. Unsupervised classifications were performed on a LANDSAT subscene to extract tree cover information which was merged with TM band 6 data (thermal) to make a map showing the location of micro-urban heat islands and wooded areas. Results indicate the presence of micro-urban heat islands are resulting from the lack of tree cover related to newly developed residential neighborhoods, parking lots, business districts, apartment complexes, and shopping centers. All micro-urban heat islands were radiative in nature, with highest temperatures in the center.

  8. Spectral transformation of ASTER and Landsat TM bands for lithological mapping of Soghan ophiolite complex, south Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournamdari, Mohsen; Hashim, Mazlan; Pour, Amin Beiranvand

    2014-08-01

    Spectral transformation methods, including correlation coefficient (CC) and Optimum Index Factor (OIF), band ratio (BR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to ASTER and Landsat TM bands for lithological mapping of Soghan ophiolitic complex in south of Iran. The results indicated that the methods used evidently showed superior outputs for detecting lithological units in ophiolitic complexes. CC and OIF methods were used to establish enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination bands for discriminating lithological units. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7 in RGB) was developed using ASTER bands to differentiate lithological units in ophiolitic complexes. The band ratio effectively detected serpentinite dunite as host rock of chromite ore deposits from surrounding lithological units in the study area. Principal component images derived from first three bands of ASTER and Landsat TM produced well results for lithological mapping applications. ASTER bands contain improved spectral characteristics and higher spatial resolution for detecting serpentinite dunite in ophiolitic complexes. The developed approach used in this study offers great potential for lithological mapping using ASTER and Landsat TM bands, which contributes in economic geology for prospecting chromite ore deposits associated with ophiolitic complexes.

  9. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

  10. Statewide land cover derived from multiseasonal Landsat TM data: A retrospective of the WISCLAND project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, H.M.; Lillesand, T.M.; Nagel, D.E.; Stewart, J.S.; Goldmann, R.A.; Simmons, T.E.; Chipman, J.W.; Tessar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were the basis in production of a statewide land cover data set for Wisconsin, undertaken in partnership with U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Gap Analysis Program (GAP). The data set contained seven classes comparable to Anderson Level I and 24 classes comparable to Anderson Level II/III. Twelve scenes of dual-date TM data were processed with methods that included principal components analysis, stratification into spectrally consistent units, separate classification of upland, wetland, and urban areas, and a hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification called "guided clustering." The final data had overall accuracies of 94% for Anderson Level I upland classes, 77% for Level II/III upland classes, and 84% for Level II/III wetland classes. Classification accuracies for deciduous and coniferous forest were 95% and 93%, respectively, and forest species' overall accuracies ranged from 70% to 84%. Limited availability of acceptable imagery necessitated use of an early May date in a majority of scene pairs, perhaps contributing to lower accuracy for upland deciduous forest species. The mixed deciduous/coniferous forest class had the lowest accuracy, most likely due to distinctly classifying a purely mixed class. Mixed forest signatures containing oak were often confused with pure oak. Guided clustering was seen as an efficient classification method, especially at the tree species level, although its success relied in part on image dates, accurate ground troth, and some analyst intervention. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of Landsat 5-TM and GIS data to elk habitat studies in northern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Stephen Gordon

    1999-12-01

    An extensive geographic information system (GIS) database and a large radiotelemetry sample of elk (n = 153) were used to study habitat use and selection differences between cow and bull elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Coeur d'Alene Mountains of Idaho. Significant sex differences in 40 ha area use, and interactive effects of sex and season on selection of 40 ha areas from home ranges were found. In all seasons, bulls used habitats with more closed canopy forest, more hiding cover, and less shrub and graminoid cover, than cows. Cows selected areas with shrub and graminoid cover in winter and avoided areas with closed canopy forest and hiding cover in winter and summer seasons. Both sexes selected 40 ha areas of unfragmented hiding cover and closed canopy forest during the hunting season. Bulls also avoided areas with high open road densities during the rut and hunting season. These results support present elk management recommendations, but our observations of sexual segregation provide biologists with an opportunity to refine habitat management plans to target bulls and cows specifically. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that hiding cover and canopy closure can be accurately estimated from Landsat 5-TM imagery and GIS soil data at a scale and resolution to which elk respond. As a result, our habitat mapping methods can be applied to large areas of private and public land with consistent, cost-efficient results. Non-Lambertian correction models of Landsat 5-TM imagery were compared to an uncorrected image to determine if topographic normalization increased the accuracy of elk habitat maps of forest structure in northern Idaho. The non-Lambertian models produced elk habitat maps with overall and kappa statistic accuracies as much as 21.3% higher (p < 0.0192) than the uncorrected image. Log-linear models and power analysis were used to study the dependence of commission and omission error rates on topographic normalization, vegetation type, and solar incidence angle

  12. Downscaling of Aircraft, Landsat, and MODIS-bases Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at s...

  13. Selection and processing of the spatial enhanced multispectral Landsat TM images - comparison between the results from merged and source data. (Polish Title: Selekcja i przetwarzanie wzmocnionych przestrzennie obrazów wielospektralnych Landsat TM - porównanie wyników opartych o dane scalone i dane zródłowe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirowski, T.; Szczaciuk, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents results of merging lower-resolution spectral data (Landsat, 30m) with panchromatic images of higher spatial resolution (IRS 5.8m). During the first stage of the research, thirty methods of merging satellite data (including their variants) have been tested. The first assessment was based on statistical measures covering spectral distortion and spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The second assessment was based on the color composite factors essential for photo interpretation. Comparing both obtained ranks of methods revealed substantial differences in their assessed spectral distortion. On the other hand, there appeared similarities in the obtained values for the spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The reasons of such discrepancies were defined. The research allowed appointing the HPF (High Pass Filter) and LCM (Local Correlation Modeling) methods as the best according to the tested factors. In the second part of the research, the applicability of the selected methods was tested. Information content of color composites was analyzed as well as tresholding and band ratioing. In the tests there were used images fused through five merging methods: HPF, LCM, IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation), PCA (Principal Components Analysis) and WMK (based on band ratioing and having specific photo interpretation features). The findings of the research suggest that none of the merging algorithms provide universal solution. Depending on the data processing technique used, the best results are based on images obtained from various integration methods. It means that the method ranks do not correspond with method applicability. Methods appointed as the best ones obtain poor results in some tests and methods which came low in the rank received high rank in some tests. If this conclusion becomes confirmed, it might be necessary to revise the assessment methods of merged images.

  14. Landsat radiometric continuity using airborne imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Angal, A.; Thome, K.; Cook, B.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) includes a scanning lidar, an imaging spectrometer and a thermal camera. The Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The SIRCUS-based calibration facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere facilitated a radiance-based calibration for the detectors in the reflective solar bands. The transfer of the SIRCUS-based laboratory calibration of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer to the Landsat sensors (Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI) is demonstrated using simultaneous overpasses over the Red Lake Playa and McClaw's Playa sites during the commissioning phase of Landsat 8 in March 2013. Solar Lunar Absolute Imaging Spectrometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar instrument of CLARREO. A portable version of SOLARIS, known as Suitcase SOLARIS, also calibrated using a SIRCUS-based setup, was deployed for ground measurements as a part of both the field campaigns. Simultaneous measurements of SOLARIS allow cross-comparison with G-LiHT and Landsat sensors. The transfer of the lab-based calibration of G-LiHT to Landsat sensors show that the sensors agree within 5% with a 1-3% calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer.

  15. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Work done on evaluating the geometric and radiometric quality of early LANDSAT-4 sensor data is described. Band to band and channel to channel registration evaluations were carried out using a line correlator. Visual blink comparisons were run on an image display to observe band to band registration over 512 x 512 pixel blocks. The results indicate a .5 pixel line misregistration between the 1.55 to 1.75, 2.08 to 2.35 micrometer bands and the first four bands. Also a four 30M line and column misregistration of the thermal IR band was observed. Radiometric evaluation included mean and variance analysis of individual detectors and principal components analysis. Results indicate that detector bias for all bands is very close or within tolerance. Bright spots were observed in the thermal IR band on an 18 line by 128 pixel grid. No explanation for this was pursued. The general overall quality of the TM was judged to be very high.

  16. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis for energy related applications. [nuclear power plant sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    No useable LANDSAT 4 TM data were obtained for the Hanford site in the Columbia Plateau region, but TM simulator data for a Virginia Electric Company nuclear power plant was used to test image processing algorithms. Principal component analyses of this data set clearly indicated that thermal plumes in surface waters used for reactor cooling would be discrenible. Image processing and analysis programs were successfully testing using the 7 band Arkansas test scene and preliminary analysis of TM data for the Savanah River Plant shows that current interactive, image enhancement, analysis and integration techniques can be effectively used for LANDSAT 4 data. Thermal band data appear adequate for gross estimates of thermal changes occurring near operating nuclear facilities especially in surface water bodies being used for reactor cooling purposes. Additional image processing software was written and tested which provides for more rapid and effective analysis of the 7 band TM data.

  17. Assessment of land cover changes in Lampedusa Island (Italy) using Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Fontinovo, Giuliano; Bassani, Cristiana; Allegrini, Alessia; Petracchini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Lampedusa Island displays important socio-economic criticalities related to an intensive touristic activity, which implies an increase in electricity consumption and waste production. An adequate island conversion to a more environmental, sustainable community needs to be faced by the local Management Plans establishment. For this purpose, several thematic datasets have to be produced and evaluated. Socio-economic and bio-ecological components as well as land cover/use assessment are some of the main topics to be managed within the Decision Support Systems. Considering the lack of Land Cover (LC) and vegetation change detection maps in Lampedusa Island (Italy), this paper focuses on the retrieval of these topics by remote sensing techniques. The analysis was carried out by Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI multispectral images from 1984 to 2014 in order to obtain spatial and temporal information of changes occurred in the island. Firstly, imagery was co-registered and atmospherically corrected; secondly, it was then classified for land cover and vegetation distribution analysis with the use of QGIS and Saga GIS open source softwares. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used for LC maps production, while the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for vegetation examination and distribution. Topographic maps, historical aerial photos, ortophotos and field data are merged in the GIS for accuracy assessment. Finally, change detection of MLC and NDVI are provided respectively by Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) and Image Differencing (ID). The provided information, combined with local socio-economic parameters, is essential for the improvement of environmental sustainability of anthropogenic activities in Lampedusa.

  18. Application of spectral decomposition algorithm for mapping water quality in a turbid lake (Lake Kasumigaura, Japan) from Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Youichi; Matsushita, Bunkei; Fukushima, Takehiko; Matsushige, Kazuo; Imai, Akio

    The remote sensing of Case 2 water has been far less successful than that of Case 1 water, due mainly to the complex interactions among optically active substances (e.g., phytoplankton, suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter, and water) in the former. To address this problem, we developed a spectral decomposition algorithm (SDA), based on a spectral linear mixture modeling approach. Through a tank experiment, we found that the SDA-based models were superior to conventional empirical models (e.g. using single band, band ratio, or arithmetic calculation of band) for accurate estimates of water quality parameters. In this paper, we develop a method for applying the SDA to Landsat-5 TM data on Lake Kasumigaura, a eutrophic lake in Japan characterized by high concentrations of suspended sediment, for mapping chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and non-phytoplankton suspended sediment (NPSS) distributions. The results show that the SDA-based estimation model can be obtained by a tank experiment. Moreover, by combining this estimation model with satellite-SRSs (standard reflectance spectra: i.e., spectral end-members) derived from bio-optical modeling, we can directly apply the model to a satellite image. The same SDA-based estimation model for Chl-a concentration was applied to two Landsat-5 TM images, one acquired in April 1994 and the other in February 2006. The average Chl-a estimation error between the two was 9.9%, a result that indicates the potential robustness of the SDA-based estimation model. The average estimation error of NPSS concentration from the 2006 Landsat-5 TM image was 15.9%. The key point for successfully applying the SDA-based estimation model to satellite data is the method used to obtain a suitable satellite-SRS for each end-member.

  19. LANDSAT (MSS): Image demographic estimations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Foresti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two sets of urban test sites, one with 35 cities and one with 70 cities, were selected in the State, Sao Paulo. A high degree of colinearity (0.96) was found between urban and areal measurements taken from aerial photographs and LANDSAT MSS imagery. High coefficients were observed when census data were regressed against aerial information (0.95) and LANDSAT data (0.92). The validity of population estimations was tested by regressing three urban variables, against three classes of cities. Results supported the effectiveness of LANDSAT to estimate large city populations with diminishing effectiveness as urban areas decrease in size.

  20. Bulk Processing of the Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrop, A.; Lavender, S.; Saunier, S.; Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Fischer, P.; Hoersch, B.; Colamussi, G.; Meloni, M.; Paciucci, A.; Galli, L.; Ferrara, R.; Mica, S.

    2016-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East during the last 40 years.A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor was developed to align historical products to the highest quality standards.Achievements include the processing of >900,000 TM/ETM+ high-quality products between 1984 and 2011 from the Kiruna (KSE), Maspalomas (MPS) and Matera (MTI) archives.The reprocessed TM/ETM+ datasets are available for free, immediate download through ESA's fast and simple dissemination service (https://landsat- ds.eo.esa.int/app/), and browsing system, EOLI. During 2016 a new version of the processor is being developed for MSS data, which dates back more than 40 years, with the data gradually becoming available during 2016 and 2017.The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk- processing regarding production, quality control and data validation are herein presented.

  1. Spatial resolution estimation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.; Yu, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to verify that the LANDSAT-4 sensors are operating within specifications, it is useful to estimate the system parameters by analysis of the measured data. One parameter of particular interest is the sensor point-spread function (PSF) which determines the resolution of the system. A method of estimating the PSF is described that utilizes data obtained during scanning of ground elements having identifiable geometric and radiometric structure. These data are then processed in such a manner as to recover either the PSF itself or to estimate the parameters of an assumed functional representation of the PSF.

  2. Monitoring the plague of oriental migratory locust using multi-temporal Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenbo; Ni, Shaoxiang; Zha, Yong; Shi, Xuezheng

    2006-03-01

    Locust plague is a kind of the world-wide biological calamity to agriculture. In China's history, more than 90% of locust plagues were caused by the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). At the present time, it is difficult for monitoring and forecasting systems in this country to provide real time information of locust plague outbreak in large area. In order to adopt timely measures for prevention and control of locust outbreak, it is necessary to apply advanced remote sensing technology for monitoring and forecasting locust outbreak This paper introduces a case study on monitoring oriental migratory locust plague with remote sensing technology in 3 pilot sites, namely, Huangzao, Yangguangzhuang, and Tengnan, which were the 3 major locust damaged areas in Huanghua City, Hebei Province, China during the period of large scale oriental migratory locust breakout in 2002. In this study, locust damage intensity, areas with various damage intensities and their distribution in pilot sites are determined by means of comparison between Landsat ETM+ image of locust damaged vegetation on 31st May, 2002 and TM image of healthy vegetation before damage on 23rd May, 2002. Then, information of various locust distribution density in pilot sites is extracted by establishing the Locust Density Index (LDI).

  3. LANDSAT-D MSS/TM tuned orbital jitter analysis model LDS900

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollak, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    The final LANDSAT-D orbital dynamic math model (LSD900), comprised of all test validated substructures, was used to evaluate the jitter response of the MSS/TM experiments. A dynamic forced response analysis was performed at both the MSS and TM locations on all structural modes considered (thru 200 Hz). The analysis determined the roll angular response of the MSS/TM experiments to improve excitation generated by component operation. Cross axis and cross experiment responses were also calculated. The excitations were analytically represented by seven and nine term Fourier series approximations, for the MSS and TM experiment respectively, which enabled linear harmonic solution techniques to be applied to response calculations. Single worst case jitter was estimated by variations of the eigenvalue spectrum of model LSD 900. The probability of any worst case mode occurrence was investigated.

  4. The utility of Landsat images in delineating volcanic cones in Harrat Kishb, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagarlamudi, P.; Moufti, M. R.

    1991-07-01

    The effectiveness of Landsat images is assessed with respect to the representation of cones and vents in a Cenozoic volcanic field. The images are analyzed visually by identifying volcanic cones from six sets of Landsat data and then comparing them to field observations and aerial photographs. The data are derived from the TM, MSS, and the RBV, and the results are measured for accuracy with a method that incorporates both commission and omission errors. The mapping accuracies for the TM, MSS, and RBV are 85, 70, and 80 percent respectively, and single-band images offer the same accuracies as color composites. The geometrical properties of the volcanic cones are described based on the images, and the cone orientation parallels a series of Cenozoic faults. The analysis of Landsat images is found to be an effective method for locating, delineating, and computing geometrical properties of volcanic cones and fields.

  5. Mapping shallow lakes in a large South American floodplain: A frequency approach on multitemporal Landsat TM/ETM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borro, Marta; Morandeira, Natalia; Salvia, Mercedes; Minotti, Priscilla; Perna, Pablo; Kandus, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    We propose a methodology to identify and map shallow lakes (SL) in the Paraná River floodplain, the largest freshwater wetland ecosystem in temperate South America. The presence and number of SL offer various ecosystem services and habitats for wildlife biodiversity. Our approach involved a frequency analysis over a 1987-2010 time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from Landsat 5 and 7 TM/ETM data. Through descriptive statistics of samples of pixels and field work in different types of SL, we established an NDVI threshold of 0.34 below which we assumed the presence of water in each pixel. The standard deviation of the estimated SL area decreases with the number of images in the analysis, being less than 10% when at least 30 images are used. The mean SL area for the whole period was 112,691 ha (10.9% of the study area). The influence of the hydrological conditions on the resulting SL map was evaluated by analyzing twelve sets of images, which were selected to span the whole period and different time frames according to multiannual dry and wet periods and to relative water level within each period. The Kappa index was then calculated between pairs of resulting SL maps. We compared our maps with the available national and international cartographic documents and with other published maps that used one or a few Landsat images. Landsat images time series provide an accurate spatial and temporal resolution for SL identification in floodplains, particularly in temperate zones with a good provision of cloud free images. The method evaluated in this paper considers the dynamics of SL and reduces the uncertainties of the fuzzy boundaries. Thus, it provides a robust database of SL and its temporal behavior to establish future monitoring programs based on the recent launch of Landsat 8 satellite.

  6. Information theoretic comparisons of original and transformed data from Landsat MSS and TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion and concentration of signal values in transformed data from the Landsat-4 MSS and TM instruments are analyzed using a communications theory approach. The definition of entropy of Shannon was used to quantify information, and the concept of mutual information was employed to develop a measure of information contained in several subsets of variables. Several comparisons of information content are made on the basis of the information content measure, including: system design capacities; data volume occupied by agricultural data; and the information content of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables. A method for analyzing noise effects in MSS and TM data is proposed.

  7. Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate‐resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long‐term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

  8. Detecting biotic and hydrogeochemical processes in large peat basins with Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    A survey was made of three large peat basins in boreal North America with Landsat TM imagery and field sampling. False-color composites composed of Bands 2, 3, and 4 are particularly effective in discriminating the major vegetation types and the important hydrogeochemical processes in these peatlands. This imagery indicates that the discharge of alkaline groundwater provides one of the most important regional and local controls on peatland development.

  9. Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of LANDSAT TM and MSS Imagery for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation are assessed. The problem is approached from two perspectives; purely stochastic or nonparametric in a radiative sense and theoretical in which radiative transfer equations are used to predict upwelling radiance at satellite altitude. The spectral and radiometric aspects of the theoretical approach are addressed with which a submerged plant canopy is distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud.

  10. Crop Acreage Estimation: Landsat TM and Resourcesat-1 AWiFS Sensor Assessment of the Mississippi River Delta, 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boryan, Claire; Johnson, Dave; Craig, Mike; Seffrin, Bob; Mueller, RIck

    2007-01-01

    AWiFs data are appropriate for crop acreage estimation over large, spectrally homogenous, crop areas such as the Mid-West, the Delta and the Northern Great Plains. Regression and Kappa statistics for soybean, corn, cotton, rice and sorghum produced using both the Landsat TM and AWiFS data are very similar. AWiFS data appear to be a suitable alternative or supplement to Landsat TM data for production of NASS'Cropland Data Layer product.

  11. Fully Automated and Coherent Radiometeric (ATM+TOP) Correction of LandsatImages trough Pseudoinvariant Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Xavier; Cristobal, Jordi; Pesquer, Lluis; More, Gerard; Gonzalez, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology to automatically estimate the atmospheric parameters needed in simplified radiometric correction models of remotely sensed solar bands. Additionally, an update of the Pons & Solé (1994) model [1] is proposed. The method estimates the radiance received by the sensor from an area where only atmospheric contribution exists (La) and the atmospheric optical depth (τ0), using pseudoinvariant areas (PIA) with known reflectance values. PIA were obtained using MODIS images and were refined with Landsat imagery. Reference reflectance for each PIA was obtained from and average of 12 Landsat 5 TM images manually radiomerically corrected. The algorithm proposed permits the automatic radiometric (atmospheric and topographic) correction of a massive number of images and results in radiometrically highly coherent time series. Results for 18 Landsat 5 TM images show that differences between estimated reflectance and the reference value for 3000 test PIA are very low and consistent, varying from -2% to 2% in reflectance.

  12. Feature level fusion for enhanced geological mapping of ophiolile complex using ASTER and Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournamdari, M.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    Chromite ore deposit occurrence is related to ophiolite complexes as a part of the oceanic crust and provides a good opportunity for lithological mapping using remote sensing data. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approaches to discriminate different rock units associated with ophiolite complex using the Feature Level Fusion technique on ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data at regional scale. In addition this study has applied spectral transform approaches, consisting of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to distinguish the concentration of high-potential areas of chromite and also for determining the boundary between different rock units. Results indicated both approaches show superior outputs compared to other methods and can produce a geological map for ophiolite complex rock units in the arid and the semi-arid region. The novel technique including feature level fusion and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) discriminated ophiolitic rock units and produced detailed geological maps of the study area. As a case study, Sikhoran ophiolite complex located in SE, Iran has been selected for image processing techniques. In conclusion, a suitable approach for lithological mapping of ophiolite complexes is demonstrated, this technique contributes meaningfully towards economic geology in terms of identifying new prospects.

  13. Geological Mapping Uses Landsat 4-5TM Satellite Data in Manlai Soum of Omnogovi Aimag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Author: Bayanmonkh N1, Undram.G1, Tsolmon.R2, Ariunzul.Ya1, Bayartungalag B31 Environmental Research Information and Study Center 2NUM-ITC-UNESCO Space Science and Remote Sensing International Laboratory, National University of Mongolia 3Geology and Hydrology School, Korea University KEY WORDS: geology, mineral resources, fracture, structure, lithologyABSTRACTGeologic map is the most important map for mining when it does exploration job. In Mongolia geological map completed by Russian geologists which is done by earlier technology. Those maps doesn't satisfy for present requirements. Thus we want to study improve geological map which includes fracture, structural map and lithology use Landsat TM4-5 satellite data. If we can produce a geological map from satellite data with more specification then geologist can explain or read mineralogy very easily. We searched all methodology and researches of every single element of geological mapping. Then we used 3 different remote sensing methodologies to produce structural and lithology and fracture map based on geographic information system's softwares. There can be found a visible lithology border improvement and understandable structural map and we found fracture of the Russian geological map has a lot of distortion. The result of research geologist can read mineralogy elements very easy and discovered 3 unfound important elements from satellite image.

  14. Lithologic discrimination of volcanic and sedimentary rocks by spectral examination of Landsat TM data from the Puma, Central Andes Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Central Andes are widely used as a modern example of noncollisional mountain-building processes. The Puna is a high plateau in the Chilean and Argentine Central Andes extending southward from the altiplano of Bolivia and Peru. Young tectonic and volcanic features are well exposed on the surface of the arid Puna, making them prime targets for the application of high-resolution space imagery such as Shuttle Imaging Radar B and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Two TM scene quadrants from this area are analyzed using interactive color image processing, examination, and automated classification algorithms. The large volumes of these high-resolution datasets require significantly different techniques than have been used previously for the interpretation of Landsat MSS data. Preliminary results include the determination of the radiance spectra of several volcanic and sedimentary rock units and the use of the spectra for automated classification. Structural interpretations have revealed several previously unknown folds in late Tertiary strata, and key zones have been targeted to be investigated in the field. The synoptic view of space imagery is already filling a critical gap between low-resolution geophysical data and traditional geologic field mapping in the reconnaissance study of poorly mapped mountain frontiers such as the Puna.

  15. A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

  16. Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. ); Lacerda, L.D. de )

    1993-06-01

    This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

  17. A comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery generated simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, Virginia, are assessed in the ability to detect submerged aquatic, bottom-adhering plant canopies (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm is applied to both image types and the resulting classifications compared to SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. Class confidence and accuracy are first computed for all water areas and then only shallow areas where water depth is less than 6 feet. In both the TM and MSS imagery, masking water areas deeper than 6 ft. resulted in greater classification accuracy at confidence levels greater than 50%. Both systems perform poorly in detecting SAV with crown cover densities less than 70%. On the basis of the spectral resolution, radiometric sensitivity, and location of visible bands, TM imagery does not offer a significant advantage over MSS data for detecting SAV in Lower Chesapeake Bay. However, because the TM imagery represents a higher spatial resolution, smaller SAV canopies may be detected than is possible with MSS data.

  18. Landuse Change Analysis of Tama River Basin with Different Spatial Resolution Sensor Data by Landsat/MSS and TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, H.; Kameda, K.; Uesugi, S.; Tanaka, S.

    A lot of engineering problems which cannot be solved occur if the change process of the land use in the object basin is not understood over a long term when the land use in river basin is planned and social base is maintained. It is necessary to use the images observed with Landsat MSS and TM sensor for the time series to investigate the land use over a long term from the first half of 1970's. In this study, the classification method for the area of mixed land cover influenced easily by the difference of the TM and MSS was examined. It was verified how there was the classification difference between TM and MSS in the whole of actual basin. The investigation possibility for a long term of the land use change in river basin was verified by using both TM and MSS. In addition, the land use change in the Tama basin was able to be shown for the past 25 years

  19. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  20. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Zack; Farve, Catharine L.; Harvey, Craig

    2003-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of .5 in latitude by .6 in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bitmap file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  1. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  2. Land cover mapping with emphasis to burnt area delineation using co-orbital ALI and Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kontoes, Charalambos C.; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the potential of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) radiometer for land cover and especially burnt area mapping from a single image analysis is investigated. Co-orbital imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) was also utilised for comparison purposes. Both images were acquired shortly after the suppression of a fire occurred during the summer of 2009 North-East of Athens, the capital of Greece. The Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers were parameterised and subsequently applied to the acquired satellite datasets. Evaluation of the land use/cover mapping accuracy was based on the error matrix statistics. Also, the McNemar test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between the approaches tested. Derived burnt area estimates were validated against the operationally deployed Services and Applications For Emergency Response (SAFER) Burnt Scar Mapping service. All classifiers applied to either ALI or TM imagery proved flexible enough to map land cover and also to extract the burnt area from other land surface types. The highest total classification accuracy and burnt area detection capability was returned from the application of SVMs to ALI data. This was due to the SVMs ability to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for best classes' separation that was able to better utilise ALI's advanced technological characteristics in comparison to those of TM sensor. This study is to our knowledge the first of its kind, effectively demonstrating the benefits of the combined application of SVMs to ALI data further implying that ALI technology may prove highly valuable in mapping burnt areas and land use/cover if it is incorporated into the development of Landsat 8 mission, planned to be launched in the coming years.

  3. LANDSAT-4/5 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaret, E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Lozano, D. F.; Anuta, P. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) quality evaluation study was conducted to identify geometric and radiometric sensor errors in the post-launch environment. The study began with the launch of LANDSAT-4. Several error conditions were found, including band-to-band misregistration and detector-to detector radiometric calibration errors. Similar analysis was made for the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper and compared with results for LANDSAT-4. Remaining band-to-band misregistration was found to be within tolerances and detector-to-detector calibration errors were not severe. More coherent noise signals were observed in TM-5 than in TM-4, although the amplitude was generally less. The scan direction differences observed in TM-4 were still evident in TM-5. The largest effect was in Band 4 where nearly a one digital count difference was observed. Resolution estimation was carried out using roads in TM-5 for the primary focal plane bands rather than field edges as in TM-4. Estimates using roads gave better resolution. Thermal IR band calibration studies were conducted and new nonlinear calibration procedures were defined for TM-5. The overall conclusion is that there are no first order errors in TM-5 and any remaining problems are second or third order.

  4. Empirical Relationship Between Leaf Biomass of Red Pine Forests and Enhanced Vegetation Index in South Korea Using LANDSAT-5 TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusso, A.; Lee, J.; Son, Y.; Son, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Research on forest carbon (C) dynamics has been undertaken due to the importance of forest ecosystems in national C inventories. Currently, the C sequestration of South Korean forests surpasses that of other countries. In South Korea, Pinus densiflora (red pine) is the most abundant tree species. Thus, understanding the growth rate and biomass evolution of red pine forest in South Korea is important for estimating the forest C dynamics. In this paper, we derived empirical relationship between foliage biomass and the no blue band enhanced vegetation index (EVI-2) profile using both field work and multi-temporal Landsat-5 TM remote sensing data to estimate the productivity of forest biomass in South Korea. Our analysis combined a set of 84 Landsat-5 TM images from 28 different dates between 1986 and 2008 to study red pine forest development over time. Field data were collected from 30 plots (0.04 ha) that were irregularly distributed over South Korea. Individual trees were harvested by destructive sampling, and the age of trees were determined by the number of tree rings. The results are realistic (R2&thinsp=&thinsp0.81, p < 0.01) and suggest that the EVI-2 index is able to adequately represent the development profile of foliage biomass in red pine forest growth.

  5. Mapping disturbances in a mangrove forest using multi-date landsat TM imagery.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, J M; Wang, J; Blanco-Correa, M

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the accounts of local fishermen, Landsat TM images (1986, 1993, 1999) were examined to assess potential losses in the mangrove forests of the Teacapán-Agua Brava lagoon system, Mexico. A binary change mask derived from image differencing of a band 4/3 ratio was employed to calculate any changes within this forested wetland. The results indicate that by 1986 approximately 18% (or 86 km2) of the mangrove area under study was either dead or in poor condition. The majority of this damage had occurred in the eastern section of the Agua Brava basin, which coincides, with the reports of the elderly fishermen. Examination of aerial photographs from 1970 revealed no adverse impacts in this area and would suggest, as postulated by the fishermen and other scientists, that modifications in environmental conditions following the opening of a canal, Cuautlá canal, in 1972 may have initiated the large-scale mortality. Although these areas of impact are still developing, the results from the satellite data indicate that the majority of the more recent changes are occurring elsewhere in the system. Obvious in the 1999 satellite data, but not so in the 1993, are large areas of mangrove degradation in the northern section of the Teacapán region. In the Agua Brava basin, the more recent transformations are appearing on the western side of the basin. Since long-term records of environmental conditions are absent, it is difficult to determine why these latest changes are occurring or even if the earlier losses were the result of the canal. Potential agents of change that have recently been observed include a hurricane, a second canal, and the uncontrolled expansion of the Cuautlá canal since 1994.

  6. Quantifying Fractional Ground Cover on the Climate Sensitive High Plains Using AVIRIS and Landsat TM Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Amanda Susan

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. This thesis is part of a larger study that is assessing the effect of climate variability on the natural vegetation that covers the High Plains using Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 data. The question this thesis addresses is how can fractional vegetation cover be mapped with the Landsat instruments using linear spectral mixture analysis and to what accuracy. The method discussed in this thesis made use of a high spatial and spectral resolution sensor called AVIRIS (Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) and field measurements to test vegetation mapping in three Landsat 7 sub-scenes. Near-simultaneous AVIRIS images near Ft. Morgan, Colorado and near Logan, New Mexico were acquired on July 10, 1999 and September 30, 1999, respectively. The AVIRIS flights preceded Landsat 7 overpasses by approximately one hour. These data provided the opportunity to test spectral mixture algorithms with AVIRIS and to use these data to constrain the multispectral mixed pixels of Landsat 7. The comparisons of mixture analysis between the two instruments showed that AVIRIS endmembers can be used to unmix Landsat 7 data with good estimates of soil cover, and reasonable estimates of non-photosynthetic vegetation and green vegetation. Landsat 7 derived image endmembers correlate with AVIRIS fractions, but the error is relatively large and does not give a precise estimate of cover.

  7. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods were developed for estimating point spread functions from image data. Roads and bridges in dark backgrounds are being examined as well as other smoothing methods for reducing noise in the estimated point spread function. Tomographic techniques were used to estimate two dimensional point spread functions. Reformatting software changes were implemented to handle formats for LANDSAT-5 data.

  8. Utilization of LANDSAT images in cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Alburquerque, P. C. G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of multispectral imagery obtained from LANDSAT for mapping purposes is discussed with emphasis on geometric rectification, image resolution, and systematic topographic mapping. A method is given for constructing 1:250,000 scale maps. The limitations for satellite cartography are examined.

  9. Multiscale/Multitemporal Urban pattern morphology monitoring in southern Italy by using Landsat TM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, R.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) satellite imagery. The investigation was focused on four small towns in southern Italy, for which the border was extracted from NASA Landsat images acquired in 1976 (MSS), in 1991 (TM) and 1999 (ETM). The border was analyzed using the box counting method, which is a well-know technique to estimate the spatial fractal dimension, that quantifies the shape irregularity of an object. The obtained results show that the fractal dimension of the border of the investigated towns is a good indicator of the dynamics of the regular/irregular urban expansion.

  10. Results of 17 Independent Geopositional Accuracy Assessments of Earth Satellite Corporation's GeoCover Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery. Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat TM Imagery: Northeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles M.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides results of an independent assessment of the geopositional accuracy of the Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover, Orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over Northeast Asia. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

  11. Discrimination and supervised classification of volcanic flows of the Puna-Altiplano, Central Andes Mountains using Landsat TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, J. H.; Fielding, E. J.; Isacks, B. L.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of portions of the Central Andean Puna-Altiplano volcanic belt have been tested for the feasibility of discriminating individual volcanic flows using supervised classifications. This technique distinguishes volcanic rock classes as well as individual phases (i.e., relative age groups) within each class. The spectral signature of a volcanic rock class appears to depend on original texture and composition and on the degree of erosion, weathering, and chemical alteration. Basalts and basaltic andesite stand out as a clearly distinguishable class. The age dependent degree of weathering of these generally dark volcanic rocks can be correlated with reflectance: older rocks have a higher reflectance. On the basis of this relationship, basaltaic lava flows can be separated into several subclasses. These individual subclasses would correspond to mappable geologic units on the ground at a reconnaissance scale. The supervised classification maps are therefore useful for establishing a general stratigraphic framework for later detailed surface mapping of volcanic sequences.

  12. Flooded area cartography with kernel-based classifiers and Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, M.; Petropoulos, G. P.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Timely and accurate flooding extent maps for both emergency and recovery phases are required by scientists, local authorities and decision makers. In particular, the issue of reducing exposure by quantifying vulnerability to inundation has recently began to be considered by European policies. Remote sensing can provide valuable information to this task, particularly over inaccessible regions. Provided that cloud-free conditions exist, multi-temporal optical images can be exploited for automatic cartography of the inundation. Image processing techniques based on kernels are promising tools in many remote sensing problems, ranging from biophysical parameter estimation to multi-temporal classification and change detection. The success of such methods is largely due to the explicit non-linear nature of the discriminant function and to their robustness to high-dimensional input spaces, such as those generated from remote sensing spectral bands. In our study, we examined the application of two supervised kernel-based classifiers for flooded area extraction from Landsat TM imagery. As a case study, we analyzed a region of the Missouri River in South Dakota, United States, in which images before and after a flood that took place in 2011 were available. In our approach, the mapping issue is recast as a change detection problem, whereby only the amount of water in excess to the permanent standing one was considered. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifications were applied successfully. Both classifiers were utilized in their linear and non-linear (kernel) versions. Evaluation of the ability of the two methods in delineating the flooding extent was conducted on the basis of classification accuracy assessment metrics as well as the McNemar statistical significance testing. Our findings showed the suitability of the non-linear kernel extensions to accurately map the flood extent. Possible future developments of the methodology

  13. Information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.

  14. Interpretation of Hydrographic Features Using Landsat Images,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    environment in the west and act and are imaged in each of the four the resulting deposition and accretion spectral channels on Landsat. The tem- of...tories, sense the earth’s surface in reflect IR radiation and will not four regions of the electromagnetic appear black. However, in the visible spectrum...Operation shows thle composite scan pattern (U.S. Geological Survey, 1976). The MSS gathers data by iciaging tile surface of the earth in four spectral

  15. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis. [LANDSAT 5 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Reformatting software to handle LANDSAT 5 data in quadrant format was completed and tested. The sensor two-dimensional point spread function was estimated from scene data. Budget recalculations are discussed. Two publications done under this contract are named.

  16. Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E. (Editor); Oberholtzer, J. D. (Editor); Anuta, P. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint.

  17. Determination of instantaneous and daily net radiation from TM - Landsat 5 data in a subtropical watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Bernardo Barbosa; Montenegro, Susana Maria Gico Lima; da Silva, Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro; Galvíncio, Josicleda Domiciano; de Oliveira, Leidjane Maria Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing makes it possible to identify the changes that occur on the surface of the Earth as a result of natural and/or man-made phenomena. Such changes impact on the net radiation at surface which in turn controls the Earth's climate. The present study aims to determine the impact of land use changes on net radiation at surface in a tropical watershed in Brazil, based on satellite images. The instantaneous net radiation (Rn,ins) (at the time of the satellite overpass) and the daily net radiation (Rn,24 h) were both estimated by TM - Landsat 5 images and complementary weather data. The net radiation (Rn) estimated from remote sensing data was compared to the measurements taken from two micrometeorological towers located in the study area. Most Rn,ins values were found to be between 457.4 W m-2 and 760.0 W m-2 during the months with more intense solar radiation (February, March, and November), especially in the areas with more vegetation cover (sugarcane and eucalyptus plantations and areas with woody savanna vegetation, locally called Cerradão). The months with the highest thermal and radiative contrast (June and November) were selected to show the spatial distribution of the daily (Instantaneous) Rn, which ranged from 28.0 (420) W m-2 to 98.0 (520) W m-2 in June and from 83.0 (450) W m-2 to 264.0 (800) W m-2 in November 9. The model used to calculate Rn,24 h provided values close to those taken at surface, even on days with higher cloud cover after the satellite overpass. The Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Relative Error (MRE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) associated with the Rn,24 h computations in the sugar cane plantation were 8.3 W m-2, 8.4%, and 10.4 W m-2, respectively, confirming the applicability and accuracy of the results. The Rn patterns registered on the woody savanna throughout the year differ very much from those found in cropped areas, particularly in sugar cane plots. This may cause an impact on the watershed climate.

  18. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  19. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information

  20. Landsat: a global land-imaging mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Across four decades since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space. NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a long-term record of natural and human induced changes on the global landscape.

  1. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, Antarctica was at best a distant acquaintance. Now, with the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), we are on intimate terms. In stunning, up-close and personal detail, LIMA brings Antarctica to life. Explore this virtually cloudless, seamless, most geometrically accurate, and highest resolution satellite mosaic of Antarctica. A team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Antarctic Survey, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with funding from the National Science Foundation, created LIMA in support of the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007?08). As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA truly fulfills the IPY goals. LIMA is an international effort, supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening in this southernmost environment. Researchers and the general public can download LIMA and all component Landsat scenes at no charge.

  2. Landsat: A Global Land-Imaging Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Headley, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Across nearly four decades since 1972, Landsat satellites continuously have acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space; consequently, NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, then launches and validates the satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground-data reception, archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a visible, long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  3. Landsat: A global land-imaging mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Across four decades since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space. NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a long-term record of natural and human induced changes on the global landscape.

  4. Landsat: a global land imaging program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth's land surface, coastal shallows, and coral reefs across four decades. The Landsat Program, a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was established to routinely gather land imagery from space. In practice, NASA develops remote-sensing instruments and spacecraft, launches satellites, and validates their performance. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground-data reception, archiving, product generation, and distribution. The result of this program is a visible, long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  5. SAR/LANDSAT image registration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphrey, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

  6. Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

    1988-01-01

    The level of apparent lithological discrimination possible with Landsat TM images in the Oman are discussed. It is found that by using parts of the short-wavelength IR spectrum, the discrimination revealed by the TM data is sufficiently uniform throughout the Oman ophiolite to produce lithological maps at 1:100,000 scale. Decorrelation stretching of the data produces images in which allows for the recognition of variations in gabbro composition, the identification of small acidic, gabbroic, and ultramafic intrusions, the discrimation of the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, the precise location of the Moho, and the delineation of gossans and areas subject to choritic-epidotic alteration.

  7. A TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF SUB-PIXEL IMPERVIOUS SURFACE ESTIMATES DERIVED FROM LANDSAT TM IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a technique for assessing the accuracy of sub-pixel derived estimates of impervious surface extracted from LANDSAT TM imagery. We utilized spatially coincident
    sub-pixel derived impervious surface estimates, high-resolution planimetric GIS data, vector--to-
    r...

  8. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  9. Landsat TM as a Tool for Locating Habitat for Cerulean Warblers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, Chris

    2000-01-01

    I believe that I made significant strides in three areas between fall of 1997 and fall of 2000 when I concluded my participation in the JOVE program. First, I acquired skill in digital remote sensing. This was significant to me because it had been 20 years since I had done any work utilizing remote sensing. I used my new skills in two classroom settings (forest ecology and GIS). In addition, I will participate as an instructor of digital remote sensing in a workshop for secondary educators this coming spring. Second, I received funding from the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission and the U.S. Forest Service to supplement JOVE funds. Third, and most importantly, a students and I developed a technique using LandSAT TM for identifying habitat for cerulean warblers. We developed a habitat model using logistic regression to discriminate between pixels that had a high probability of representing good cerulean warbler habitat and pixels that had a low probability of representing cerulean warbler habitat. Using this model, we located five significant populations of cerulean warblers in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. These populations were unknown before the initiation of this research and further represent a significant proportion of the known cerulean warblers in Arkansas. Preliminary findings were presented at the Ornithological Societies of America meeting in August of 1999. I also presented findings at the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission Research Symposium held in June of 2000. Finally, one paper is in press: James, D. A., C.J. Kellner, J. Self, and J. Davis., 'Breeding season distribution of cerulean warblers in Arkansas in the 1990's'. In addition, one paper is under construction: 'Population fluctuation and habitat selection by cerulean warblers in upland forests of Arkansas,' and one paper is under consideration: 'LandSAT TM and Logistic regression for identification of cerulean warbler habitat in upland forests of Arkansas.'

  10. Improving Running Times for the Determination of Fractional Snow-Covered Area from Landsat TM/ETM+ via Utilization of the CUDA® Programming Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Rittger, K.; Painter, T. H.; Selkowitz, D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.

    2014-12-01

    As part of a JPL-USGS collaboration to expand distribution of essential climate variables (ECV) to include on-demand fractional snow cover we describe our experience and implementation of a shift towards the use of NVIDIA's CUDA® parallel computing platform and programming model. In particular the on-demand aspect of this work involves the improvement (via faster processing and a reduction in overall running times) for determination of fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) from Landsat TM/ETM+. Our observations indicate that processing tasks associated with remote sensing including the Snow Covered Area and Grain Size Model (SCAG) when applied to MODIS or LANDSAT TM/ETM+ are computationally intensive processes. We believe the shift to the CUDA programming paradigm represents a significant improvement in the ability to more quickly assert the outcomes of such activities. We use the TMSCAG model as our subject to highlight this argument. We do this by describing how we can ingest a LANDSAT surface reflectance image (typically provided in HDF format), perform spectral mixture analysis to produce land cover fractions including snow, vegetation and rock/soil whilst greatly reducing running time for such tasks. Within the scope of this work we first document the original workflow used to assert fSCA for Landsat TM and it's primary shortcomings. We then introduce the logic and justification behind the switch to the CUDA paradigm for running single as well as batch jobs on the GPU in order to achieve parallel processing. Finally we share lessons learned from the implementation of myriad of existing algorithms to a single set of code in a single target language as well as benefits this ultimately provides scientists at the USGS.

  11. Cross-calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM with the ResourceSat-1 (IRS-P6) AWiFS and LISS-III sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple sensors are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data. The ResourceSat-1 Satellite (also called as IRS-P6) was launched into the polar sunsynchronous orbit on Oct 17, 2003. It carries three remote sensing sensors: the High Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-IV), Medium Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-III), and the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS). These three sensors are used together to provide images with different resolution and coverage. To understand the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of IRS-P6 AWiFS and LISS-III sensors, image pairs from these sensors were compared to the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ sensors. The approach involved the calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors.

  12. Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the

  13. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Malla, R.; Micijevic, E.; Mettler, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  14. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Micijevic, Esad; Mettler, Cory J.

    2007-09-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  15. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  16. A LANDSAT digital image rectification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.; Stein, M.

    1976-01-01

    DIRS is a digital image rectification system for the geometric correction of LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital image data. DIRS removes spatial distortions from the data and brings it into conformance with the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection. Scene data in the form of landmarks are used to drive the geometric correction algorithms. Two dimensional least squares polynominal and spacecraft attitude modeling techniques for geometric mapping are provided. Entire scenes or selected quadrilaterals may be rectified. Resampling through nearest neighbor or cubic convolution at user designated intervals is available. The output products are in the form of digital tape in band interleaved, single band or CCT format in a rotated UTM projection. The system was designed and implemented on large scale IBM 360 computers.

  17. Landsat image registration for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.; Wacker, A. G.; Kaneko, T.

    1982-01-01

    An image registration system has been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to spatially align multi-temporal Landsat acquisitions for use in agriculture and forestry research. Working in conjunction with the Master Data Processor (MDP) at the Goddard Space Flight Center, it functionally replaces the long-standing LACIE Registration Processor as JSC's data supplier. The system represents an expansion of the techniques developed for the MDP and LACIE Registration Processor, and it utilizes the experience gained in an IBM/JSC effort evaluating the performance of the latter. These techniques are discussed in detail. Several tests were developed to evaluate the registration performance of the system. The results indicate that 1/15-pixel accuracy (about 4m for Landsat MSS) is achievable in ideal circumstances, sub-pixel accuracy (often to 0.2 pixel or better) was attained on a representative set of U.S. acquisitions, and a success rate commensurate with the LACIE Registration Processor was realized. The system has been employed in a production mode on U.S. and foreign data, and a performance similar to the earlier tests has been noted.

  18. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay - A comparison of Landsat MSS to TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat MSS and TM imagery, obtained simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, VA, as analyzed and compares for its ability to detect submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm was applied to each image, where the input classification parameters are defined as functions of apparent sensor noise. Class confidence and accuracy were computed for all water areas by comparing the classified images, pixel-by-pixel, to rasterized SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. To illustrate the effect of water depth on classification error, areas of depth greater than 1.9 m were masked, and class confidence and accuracy recalculated. A single-scattering radiative-transfer model is used to illustrate how percent canopy cover and water depth affect the volume reflectance from a water column containing SAV. For a submerged canopy that is morphologically and optically similar to Zostera marina inhabiting Lower Chesapeake Bay, dense canopies may be isolated by masking optically deep water. For less dense canopies, the effect of increasing water depth is to increase the apparent percent crown cover, which may result in classification error.

  19. An investigation of spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration induced by a bay bridge based on Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, LiNa; Tang, DanLing; Li, CongYing

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) induced by Hangzhou Bay Bridge (HBB) in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. Based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and in-situ measurements, spectral characteristics of waters in Hangzhou Bay and SSC retrieved from near infrared single band have been analyzed. The results revealed significant difference of SSC in the water on two sides of HBB. SSC increases downstream of the bridge under conditions of low turbidity (SSC < 300 mg l-1) upstream water, while SSC decreases when high turbidity water (SSC > 400 mg l-1) upstream. This study shows that the interaction of bridge piers and currents has important influences on SSC distribution by inducing hydrodynamic factors and by changing suspended sediment transport. Remotely sensed data with high spatial resolution as TM and OLI can be applied to investigate SSC variations induced by a bridge in the bay area.

  20. Soil moisture status estimation over Three Gorges area with Landsat TM data based on temperature vegetation dryness index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Li, Jiong; Dong, Yanfang

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture is the important indicator of climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture and other parameters of the land surface and atmospheric interface. Soil moisture plays an important role on the water and energy exchange at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Remote sensing can provide information on large area quickly and easily, so it is significant to do research on how to monitor soil moisture by remote sensing. This paper presents a method to assess soil moisture status using Landsat TM data over Three Gorges area in China based on TVDI. The potential of Temperature- Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) from Landsat TM data in assessing soil moisture was investigated in this region. After retrieving land surface temperature and vegetation index a TVDI model based on the features of Ts-NDVI space is established. And finally, soil moisture status is estimated according to TVDI. It shows that TVDI has the advantages of stability and high accuracy to estimating the soil moisture status.

  1. Low cost monitoring from space using Landsat TM time series and open source technologies: the case study of Iguazu park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Gabriele; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Up to nowadays, satellite data have become increasingly available, thus offering a low cost or even free of charge unique tool, with a great potential for operational monitoring of vegetation cover, quantitative assessment of urban expansion and urban sprawl, as well as for monitoring of land use changes and soil consumption. This growing observational capacity has also highlighted the need for research efforts aimed at exploring the potential offered by data processing methods and algorithms, in order to exploit as much as possible this invaluable space-based data source. The work herein presented concerns an application study on the monitoring of vegetation cover and urban sprawl conducted with the use of satellite Landsat TM data. The selected test site is the Iguazu park highly significant, being it one of the most threatened global conservation priorities (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303/). In order to produce synthetic maps of the investigated areas to monitor the status of vegetation and ongoing subtle changes, satellite Landsat TM data images were classified using two automatic classifiers, Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) applied by changing setting parameters, with the aim to compare their respective performances in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy. All process steps have been developed integrating Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing, and adopting free and open source software. Results pointed out that the SVM classifier with RBF kernel was generally the best choice (with accuracy higher than 90%) among all the configurations compared, and the use of multiple bands globally improves classification. One of the critical elements found in the case of monitoring of urban area expansion is given by the presence of urban garden mixed with urban fabric. The use of different configurations for the SVMs, i.e. different kernels and values of the setting parameters, allowed us to calibrate the classifier also to

  2. Using Landsat image time series to study a small water body in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Chao Rodríguez, Y; el Anjoumi, A; Domínguez Gómez, J A; Rodríguez Pérez, D; Rico, E

    2014-06-01

    Ramsar Convention and EU Water Framework Directive are two international agreements focused on the conservation and achievement of good ecological and chemical status of wetlands. Wetlands are important ecosystems holding many plant and animal communities. Their environmental status can be characterised by the quality of their water bodies. Water quality can be assessed from biophysical parameters (such as Chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), water surface temperature and transparency) in the deeper or lacustrine zone, or from bioindicators (as submerged aquatic vegetation) in the shallow or palustrine zone. This paper proves the use of Landsat time series to measure the evolution of water quality parameters and the environmental dynamics of a small water body (6.57 ha) in a Ramsar wetland (Arreo Lake in the North of Spain). Our results show that Landsat TM images can be used to describe periodic behaviours such as the water surface temperature or the phenologic state of the submerged vegetation (through normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and thus detect anomalous events. We also show how [Chla] and transparency can be measured in the lacustrine zone using Landsat TM images and an algorithm adjusted for mesotrophic Spanish lakes, and the resulting values vary in time in accordance with field measurements (although these were not synchronous with the images). The availability of this algorithm also highlights anomalies in the field data series that are found to be related with the concentration of suspended matter. All this potential of Landsat imagery to monitor small water bodies in wetlands can be used for hindcasting of past evolution of these wetlands (dating back to 1970s) and will be also useful in the future thanks to the Landsat continuity mission and the Operational Land Imager.

  3. Evoluation of Landsat-4 image quality for the interpretation of forest, agricultural and soil resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Benson, A. S.; Colwell, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor performance is being evaluated through the analysis of images generated by computer-compatible tape data and commercially available film products. Natural targets are used to evaluate spectral variability, spatial resolution, radiometric sensitivity, and geometric fidelity. Spectral characteristics are being evaluated through the interpretation of the image tone and texture variability of known features, while spatial characteristics are evaluated through lineal and areal estimates of similar features and the plotting and analysis of residual errors derived from regressions between relative image coordinates and map coordinates.

  4. Landsat TM and ETM+ derived snowline altitudes in the Cordillera Huayhuash and Cordillera Raura, Peru, 1986-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, E. M.; Ramage, J.; Rodbell, D. T.

    2011-05-01

    The Cordilleras Huayhuash and Raura are remote glacierized ranges in the Andes Mountains of Peru. A robust assessment of modern glacier change is important for understanding how regional change affects Andean communities, and for placing paleo-glaciers in a context relative to modern glaciation and climate. Snowline altitudes (SLAs) derived from satellite imagery are used as a proxy for modern (1986-2005) local climate change in a key transition zone in the Andes. Clear sky, dry season Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) satellite images from 1986-2005 were used to identify snowline positions, and their altitude ranges were extracted from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Based on satellite records from 31 glaciers, average snowline altitudes (SLAs), an approximation for the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), for the Cordillera Huayhuash (13 glaciers) and Cordillera Raura (18 glaciers) from 1986-2005 were 5051 m a.s.l. from 1986-2005 and 5006 m a.s.l. from 1986-2002, respectively. During the same time period, the Cordillera Huayhuash SLA experienced no significant change while the Cordillera Raura SLA rose significantly from 4947 m a.s.l. to 5044 m a.s.l.

  5. Landsat TM and ETM+ derived snowline altitudes in the Cordillera Huayhuash and Cordillera Raura, Peru, 1986-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, E. M.; Ramage, J.; Rodbell, D. T.

    2010-10-01

    The Cordilleras Huayhuash and Raura are remote glacierized ranges in the Andes Mountains of Peru. A robust assessment of modern glacier change is important for understanding how regional change affects Andean communities, and for placing paleo-glaciers in a context relative to modern glaciation and climate. Snowline altitudes (SLAs) derived from satellite imagery are used as a proxy for modern (1986-2005) local climate change in a key transition zone in the Andes. Clear sky, dry season Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) satellite images from 1986-2005 were used to identify snowline positions, and their altitude ranges were extracted from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Based on satellite records from 31 glaciers, mean snowline altitudes (SLAs), an approximation for the equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs), for the Cordillera Huayhuash (13 glaciers) and Cordillera Raura (18 glaciers) were 5046 m a.s.l. and 5013 m a.s.l., respectively, from 1986-2005. The rate of SLA rise was 25 m/decade in the Cordillera Huayhuash and 62 m/decade in the Cordillera Raura.

  6. Estimating forest biomass using scale linkage from tree to Landsat TM reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ung, Chhun-Huor; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Raulier, Frédéric

    2005-10-01

    Estimates of forest biomass are needed to account for carbon at the tree, stand and regional scales. Sample plots of national forest inventories provide the basic database for these estimates. At the tree scale, a common estimation method is the use of an allometric equation that relates a tree's predicted compartment biomass yi (i = foliage, branches, stem wood or stem bark) with easily obtained non-destructive measurements, i.e., diameter at breast height (D): yi=bi1Dbi2 or with both D and tree height (H): yi=bi1Dbi2Hbi3, bik being the parameters estimated. A common paradigm observed in biomass literature considers that parameter values vary between stands and regions. At the regional scale, however, when comparing national biomass equations to regional biomass equations, our results showed no significant differences between both types of equation. These results contribute to strengthening the allometric theory as an organizing principle for quantifying the relationship between tree size and biomass across spatial scales. In tandem with the allometry theory, we used a soil-canopy model based on Li-Strahler's approach for up-scaling biomass from the tree to stand scale in a mixed hardwood-coniferous forest. Our results indicated that the shadow fraction of Landsat TM reflectance was correlated with stand biomass. However, this model is indebted with heteroscedasticity, meaning that its error increases appreciably when stand biomass density is high.

  7. The influence of spectral and spatial resolution in classification approaches: Landsat TM data vs. Hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Galiano, Víctor; Garcia-Soldado, Maria José; Chica-Olmo, Mario

    The importance of accurate and timely information describing the nature and extent of land and natural resources is increasing especially in rapidly growing metropolitan areas. While metropolitan area decision makers are in constant need of current geospatial information on patterns and trends in land cover and land use, relatively little researchers has investigated the influence of the satellite data resolution for monitoring geo-enviromental information. In this research a suite of remote sensing and GIS techniques is applied in a land use mapping study. The main task is to asses the influence of the spatial and spectral resolution in the separability between classes and in the classificatiońs accuracy. This study has been focused in a very dynamical area with respect to land use, located in the province of Granada (SE of Spain). The classifications results of the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, Daedalus Enterprise Inc., WA, EEUU) at different spatial resolutions: 2, 4 and 6 m and Landsat 5 TM data have been compared.

  8. Using Landsat TM to map critical erosion areas in Tarrant County Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, F.; Morgan, K.; Busbey, A.

    1996-08-01

    Planning agencies throughout the country are seeking rapid, cost-effective techniques to determine land use information associated with erosion occurring in urban and rural watersheds. This is especially important for maintaining and exceeding reservoir life expectancy as premature sedimentation of reservoirs produces the need for expensive dredging operations. Tarrant County, located in North Central Texas, is particularly sensitive to erosion of clays into the numerous reservoirs in the area which serve as drinking water supplies. This study uses a GIS to develop an erosion sensitivity (ES) database with rainfall, soil erodibility and topographic information to map areas that are particularly sensitive to erosion. This ES map was then integrated with land use to determine the effects of land cover and develop an area soil loss map. Areas of high and critical ES occurred along drainage channels, streams, and lakes and made up approximately 5% of the total study area. Zones of low and moderate ES occurred along specific soil type boundaries and accounted for approximately 95% of the total area. Land cover was determined from Landsat TM. When integrated with the ES map, improper land management practices caused a 7% increase in the high and critical categories. This represents an additional 560,000 tons/year of soil loss within Tarrant County due to mismanagement.

  9. Opening the Landsat Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The USGS Landsat archive holds an unequaled 36-year record of the Earth's surface that is invaluable to climate change studies, forest and resource management activities, and emergency response operations. An aggressive effort is taking place to provide all Landsat imagery [scenes currently held in the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive, as well as newly acquired scenes daily] free of charge to users with electronic access via the Web by the end of December 2008. The entire Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) archive acquired since 1999 and any newly acquired Landsat 7 ETM+ images that have less than 40 percent cloud cover are currently available for download. When this endeavor is complete all Landsat 1-5 data will also be available for download. This includes Landsat 1-5 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) scenes, as well as Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes.

  10. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto - Evidence from Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Grady; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

    1990-01-01

    Mesoscale mapping of spatial variations in sand composition of the Gran Desierto (Sonora, Mexico) was carried out on multispectral Landsat TM images of this region, making it possible to examine the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. Compositions determined from remote imagery were found to agree well with samples from selected areas. The sand populations delineated were used to describe the sediment source areas, transport paths, and deposition sites. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations aver large areas that were not readily apparent in the field data.

  11. Rock type discrimination techniques using Landsat and Seasat image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, R.; Abrams, M.; Conrad, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a sedimentary rock type discrimination project using Seasat radar and Landsat multispectral image data of the San Rafael Swell, in eastern Utah, are presented, which has the goal of determining the potential contribution of radar image data to Landsat image data for rock type discrimination, particularly when the images are coregistered. The procedure employs several images processing techniques using the Landsat and Seasat data independently, and then both data sets are coregistered. The images are evaluated according to the ease with which contacts can be located and rock units (not just stratigraphically adjacent ones) separated. Results show that of the Landsat images evaluated, the image using a supervised classification scheme is the best for sedimentary rock type discrimination. Of less value, in decreasing order, are color ratio composites, principal components, and the standard color composite. In addition, for rock type discrimination, the black and white Seasat image is less useful than any of the Landsat color images by itself. However, it is found that the incorporation of the surface textural measures made from the Seasat image provides a considerable and worthwhile improvement in rock type discrimination.

  12. Detecting Uniform Areas for Vicarious Calibration using Landsat TM Imagery: A Study using the Arabian and Saharan Deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, Kent; Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for detecting spatially uniform sites need for radiometric characterization of remote sensing satellites. Such information is critical for scientific research applications of imagery having moderate to high resolutions (<30-m ground sampling distance (GSD)). Previously published literature indicated that areas with the African Saharan and Arabian deserts contained extremely uniform sites with respect to spatial characteristics. We developed an algorithm for detecting site uniformity and applied it to orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over eight uniform regions of interest. The algorithm's results were assessed using both medium-resolution (30-m GSD) Landsat 7 ETM+ and fine-resolution (<5-m GSD) IKONOS multispectral data collected over sites in Libya and Mali. Fine-resolution imagery over a Libyan site exhibited less than 1 percent nonuniformity. The research shows that Landsat TM products appear highly useful for detecting potential calibration sites for system characterization. In particular, the approach detected spatially uniform regions that frequently occur at multiple scales of observation.

  13. Tropical forest biomass and successional age class relationships to a vegetation index derived from Landsat TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.; Waide, Robert B.; Lawrence, William T.; Joyce, Armond T.

    1989-01-01

    Forest stand structure and biomass data were collected using conventional forest inventory techniques in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate forest biomes. The feasibility of detecting tropical forest successional age class and total biomass differences using Landsat-Thematic mapper (TM) data, was evaluated. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from Landsat-TM data were not significantly correlated with forest regeneration age classes in the mountain terrain of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The low sun angle and shadows cast on steep north and west facing slopes reduced spectral reflectance values recorded by TM orbital altitude. The NDVI, calculated from low altitude aircraft scanner data, was significatly correlated with forest age classes. However, analysis of variance suggested that NDVI differences were not detectable for successional forests older than approximately 15-20 years. Also, biomass differences in young successional tropical forest were not detectable using the NDVI. The vegetation index does not appear to be a good predictor of stand structure variables (e.g., height, diameter of main stem) or total biomass in uneven age, mixed broadleaf forest. Good correlation between the vegetation index and low biomass in even age pine plantations were achieved for a warm temperate study site. The implications of the study for the use of NDVI for forest structure and biomass estimation are discussed.

  14. Developing synergy regression models with space-borne ALOS PALSAR and Landsat TM sensors for retrieving tropical forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Suman; Jeganathan, C.; Sharma, L. K.; Nathawat, M. S.; Das, Anup K.; Mohan, Shiv

    2016-06-01

    Forest stand biomass serves as an effective indicator for monitoring REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Optical remote sensing data have been widely used to derive forest biophysical parameters inspite of their poor sensitivity towards the forest properties. Microwave remote sensing provides a better alternative owing to its inherent ability to penetrate the forest vegetation. This study aims at developing optimal regression models for retrieving forest above-ground bole biomass (AGBB) utilising optical data from Landsat TM and microwave data from L-band of ALOS PALSAR data over Indian subcontinental tropical deciduous mixed forests located in Munger (Bihar, India). Spatial biomass models were developed. The results using Landsat TM showed poor correlation ( R 2 = 0.295 and RMSE = 35 t/ha) when compared to HH polarized L-band SAR ( R 2 = 0.868 and RMSE = 16.06 t/ha). However, the prediction model performed even better when both the optical and SAR were used simultaneously ( R 2 = 0.892 and RMSE = 14.08 t/ha). The addition of TM metrics has positively contributed in improving PALSAR estimates of forest biomass. Hence, the study recommends the combined use of both optical and SAR sensors for better assessment of stand biomass with significant contribution towards operational forestry.

  15. Evaluation of Landsat-7 ETM+ Panchromatic Band for Image Fusion with Multispectral Bands

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianguo

    2000-12-15

    The Landsat-7 ETM+ panchromatic band is taken simultaneously with multispectral bands using the same sensor system. The two data sets, therefore, are coregistered accurately and the solar illumination and other environmental conditions are identical. This makes ETM+ Pan advantageous to SPOT Pan for resolution fusion. A spectral preserve image fusion technique, Smoothing Filter-Based Intensity Modulation (SFIM), can produce optimal fusion data without altering the spectral properties of the original image if the coregistration error is minimal. With TM/SPOT Pan fusion, the technique is superior to HSI and Brovey transform fusion techniques in spectral fidelity, but has slightly degraded edge sharpness as a result of TM/SPOT Pan coregistration error because SFIM is sensitive to coregistration accuracy and temporal changes of edges. The problem is self-resolved for ETM+ because there is virtually no coregistration error between the panchromatic band and the multispectral bands. Quality fusion imagery data thus can be produced.

  16. Estimating urban impervious surfaces from Landsat-5 TM imagery using multilayer perceptron neural network and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhongchang; Guo, Huadong; Li, Xinwu; Lu, Linlin; Du, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the urban impervious surface has been recognized as a key quantifiable indicator in assessing urbanization impacts on environmental and ecological conditions. A surge of research interests has resulted in the estimation of urban impervious surface using remote sensing studies. The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the effectiveness of two algorithms for extracting impervious surfaces from Landsat TM imagery; the multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) and the support vector machine (SVM). An accuracy assessment was performed using the high-resolution WorldView images. The root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), and the coefficient of determination (R2) were calculated to validate the classification performance and accuracies of MLPNN and SVM. For the MLPNN model, the RMSE, MAE, and R2 were 17.18%, 11.10%, and 0.8474, respectively. The SVM yielded a result with an RMSE of 13.75%, an MAE of 8.92%, and an R2 of 0.9032. The results indicated that SVM performance was superior to that of MLPNN in impervious surface classification. To further evaluate the performance of MLPNN and SVM in handling the mixed-pixels, an accuracy assessment was also conducted for the selected test areas, including commercial, residential, and rural areas. Our results suggested that SVM had better capability in handling the mixed-pixel problem than MLPNN. The superior performance of SVM over MLPNN is mainly attributed to the SVM's capability of deriving the global optimum and handling the over-fitting problem by suitable parameter selection. Overall, SVM provides an efficient and useful method for estimating the impervious surface.

  17. Dynamic monitoring of land-use change in Loess Plateau using multi-temporal Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiyong; Liu, Jiyuan; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhuang, Dafang; Yu, Xinfang

    2004-11-01

    Loess Plateau is a unique region in the world where the human activities are very intensive and the eco-environment is highly frangible. During the past two decades, the Land Use/Cover Change has been considered as one of the most important reasons for the eco-environment degeneration in Loess Plateau. In this paper, land use data in 1990, 1995 and 2000 were got based on the Landsat TM Remote Sensing images, and the 1km-grid land use change data of 1990-1995, 1995-2000 and 1990-2000 was made using the data management and spatial analysis techniques of ArcGIS 8.3 software. Furthermore, statistical tabular data of Grain for Green Project on county level in recent years were joined in the administrative regionalism spatial data. Based on all of these data, temporal-spatial characteristics of land use change in Loess Plateau were studied in detail, and its driving forces were discussed either. It turned out that land use change in different periods had very different characteristics. On the whole, from 1990 to 2000, farmland and built-up increased greatly, and forest, grassland, water body and unused land decreased remarkably. On the contrary, conversions from farmland and unused to forest or grassland has become the dominant land use change process since 2000. The regional social-economic development and the national macro-control policy have been the most important driving forces of land use change since 1990. Especially, from 2000 to now, the widely implemented Grain for Green Project, under which farming on fragile land gives way to forestation, has become and will remain the most radical and effective driving force to both the land use change and the regional eco-environment restoration.

  18. Comparative analysis of different sensor data (Landsat-TM and MOMS) for earth observation and impact on future sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    The missions of the German Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS) aboard two STS flights demonstrated the feasibility of a novel concept with regard to both technical and scientific objectives. On account of the successful missions, a cooperation was agreed between the German Federal Minister for Research nad Technology and NASA for comparing MOMS observations with the more familiar operational Landsat-TM data over selected test sites, as a means of obtaining some relative measure of performance. This paper summarizes the results obtained and presents the MOMS-02, a further experimental representative of the MOMS program aiming at the realization of an operational system for the mid-nineties.

  19. Multisensor and multitemporal data from Landsat images to detect damage to coral reefs, small islands in the Spermonde archipelago, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Agus; Akbar AS, M.; Djalil, Abdul Rasyid; Amri, Khairul

    2015-06-01

    Coral reefs are important because of their high biodiversity and their key role in the tropical marine biosphere. Furthermore, coral reefs are very valuable as a socioeconomic resource as they make important contributions to the gross domestic product of many countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats dominated by coral rubble, dead coral, and bleached corals. Despite these natural and socio-economic advantages, many factors are threatening coral reefs. The study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the Coral Triangle, recognized as the epicenter of coral diversity and a priority for conservation. Images of Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM, Landsat ETM+, and Landsat 8 data were used to examine changes in the coral reefs of Suranti Island in the Spermonde Archipelago during forty one years from 1972 to 2013. The image processing includes gap fills, atmospheric corrections, geometric corrections, image composites, water column corrections, unsupervised classifications, and reclassifications. Fill Gap processing was done on Landsat ETM+ SLC-off. Subsequently, a multi-component change detection procedure was applied to define changes. Shallow water bottom types classification was divided into live coral, rubble and sand habitats, dead coral with algae, rubble, and sand. Preliminary results showed significant changes during the period 1972-2013 as well as changes in coral reefs, likely explained partly by destructive fishing practices.

  20. Mapping of deciduous forest cover using simulated Landsat-D TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the supervised vegetation classification images of heavily forested terrain in the eastern US produced from simulated Landsat-D Thematic Mapper data as part of the Joint NASA/Geosat Test Case study of the Lost River, West Virginia, gas field. This investigation utilized data supplied by the NS-001 aircraft multispectral scanner (15 m IFOV) of NASA. The instruments recognized a total of 9 vegetation classes and one soil class. A hybrid parallelepiped-Bayesian maximum likelihood classifier was employed to produce the supervised vegetation classifications. The data were obtained at the height of the fall foliage display for this portion of West Virginia. Results show that both classifications are highly accurate, based on a comparison of assignment of vegetation classes on each of the images with actual ground conditions. It is noted that the anomalous distribution of certain woody species found in the resulting supervised classifications may be related to the microseepage of methane from the gas reservoir.

  1. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to

  2. Landsat D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    To characterize and quantify the performance of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM), techniques for dimensionality reduction by linear transformation have been studied and evaluated and the accuracy of the correction of geometric errors in TM images analyzed. Theoretical evaluations and comparisons for existing methods for the design of linear transformation for dimensionality reduction are presented. These methods include the discrete Karhunen Loeve (KL) expansion, Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Thematic Mapper (TM)-Tasseled Cap Linear Transformation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A unified approach to these design problems is presented in which each method involves optimizing an objective function with respect to the linear transformation matrix. From these studies, four modified methods are proposed. They are referred to as the Space Variant Linear Transformation, the KL Transform-MDA hybrid method, and the First and Second Version of the Weighted MDA method. The modifications involve the assignment of weights to classes to achieve improvements in the class conditional probability of error for classes with high weights. Experimental evaluations of the existing and proposed methods have been performed using the six reflective bands of the TM data. It is shown that in terms of probability of classification error and the percentage of the cumulative eigenvalues, the six reflective bands of the TM data require only a three dimensional feature space. It is shown experimentally as well that for the proposed methods, the classes with high weights have improvements in class conditional probability of error estimates as expected.

  3. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images in regional correlation of syntectonic strata, Colorado river extensional corridor, California and Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, K. K.; Blom, R. G.; Crippen, R. E.; Nielson, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Enhanced Landsat TM images were used in conjunction with field work to investigate the regional correlation of Miocene rocks in the Colorado River extensional corridor of California and Arizona. Based on field investigations, four sequences of sedimentary and volcanic strata could be recognized in the Mohave Mountains (Arizona) and the eastern Whipple Mountains (California), which display significantly different relative volumes and organization of lithologies. The four sequences were also found to have distinctive appearances on the TM image. The recognition criteria derived from field mapping and image interpretation in the Mohave Mountains and Whipple Mountains were applied to an adjacent area in which stratigraphic affinities were less well known. The results of subsequent field work confirmed the stratigraphic and structural relations suggested by the Tm image analysis.

  4. An approach for detecting five typical vegetation types on the Chinese Loess Plateau using Landsat TM data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jie; Jiao, Ju-Ying; Lei, Bo; Su, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing can provide large-scale spatial data for the detection of vegetation types. In this study, two shortwave infrared spectral bands (TM5 and TM7) and one visible spectral band (TM3) of Landsat 5 TM data were used to detect five typical vegetation types (communities dominated by Bothriochloa ischaemum, Artemisia gmelinii, Hippophae rhamnoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Quercus liaotungensis) using 270 field survey data in the Yanhe watershed on the Loess Plateau. The relationships between 200 field data points and their corresponding radiance reflectance were analyzed, and the equation termed the vegetation type index (VTI) was generated. The VTI values of five vegetation types were calculated, and the accuracy was tested using the remaining 70 field data points. The applicability of VTI was also tested by the distribution of vegetation type of two small watersheds in the Yanhe watershed and field sample data collected from other regions (Ziwuling Region, Huangling County, and Luochuan County) on the Loess Plateau. The results showed that the VTI can effectively detect the five vegetation types with an average accuracy exceeding 80 % and a representativeness above 85 %. As a new approach for monitoring vegetation types using remote sensing at a larger regional scale, VTI can play an important role in the assessment of vegetation restoration and in the investigation of the spatial distribution and community diversity of vegetation on the Loess Plateau.

  5. Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgeson, W.T.; Batson, R.M.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

  6. Operational calibration and validation of landsat data continuity mission (LDCM) sensors using the image assessment system (IAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, Esad; Morfitt, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Systematic characterization and calibration of the Landsat sensors and the assessment of image data quality are performed using the Image Assessment System (IAS). The IAS was first introduced as an element of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) ground segment and recently extended to Landsat 4 (L4) and 5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TM) and Multispectral Sensors (MSS) on-board the Landsat 1-5 satellites. In preparation for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), the IAS was developed for the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) with a capability to assess pushbroom sensors. This paper describes the LDCM version of the IAS and how it relates to unique calibration and validation attributes of its on-board imaging sensors. The LDCM IAS system will have to handle a significantly larger number of detectors and the associated database than the previous IAS versions. An additional challenge is that the LDCM IAS must handle data from two sensors, as the LDCM products will combine the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) spectral bands.

  7. LANDSAT-D thematic mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When principal component analysis of a subscene of a section of the Sacramento River showed lower correlation among the TM spectral components that were observed for the MSS spectral components, principal component analysis was applied to a LANDSAT 2 MSS subscene of the same area for comparison purposes. Correlation coefficient matrices indicate the pairwise similarity and correlation of the data for the spectral components. The principal components transformation matrix, indicates the weights applied to the original components to generate the transformed components. The first two TM components can be described as visible and near infrared. For the MSS data, the first transformed component is roughly the average of the four original components. The second transformed component is roughly the difference between the visible and infrared components. Tables show that 97.0% of the variance in an MSS image is contained in only two transformed components.

  8. Evaluation of LANDSAT MSS vs TM simulated data for distinguishing hydrothermal alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The LANDSAT Follow-On (LFO) data was simulated to demonstrate the mineral exploration capability of this system for segregating different types of hydrothermal alteration and to compare this capability with that of the existing LANDSAT system. Multispectral data were acquired for several test sites with the Bendix 24-channel MSDS scanner. Contrast enhancements, band ratioing, and principal component transformations were used to process the simulated LFO data for analysis. For Red Mountain, Arizona, the LFO data allowed identification of silicified areas, not identifiable with LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. The improved LFO resolution allowed detection of small silicic outcrops and of a narrow silicified dike. For Cuprite - Ralston, Nevada, the LFO spectral bands allowed discrimination of argillic and opalized altered areas; these could not be spectrally discriminated using LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Addition of data from the 1.3- and 2.2- micrometer regions allowed better discriminations of hydrothermal alteration types.

  9. Role of Bandwidth in Computation of NDVI From Landsat TM and NOAA AVHRR Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.; Tirumaladevi, N. Ch.

    The observations for wheat, onion, potato and chickpea over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) in 3 nm bandwidth were converted to AVHRR and TM bands in visible/red and near-IR spectral regions. Correlation between TM and AVHRR NDVI were very high for all these crops. The additional 0.725-0.76 μm bandwidth in AVHRR as compared to TM was causing reduction in NDVI values for AVHRR when crop NDVI value was more than 0.46

  10. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Analysis during the quarter was carried out on geometric, radiometric, and information content aspects of both MSS and thematic mapper (TM) data. Test sites in Webster County, Iowa and Chicago, IL., and near Joliet, IL were studied. Band to band registration was evaluated and TM Bands 5 and 7 were found to be approximately 0.5 pixel out of registration with 1,2,3,4, and the thermal was found to be misregistered by 4 30 m pixels to the east and 1 pixel south. Certain MSS bands indicated nominally .25 pixel misregistration. Radiometrically, some striping was observed in TM bands and significant oscillatory noise patterns exist in MSS data which is possibly due to jitter. Information content was compared before and after cubic convolution resampling and no differences were observed in statistics or separability of basic scene classes.

  11. LANDSAT 4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative analysis of TM and MSS data was completed and the results indicate that there are half as many separable spectral classes in the MSS data than in TM. In addition, the minimum separability between classes was also much less in MSS data. Radiometric data quality was also investigated for the TM by computing power spectrum estimates for dark-level data from Lake Michigan. Two significant coherent noise frequencies were observed, one with a wavelength of 3.12 pixels and the other with a 17 pixel wavelength. The amplitude was small (nominally .6 digital count standard deviation) and the noise appears primarily in Bands 3 and 4. No significant levels were observed in other bands. Scan angle dependent brightness effects were also evaluated.

  12. Detecting wetland changes in Shanghai, China using FORMOSAT and Landsat TM imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yun-xuan; Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Yuan, Qing

    2015-07-14

    Understanding the state of wetland ecosystems and their changes at the national and local levels is critical for wetland conservation, management, decision-making, and policy development practices. This study analyzed the wetlands in Shanghai, a province-level city, using remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques based on the Chinese national wetland inventory procedure and standards. FORMOSAT imagery acquired in 2012 and Navy nautical charts of the Yangtze estuarine area were used in conjunction with object-oriented segmentation, expert interpretation, and field validation to determine wetland status. Landsat imagery from 1985, 1995, 2000, 2003 and 2013 as well as social-economic data collected from 1985 to 2013 were used to further assess wetland changes. In 2013, Shanghai contained 376,970.6 ha of wetlands, and 78.8% of all wetlands were in marine or estuarine systems. Estuarine waters comprised the single largest wetland category. Between the first national wetland inventory in 2003 and the second national wetland inventory in 2013, Shanghai lost 50,519.13 ha of wetlands, amounting to a mean annual loss rate of 1.2% or an 11.8% loss over the decade. Declines were proportionately higher in marine and estuarine wetlands, with an annual loss of 1.8%, while there was a sharp increase of 1882.6% in constructed water storage areas for human uses. Diking, filling, impoundment and reclamation, which are all attributable to the economic development and urbanization associated with population increases, were the major factors that explained the gain and loss of wetlands. Additional factors affecting wetland losses and gains include sediment trapping by the hydropower system, which reduces supply to the estuary and erodes wetlands, and sediment trapping by the jetties, spur dikes, and diversion bulwark associated with a navigation channel deepening project, which has the converse effect, increasing saltmarsh wetland area at

  13. Detecting wetland changes in Shanghai, China using FORMOSAT and Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yun-Xuan; Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Yuan, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the state of wetland ecosystems and their changes at the national and local levels is critical for wetland conservation, management, decision-making, and policy development practices. This study analyzed the wetlands in Shanghai, a province-level city, using remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques based on the Chinese national wetland inventory procedure and standards. FORMOSAT imagery acquired in 2012 and Navy nautical charts of the Yangtze estuarine area were used in conjunction with object-oriented segmentation, expert interpretation, and field validation to determine wetland status. Landsat imagery from 1985, 1995, 2000, 2003 and 2013 as well as social-economic data collected from 1985 to 2013 were used to further assess wetland changes. In 2013, Shanghai contained 376970.6 ha of wetlands, and 78.8% of all wetlands were in marine or estuarine systems. Estuarine waters comprised the single largest wetland category. Between the first national wetland inventory in 2003 and the second national wetland inventory in 2013, Shanghai lost 50519.1 ha of wetlands, amounting to a mean annual loss rate of 1.2% or an 11.8% loss over the decade. Declines were proportionately higher in marine and estuarine wetlands, with an annual loss of 1.8%, while there was a sharp increase of 1882.6% in constructed water storage areas for human uses. Diking, filling, impoundment and reclamation, which are all attributable to the economic development and urbanization associated with population increases, were the major factors that explained the gain and loss of wetlands. Additional factors affecting wetland losses and gains include sediment trapping by the hydropower system, which reduces supply to the estuary and erodes wetlands, and sediment trapping by the jetties, spur dikes, and diversion bulwark associated with a navigation channel deepening project, which has the converse effect, increasing saltmarsh wetland area at

  14. Multitemporal Analysis of Coastal Built-up Development: Use of SPOT and Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alphan, Hakan

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean coastal landscape is subject to increasingly complex land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes. Majority of these changes occur as a result of urbanization, tourism, agriculture and transportation activities. Diversity and extent of human activities on the coast results with complex changes in short term. Therefore, high temporal and spatial resolution of change detection may facilitate analyzing above mentioned changes more accurately. In this context, SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) dataset have advantages in terms of both high spatial resolution (10 m) and frequent temporal coverage for landscape monitoring and modeling. The coastal zone of Erdemli district, located in the west of the central district of Mersin (SE Mediterranean Coast of Turkey) is currently experiencing problems due to development of multistory buildings as summer apartments near the coastline and expansion of rural settlements in close proximity to the coast. This development on the coast threatens both agriculture areas and natural vegetation and causes landscape fragmentation. The aim of this paper is to monitor qualitative and quantitative aspects of built-up development in the coast of Erdemli (Mersin/Turkey) and analyze its negative impacts on the coastal landscape. Panchromatic SPOT datasets with a ground resolution of 10 m acquired in 1989, 1995, 2001 and 2007 were combined with multispectral Landsat images prior to classification. Urbanization on the coastal zone was mapped at finer spatial (i.e. 10m) and time (i.e. 6 years) scales and current change trends were determined understand dynamics of built-up development on the coast.

  15. Characterization of intra-annual reflectance properties of land cover classes in southeastern South Dakota using Landsat TM and ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.; DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 have orbits that are offset from each other by 8 days. During the time that the sensors on both satellites are operational, there is an opportunity for conducting analyses that incorporate multiple intra-annual high spatial resolution data sets for characterizing the Earth's land surface. In the current study, nine Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data sets, covering the same path and row on different dates, were acquired during a 1-year time interval for a region in southeastern South Dakota and analyzed. Scenes were normalized using pseudoinvariant objects, and digital data from a series of test sites were extracted from the imagery and converted to surface reflectance. Sunphotometer data acquired on site were used to atmospherically correct the data. Ground observations that were made throughout the growing season by a large group of volunteers were used to help interpret spectroradiometric patterns and trends. Normalized images were found to be very effective in portraying the seasonal patterns of reflectance change that occurred throughout the region. Many of the radiometric patterns related to plant growth and development, but some also related to different background properties. The different kinds of land cover in the region were spectrally and radiometrically characterized and were found to have different seasonal patterns of reflectance. The degree to which the land cover classes could be separated spectrally and radiometrically, however, depended on the time of year during which the data sets were acquired, and no single data set appeared to be adequate for separating all types of land cover. This has practical implications for classification studies because known patterns of seasonal reflectance properties for the different types of land cover within a region will facilitate selection of the most appropriate data sets for producing land cover classifications.

  16. Some aspects of geological information contained in LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Liu, C. C.; Vitorello, I.; Meneses, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of MSS images and methods of interpretation are analyzed from a geological point of view. The supportive role of LANDSAT data are illustrated in several examples of surface expressions of geological features, such as synclines and anticlines, spectral characteristics of lithologic units, and circular impact structures.

  17. Landsat multispectral sharpening using a sensor system model and panchromatic image

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The thematic mapper (TM) sensor aboard Landsats 4, 5 and enhanced TM plus (ETM+) on Landsat 7 collect imagery at 30-m sample distance in six spectral bands. New with ETM+ is a 15-m panchromatic (P) band. With image sharpening techniques, this higher resolution P data, or as an alternative, the 10-m (or 5-m) P data of the SPOT satellite, can increase the spatial resolution of the multispectral (MS) data. Sharpening requires that the lower resolution MS image be coregistered and resampled to the P data before high spatial frequency information is transferred to the MS data. For visual interpretation and machine classification tasks, it is important that the sharpened data preserve the spectral characteristics of the original low resolution data. A technique was developed for sharpening (in this case, 3:1 spatial resolution enhancement) visible spectral band data, based on a model of the sensor system point spread function (PSF) in order to maintain spectral fidelity. It combines high-pass (HP) filter sharpening methods with iterative image restoration to reduce degradations caused by sensor-system-induced blurring and resembling. Also there is a spectral fidelity requirement: sharpened MS when filtered by the modeled degradations should reproduce the low resolution source MS. Quantitative evaluation of sharpening performance was made by using simulated low resolution data generated from digital color-IR aerial photography. In comparison to the HP-filter-based sharpening method, results for the technique in this paper with simulated data show improved spectral fidelity. Preliminary results with TM 30-m visible band data sharpened with simulated 10-m panchromatic data are promising but require further study.

  18. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 28, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  19. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 11, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  20. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 30, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  1. Comparison of sampling designs for estimating deforestation from landsat TM and MODIS imagery: a case study in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  2. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block. PMID:25258742

  3. Kinematics at the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones, California: Integration of TM data and field studies. LANDSAT TM investigation proposal TM-019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Verosub, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Processing and interpretation of Thematic Mapper (TM) data, extensive field work, and processing of SPOT data were continued. Results of these analyses led to the testing and rejecting of several of the geologic/tectonic hypotheses concerning the continuation of the Garlock Fault Zone (GFZ). It was determined that the Death Valley Fault Zone (DVFZ) is the major through-going feature, extending at least 60 km SW of the Avawatz Mountains. Two 5 km wide fault zones were identified and characterized in the Soda and Bristol Mountains, forming a continuous zone of NW trending faulting. Geophysical measurements indicate a buried connection between the Avawatz and the Soda Mountains Fault Zone. Future work will involve continued field work and mapping at key locations, further analyses of TM data, and conclusion of the project.

  4. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 10, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  5. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 24, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  6. A translational registration system for LANDSAT image segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Erthal, G. J.; Velasco, F. R. D.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of satellite images obtained from various dates is essential for crop forecast systems. In order to make possible a multitemporal analysis, it is necessary that images belonging to each acquisition have pixel-wise correspondence. A system developed to obtain, register and record image segments from LANDSAT images in computer compatible tapes is described. The translational registration of the segments is performed by correlating image edges in different acquisitions. The system was constructed for the Burroughs B6800 computer in ALGOL language.

  7. A First Evaluation of LANDSAT TM Data to Monitor Suspended Sediments in Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiebe, F. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Boatwright, G. O.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison was made between ground data collected from Lake Chicot, Arkansas, and Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected on September 23, 1982. A preliminary analysis of limited data indicate tht Thematic Mapper data may be useful in monitoring suspended sediment and chlorophyll in a lake with high suspended sediment loads. Total suspended loads ranged from 168 to 508 mg/l. TM Band 3 appears to be most useful with Bands 1, 2 and 4 also containing useful information relative to suspended sediments. Considering water data only, Bands 1, 2 and 3 appear to provide similar information. Bands 3 and 4 are also significantly related. Bands 5 and 7 appear to have independent information content relative to the presence or absence of water. Insufficient range of water temperature ground truth data made an evaluation of TM Band 6 difficult.

  8. Identification of areas of recharge and discharge using Landsat-TM satellite imagery and aerial photography mapping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, R. B.; Tapley, I.; Ishii, T.; Hawkes, G.

    1994-10-01

    Aerial photographs (AP) and Landsat (TM) colour composites were used to map the geomorphology, geology and structures of the Salt River System of Western Australia. Geomorphic features identified are sand plains, dissected etchplain, colluvium, lateritic duricrust and rock outcrops. The hydrogeomorphic units include streams, lakes and playas, palaeochannels and palaeodeltas. The structural features are linear and curvilinear lineaments, ring structures and dolerite dykes. Suture lines control the course of the main river channel. Permeable areas around the circular granitic plutons were found to be the main areas of recharge in the uplands. Recharge was also found to occur in the highly permeable areas of the sandplains. Discharge was shown to be primarily along the main drainage lines, on the edge of the circular sandplains, in depressions and in lakes. The groundwater occurrence and hydrogeological classification of the recharge potential of the different units were used to classify the mapped areas into recharge and discharge zones. The results also show that TM colour composites provide a viable source of data comparable with AP for mapping and delineating areas of recharge and discharge on a regional scale.

  9. Analysis and Evaluation of the LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM Sensors and Ground Data Processing Systems: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Lotspiech, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The MSS and TM sensor performances were evaluated by studying both the sensors and the characteristics of the data. Information content analysis, image statistics, band-to-band registration, the presence of failed or failing detectors, and sensor resolution are discussed. The TM data were explored from the point of view of adequacy of the ground processing and improvements that could be made to compensate for sensor problems and deficiencies. Radiometric correction processing, compensation for a failed detector, and geometric correction processing are also considered.

  10. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Seven heterogeneous areas within the entire Des Moines, Iowa test site were selected to define candidate spectral training classes using a clustering algorithm. In addition to the 91 cluster nonsupervised classes, three supervised training classes were defined. The original candidate training classes were reduced to 42 spectrally separable training classes. The minimum and average transformed divergence values for the 42 spectral classes and for the best subsets of Y TM spectral bands are shown in a table. The best spectral band for any combination of 1 through 7 bands is the first middle IR band. The next best band is the near IR, followed by the red band and than the thermal IR. The best combination of four bands includes one from each of the four regions of the spectrum (visible, near IR, middle IR, and thermal IR).

  11. LANDSAT image studies as applied to petroleum exploration in Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Chevron-Kenya oil license, acquired in 1972, covers an area at the north end of the Lamu Embayment. Immediately after acquisition, a photogeologic study of the area was made followed by a short field inspection. An interpretation of LANDSAT-1 images as a separate attempt to improve geological knowledge was completed. The method used in the image study, the multispectral characteristics of rock units and terrain, and the observed anomalous features as seen in the LANDSAT imagery are described. It was found that the study helped to define the relationship of the Lamu Embayment and its internal structure with surrounding regional features, such as the East Africa rifting, the Rudolf Trough, the Bur Acaba structural ridge, and the Ogaden Basin.

  12. Local search for optimal global map generation using mid-decadal landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatib, L.; Gasch, J.; Morris, Robert; Covington, S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA and the US Geological Survey (USGS) are seeking to generate a map of the entire globe using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor data from the "mid-decadal" period of 2004 through 2006. The global map is comprised of thousands of scene locations and, for each location, tens of different images of varying quality to chose from. Furthermore, it is desirable for images of adjacent scenes be close together in time of acquisition, to avoid obvious discontinuities due to seasonal changes. These characteristics make it desirable to formulate an automated solution to the problem of generating the complete map. This paper formulates a Global Map Generator problem as a Constraint Optimization Problem (GMG-COP) and describes an approach to solving it using local search. Preliminary results of running the algorithm on image data sets are summarized. The results suggest a significant improvement in map quality using constraint-based solutions. Copyright ?? 2007, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS ground geometry performance without ground control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A.

    1983-01-01

    LANDSAT thematic mapper P-data of Washington, D.C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known earth-surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry were performed. Intra-band and inter-band correlation and registration were investigated, exclusive of map-based ground truth. Specifically, the magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) were computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration was analyzed.

  14. Enhanced LANDSAT images of Antarctica and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Bowell, J. A.; Edwards, K.; Eliason, E. M.; Ferguson, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Since early in the LANDSAT program, black-and-white paper prints of band 7 (near infrared) of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner have been used extensively to prepare semicontrolled maps of Antarctica. Image-processing techniques are now employed to enhance fine detail and to make controlled image-mosaic maps in color. LANDSAT multispectral images of Antarctica help to expand our knowledge of extraterrestrial bodies by showing bare-ice areas as bright blue patches; on such patches meteorites tend to be concentrated and are collected. Many subtle flow features in Antarctic ice streams resemble features at the mouths of Martian outflow channels, which suggests that the channels also contained ice. Furthermore, flow lines in Antarctic ice sheets that merge with ice shelves resemble Martian flow features associated with dissected terrain along the Martian northern highland margin, and support the concept that ice was involved in the transport of material from the southern highlands to the northern lowland plains. In Antarctica, as on Mars, the virtual absence of fluvial activity over millions of years has permitted the growth of glacial and eolian features to unusually large sizes.

  15. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic

  16. Digital image correlation techniques applied to LANDSAT multispectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrud, L. O. (Principal Investigator); Miller, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Automatic image registration and resampling techniques applied to LANDSAT data achieved accuracies, resulting in mean radial displacement errors of less than 0.2 pixel. The process method utilized recursive computational techniques and line-by-line updating on the basis of feedback error signals. Goodness of local feature matching was evaluated through the implementation of a correlation algorithm. An automatic restart allowed the system to derive control point coordinates over a portion of the image and to restart the process, utilizing this new control point information as initial estimates.

  17. Using the Sonoran Desert test site to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Chander, G.; Wu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing instruments. The NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), in collaboration with members from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, has previously demonstrated the use of pseudo-invariant ground sites for the long-term stability monitoring of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors. This paper focuses on the results derived from observations made over the Sonoran Desert. Additionally, Landsat 5 TM data over the Sonoran Desert site were used to evaluate the temporal stability of this site. Top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the closely matched TM, ETM+, and MODIS spectral bands over selected regions of interest. The impacts due to different viewing geometries, or the effect of test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), are also presented. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  18. Inter-Annual Variability of Burned Area in Brazil Based on a Synergistic use of Information Derived from MODIS and Landsat-TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, R.; Dacamara, C. C.; Setzer, A. W.; Morelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    A procedure is presented that allows using information from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to improve the quality of monthly burned area estimates over Brazil. The method integrates MODIS derived information from two sources; the NASA MCD64A1 Direct Broadcast Monthly Burned Area Product and INPE's Monthly Burned Area MODIS product (AQM-MODIS). The latter product relies on an algorithm that was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil, taking advantage of the ability of MIR reflectances to discriminate burned areas. Information from both MODIS products is incorporated by means of a linear regression model where an optimal estimate of the burned area is obtained as a linear combination of burned area estimates from MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS. The linear regression model is calibrated using as optimal estimates values of burned area derived from Landsat TM during 2005 and 2006 over Jalapão, a region of Cerrado covering an area of 187 x 187 km2. Obtained values of coefficients for MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS were 0.51 and 0.35, respectively and the root mean square error was 7.6 km2. Robustness of the model was checked by calibrating the model separately for 2005 and 2006 and cross-validating with 2006 and 2005; coefficients for 2005 (2006) were 0.46 (0.54) for MCD64A1 and 0.35 (0.35) for AQM-MODIS and the corresponding root mean square errors for 2006 (2005) were 7.8 (7.4) km2. The linear model was then applied to Brazil as well as to the six Brazilian main biomes, namely Cerrado, Amazônia, Caatinga, Pantanal, Mata Atlântica and Pampa. As to be expected the interannual variability based on the proposed synergistic use of MCD64A1, AQM-MODIS and Landsat Tm data for the period 2005-2010 presents marked differences with the corresponding amounts derived from MCD64A1 alone. For instance during the considered period, values (in 103 km2) from the proposed approach (from MCD64A1) are 399 (142), 232 (62), 559 (259), 274 (73), 219 (31) and 415

  19. Floristic composition and across-track reflectance gradient in Landsat images over Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muro, Javier; doninck, Jasper Van; Tuomisto, Hanna; Higgins, Mark A.; Moulatlet, Gabriel M.; Ruokolainen, Kalle

    2016-09-01

    Remotely sensed image interpretation or classification of tropical forests can be severely hampered by the effects of the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF). Even for narrow swath sensors like Landsat TM/ETM+, the influence of reflectance anisotropy can be sufficiently strong to introduce a cross-track reflectance gradient. If the BRDF could be assumed to be linear for the limited swath of Landsat, it would be possible to remove this gradient during image preprocessing using a simple empirical method. However, the existence of natural gradients in reflectance caused by spatial variation in floristic composition of the forest can restrict the applicability of such simple corrections. Here we use floristic information over Peruvian and Brazilian Amazonia acquired through field surveys, complemented with information from geological maps, to investigate the interaction of real floristic gradients and the effect of reflectance anisotropy on the observed reflectances in Landsat data. In addition, we test the assumption of linearity of the BRDF for a limited swath width, and whether different primary non-inundated forest types are characterized by different magnitudes of the directional reflectance gradient. Our results show that a linear function is adequate to empirically correct for view angle effects, and that the magnitude of the across-track reflectance gradient is independent of floristic composition in the non-inundated forests we studied. This makes a routine correction of view angle effects possible. However, floristic variation complicates the issue, because different forest types have different mean reflectances. This must be taken into account when deriving the correction function in order to avoid eliminating natural gradients.

  20. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  1. Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left.

    The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30

  2. Comparison of the information contents of Landsat TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  3. Comparison of the information contents of LANDSAT TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  4. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of land surface change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Matthew D.

    1990-01-01

    This booklet provides an overview of the Landsat program and shows the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To show changes that have taken place within the last 20 years or less, image pairs were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical global record of the land surface from the early 1970's to present. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to present.

  5. Retrieval of lake water temperature based on LandSat TM imagery: A case study in East Lake of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bo; Kang, Ling; Yang, Shengmei

    2013-10-01

    Lake water temperature is one of the most important parameters determining ecological conditions in lake water. With the recent development of satellite remote sensing, remotely sensed data instead of traditional sampling measurement can be used to retrieve the lake surface temperature. The East Lake located in the Wuhan city was selected as research region in this paper. The mono window algorithm has been applied to retrieve the lake water temperature of East lake basin with Landsat TM data. Through three groups of field survey data, the outcome shows that the retrieval results using the mono window model are quite approximate to the same period of the experimental region historical temperature data. So, it is feasible to utilize the remote sensing method to obtain the lake temperature. Meanwhile, the retrieval results also demonstrate that the East Lake surface temperatures from different years have the similar distribution regularity. Generally speaking, the temperature of the lake center is higher than the surrounding area. The west of lake is mostly higher than the east mainly due to the vegetation density and urbanization distribution condition. This conclusion is important to the further study on monitoring the East Lake temperature particularly in large scale.

  6. Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, since 1962 using Corona, Landsat TM and ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolch, Tobias; Buchroithner, Manfred; Pieczonka, Tino; Kunert, Andreé

    Multitemporal space imagery from 1962 (Corona KH-4), 1992 (Landsat TM), 2001 and 2005 (Terra ASTER) was used to investigate the glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. The ice coverage in the investigation area decreased by about 5% between 1962 and 2005, with the highest retreat rates occurring between 1992 and 2001. The debris coverage increased concomitantly with the decrease in total glacier area. The clean-ice area decreased by >10%. Digital terrain model (DTM) generation from the early Corona KH-4 stereo data in this high-relief terrain is time-consuming, and the results still contain some elevation errors. However, these are minor in the snow-free areas with gentle slopes. Thus comparison of the surfaces of the debris-covered glacier tongues based on the Corona DTM and an ASTER DTM is feasible and shows the downwasting of the debris-covered glaciers. The highest downwasting rates, more than 20m (>0.5ma-1), can be found near the transition zone between the active and the stagnant glacier parts of the debris-covered glacier tongues. The downwasting is lower, but still evident, in the active ice areas and at the snout with thick debris cover. All investigated debriscovered glaciers in the study area show similar behaviour. The estimated volume loss for the investigated debris-covered glacier tongues is 0.19km3.

  7. Surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. [for radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Quinn J.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute reflectance-based radiometric calibrations of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) are improved with the inclusion of a method to invert optical-depth measurements to obtain aerosol-particle size distributions, and a non-Lambertian surface reflectance model. The inverted size distributions can predict radiances varying from the previously assumed jungian distributions by as much as 5 percent, though the reduction in the estimated error is less than one percent. Comparison with measured diffuse-to-global ratios show that neither distribution consistently predicts the ratio accurately, and this is shown to be a large contributor to calibration uncertainties. An empirical model for the surface reflectance of White Sands, using a two-degree polynomial fit as a function of scattering angle, was employed. The model reduced estimated errors in radiance predictions by up to one percent. Satellite calibrations dating from October, 1984 were reprocessed using the improved methods and linear estimations of satellite counts per unit radiance versus time since launch were determined which showed a decrease over time for the first four bands.

  8. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora from 1993 to 2014 with Landsat TM and SPOT 6 Satellite Data in Yueqing Bay, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqi; Chen, Jiadai; Jing, Changwei; Ye, Guanqiong; Wu, Jiaping; Huang, Zhixing; Zhou, Chaosheng

    2015-01-01

    The exotic plant Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Yueqing Bay more than 20 years ago for tidal land reclamation and as a defense against typhoons, but it has rapidly expanded and caused enormous ecological consequences. Mapping the spread and distribution of S. alterniflora is the first step toward understanding the factors that determine the population expansion patterns. Remote sensing is a promising tool to monitor the expansion of S. alterniflora. Twelve Landsat TM images and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used to delineate the invasion of S. alterniflora from 1993 to 2009, and SPOT 6 images and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) were used to map the distribution of S. alterniflora in 2014. In situ data and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images were used as supplementary data. S. alterniflora spread rapidly in Yueqing Bay over the past 21 years. Between 1993 and 2009, the area of S. alterniflora increased by 608 times (from 4 to 2432 ha). The rapid expansion of S. alterniflora covered almost all of the bare mudflats around the mangrove forests and the cultivated mudflats. However, from 2009 to 2014, the rate of expansion of S. alterniflora began to slow down in Yueqing Bay, and the total area of S. alterniflora in Yantian decreased by 275 ha. These phenomena can be explained by the landscape changes and ecological niches. Through the expansion of S. alterniflora, it was found that the ecological significance and environmental impact of S. alterniflora was different in different regions in Yueqing Bay. The conservation plans for Yueqing Bay should consider both the positive and negative effects of S. alterniflora, and the governmental policy should be based on the different circumstances of the regions. PMID:26263172

  9. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora from 1993 to 2014 with Landsat TM and SPOT 6 Satellite Data in Yueqing Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Chen, Jiadai; Jing, Changwei; Ye, Guanqiong; Wu, Jiaping; Huang, Zhixing; Zhou, Chaosheng

    2015-01-01

    The exotic plant Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Yueqing Bay more than 20 years ago for tidal land reclamation and as a defense against typhoons, but it has rapidly expanded and caused enormous ecological consequences. Mapping the spread and distribution of S. alterniflora is the first step toward understanding the factors that determine the population expansion patterns. Remote sensing is a promising tool to monitor the expansion of S. alterniflora. Twelve Landsat TM images and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used to delineate the invasion of S. alterniflora from 1993 to 2009, and SPOT 6 images and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) were used to map the distribution of S. alterniflora in 2014. In situ data and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images were used as supplementary data. S. alterniflora spread rapidly in Yueqing Bay over the past 21 years. Between 1993 and 2009, the area of S. alterniflora increased by 608 times (from 4 to 2432 ha). The rapid expansion of S. alterniflora covered almost all of the bare mudflats around the mangrove forests and the cultivated mudflats. However, from 2009 to 2014, the rate of expansion of S. alterniflora began to slow down in Yueqing Bay, and the total area of S. alterniflora in Yantian decreased by 275 ha. These phenomena can be explained by the landscape changes and ecological niches. Through the expansion of S. alterniflora, it was found that the ecological significance and environmental impact of S. alterniflora was different in different regions in Yueqing Bay. The conservation plans for Yueqing Bay should consider both the positive and negative effects of S. alterniflora, and the governmental policy should be based on the different circumstances of the regions.

  10. Shade images of forested areas obtained from LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The pixel size in the present day Remote Sensing systems is large enough to include different types of land cover. Depending upon the target area, several components may be present within the pixel. In forested areas, generally, three main components are present: tree canopy, soil (understory), and shadow. The objective is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from multispectral measurements of LANDSAT MSS (Multispectral Scanner) data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure, i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The Constrained Least Squares (CLS) method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of cerrado using LANDSAT MSS imagery over Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on three crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  11. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  12. Identification of paddy field using Landsat image in Karawang Regency, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riadi, Bambang; Budiman Suriadi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has a mission to achieve food self-sufficiency in 2017, therefore it is necessary efforts to the stability of food needs. Karawang Regency as a granary states have a vital role in maintaining the national rice self-sufficiency, so indispensable information paddy field area. Paddy field accurate mapping can be done with a fast and efficient method of using remote sensing technology. This study aims to identify the paddy field using remote sensing technology. The data used is Landsat TM 2002 and Landsat-8 2015. The classification method using an approach Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT). This method can be implemented to identify the fields that are still green or in the growing season. TCT produces three images of the six combinations, namely Brightness (BRT), greenness (GRN), and wetness (WET). BRT provides graytone gradation of non vegetation to water. GRN is indicated the gradation of vegetation cover, begin from densely vegetated until the most rare or non-vegetated areas. While wetness (WET) indicates the area associated with the presence of water. The main results of the classification is not a wetland and paddy. Based on existing data paddy land area of research area is ± 57% of the area of Karawang Regency.

  13. Radiometric calibration updates to the Landsat collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2016-09-01

    The Landsat Project is planning to implement a new collection management strategy for Landsat products generated at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The goal of the initiative is to identify a collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated images across the entire Landsat archive that is readily suitable for time-series analyses. In order to perform an accurate land change analysis, the data from all Landsat sensors must be on the same radiometric scale. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is calibrated to a radiance standard and all previous sensors are cross-calibrated to its radiometric scale. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is calibrated to both radiance and reflectance standards independently. The Landsat 8 OLI reflectance calibration is considered to be most accurate. To improve radiometric calibration accuracy of historical data, Landsat 1-7 sensors also need to be cross-calibrated to the OLI reflectance scale. Results of that effort, as well as other calibration updates including the absolute and relative radiometric calibration and saturated pixel replacement for Landsat 8 OLI and absolute calibration for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), will be implemented into Landsat products during the archive reprocessing campaign planned within the new collection management strategy. This paper reports on the planned radiometric calibration updates to the solar reflective bands of the new Landsat collection.

  14. Shade images of forested areas obtained from Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this report is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from Landsat MSS data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure; i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The constrained least-squares method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of 'cerrado' over the Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on tree crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  15. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.; Loveland, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km ?? 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  16. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyaert, L. T.; Hall, F. G.; Loveland, T. R.

    1997-12-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km × 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of Landsat 7 ETM+ SLC-off Images for Surface Velocity Estimation of Mountain Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Sun, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, S.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    In many cases the Landsat mission series (Landsat 1-5, 7 and 8) provide our only detailed and consistent data source for mapping the global glacier changes over the last 40 years. However, the scan-line corrector (SLC) of the ETM+ sensor on board Landsat 7 permanently failed, resulting in wedge-shaped data gaps in SLC-off images that caused roughly 22% of the pixels to be missed. The SLC failure has left a serious problem for the glacial applications of ETM+ data, particularly for monitoring long-term glacier dynamics in High Asian Mountain where has few available data due to the frequently cloudy covers. This study aims to evaluate the potential of the Landsat 7 SLC-off images in deriving surface velocities of mountain glaciers. A pair of SLC-off images over the Siachen glacier acquired in Aug 2009 and 2010 was used for this purpose. Firstly, two typical filling-gap methods, the localized linear histogram match (LLHM) and the weighted liner regression (WLR), were utilized to recover the mentioned SLC-off images. Subsequently these recovered pairs were applied for deriving glacier-surface velocities with the COSI-Corr feature tracking procedure. Finally, the glacier velocity results were quantitatively compared with that of a pair of Landsat-5 TM images acquired nearly at the same time with the SLC-off pair. Our results show that (1) the WLR method achieves a better performance of gap recovering than the LLHM method, (2) the surface velocities estimated with the recovered SLC-off images are highly agreement with those of the TM images, and (3) the annual mean velocity of the Siachen glacier is approximately 70 m/yr between 2009 and 2010 with a maximum of 280 m/yr close to the glacial equilibrium line that are similar with the results in previous studies. Therefore, if a suitable filling-gap method is adopted, e.g. the WLR method, it is highly feasible that the ETM+ SLC-off data can be utilized to estimate the surface velocities of mountain glaciers.

  18. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A series of brief summaries of the results of individual investigations of LANDSAT 4 image data characteristics are presented. Topics are divided into MSS and TM investigations, and applications of the imaging techniques. Radiometric and geometric accuracy are emphasized.

  19. Discrimination of lithologic units of the basis of botanical associations and Landsat TM spectral data in the Ridge and Valley province, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C. V.; Birnie, R. W.; Logan, T. L.; Rock, B. N.; Parrish, J.

    1986-01-01

    Data collected on November 2, 1982 by the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) over 72 forested sites in the Ridge and Valley province in Pennsylvania were compared with corresponding botanical and site variable field data. The analysis revealed that both the TM and the botanical data sets can be divided into four groups based on lithology and aspect. Lithology, which is clearly the dominant controlling factor in both sets of data, determines elevation and slope. The aspect (essentially north- and south-facing slope) determines the intensity of solar illumination which affects both the moisture available to the vegetation and the intensity of reflected radiance. Each of the four lithologic/aspect units support unique forest associations, clearly separable both on the basis of ground-based 1/10-acre forest association surveys and on the basis of their TM spectral signatures.

  20. Measurement of irrigated acreage in Western Kansas from LANDSAT images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keene, K.M.; Conley, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the past four decades, irrigated acreage in western Kansas has increased rapidly. Optimum utilization of vital groundwater supplies requires implementation of long-term water-management programs. One important variable in such programs is up-to-date information on acreage under irrigation. Conventional ground survey methods of estimating irrigated acreage are too slow to be of maximum use in water-management programs. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT images permits more rapid measurement of irrigated acreage, but procedures are tedious and still relatively slow. For example, using a LANDSAT false-color composite image in areas of western Kansas with few landmarks, it is impossible to keep track of fields by examination under low-power microscope. Irrigated fields are more easily delineated on a photographically enlarged false-color composite and are traced on an overlay for measurement. Interpretation and measurement required 6 weeks for a four-county (3140 mi2, 8133 km2) test area. Video image-analysis equipment permits rapid measurement of irrigated acreage. Spectral response of irrigated summer crops in western Kansas on MSS band 5 (visible red, 0.6-0.7 ??m) images is low in contrast to high response from harvested and fallow fields and from common soil types. Therefore, irrigated acreage in western Kansas can be uniquely discriminated by video image analysis. The area of irrigated crops in a given area of view is measured directly. Sources of error are small in western Kansas. After preliminary preparation of the images, the time required to measure irrigated acreage was 1 h per county (average area, 876 ml2 or 2269 km2). ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  1. Arid land monitoring using Landsat albedo difference images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.; Chavez, Pat S.; Gehring, Dale G.; Holmgren, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    The Landsat albedo, or percentage of incoming radiation reflected from the ground in the wavelength range of 0.5 [mu]m to 1.1 [mu]m, is calculated from an equation using the Landsat digital brightness values and solar irradiance values, and correcting for atmospheric scattering, multispectral scanner calibration, and sun angle. The albedo calculated for each pixel is used to create an albedo image, whose grey scale is proportional to the albedo. Differencing sequential registered images and mapping selected values of the difference is used to create quantitative maps of increased or decreased albedo values of the terrain. All maps and other output products are in black and white rather than color, thus making the method quite economical. Decreases of albedo in arid regions may indicate improvement of land quality; increases may indicate degradation. Tests of the albedo difference mapping method in the Desert Experimental Range in southwestern Utah (a cold desert with little long-term terrain change) for a four-year period show that mapped changes can be correlated with erosion from flash floods, increased or decreased soil moisture, and increases or decreases in the density of desert vegetation, both perennial shrubs and annual plants. All terrain changes identified in this test were related to variations in precipitation. Although further tests of this method in hot deserts showing severe "desertification" are needed, the method is nevertheless recommended for experimental use in monitoring terrain change in other arid and semiarid regions of the world.

  2. Bias estimation for the Landsat 8 operational land imager

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a pushbroom sensor that will be a part of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). This instrument is the latest in the line of Landsat imagers, and will continue to expand the archive of calibrated earth imagery. An important step in producing a calibrated image from instrument data is accurately accounting for the bias of the imaging detectors. Bias variability is one factor that contributes to error in bias estimation for OLI. Typically, the bias is simply estimated by averaging dark data on a per-detector basis. However, data acquired during OLI pre-launch testing exhibited bias variation that correlated well with the variation in concurrently collected data from a special set of detectors on the focal plane. These detectors are sensitive to certain electronic effects but not directly to incoming electromagnetic radiation. A method of using data from these special detectors to estimate the bias of the imaging detectors was developed, but found not to be beneficial at typical radiance levels as the detectors respond slightly when the focal plane is illuminated. In addition to bias variability, a systematic bias error is introduced by the truncation performed by the spacecraft of the 14-bit instrument data to 12-bit integers. This systematic error can be estimated and removed on average, but the per pixel quantization error remains. This paper describes the variability of the bias, the effectiveness of a new approach to estimate and compensate for it, as well as the errors due to truncation and how they are reduced.

  3. Accuracy of migrant landbird habitat maps produced from LANDSAT TM data: Two case studies in southern Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruce, J.P.; Sader, S.; Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    The study investigated the utility of Landsat TM data applied to produce geo-referenced habitat maps for two study areas (Toledo and Stann Creek). Locational and non-site-specific map accuracy was evaluated by stratified random sampling and statistical analysis of satellite classification (SCR) versus air photo interpretation results (PIR) for the overall classification and individual classes. The effect of classification scheme specificity on map accuracy was also assessed. A decision criteria was developed for the minimum acceptable level of map performance (i.e., classification accuracy and scheme specificity). A satellite map was deemed acceptable if it has a useful degree of classification specificity, plus either an adequate overall locational agreement (< 70%) and/or non-site specific agreement (Chi Square goodness of fit test results indicating insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis that the overall classification distribution for the SCR and PIR are equal). For the most detailed revised classification, overall locational accuracy ranges from 52% (5 classes) for the Toledo to 63% (9 classes) for the Stann Creek. For the least detailed revised classification, overall locational accuracy ranges from 91% (2 classes) for Toledo to 86% (5 classes) for Stann Creek. Considering both location and non-site-specific accuracy results, the most detailed yet insufficient accurate classification for both sites includes low/medium/tall broadleaf forest, broadleaf forest scrub and herb-dominated openings. For these classifications, the overall locational accuracy is 72% for Toledo (4 classes) and 75% for Stann Creek (7 classes). This level of classification detail is suitable for aiding many analyses of migrant landbird habitat use.

  4. The INPE handouts to the 6th LANDSAT Technical Working Group (LTWG) Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debarrosaguirre, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Parada, L. E. M.; Depaulapereira, S.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT receiving and processing system in its present configuration and status are described, as well as the experience already obtained with LANDSATs 4 and 5. The revised table of station plans for TM reception and products and of implementation schedule for data formats employing superstructure conventions is updated. Standardization of the worldwide reference systems is proposed. The INPE preliminary TM products price list is included. A TM image received and processed is shown to illustrate the appearance of the products offered.

  5. Landsat Image Analysis of the Rebea Agricultural Project, Mosul Dam and Lake, Northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, W.; Alassadi, F.

    2014-12-01

    An archive of 70 good-to-excellent quality Landsat TM and ETM+ images acquired between 1984 and 2011 were identified through visual examination of the GLOVIS web portal. After careful consideration of factors relevant to agriculture in the region (e.g., crop calendar) and associated image processing needs (e.g., preference for anniversary dates), the images deemed most appropriate were downloaded. Standard preprocessing, including visual quality and statistical inspection, sub-setting to the study area, was performed, and the results combined in a database with available GIS data. The resolution merge spatial enhancement technique was applied to any ETM+ imagery to improve visual clarity and interpretability. The NDVI was calculated for all images in the time series. Unsupervised classification of images was performed for dates ranging from 1987 just before the inception of the Rebea project in 1989 through 2011. In order to reduce uncertainty related to lack of detailed ancillary and/or ground reference data, simple land cover classes were mapped, specifically: surface water, agriculture, and other. Results were able to quantify and track areas of each class over time, and showed a marked decrease in agriculture between the Iraq invasion in 2003 to the end of the study period in 2011, despite massive efforts and capital by the United States and Iraqi governments to improve agriculture in the area. Complications to understanding the role of warfare and conflict on the environment in the Mosul region include severe drought and water shortages, including effects of the Turkish GAP water resource development project in the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates, as well as Mosul Dam structural problems associated with geologically-unsuitable conditions upon which the dam is constructed. Now, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) likely captured the Mosul Dam on the day this abstract was submitted. Our Landsat-based monitoring and analysis of the Rebea Project and

  6. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed. PMID:24376778

  7. Glacial lake expansion in the central Himalayas by Landsat images, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  8. Multitemporal and Multiscaled Fractal Analysis of Landsat Satellite Data Using the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Laymon, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    The Image Characterization And Modeling System (ICAMS) is a public domain software package that is designed to provide scientists with innovative spatial analytical tools to visualize, measure, and characterize landscape patterns so that environmental conditions or processes can be assessed and monitored more effectively. In this study ICAMS has been used to evaluate how changes in fractal dimension, as a landscape characterization index, and resolution, are related to differences in Landsat images collected at different dates for the same area. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data obtained in May and August 1993 over a portion of the Great Basin Desert in eastern Nevada were used for analysis. These data represent contrasting periods of peak "green-up" and "dry-down" for the study area. The TM data sets were converted into Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images to expedite analysis of differences in fractal dimension between the two dates. These NDVI images were also resampled to resolutions of 60, 120, 240, 480, and 960 meters from the original 30 meter pixel size, to permit an assessment of how fractal dimension varies with spatial resolution. Tests of fractal dimension for two dates at various pixel resolutions show that the D values in the August image become increasingly more complex as pixel size increases to 480 meters. The D values in the May image show an even more complex relationship to pixel size than that expressed in the August image. Fractal dimension for a difference image computed for the May and August dates increase with pixel size up to a resolution of 120 meters, and then decline with increasing pixel size. This means that the greatest complexity in the difference images occur around a resolution of 120 meters, which is analogous to the operational domain of changes in vegetation and snow cover that constitute differences between the two dates.

  9. Landsat image registration - A study of system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Juday, R. D.; Wolfe, R. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of Landsat data, particularily agricultural and forestry applications, require the ability to geometrically superimpose or register data acquired at different times and possibly by different satellites. An experimental investigation relating to a registration processor used by the Johnson Space Center for this purpose is the subject of this paper. Correlation of small subareas of images is at the heart of this registration processor and the manner in which various system parameters affect the correlation process is the prime area of investigation. Parameters investigated include preprocessing methods, methods for detecting sucessful correlations, fitting a surface to the correlation patch, fraction of pixels designated as edge pixels in edge detection adn local versus global generation of edge images. A suboptimum search procedure is used to find a good parameter set for this registration processor.

  10. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A general overview of the LANDSAT 4 system with emphasis on the Thematic Mapper (TM) is presented. A variety of topics on the design, calibration, capabilities, and image processing techniques of the TM sensor are discussed in detail. The comparison of TM data with other MSS data is also investigated.

  11. Landsat 7 thermal-IR image sharpening using an artificial neural network and sensor model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; Schowengerdt, R.A.; ,

    2001-01-01

    The enhanced thematic mapper (plus) (ETM+) instrument on Landsat 7 shares the same basic design as the TM sensors on Landsats 4 and 5, with some significant improvements. In common are six multispectral bands with a 30-m ground-projected instantaneous field of view (GIFOV). However, the thermaL-IR (TIR) band now has a 60-m GIFOV, instead of 120-m. Also, a 15-m panchromatic band has been added. The artificial neural network (NN) image sharpening method described here uses data from the higher spatial resolution ETM+ bands to enhance (sharpen) the spatial resolution of the TIR imagery. It is based on an assumed correlation over multiple scales of resolution, between image edge contrast patterns in the TIR band and several other spectral bands. A multilayer, feedforward NN is trained to approximate TIR data at 60m, given degraded (from 30-m to 60-m) spatial resolution input from spectral bands 7, 5, and 2. After training, the NN output for full-resolution input generates an approximation of a TIR image at 30-m resolution. Two methods are used to degrade the spatial resolution of the imagery used for NN training, and the corresponding sharpening results are compared. One degradation method uses a published sensor transfer function (TF) for Landsat 5 to simulate sensor coarser resolution imagery from higher resolution imagery. For comparison, the second degradation method is simply Gaussian low pass filtering and subsampling, wherein the Gaussian filter approximates the full width at half maximum amplitude characteristics of the TF-based spatial filter. Two fixed-size NNs (that is, number of weights and processing elements) were trained separately with the degraded resolution data, and the sharpening results compared. The comparison evaluates the relative influence of the degradation technique employed and whether or not it is desirable to incorporate a sensor TF model. Preliminary results indicate some improvements for the sensor model-based technique. Further

  12. Recognition of lineaments in Eastern Rhodopes on Landsat multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Jelev, Georgi; Atanassov, Valentin; Koprinkova-Hristova, Petia; Alexiev, Kiril

    Lineaments usually appear on the multispectral images as lines (edges) or linear formations as a result of the color variations of the surface structures. Lineaments are line features on earth’s surface which reflect geological structure. The basic geometry of a line is orientation, length and curve. Detection of lineaments is an important operation in the exploration for mineral deposits, in the investigation of active fault patterns, water resources, etc. In this study the integrated approach is applied. It comes together the methods of the visual interpretation of various geological and geographical indications in the satellite images, application of spatial analysis in GIS and automatic processing of Landsat multispectral image by Canny algorithm, Directional Filter and Neural Network. Canny algorithm for extracting edges is series of filters (Gaussian, Sobel, etc.) applied to all bands of the image using the free IDL source (http://www.cis.rit.edu/class/simg782/programs/ canny.pro). Directional Filter is applied to sharpen the image in a specific (preferred) direction. Another method is the Neural Network algorithm for recognizing lineaments. Lineaments are effectively extracted using different methods of automatic. The results from above mentioned methods are compared to results derived from visual interpretation of satellite images and from geological map. The rose-diagrams of distribution of lineaments and maps of their density are completed. Acknowledgments: This study is supported by the project DFNI - I01/8 funded by the Bulgarian Science Fund.

  13. Landsat-4 data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been analyzed in order to ascertain data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations have tested band-to-band registration accuracy, and the TM's overall system resolution was evaluated for the case of image objects with high contrast, sharp edge responses. The information content evaluation employed clustering, principal components, and the transformed divergence separability measured on data from Iowa and Chicago, Illinois. The MSS classification analysis compared MSS and TM information contents for a large number of science classes.

  14. Analysis of Vegetation and Atmospheric Correction Indices for Landsat Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Tasha R.; Desai, M.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetation and Atmospheric Indices are mathematical combinations of remote sensing bands which are useful in distinguishing the various values of the spectral reflectance. In this paper we study how the applications of various atmospherically corrected indices and vegetation indices can aide in retrieving the amount of surface reflectance from a remotely sensed image. Specifically, this paper studies and compares three vegetation indices and one atmospherically resistant index. These indices include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), the Green Vegetation Index (GVI), and the Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI), respectively. The algorithms attempt to estimate the optical characteristics of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. It will be shown that the NDVI algorithm followed by the ARVI correcting algorithm provided significant improvements in the tonal qualities of the retrieved images. The results are presented on 1987 TM images over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and are compared with a set of United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S) maps.

  15. Cape Town, South Africa, Anaglyph, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear on the left (west) of this anaglyph view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located between Table Bay (upper left) and Table Mountain (just to the south), a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark.

    Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there (visible in this anaglyph when viewed at full resolution). Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen well inland (upper right) at the Theewaterskloof Dam.

    False Bay is the large bay to the southeast (lower right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (lower right) of this scene.

    This anaglyph was created by draping a Landsat visible light image over an SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard

  16. Comparative assessment of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data quality for mapping applications in the southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.

    1983-01-01

    The initial objectives of analyses of the MSS data are two-fold: (1) to evaluate the geodetic accuracy of CCT-P data of the test sites; and (2) to improve the geodetic accuracy by additional processing if the original data either do not meet pre-launch specifications or mapping requirements. The location of 45 ground control points (GCP) digitized from 35 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale quadrangles (UTM coordinates) were identified in terms of pixel and scan line values. These 46 points are used to establish UTM position error vector distributions in the scene. As an initial check on the geometric reliability of the MSS data, 28 well-distributed GCPs were input to a program which compares the scaled image distances between all possible point pairs with the corresponding map distances and computes the distance differences; that is, the relative positional errors. The relative errors obtained from initial computations averaged about +/- 200 m. These errors could result from a number of sources, including misidentification of GCP locations, UTM coordinate errors introduced by the map digitizing process or errors resulting from data acquisition and geometric processing.

  17. An efficient framework for modeling clouds from Landsat8 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chunqiang; Guo, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Cloud plays an important role in creating realistic outdoor scenes for video game and flight simulation applications. Classic methods have been proposed for cumulus cloud modeling. However, these methods are not flexible for modeling large cloud scenes with hundreds of clouds in that the user must repeatedly model each cloud and adjust its various properties. This paper presents a meteorologically based method to reconstruct cumulus clouds from high resolution Landsat8 satellite images. From these input satellite images, the clouds are first segmented from the background. Then, the cloud top surface is estimated from the temperature of the infrared image. After that, under a mild assumption of flat base for cumulus cloud, the base height of each cloud is computed by averaging the top height for pixels on the cloud edge. Then, the extinction is generated from the visible image. Finally, we enrich the initial shapes of clouds using a fractal method and represent the recovered clouds as a particle system. The experimental results demonstrate our method can yield realistic cloud scenes resembling those in the satellite images.

  18. Shoreline Delineation and Land Reclamation Change Detection Using Landsat Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, M. I.; Ahmad, M. A.; Kaamin, M.; Izhar, M. F. N.

    2016-07-01

    This study is conducted on the usage of remote sensing images from several different years in order to analyze the changes of shoreline and land cover of the area. Remote sensing images used in this study are the data captured by the Landsat satellite. The images are projecting the land surface in 30 by 30 meter resolution and it is processed by the ENVI software. ENVI is able to change each digital number of the pixels on the images into specific value according to the applied model for classification in which could be used as an approach in calculating the area different classes based from the images itself. Therefore, using this method, the changes on the coastal area are possible to be determined. Analysis of the shoreline and land reclamation around the coastal area is integrated with the land use changes to determine its impact. The study shows that Batu Pahat area might have undergone land reclamation whereas in Pasir Gudang is experiencing substantial amount of erosion. Besides, the changes of land use in both areas were considered to be rapid and due to the results obtained from this study, the issues may be brought about for the local authority awareness action.

  19. Investigation of Biomass Combustion Rate of Fire Radiative Energy Using Multiple-Satellite-observed Active Fires and Landsat TM Burn Severities across the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of atmospheric aerosol and greenhouse gases that substantially influence climate and regional air quality. However, the accuracy of biomass burning emissions estimated using traditional method is limited by large uncertainties in burned area and fuel loading. Alternatively, fire radiative energy (FRE) has recently been demonstrated to be linearly related to biomass combustion, which potentially improves the estimation of biomass burning emissions. The FRE-based combustion rate is 0.368-0.453 kg/MJ according to field controlled experiments while it varies from 1.37-4.5 kg/MJ derived from satellite-based bottom-up and top-down aerosol optical thickness estimates. Here we investigate the FRE combustion rate in over 1000 burn scars from 2011 to 2012 across the Continental United States (CONUS). Specifically, FRE was calculated by combining the high spatial observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the high temporal observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Biomass consumption in burn scars was modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities, 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System, and combustion completeness compiled from recent literatures. The combustion rate was then investigated by correlating FRE to biomass consumption across CONUS and Bailey's ecoregions. Our results show that the combustion rate can be extracted from the linear relationship between biomass consumption and FRE. The combustion rate is 0.415±10% kg/MJ across CONUS, which is similar to the rate derived from field experiments. However, it varies from 0.18-1.9 kg/MJ among ecoregions. This implies that a single combustion rate could produce large uncertainty in the estimation of biomass consumption at large scales. We suggest that ecoregion specified combustion rates should help to improve the accuracy of quantifying biomass burning emissions regionally and globally.

  20. Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat

  1. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Pre-Launch Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager(OLI) will be the main instrument on Landsat-8 when it launches in 2012. OLI represents a generational change from heritage Landsat instruments in its design but must maintain data continuity with the 30+ year Landsat data archive. As a result, OLI has undergone a stringent calibration and characterization campaign to ensure its characteristics are understood and consistent with past instruments. This paper presents an overview of the OLI design, its major differences from previous Landsat instruments, and a summary of its expected performance.

  2. Image animation for theme enhancement and change detection. [LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Animated displays are useful in enhancing subtle temporally related changes in scenes viewed by satellites capable of providing repetitive coverage. The detectability of fixed features is also improved through the help of the powerful visual integration process. To expedite the process of assembling and displaying well-registered, time-lapse sequences and to provide means for making quantitative measurements of radiances, displacements, and areas, an electronic satellite image analysis console was constructed. During the LANDSAT-1 program, this equipment was applied to the needs of a number of earth resource investigators with interests principally related to dynamic hydrology. The measurement of the areal extent of snow cover within defined drainage basins is discussed as a representative applications example.

  3. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  4. A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, Frank Don

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

  5. Applications notice for participation in the LANDSAT-D image data quality analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The applications notice for the LANDSAT 4 image data quality analysis program is presented. The objectives of the program are to qualify LANDSAT 4 sensor and systems performance from a user applications point of view, and to identify any malfunctions that may impact data applications. Guidelines for preparing proposals and background information are provided.

  6. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  7. Richat Structure, Mauritania, Anaglyph, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The prominent circular feature seen here, known as the Richat Structure, in the Sahara desert of Mauritania, is often noted by astronauts because it forms a conspicuous 50-kilometer-wide (30-mile-wide) bull's-eye on the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert. Initially mistaken for a possible impact crater, it is now known to be an eroded circular anticline (structural dome) of layered sedimentary rocks.

    Extensive sand dunes occur in this region and the interaction of bedrock topography, wind, and moving sand is evident in this scene. Note especially how the dune field generally ends abruptly short of the cliffs as wind from the northeast (upper right) apparently funnels around the cliff, sweeping clean areas near the base of the cliff (particularly at the cliff point to the northwest, upper left, of the Richat Structure). Note also the isolated peak within the dune field. That peak captures some sand on its windward side, but mostly deflects the wind and sand around its sides, creating a sand-barren streak that continues far downwind.

    To the west (left), a north-south trending bedrock ridge breaks up the sand field, and downwind from the ridge, streaks of dunes occur at certain locations. Upon close inspection, these streaks can be seen to be associated with saddles (low points) along the ridge, where sand preferentially passes over the ridge. This again shows how topographic features control the distribution of sand across the terrain.

    This anaglyph was created by draping a Landsat reflectance infrared image over an SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter For vertical scale, note that the prominent cliffs (image center) are about 300 meters (about 1000

  8. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  9. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat thematic mapper images applied to the detection of the transient snowline on tropical Andean glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Andrew G.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1999-10-01

    The tropical glaciers in the central Andes are sensitive indicators of climatic variability. They are an important water resource, but are presently in a state of rapid retreat. Spectral mixture analysis using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images was used to identify the ablation and accumulation zones and the transient snowline at two tropical sites: Zongo Glacier in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia, and the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru. Delineation of the accumulation and ablation zones is relatively insensitive to the endmembers selected to represent each zone. Endmembers selected from Zongo Glacier were successfully used to delineate accumulation and ablation zones on the Quelccaya Ice Cap. Spectral mixture analysis was found to be superior to a single band image or the TM4/TM5 ratio in discriminating the accumulation and ablation zones on these small tropical glaciers. The altitude of the transient snowline identified on Zongo Glacier at the end of the ablation season is consistent with the altitude of the equilibrium line determined from mass balance studies. This suggests that in the tropics, as in mid-latitudes, the highest altitude reached by the transient snowline during a hydrological year can be used as a proxy for the altitude of the equilibrium line.

  10. Mapping the invasive species, Chinese tallow, with EO1 satellite Hyperion hyperspectral image data and relating tallow occurrences to a classified Landsat Thematic Mapper land cover map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.; Nelson, G.; Ehrlich, R.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to provide a realistic and accurate representation of the spatial distribution of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) in the Earth Observing 1 (EO1) Hyperion hyperspectral image coverage by using methods designed and tested in previous studies. We transformed, corrected, and normalized Hyperion reflectance image data into composition images with a subpixel extraction model. Composition images were related to green vegetation, senescent foliage and senescing cypress-tupelo forest, senescing Chinese tallow with red leaves ('red tallow'), and a composition image that only corresponded slightly to yellowing vegetation. These statistical and visual comparisons confirmed a successful portrayal of landscape features at the time of the Hyperion image collection. These landscape features were amalgamated in the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) pixel, thereby preventing the detection of Chinese tallow occurrences in the Landsat TM classification. With the occurrence in percentage of red tallow (as a surrogate for Chinese tallow) per pixel mapped, we were able to link dominant land covers generated with Landsat TM image data to Chinese tallow occurrences as a first step toward determining the sensitivity and susceptibility of various land covers to tallow establishment. Results suggested that the highest occurrences and widest distribution of red tallow were (1) apparent in disturbed or more open canopy woody wetland deciduous forests (including cypress-tupelo forests), upland woody land evergreen forests (dominantly pines and seedling plantations), and upland woody land deciduous and mixed forests; (2) scattered throughout the fallow fields or located along fence rows separating active and non-active cultivated and grazing fields, (3) found along levees lining the ubiquitous canals within the marsh and on the cheniers near the coastline; and (4) present within the coastal marsh located on the numerous topographic highs. ?? 2005 US Government.

  11. A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, George P.; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ∼1% for ANN and ∼6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting. PMID:22294909

  12. Richat Structure, Mauritania, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This prominent circular feature, known as the Richat Structure, in the Sahara desert of Mauritania is often noted by astronauts because it forms a conspicuous 50-kilometer-wide (30-mile-wide) bull's-eye on the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert. Initially mistaken for a possible impact crater, it is now known to be an eroded circular anticline (structural dome) of layered sedimentary rocks.

    Extensive sand dunes occur in this region and the interaction of bedrock topography, wind, and moving sand is evident in this scene. Note especially how the dune field ends abruptly short of the cliffs at the far right as wind from the northeast (lower right) apparently funnels around the cliff point, sweeping clean areas near the base of the cliff. Note also the small isolated peak within the dune field. That peak captures some sand on its windward side, but mostly deflects the wind and sand around its sides, creating a sand-barren streak that continues far downwind.

    This view was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 6-times vertical exaggeration to greatly enhance topographic expression. For vertical scale, note that the height of the mesa ridge in the back center of the view is about 285 meters (about 935 feet) tall. Colors of the scene were enhanced by use of a combination of visible and infrared bands, which helps to differentiate bedrock (browns), sand (yellow, some white), minor vegetation in drainage channels (green), and salty sediments (bluish whites). Some shading of the elevation model was included to further highlight the topographic features.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  13. Improved forest change detection with terrain illumination corrected landsat images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An illumination correction algorithm has been developed to improve the accuracy of forest change detection from Landsat reflectance data. This algorithm is based on an empirical rotation model and was tested on the Landsat imagery pair over Cherokee National Forest, Tennessee, Uinta-Wasatch-Cache N...

  14. Vegetation Cover Change in Yosemite National Park (California) Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Landsat image analysis over the past 20+ years showed that consistent increases in the satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during relatively dry years were confined to large wildfire areas that burned in the late 1980s and 1990s.

  15. Ten Years of Forest Cover Change in the Sierra Nevada Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed geographic record of recent vegetation regrowth and disturbance patterns in forests of the Sierra Nevada remains a gap that can be filled with remote sensing data. Landsat (TM) imagery was analyzed to detect 10 years of recent changes (between 2000 and 2009) in forest vegetation cover for areas burned by wildfires between years of 1995 to 1999 in the region. Results confirmed the prevalence of regrowing forest vegetation during the period 2000 and 2009 over 17% of the combined burned areas.

  16. Landsat 7 - First Cloud-free Image of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Yellowstone Lake, in the center of Yellowstone National Park, was taken by Landsat 7 on July 13, 1999. Bands 5 (1.65um),4 (.825um), and 2 (.565um) were used for red, green, and blue, respectively. Water appears blue/black, snow light blue, mature forest red/green, young forest pink, and grass and fields appear light green. Southwest of the lake is young forest that is growing in the wake of the widespread fires of 1988. For more information, see: Landsat 7 Fact Sheet Landsat 7 in Mission Control Image by Rich Irish, NASA GSFC

  17. Using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor to detect change in land surface temperature in relation to land use change in Yazd, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareie, Sajad; Khosravi, Hassan; Nasiri, Abouzar; Dastorani, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land surface processes from local to global scales, and it is one of the indicators of environmental quality. Evaluation of the surface temperature distribution and its relation to existing land use types are very important to the investigation of the urban microclimate. In arid and semi-arid regions, understanding the role of land use changes in the formation of urban heat islands is necessary for urban planning to control or reduce surface temperature. The internal factors and environmental conditions of Yazd city have important roles in the formation of special thermal conditions in Iran. In this paper, we used the temperature-emissivity separation (TES) algorithm for LST retrieving from the TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were used for validation of retrieved LST values. The RMSE of 0.9 and 0.87 °C and R2 of 0.98 and 0.99 were obtained for the 1998 and 2009 images, respectively. Land use types for the city of Yazd were identified and relationships between land use types, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were analyzed. The Kappa coefficient and overall accuracy were calculated for accuracy assessment of land use classification. The Kappa coefficient values are 0.96 and 0.95 and the overall accuracy values are 0.97 and 0.95 for the 1998 and 2009 classified images, respectively. The results showed an increase of 1.45 °C in the average surface temperature. The results of this study showed that optical and thermal remote sensing methodologies can be used to research urban environmental parameters. Finally, it was found that special thermal conditions in Yazd were formed by land use changes. Increasing the area of asphalt roads, residential, commercial and industrial land use types and decreasing the area of the parks, green spaces and

  18. Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

  19. A comparison of different regression models for downscaling Landsat and MODIS land surface temperature images over heterogeneous landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Joshi, P. K.; Garg, R. D.

    2014-08-01

    Remotely sensed high spatial resolution thermal images are required for various applications in natural resource management. At present, availability of high spatial resolution (<200 m) thermal images are limited. The temporal resolution of such images is also low. Whereas, coarser spatial resolution (∼1000 m) thermal images with high revisiting capability (∼1 day) are freely available. To bridge this gap, present study attempts to downscale coarser spatial resolution thermal image to finer spatial resolution using relationships between land surface temperature (LST) and vegetation indices over a heterogeneous landscape of India. Five regression based models namely (i) Disaggregation of Radiometric Temperature (DisTrad), (ii) Temperature Sharpening (TsHARP), (iii) TsHARP with local variant, (iv) Least median square regression downscaling (LMSDS) and (v) Pace regression downscaling (PRDS) are applied to downscale LST of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images. All the five models are first evaluated on Landsat image aggregated to 960 m resolution and downscaled to 480 m and 240 m resolution. The downscale accuracy is achieved using LMSDS and PRDS models at 240 m resolution at 0.61 °C and 0.75 °C respectively. MODIS data downscaled from 1000 m to 250 m spatial resolution results root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.43 °C and 1.62 °C for LMSDS and PRDS models, respectively. The LMSDS model is less sensitive to outliers in heterogeneous landscape and provides higher accuracy when compared to other models. Downscaling model is found to be suitable for agricultural and vegetated landscapes up to a spatial resolution of 250 m but not applicable to water bodies, dry river bed sand sandy open areas.

  20. Forest impact estimated with NOAA AVHRR and landsat TM data related to an empirical hurricane wind-field distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Hodgson, M.E.; Sapkota, S.K.; Nelson, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    An empirical model was used to relate forest type and hurricane-impact distribution with wind speed and duration to explain the variation of hurricane damage among forest types along the Atchafalaya River basin of coastal Louisiana. Forest-type distribution was derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper image data, hurricane-impact distribution from a suite of transformed advanced very high resolution radiometer images, and wind speed and duration from a wind-field model. The empirical model explained 73%, 84%, and 87% of the impact variances for open, hardwood, and cypress-tupelo forests, respectively. These results showed that the estimated impact for each forest type was highly related to the duration and speed of extreme winds associated with Hurricane Andrew in 1992. The wind-field model projected that the highest wind speeds were in the southern basin, dominated by cypress-tupelo and open forests, while lower wind speeds were in the northern basin, dominated by hardwood forests. This evidence could explain why, on average, the impact to cypress-tupelos was more severe than to hardwoods, even though cypress-tupelos are less susceptible to wind damage. Further, examination of the relative importance of wind speed in explaining the impact severity to each forest type showed that the impact to hardwood forests was mainly related to tropical-depression to tropical-storm force wind speeds. Impacts to cypress-tupelo and open forests (a mixture of willows and cypress-tupelo) were broadly related to tropical-storm force wind speeds and by wind speeds near and somewhat in excess of hurricane force. Decoupling the importance of duration from speed in explaining the impact severity to the forests could not be fully realized. Most evidence, however, hinted that impact severity was positively related to higher durations at critical wind speeds. Wind-speed intervals, which were important in explaining the impact severity on hardwoods, showed that higher durations, but not the

  1. Assessing the potential of Landsat images to detect and map agricultural land abandonment in Kyzyl-Orda (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliemann, Elisabeth; Löw, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and agricultural land abandonment in the irrigated areas of Central Asia became widespread, in particular after the collapse of the former Soviet Union. It has strong socio-economic and ecological consequences, but unfortunately data and methods to map and monitor abandoned agriculture accurately over many regions in CA, e.g. Kyzyl-Orda in Kazakhstan, are still lacking. Remote sensing (RS) can potentially fill this gap, yet RS detection of agricultural land abandonment, most often characterized by shrub encroachment, is difficult and requires the availability of multiple images during the growing season. Also, sufficient reference data must be available for accurate classifier algorithm training. Hence the major aims of this study were to elaborate the effect of the number of Landsat-5 TM images on the accuracy of classification of land abandonment, and further how the choice of classifier algorithm (Random Forest and Support Vector Machine) and amount of training data affect the accuracy of the results. Multi-seasonal time series of Landsat-5 TM images were classified in pre-abandonment-time (1988) and post-abandonment-times (2000, 2009, 2010, 2011). Five images per year were used as classification input. Generally both algorithms performed equally well, and classification accuracies ranged from 84% to 91%. Classifications with fewer than five image dates resulted in a substantial decreases of overall classification accuracies (from 91% to 66%). Next to the number of images the seasons captured also had an impact. In general, the best image combination contained at least one image in late summer, plus another image in spring. In general, the choice of images (number and season) had a much stronger impact on the results than the choice of the classifier algorithm. The five multi-annual classifications resulted in a temporal sequence of five land uses for each agricultural field, which allowed to back-trace land use change between 1988 and 2011

  2. 40 years of Landsat images: What we learned about science and politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    The first Landsat (then called ERTS - Earth Resources Technology Satellite) launched in 1972. Landsat 8 launched in February 2013. The 40 + years of images have yielded a remarkable history of changes in Earth's land surface, and the program has accomplished significant technological achievements. However, the sustained long-term record owes more to luck than careful program planning, and especially benefitted from the remarkable 27-year life of Landsat 5. Recommendations for the future center mainly on making the program a real Program with a commitment to sustaining it, as well as some ideas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness.

  3. Landsat Thematic Mapper geodetic accuracy - Implications for geocoded map compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhmann, B.

    1985-01-01

    The geodetic accuracy and geometric fidelity of corrected thematic mapper (TM) imagery are evaluated. The positional accuracy requirements for the TM are for a single band to within 0.5 pixels of true earth-surface locations at any point over 90 percent of the image and for interband registration to within 0.3 pixel tolerance over 90 percent of the data. Landsat 4 and 5 TM data are analyzed to investigate: (1) single band geometric integrity, (2) 30 m resolution interband registration; (3) image to image conformity; (4) image to ground conformity; and (5) image projective geometry conformity to a mapped earth geometry. The procedures used to study these characteristics are described. The data reveal that Landsat TM digital data met or exceed map accuracy standards for horizontal control.

  4. An enhanced neighborhood similar pixel interpolator approach for removing thick clouds in landsat images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thick cloud contaminations in Landsat images limit their regular usage for land applications. A few methods have been developed to remove thick clouds using additional cloud-free images. Unfortunately, the cloud-free composition image produced by existing methods commonly lacks from the desired spat...

  5. Comparative lineament analysis using SIR-C radar, Landsat TM and stereo LFC photographs for assessing groundwater resources, Red Sea Hills area, Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, M.; Mather, P.M.; Leason, A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from a comparative investigation of lineament mapping from stereoscopic LFC and from SIR-C L and C band synthetic aperture radar data. The lineament patterns are used together with other spatial data sets describing lithology and geomorphic characteristics in order to test a model of groundwater flow in the semi-arid Red Sea Hills area of Sudan described by Koch (1993). Initial results show that the LFC imagery is most useful for mapping detailed fracture patterns while the combination of L and C bands (total power) of the SIR-C synthetic aperture radar is helpful in the location of major deep-seated fracture zones. L-band SAR data together with a false-colour Landsat TM composite show the presence of subsurface moisture and vegetation respectively. These results are discussed within the context of a hydrogeological model.

  6. Use of spectral data and Landsat TM for mapping alluvial fan deposits of the Rosillos Mountains in Brewster County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bittick, S.M.; Morgan, K.M.; Busbey, A.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    The Rosillos Mountains consist of a large, highly faulted and fracture, exposed Tertiary igneous intrusion (laccolith) located adjacent to Big Bend National Park. This study examines the alluvial deposits that fan out over the 25,000 acre privately owned Rosillos Ranch located on the east side of the laccolith. Using a field spectrometer, spectral curves were generated for the various materials present. These surface reflectance patterns were used for spectral recognition and, along with Landsat digital data, for computer classification mapping of the alluvial fans. Several computer classification techniques will be presented along with mapping accuracies. Initial results indicate the resulting Landsat generated fan deposit maps are, in fact, related to the source areas and the age of deposition.

  7. An exploitation of coregistered SIR-A, Seasat and Landsat images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebillard, P.; Nguyen, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral registration and classification of SIR-A, Seasat SAR, and Landsat MSS data is presented over two playas located in the northeastern Algerian Sahara. A supervised classification was made over six classes: salt, palm trees, dunes, limestones, gypsum and sand. The best classification is obtained by using all of the data. The images using radar only misclassify trees and salt, limestone and dunes, gypsum and dunes. Landsat only gives a good map but lacks the roughness information contained in the radar data. The Landsat/SIR-A combination gives a better classification than the Landsat/Seasat combination. Density number histograms computed within several classes on the Seasat and SIR-A data show the misclassification is mainly due to the Seasat data.

  8. Differentiating volcanic rock assemblages using Landsat Thematic Mapper data - Influence of petrochemistry and desert varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, D. M.; Taranik, J. V.; Hsu, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted of the composition, distribution, spectral properties, and Landsat TM influences of desert varnish from three sites in southern Nevada. It is established that the TM signatures of diverse volcanic rock assemblages primarily depend on primary petrochemical characteristics. Desert varnish is found to exert a minimal influence on TM imagery at longer wavelengths, but absorbs the higher frequency radiation of TM bands 1-3, thereby leading to high TM band 5/2 values and dark contrast on 5/2 images over units with high rock-varnish albedo difference; highly evolved volcanic deposits show steep positive spectral slopes in the TM band 5-7 region.

  9. Application of LANDSAT images to the study of level soils for recognizing drainage areas. Thesis Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinoza, M. U.

    1977-01-01

    Photographic images from LANDSAT 1 were applied to the study of soil in Desaguadero, Bolivia, in order to locate areas with high agricultural and livestock potential. Photointerpretation techniques were emphasized and advantages of information obtained via multispectral satellite images in various bands and combinations were demonstrated.

  10. Genetic algorithms for terrain categorization of Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larch, David E.

    1994-07-01

    We have developed a method that uses genetic algorithms (GAs) to optimize rules for categorizing the terrain in Landsat data. A rule has two parts: a left side (the 'if' clause) and a right side (the 'then' clause). When the 'if' clause is true, the functions in the 'then' clause are executed to process the Landsat data. Examples of functions for processing the data include pixel by pixel threshold and a linear combination of six bands. Optimized rules are used to identify different terrain categories within Landsat data. Optimization is performed by comparing the results of the rules with ground truth using an objective function which minimizes the number of false positive and false negative pixel labels. Those rules that generate results close to the ground truth (those rules that return a small number of false positive and false negative pixel identifications) are highly rewarded and are used to create the next generation of rules. High altitude photographs were used as ground truth. The GA produced promising results for terrain categorization when compared with results from a maximum likelihood classifier. More work in the area of terrain categroization is planned to build on these promising results.

  11. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital

  12. Analysis of Relationship Between Urban Heat Island Effect and Land Use/cover Type Using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, N.; Koc-San, D.

    2016-06-01

    The main objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperature (LST) from Landsat imageries, (ii) to determine the UHI effects from Landsat 7 ETM+ (June 5, 2001) and Landsat 8 OLI (June 17, 2014) imageries, (iii) to examine the relationship between LST and different Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) types for the years 2001 and 2014. The study is implemented in the central districts of Antalya. Initially, the brightness temperatures are retrieved and the LST values are calculated from Landsat thermal images. Then, the LU/LC maps are created from Landsat pan-sharpened images using Random Forest (RF) classifier. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and DMSP_OLS nighttime lights data are used as auxiliary data during the classification procedure. Finally, UHI effect is determined and the LST values are compared with LU/LC classes. The overall accuracies of RF classification results were computed higher than 88 % for both Landsat images. During 13-year time interval, it was observed that the urban and industrial areas were increased significantly. Maximum LST values were detected for dry agriculture, urban, and bareland classes, while minimum LST values were detected for vegetation and irrigated agriculture classes. The UHI effect was computed as 5.6 °C for 2001 and 6.8 °C for 2014. The validity of the study results were assessed using MODIS/Terra LST and Emissivity data and it was found that there are high correlation between Landsat LST and MODIS LST data (r2 = 0.7 and r2 = 0.9 for 2001 and 2014, respectively).

  13. Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer data for the Cuprite mining district, Esmeralda, and Nye counties, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1989-01-01

    Landsat TM images and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data were analyzed for the Cuprite mining district and compared to available geologic and alteration maps of the area. The TM data, with 30 m resolution and 6 broadbands, allowed discrimination of general mineral groups. Clay minerals, playa deposits, and unaltered rocks were mapped as discrete spectral units using the TM data, but specific minerals were not determined, and definition of the individual alteration zones was not possible. The GERIS, with 15 m spatial resolution and 63 spectral bands, permitted construction of complete spectra and identification of specific minerals. Detailed spectra extracted from the images provided the ability to identify the minerals alunite, kaolinite, hematite, and buddingtonite by their spectral characteristics. The GERIS data show a roughly concentrically zoned hydrothermal system. The mineralogy mapped with the aircraft system conforms to previous field and multispectral image mapping. However, identification of individual minerals and spatial display of the dominant mineralogy add information that can be used to help determine the morphology and genetic origin of the hydrothermal system.

  14. Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer data for the Cuprite mining district, Esmeralda, and Nye counties, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

    Landsat TM images and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data were analyzed for the Cuprite mining district and compared to available geologic and alteration maps of the area. The TM data, with 30 m resolution and 6 broadbands, allowed discrimination of general mineral groups. Clay minerals, playa deposits, and unaltered rocks were mapped as discrete spectral units using the TM data, but specific minerals were not determined, and definition of the individual alteration zones was not possible. The GERIS, with 15 m spatial resolution and 63 spectral bands, permitted construction of complete spectra and identification of specific minerals. Detailed spectra extracted from the images provided the ability to identify the minerals alunite, kaolinite, hematite, and buddingtonite by their spectral characteristics. The GERIS data show a roughly concentrically zoned hydrothermal system. The mineralogy mapped with the aircraft system conforms to previous field and multispectral image mapping. However, identification of individual minerals and spatial display of the dominant mineralogy add information that can be used to help determine the morphology and genetic origin of the hydrothermal system.

  15. Recent data quality and earth science results from the Landsat thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Barker, John L.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the NASA Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program are reviewed. Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 TM data quality with regard to image geometry and radiometry are discussed. The results indicate that the TM provides excellent imagery that can be used in the form of satellite image maps meeting cartographic standards at scales of 1:100,000 or smaller. These data can be used to locate features or guide the revision or updating of maps for scales up to 1:24,000. The TM sensor is also providing data of good radiometric quality and stability, with radiometric uncertainties of 1 percent or smaller. The temperature dependence in the absolute radiometry is on the order of 1 to 5 percent of full scale. In terms of bidirectional reflectance estimated at the satellite, the error is estimated at under 6 percent and commonly 3 percent. Preliminary results also corroborate the utility of the TM data for geological or geographical studies.

  16. Progress on a Landsat 8 Image Mosaic of Antarctica and Early Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T.

    2015-12-01

    The polar regions, and the large ice sheets in particular, are quickly evolving harbingers of global change. Therefore, it is important that we measure and monitor the ice sheets in a consistent and repeatable manner over time. While kilometer-scale resolution sensors like MODIS and VIIRS can do this on a daily basis, the higher spatial and radiometric resolution of Landsat 8 supports a more quantitative measure of polar change over decameter spatial scales and weekly to seasonal timescales. To date, Landsat 8 has collected over two years of imagery of exceptional radiometric quality and geolocation accuracy, and with unprecedented acquisition rates for the poles. Building upon lessons learned from the Landsat 7 Antarctic mosaic (LIMA; Bindschadler et al., 2008, Remote Sensing of the Environment), this project harnesses the multispectral imaging capabilities of Landsat 8 with Google's Earth Engine to produce time-series data sets for monitoring the remote, vast, polar ice sheets in a fraction of the time it would take to do so with traditional computational methods (or earlier manual efforts). We focus on building cloud-free, multi-temporal Landsat 8 mosaics ('data cubes') by applying a range of strategies (e.g., normalized indices, statistically based thresholds, image cross-correlation). These can then be used to quantify ice sheet surface and snow cover properties over time to study ice sheet change (e.g., ice sheet morphology, ice shelf extent, snow grain size, melt and melt pond extent, surface wind direction from drift orientation).

  17. Enhancement of Landsat images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin, New York and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat images of New York and Pennsylvania was undertaken to provide optimum images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin. Preliminary examination of Landsat images from photographic prints indicated sufficient differences between the spectral bands of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) to warrant digital processing of both MSS band 7 and MSS band 5. Selective contrast stretching based on analysis of the Landsat MSS histograms proved to be the most important factor affecting the appearance of the images. A three-point linear stretch using the two end points and a middle point to the Landsat frequency distribution was most successful. The flexibility of the REMAPP image processing system was helpful in creating such custom-tailored stretches. An edge enhancement was tested on the MSS band 5 image, but was not used. Stereoscopic Landsat images acquired from adjacent orbits aided recognition of topographic features; the area of stereoscopic coverage could be increased by utilizing the precession of Landsat-1?s orbit . Improvements in the digitally processed scenes did affect the analysis of lineaments for the New York area; on the enhanced MSS band 5 image, an ENE trending set of lineaments is visible, which was not recognized from other images.

  18. Evaluation of vegetative fraction coverage (VFC) parameter for modeling urban heat fluxes using two remote sensing-based surface energy balance models of Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable estimation of the surface energy budgets over urban areas is crucial for many applications such as water resource management and weather forecasting. Among the urban heat fluxes required inputting parameters, the vegetative fraction coverage (VFC) factor is one of the most difficult to be retrieved over intra-urban scales. Traditional methods for the extraction of VFC from remote sensing data using vegetation indices such as NDVI were found to have large uncertainty due to its sensitivity to the surface heterogeneous characteristic. This study presents a Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) based approach of Landsat TM data to map the VFC for the use in the modeling of urban heat fluxes, in the case of Beijing, China. Two models (Two-Source model (TSEB) and Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA)), which have different input requirements and levels of complexity, but both owe operational capabilities, were adopted for evaluation of VFC on urban heat fluxes. A comparative analysis between NDVI-based and SMA-based urban VFC showed that the latter achieved more accurate VFC values for complex urban regions. Moreover, the SMA-based urban VFC could be utilized to produce a more detailed spatial variability in studied urban heat fluxes (i.e. Bowen ratio and latent heat flux (LE)) as well as a higher precision when used as input to both Big-Leaf and PCACA model. Our study also revealed that the LANDSAT TM retrieved VFC value is more sensitive in obtaining urban heat fluxes for Big-Leaf model relative than PCACA model. PCACA model may be more practical for surface heat flux research when the study region is relatively complex and the required parameters are insufficient. In addition, for the three selected metropolises (Beijing, Shijiazhuang and Suzhou) with dissimilar urban vegetation cover conditions, an exponential relationship was found obviously between the VFC and LE/VFC in terms of both overall and zonal analysis regarding on both TSEB and

  19. A Preliminary Comparison Between Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI for Geological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Papoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary comparison of multispectral data from Landsat 8 OLI to the respective data from Sentinel-2 for geological applications is performed and the results are presented in this study. The behaviour of different classical Landsat Thematic Mapper band ratios sensitive on mineral (TM5/7, TM5/4, TM3/1) or hydrothermal anomalies (TM5/7, TM3/1, TM4/3) detection were used in synergy with digital processing techniques like the Principal Component Analysis. Data fusion techniques were also applied in order to ameliorate the spatial resolution of the data. In order to assess the performance of these band ratio images different quantitative criteria are used such as, the standard deviation of the image, and the coefficient of variation of each pixel.

  20. Landsat 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat era that began in 1972 will continue into the future, since the February 2013 launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (renamed Landsat 8 on May 30, 2013). The Landsat 8 satellite provides 16-bit high-quality land-surface data, with instruments advancing future measurement capabilities while ensuring compatibility with historical Landsat data. The Operational Land Imager sensor collects data in the visible, near infrared, and shortwave infrared wavelength regions as well as a panchromatic band. Two new spectral bands have been added: a deep-blue band for coastal water and aerosol studies (band 1), and a band for cirrus cloud detection (band 9). A Quality Assurance band is also included to indicate the presence of terrain shadowing, data artifacts, and clouds. The Thermal Infrared Sensor collects data in two long wavelength thermal infrared bands and has a 3-year design life.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the landsat-4 thematic mapper data for mineral exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Power, M.S.; Jones, O.D.

    1985-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data recorded over an arid terrain were analyzed to determine the applicability of using of TM data for identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Clays, micas, and other minerals bearing the OH anion in specific crystal lattice positions have absorption bands in the 2.2-??m region (TM channel 7, TM7) and commonly lack features in the 1.6-??m region (TM5). Channel ratios TM5/TM7, TM5/TM4, and TM3/TM1 were combined into a color-ratio-composite (CRC) image and used to distinguish hydrothermally altered rocks, unaltered rocks, and vegetation. These distinctions are made possible by using the TM5 and TM7, channels which are not available in the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). Digital masking was used to eliminate ambiguities due to water and shadows. However, some ambiguities in identification resulted between altered volcanic rocks and unaltered sedimentary deposits that contained clays, carbonates, and gypsum, and between altered volcanic rocks and volcanic tuffs diagenetically altered to zeolites. However, compared to MSS data, TM data should greatly improve the ability to map hydrothermally altered rocks in arid terrains. ?? 1985.

  2. Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

  3. Application of LANDSAT data and digital image processing. [Ruhr Valley, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodechtel, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Based on LANDSAT 1 and 2 data, applications in the fields of coal mining, lignite exploration, and thematic mapping in geology are demonstrated. The hybrid image processing system, its software, and its utilization for educational purposes is described. A pre-operational European satellite is proposed.

  4. Vegetation Cover Change in Yellowstone National Park Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Results from Landsat satellite image analysis since 1987 in all unburned areas (since the 1880s) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) showed that consistent decreases in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been strongly dependent on periodic variations in peak annual snow water equivalents (SWE).

  5. Geological map of parts of the state of Sao Paulo based on LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejususparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Amaral, G.; Liu, C. C.; Filho, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretation of LANDSAT images revealed the subdivision of the Bauru formation into three distinct lithofacies. Delineation of structural features yielded new information on paleoenvironmental reconstitution and hydrogeology. Structural features and photogeological units were revealed in the precambrian basement at the eastern portion of the state.

  6. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR THEIR GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC ACCURACIES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysoki, M.H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L.U.; Jones, O.D.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This report describes results of some preliminary analyses of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for the NASA Landsat Image Quality Analysis program. The work is being done under interagency agreement S-12407-C between the U. S. Geological Survey and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Landsat-4 TM scenes for Washington, D. C. Macon, Georgia (40050-15333, September 4, 1982) and Cape Canaveral, Florida have been examined to determine their geometric and radiometric accuracy. In addition, parts of these scenes are also being analyzed to determine the ability to identify specific rock types with the added near-infrared TM bands.

  7. Landsat Image Map Production Methods at the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, R.D.; Binnie, D.R.; Martin, S.

    1987-01-01

    To maintain consistently high quality in satellite image map production, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed standard procedures for the photographic and digital production of Landsat image mosaics, and for lithographic printing of multispectral imagery. This paper gives a brief review of the photographic, digital, and lithographic procedures currently in use for producing image maps from Landsat data. It is shown that consistency in the printing of image maps is achieved by standardizing the materials and procedures that affect the image detail and color balance of the final product. Densitometric standards are established by printing control targets using the pressplates, inks, pre-press proofs, and paper to be used for printing.

  8. LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

  9. Simulation of Image Performance Characteristics of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, John; Gerace, Aaron; Brown, Scott; Gartley, Michael; Montanaro, Matthew; Reuter, Dennis C.

    2012-01-01

    The next Landsat satellite, which is scheduled for launch in early 2013, will carry two instruments: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). Significant design changes over previous Landsat instruments have been made to these sensors to potentially enhance the quality of Landsat image data. TIRS, which is the focus of this study, is a dual-band instrument that uses a push-broom style architecture to collect data. To help understand the impact of design trades during instrument build, an effort was initiated to model TIRS imagery. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool was used to produce synthetic "on-orbit" TIRS data with detailed radiometric, geometric, and digital image characteristics. This work presents several studies that used DIRSIG simulated TIRS data to test the impact of engineering performance data on image quality in an effort to determine if the image data meet specifications or, in the event that they do not, to determine if the resulting image data are still acceptable.

  10. Distribution of Glass Eel by the Water Surface Salinity Using Landsat TM at Pelabuhan Ratu Bay, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irianto, D. S.; Supriatna; Pin, TjiongGiok

    2016-11-01

    Eel (Anguilla spp.) is consumed fish that has an important economic value, either for local or international market. Pelabuhanratu Bay is an area with big potential for supplying eel seed. One of important factor, which affect an eel existence, is salinity, because eel migrate from fresh water, brackish, and sea naturally although the otherwise so that need ways to describe the distribution of glass eel by the salinity. To find out the percentage of salinity, it obtained from Landsat 8 Imagery in year 2015 using salinity prediction of Algorithm Cimandiri. The research has been conducted at Cimandiri Estuary, Citepus Estuary, and Cimaja Estuary based on wet and dry months. The existence of glass eel which is obtained from the catch was occurs on dry month when the most catch was occurs at the edge of estuary. The catch is reduced if it's farther from the edge of estuary, at the beach towards the sea and the inside of the river mouth with the percentage of salinity towards the sea is increase while the percentage of salinity towards the river is decrease.

  11. Using Landsat TM Imagery to Monitor Vegetation Change Following Flow Restoration to the Lower Owens River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Lesley Crandell

    Rehabilitating river corridors to restore valuable riparian habitat consumes significant resources from both governments and private companies. Given these considerable expenditures, it is important to monitor the progress of such projects. This study evaluated the utility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper remotely-sensed data from 2002 and 2009 to monitor vegetation change induced by instream flow restoration to the Lower Owens River in central California. This study compared the results of an unsupervised classification with an NDVI threshold classification to appraise the resources required and effectiveness of each analysis method. The results were inspected by creating standard remote sensing accuracy error matrices and by correlating landscape pattern metrics with bird indicator species. Both sets of classified maps show a noticeable increase in riparian vegetation in the study area following flow restoration in 2006, indicating an improvement of the quality of bird habitat. The study concluded that analyzing vegetation change using the unsupervised classification technique required more effort, expert knowledge, and supplementary data than using the NDVI threshold method. If these prerequisites are met, the output from the unsupervised classification process produces a more precise map of land cover change than the NDVI threshold method. However, if an analyst is lacking either resources or ground verification data, the NDVI threshold technique is capable of providing a generalized, but still valid evaluation of vegetation change. This conclusion is supported by higher correlations between indicator bird species under the unsupervised classification method than were found with the NDVI threshold method.

  12. Comparison of three methods for long-term monitoring of boreal lake area using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David

    2012-01-01

    Programs to monitor lake area change are becoming increasingly important in high latitude regions, and their development often requires evaluating tradeoffs among different approaches in terms of accuracy of measurement, consistency across multiple users over long time periods, and efficiency. We compared three supervised methods for lake classification from Landsat imagery (density slicing, classification trees, and feature extraction). The accuracy of lake area and number estimates was evaluated relative to high-resolution aerial photography acquired within two days of satellite overpasses. The shortwave infrared band 5 was better at separating surface water from nonwater when used alone than when combined with other spectral bands. The simplest of the three methods, density slicing, performed best overall. The classification tree method resulted in the most omission errors (approx. 2x), feature extraction resulted in the most commission errors (approx. 4x), and density slicing had the least directional bias (approx. half of the lakes with overestimated area and half of the lakes with underestimated area). Feature extraction was the least consistent across training sets (i.e., large standard error among different training sets). Density slicing was the best of the three at classifying small lakes as evidenced by its lower optimal minimum lake size criterion of 5850 m2 compared with the other methods (8550 m2). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the use of additional spectral bands and a more sophisticated method not only required additional processing effort but also had a cost in terms of the accuracy and consistency of lake classifications.

  13. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of the Earth's changing surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has managed the Landsat data archive for more than two decades. This archive provides a rich collection of information about the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface of the planet can be detected, measured, and analyzed using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The information obtainable from the historical and current Landsat data play a key role in studying surface changes through time. This document provides an overview of the Landsat program and illustrates the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To reveal changes that have taken place within the past 20 years, pairs and triplicates of images were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical record of the Earth's land surface from the early 1970's to the early 1990's. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to the present.

  14. Detection of impervious surface change with multitemporal Landsat images in an urban-rural frontier

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and monitoring impervious surface dynamic change in a complex urban-rural frontier with medium or coarse spatial resolution images is a challenge due to the mixed pixel problem and the spectral confusion between impervious surfaces and other non-vegetation land covers. This research selected Lucas do Rio Verde County in Mato Grosso State, Brazil as a case study to improve impervious surface estimation performance by the integrated use of Landsat and QuickBird images and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the normalized multitemporal Landsat-derived fractional impervious surfaces. This research demonstrates the importance of two step calibrations. The first step is to calibrate the Landsat-derived fraction impervious surface values through the established regression model based on the QuickBird-derived impervious surface image in 2008. The second step is to conduct the normalization between the calibrated 2008 impervious surface image with other dates of impervious surface images. This research indicates that the per-pixel based method overestimates the impervious surface area in the urban-rural frontier by 50-60%. In order to accurately estimate impervious surface area, it is necessary to map the fractional impervious surface image and further calibrate the estimates with high spatial resolution images. Also normalization of the multitemporal fractional impervious surface images is needed to reduce the impacts from different environmental conditions, in order to effectively detect the impervious surface dynamic change in a complex urban-rural frontier. The procedure developed in this paper for mapping and monitoring impervious surface area is especially valuable in urban-rural frontiers where multitemporal Landsat images are difficult to be used for accurately extracting impervious surface features based on traditional per-pixel based classification methods as they cannot effectively handle the mixed pixel problem. PMID:21552379

  15. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  16. The landsat image mosaic of the Antarctica Web Portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusanowski, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    People believe what they can see. The Poles exist as a frozen dream to most people. The International Polar Year wants to break the ice (so to speak), open up the Poles to the general public, support current polar research, and encourage new research projects. The IPY officially begins in March, 2007. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), are developing three Landsat mosaics of Antarctica and an Antarctic Web Portal with a Community site and an online map viewer. When scientists are able to view the entire scope of polar research, they will be better able to collaborate and locate the resources they need. When the general public more readily sees what is happening in the polar environments, they will understand how changes to the polar areas affect everyone.

  17. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis. [Des Moines, Iowa area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Seven heterogeneous areas within the Des Moines, Iowa area test site were selected to define candidate spectral training classes using a clustering algorithm. In addition to the 91 cluster (nonsupervised) classes, three supervised training classes were defined and subsequently included in the training statistics file. The identity of all 94 candidate classes were determined using available reference data. Through analysis of the interclass separabilities, the original 94 candidate training classes were reduced to 42 spectrally separable final classes. The minimum average transformed divergence values for the 42 spectral classes and for the best subsets of TM spectral bands are shown in a table.

  18. Geobotanical information contained in Landsat Thematic Mapper images covering southern Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Arvidson, R.; Sultan, M.; Guinness, E.

    1986-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in the late summer, fall, and winter of 1982 over forested bedrocks in southeastern Missouri were used in conjunction with forest surveys, field work, aerial photographs, and laboratory analyses to evaluate multispectral and seasonal information from visible and reflected IR data. The forested bedrock included granites, rhyolites, carbonates, and sandstones. High reflectance in band 4 (760-900 nm) in the summer scene corresponds to regions of xeric forest type. The fact that the xeric regions tend to develop flat-topped canopies, as opposed to irregular canopy surfaces of the wetter mesic areas, may partially control the TM response in bands 4, 5 (155-175 nm) and 7 (208-235 nm). The xeric regions correlated with soils having poor water retention capabilities, such as rhyolites and certain carbonate rocks with nonporous residum layers. An opposite relationship between xeric and mesic forest biomass was noted, if the commonly used TM band ratio 4/3 was used as a surrogate biomass measure. The high band 4 response over xeric forests gives anomalously high biomass estimates.

  19. LANDSAT M. S. S. IMAGE MOSAIC OF TUNISIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell-Thomas, J. C.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat mosaic of Tunisia funded by USAID for the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Soils Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia, was completed by the USGS in September 1983. It is a mixed mosaic associating digital corrections and enhancements to manual mosaicking and corresponding to the Tunisian request for high resolution and the limited available funds. The scenes were processed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, resampling the data geodesically corrected to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator projection using control points from topographic maps at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales available in the U. S. The mosaicking was done in the Eastern Mapping Center under the supervision of the Graphic Arts System Section. The three black and white mosaics were made at the 1:1,000,000 scale and various products generated. They included color film positives at 1:2,000,000 and 1:4,000,000 scales reproducible in the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Tunis and corresponding color prints as well as tricolor prints at various scales from 1:500,000 to 1:2,000,000.

  20. Monsoon flood boundary delineation and damage assessment using space borne imaging radar and Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Vermillion, C.; Story, M. H.; Choudhury, A. M.; Gafoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) Program and Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) Data from Landsat 4 were used to map flood boundaries for the assessment of flood damage in the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. The cloud penetrating capabilities of the L-band radar provided a clear picture of the hydrologic conditions of the surface during a period of inclement weather at the end of the wet phase of the 1984 monsoon. The radar image data were digitally processed to geometrically rectify the pixel geometry and were filtered to subdue radar image speckle effects. Contrast enhancement techniques and density slicing were used to create discrete land-cover categories corresponding to surface conditions present at the time of the Shuttle overflight. The radar image classification map was digitally registered to a spectral signature classification map of the area derived from Landsat MSS data collected two weeks prior to the SIR-B mission. Classification accuracy comparisons were made between the radar and MSS classification maps, and flood boundary and flood damage assessment measurements were made with the merged data by adding the classifications and inventorying the land-cover classes inundated at the time of flooding.

  1. Thirty Years of Vegetation Change in the Coastal Santa Cruz Mountains of Northern California Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Results from Landsat satellite image times series analysis since 1983 of this study area showed gradual, statistically significant increases in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in more than 90% of the (predominantly second-growth) evergreen forest locations sampled.

  2. Mapping the Potential for Eolian Surface Activity in Grasslands of the High Plains using Landsat Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, Ethan Dain

    2002-01-01

    There are over 100,000 square kilometers of eolian sand dunes and sand sheets in the High Plains of the central United States. These land-forms may be unstable and may reactivate again as a result of land-use, climate change, or natural climatic variability. The main goal of this thesis was to develop a model that could be used to map an estimate of future dune activity. Multi-temporal calibrated Landsats 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and 7 Enhanced Thematic Map per Plus (ETM+) NDVI imagery were used in conjunction with the CENTURY vegetation model to correlate vegetation cover to climatic variability. This allows the creation of a predicted vegetation map which, combined with current wind and soil data, was used to create a potential sand transport map for range land in the High Plains under drought conditions.

  3. Options for compiling an inventory of mining waste sites throughout Europe by combining Landsat-TM derived information with national and pan-European thematic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijdea, Anca-Marina; Sommer, Stefan

    2004-10-01

    Presently no reliable synoptic picture of number, extent, distribution and emissions from mining waste sites exists, neither for EU member states, nor for the Accession and Candidate Countries. At EU level, this information is needed to assess the large range of environmental impacts caused by mining wastes and their emissions in a coherent way across the different policies addressing the protection and sustainable use of environmental resources. The core task lies in the harmonised collection and standardised compilation and evaluation of existing data and in connecting them to a geographical reference system compatible with other European data sets. In the proposed approach information from national registers of mining wastes is linked to related standardized spatial data layers such as CORINE Land Cover (the classes of mineral extraction sites, dump sites) or other data sets available in the EUROSTAT GISCO data base, thus adding the spatial dimension at regional scale. Higher level of spatial detail and distinction between mineral extraction site and waste sites with or without accumulation of potentially hazardous material is added by remote sensing, applying a semi-automated principal component analysis (PCA) to selected spectral channels of geo-referenced Landsat-TM full scenes. The method was demonstrated on large areas covering approximately 120000 km2 of Slovakia and Romania and was validated against mining-related features from Pan-European and/or national databases, detailed geological maps, mineral resource maps, as well as by a GIS analysis showing the distribution of anomalous pixels in the above-mentioned features compared to the main land cover classes.

  4. Artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques employed in the Landsat 7 image assessment system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boncyk, Wayne C.; Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Helder, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the Landsat-7 Ground System, will calibrate and evaluate the radiometric and geometric performance of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) instrument. The IAS incorporates new instrument radiometric artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques which overcome some limitations to calibration accuracy inherent in historical calibration methods. Knowledge of ETM + instrument characteristics gleaned from analysis of archival Thematic Mapper in-flight data and from ETM + prelaunch tests allow the determination and quantification of the sources of instrument artifacts. This a priori knowledge will be utilized in IAS algorithms designed to minimize the effects of the noise sources before calibration, in both ETM + image and calibration data.

  5. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  6. Monitoring recent trends in the area of aeolian desertified land using Landsat images in China's Xinjiang region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yan, C. Z.; Song, X.; Xie, J. L.

    2012-03-01

    China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in a region with an arid climate, and suffers from severe aeolian desertification. Aeolian desertified land (ADL) is widely distributed in the region and strongly constrains sustainable socioeconomic development. In this study, we used Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM images from 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2010 to classify the intensity of aeolian desertification in four categories (slight, moderate, severe, and extremely severe). Using these data, we developed an ADL database and use it to discuss the evolution of ADL during the study period, along with the desertification and restoration processes and the causes of the desertification. We found 47,833 km2 of ADL in 2010, most of which (more than 57%) was rated as extremely severe or severe. The area of ADL increased by 2228 km2 between 1975 and 1990 (by 4.67%). In contrast, some areas of ADL have been restored, so that the area of ADL has decreased since 1990: by 930 km2 from 1990 to 2000 (1.86%) and by 1223 km2 from 2000 to 2010 (2.49%). Based on the analysis of effects of climate changes and human activities in the region, aeolian desertification was principally driven by human activities in this area; climatic variations had less effect on the area of severe desertification. And the driving force need for more detailed quantitative analysis with more frequent remotely sensed data.

  7. A qualitative appraisal of the hydrology of the Yemen Arab Republic from Landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grolier, Maurice J.; Tibbitts, G. Chase; Ibrahim, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Six series of Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 images taken between 1972 and 1976 were analyzed to describe the flow regimens of streams and the regional distribution of vegetation in the Yemen Arab Republic. The findings provide a factual basis for planning a surface-water data collection program, and for preparing maps of plant distribution and agricultural land use. They lay the foundation for modernized water development, for effecting a program of country-wide water management. The work was undertaken as part of the program of the U.S. Agency for International Development with the cooperation of the Yemen Mineral and Petroleum Authority, Ministry of Economy. A false-color composite mosaic of the nine images which cover the country was prepared using Landsat 1 images taken at relatively low sun-angle in winter 1972-73. Catchment areas and the major drainage basins of the country were delineated on this mosaic. In order of increasing water availability, the four catchment areas of the YAR are: Ar Rub al Khali, Wadi Jawf (Arabian Sea), Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden. Most streams are ephemeral. No lakes were detected during the period under investigation, but sebkhas--salt flats or low salt-encrusted plains--are common along the Red Sea coast. In spite of resolution and scale constraints, streamflow was interpreted as perennial or intermittent, wherever it could be detected on several Landsat images covering the same scene at seasonal or yearly intervals. Much of the land under cultivation is restricted to valley floors, and to valley slopes and irrigated terraces adjacent to stream channels. Little or no vegetation could be detected over large regions of the Yemen Arab Republic. (USGS)

  8. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  9. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  10. EROS main image file - A picture perfect database for Landsat imagery and aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1966 under the administration of the Geological Survey. It is primarily concerned with the application of remote sensing techniques for the management of natural resources. The retrieval system employed to search the EROS database is called INORAC (Inquiry, Ordering, and Accounting). A description is given of the types of images identified in EROS, taking into account Landsat imagery, Skylab images, Gemini/Apollo photography, and NASA aerial photography. Attention is given to retrieval commands, geographic coordinate searching, refinement techniques, various online functions, and questions regarding the access to the EROS Main Image File.

  11. Mapping South Korea's Paddy Rice During 2001-2015 Based on Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land use change substantially affects terrestrial water and carbon cycles, and it is also significant for food security. Rice is an important food crop in South Korea, and its planting area has changed over the past years due to climate change and social development. However, the paddy rice maps in South Korea with high spatial, temporal resolutions and quality are still unavailable. In this study, annual paddy rice planting areas in South Korea during 2001-2015 were extracted using the phenology-based and artificial neural networks(ANN)-based method according to the availability of Landsat images. Three types of vegetation indices, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), were calculated for both methods. For the phenology-based method, we calculated difference and ratio of the vegetation indices from the Landsat images before and after the inundating/transplanting phase, and set the extraction thresholds for rice paddy using the training samples. For the ANN-based method, using the vegetation indices of the Landsat image after inundation, slope and soil type data of the training samples as input, an ANN was established for rice paddy identification. The resultant maps of paddy rice were evaluated using validation samples and agricultural statistics. Finally, we analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of South Korea's rice paddy during 2001-2015, and investigated the possible reasons.

  12. Monitoring Soil Moisture in a Coal Mining Area with Multi-Phase Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, J. L.; Xian, T.; Yang, J.; Chen, L.; Yang, X. T.

    2016-06-01

    The coal development zone of Northern Shaanxi, China is one of the eight largest coal mines in the world, also the national energy and chemical bases. However, the coal mining leads to ground surface deformation and previous studies show that in collapse fissure zone soil water losses almost 50% compared with non-fissure zone. The main objective of this study is to develop a retrieval model that is reliable and sensitive to soil moisture in the whole coal mining zone of Northern Shaanxi based upon the soil sample parameters collected from in situ site investigation, spectral data gathered simultaneously and the images of Landsat7 ETM. The model uses different phases of Landsat data to retrieve soil moisture and analyze the patterns of spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture caused by ground deformation in the coal mining areas. The study indicated that band4 of Landsat7 ETM is the most sensitive band for soil moisture retrieval using the spectrum method. The quadratic model developed by remote sensing reflectance (Rrs4) (corresponding to the band4) is the best pattern with the correlation coefficient of 0.858 between the observed and the estimated soil moisture. Two-phase Landsat7 ETM data of 2002 and 2009 and one phase Landsat8 OLI data of 2015 for the study area were selected to retrieve soil moisture information. The result showed that the mean relative error was 35.16% and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 0.58%. The changes of the spatial distribution of inversed soil moisture revealed that the trend of soil moisture contents of the study area was in general being gradually reduced from 2002 to 2015. The study results can serve as the baseline for monitoring environmental impacts on soil moisture in the regions due to coal mining.

  13. LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy. [Walnut Creek Watershed, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Principal components transformations was applied to a Walnut Creek, Texas subscene to reduce the dimensionality of the multispectral sensor data. This transformation was also applied to a LANDSAT 3 MSS subscene of the same area acquired in a different season and year. Results of both procedures are tabulated and allow for comparisons between TM and MSS data. The TM correlation matrix shows that visible bands 1 to 3 exhibit a high degree of correlation in the range 0.92 to 0.96. Correlation for bands 5 to 7 is 0.93. Band 4 is not highly correlated with any other band, with corrections in the range 0.13 to 0.52. The thermal band (6) is not highly correlated with other bands in the range 0.13 to 0.46. The MSS correlation matrix shows that bands 4 and 5 are highly correlated (0.96) as are bands 6 and 7 with a correlation of 0.92.

  14. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The geometric quality of TM film and digital products is evaluated by making selective photomeasurements and by measuring the coordinates of known features on both the TM products and map products. These paired observations are related using a standard linear least squares regression approach. Using regression equations and coefficients developed from 225 (TM film product) and 20 (TM digital product) control points, map coordinates of test points are predicted. The residual error vectors and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed on the east and north residual using nine image segments (blocks) as treatments. Based on the root mean square error of the 223 (TM film product) and 22 (TM digital product) test points, users of TM data expect the planimetric accuracy of mapped points to be within 91 meters and within 117 meters for the film products, and to be within 12 meters and within 14 meters for the digital products.

  15. Researches on the Land-Use Change Detection of Mine Area Based on Tm/etm Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Liling, H.; Min, Y.; Yi, L.

    2013-07-01

    With the economic development and population growth, land use status is changing rapidly in Chinese urban. Since the remote sensing technology can analyze and detect the land use information quickly and accurately, it has been widely applied to obtain the land use/land cover change (LUCC) information today. The land surface destroy occurred in mineral resources exploration will result in a lot of environmental problems in coal mine areas. But there are few research in small and medium-sized cities and coal mine areas. So Peixian is used as the study area in the paper. The Landsat TM/ETM images spanning 3 years and thematic map are adopted to detect the land-use change of the area. In order to improve the classification results, we built an optimized classification model adapting classic SVM method, which was defined "a feature weighted SVM classifier using mixed kernel function". Based on geostatistic and multi-scale statistical knowledge, we calculated the transformation matrix and dynamic index of land-use types, from which we conducted quantitative analysis and the driving force on the mine land-use change of Peixian. Then, we can achieve resource dynamic change detection of four years in Peixian area, analyze the effect of the surface land-use change due to mineral exploration and obtain the causes of land-use change.

  16. Manual on characteristics of Landsat computer-compatible tapes produced by the EROS Data Center digital image processing system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holkenbrink, Patrick F.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat data are received by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tracking stations and converted into digital form on high-density tapes (HDTs) by the Image Processing Facility (IPF) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The HDTs are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) where they are converted into customer products by the EROS Data Center digital image processing system (EDIPS). This document describes in detail one of these products: the computer-compatible tape (CCT) produced from Landsat-1, -2, and -3 multispectral scanner (MSS) data and Landsat-3 only return-beam vidicon (RBV) data. Landsat-1 and -2 RBV data will not be processed by IPF/EDIPS to CCT format.

  17. Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) project is creating a record of forest disturbance and regrowth for North America from the Landsat satellite record, in support of the carbon modeling activities. LEDAPS relies on the decadal Landsat GeoCover data set supplemented by dense image time series for selected locations. Imagery is first atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance, and then change detection algorithms are used to extract disturbance area, type, and frequency. Reuse of the MODIS Land processing system (MODAPS) architecture allows rapid throughput of over 2200 MSS, TM, and ETM+ scenes. Initial ("Beta") surface reflectance products are currently available for testing, and initial continental disturbance products will be available by the middle of 2006.

  18. Neuro-classification of multi-type Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Fernandez, R. N.; Johannsen, Chris J.

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks have been successful in image classification and have shown potential for classifying remotely sensed data. This paper presents classifications of multitype Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data using neural networks. The Landsat TM Image for March 23, 1987 with accompanying ground observation data for a study area In Miami County, Indiana, U.S.A. was utilized to assess recognition of crop residues. Principal components and spectral ratio transformations were performed on the TM data. In addition, a layer of the geographic information system (GIS) for the study site was incorporated to generate GIS-enhanced TM data. This paper discusses (1) the performance of neuro-classification on each type of data, (2) how neural networks recognized each type of data as a new image and (3) comparisons of the results for each type of data obtained using neural networks, maximum likelihood, and minimum distance classifiers.

  19. Analysis of LANDSAT ETM and TM multi-temporal data for IPCI-based wetland vegetation condition classes in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Dath Kakole

    In this study, geographic information systems (GIS), FRAGSTATS (landscape pattern analysis program), and satellite classification land cover data were used to (1) explore, quantify, and compare the spatial pattern of landscapes surrounding seasonal and temporary wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North Dakota; (2) determine the relationship of landscape metrics to the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI); and (3) develop a landscape-level wetland condition prediction model. Patch-based statistics, derived from multi-temporal (LANDSAT TM and ETM+) land cover data, were summarized at the class and landscape-level and used to characterize landscape spatial pattern. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling ordination was used to evaluate the dissimilarity in landscape metric space of wetlands of differing IPCI values. Statistical analysis confirmed differences in spatial patterns surrounding wetlands. Strong associations were also discovered between the IPCI condition of wetlands and 13 landscape metrics, largely among seasonal wetlands (landscapes with relatively minimal human disturbance). The associations were relatively weaker among temporary wetlands (landscapes subjected to repeated and considerable agricultural management). A data-driven model, the Landscape Wetland Analysis Model (LWAM), was developed and validated for rapid quantitative assessment of landscape structure, and prediction of potential wetland plant community condition. The modeling approach was based on (1) identification of metrics that displayed reasonable relationship(s) with wetland condition classes, (2) establishment of threshold levels that significantly and consistently separated the IPCI wetland conditions, and (3) the development of decision rules for obtaining wetland modeled condition class membership. Three landscape metrics were retained for model development: (1) grassland percent core area of landscape (C%LAND), (2) grassland largest patch index (LPI), and (3) the

  20. A multi-scale segmentation approach to filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Schmidt, G.L.; Storey, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    On 31 May 2003, the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Plus (ETM+) Scan Line Corrector (SLC) failed, causing the scanning pattern to exhibit wedge-shaped scan-to-scan gaps. We developed a method that uses coincident spectral data to fill the image gaps. This method uses a multi-scale segment model, derived from a previous Landsat SLC-on image (image acquired prior to the SLC failure), to guide the spectral interpolation across the gaps in SLC-off images (images acquired after the SLC failure). This paper describes the process used to generate the segment model, provides details of the gap-fill algorithm used in deriving the segment-based gap-fill product, and presents the results of the gap-fill process applied to grassland, cropland, and forest landscapes. Our results indicate this product will be useful for a wide variety of applications, including regional-scale studies, general land cover mapping (e.g. forest, urban, and grass), crop-specific mapping and monitoring, and visual assessments. Applications that need to be cautious when using pixels in the gap areas include any applications that require per-pixel accuracy, such as urban characterization or impervious surface mapping, applications that use texture to characterize landscape features, and applications that require accurate measurements of small or narrow landscape features such as roads, farmsteads, and riparian areas.

  1. LANDSAT image differencing as an automated land cover change detection technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, M. L.; Mckinney, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Image differencing was investigated as a technique for use with LANDSAT digital data to delineate areas of land cover change in an urban environment. LANDSAT data collected in April 1973 and April 1975 for Austin, Texas, were geometrically corrected and precisely registered to United States Geological Survey 7.5-minute quadrangle maps. At each pixel location reflectance values for the corresponding bands were subtracted to produce four difference images. Areas of major reflectance differences are isolated by thresholding each of the difference images. The resulting images are combined to obtain an image data set to total change. These areas of reflectance differences were found, in general, to correspond to areas of land cover change. Information on areas of land cover change was incorporated into a procedure to mask out all nonchange areas and perform an unsupervised classification only for data in the change areas. This procedure identified three broad categories: (1) areas of high reflectance (construction or extractive), (2) changes in agricultural areas, and (3) areas of confusion between agricultural and other areas.

  2. Landsat image and sample design for water reservoirs (Rapel dam Central Chile).

    PubMed

    Lavanderos, L; Pozo, M E; Pattillo, C; Miranda, H

    1990-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the Rapel reservoir surface waters is analyzed through Landsat images. The image digital counts are used with the aim or developing an aprioristic quantitative sample design.Natural horizontal stratification of the Rapel Reservoir (Central Chile) is produced mainly by suspended solids. The spatial heterogeneity conditions of the reservoir for the Spring 86-Summer 87 period were determined by qualitative analysis and image processing of the MSS Landsat, bands 1 and 3. The space-time variations of the different observed strata obtained with multitemporal image analysis.A random stratified sample design (r.s.s.d) was developed, based on the digital counts statistical analysis. Strata population size as well as the average, variance and sampling size of the digital counts were obtained by the r.s.s.d method.Stratification determined by analysis of satellite images were later correlated with ground data. Though the stratification of the reservoir is constant over time, the shape and size of the strata varys.

  3. Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Sensors on Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth's surface for nearly 40 years. These images have been invaluable for characterizing and detecting changes in the land cover and land use of the world. Although initially conceived as primarily picture generating sensors, even the early sensors were radiometrically calibrated and spectrally characterized prior to launch and incorporated some capabilities to monitor their radiometric calibration once on orbit. Recently, as the focus of studies has shifted to monitoring Earth surface parameters over significant periods of time, serious attention has been focused toward bringing the data from all these sensors onto a common radiometric scale over this 40-year period. This effort started with the most recent systems and then was extended back in time. Landsat-7 ETM+, the best-characterized sensor of the series prior to launch and once on orbit, and the most stable system to date, was chosen to serve as the reference. The Landsat-7 project was the first of the series to build an image assessment system into its ground system, allowing systematic characterization of its sensors and data. Second, the Landsat-5 TM (still operating at the time of the Landsat-7 launch and continues to operate) calibration history was reconstructed based on its internal calibrator, vicarious calibrations, pseudo-invariant sites and a tie to Landsat-7 ETM+ at the time of the commissioning of Landsat-7. This process was performed in two iterations: the earlier one relied primarily on the TM internal calibrator. When this was found to have some deficiencies, a revised calibration was based more on pseudo-invariant sites, though the internal calibrator was still used to establish the short-term variations in response due to icing build up on the cold focal plane. As time progressed, a capability to monitor the Landsat-5 TM was added to the image assessment system. The Landsat-4 TM, which operated from 1982-1992, was the third

  4. Volcanology from space - Using Landsat thematic mapper data in the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Mcallister, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Landsat thematic mapper to identify potentially active Andean volcanos and to study the history of individual volcanos is discussed. A thematic mapper image of the 6150-m-high Socompa volcano is presented and it is noted that TM data have played a valuable role in tracking debris streams in the avalanche derived from the different parts of the original volcanic edifice. The consequences of Landsat commercialization are considered.

  5. LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MFT) evaluation. [California and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The techniques used in the two-image comparison of TM data and 7-meter aerial data acquired over San Francisco on August 12, 1983 during LANDSAT 4 operation were refined. Analysis of one area is complete and reported herein; analysis of a second area is in progress. A large test target for measurement of the LANDSAT 5 MTF at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico was constructed.

  6. CNPQ/INPE LANDSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. N.; Escada, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities is described and main accomplishments are outlined. Receiving, recording, and processing substations and data distribution centers are discussed. Examples of the preliminary TM product produced by the Brazilian station are given.

  7. Brain temperature by Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS): comparison between TmDOTP5- and TmDOTMA-.

    PubMed

    Coman, Daniel; Trubel, Hubert K; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2010-04-01

    Chemical shifts of complexes between paramagnetic lanthanide ions and macrocyclic chelates are sensitive to physiological variations (of temperature and/or pH). Here we demonstrate utility of a complex between thulium ion (Tm(3+)) and the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetramethyl 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (or DOTMA(4-)) for absolute temperature mapping in rat brain. The feasibility of TmDOTMA(-) is compared with that of another Tm(3+)-containing biosensor which is based on the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(methylene phosphonate) (or DOTP(8-)). In general, the in vitro and in vivo results suggest that Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS) which originate from these agents (but exclude water) can provide temperature maps with good accuracy. While TmDOTP(5-) emanates three major distinct proton resonances which are differentially sensitive to temperature and pH, TmDOTMA(-) has a dominant pH-insensitive proton resonance from a -CH(3) group to allow higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) temperature assessment. Temperature (and pH) sensitivities of these resonances are practically identical at low (4.0T) and high (11.7T) magnetic fields and at nominal repetition times only marginal SNR loss is expected at the lower field. Since these resonances have extremely short relaxation times, high-speed chemical shift imaging (CSI) is needed to detect them. Repeated in vivo CSI scans with BIRDS demonstrate excellent measurement stability. Overall, results with TmDOTP(5-) and TmDOTMA(-) suggest that BIRDS can be reliably applied, either at low or high magnetic fields, for functional studies in rodents.

  8. Methods for destriping Landsat Thematic Mapper images - A feasibility study for an online destriping process in the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System (TIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poros, D. J.; Peterson, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for destriping TM images and results of the application of these methods to selected TM scenes with sensor and scan striping, which was not removed by the radiometric correction during the TM Archive Generation Phase in TIPS, are presented. These methods correct only for gain and offset differences between detectors over many image lines and do not consider within-line effects. The feasibility of implementing a destriping process online in TIPS is also described.

  9. Combining forces--the use of Landsat TM satellite imagery, soil parameter information, and multiplex PCR to detect Coccidioides immitis growth sites in Kern County, California.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Antje; Talamantes, Jorge; Castañón Olivares, Laura Rosío; Medina, Luis Jaime; Baal, Joe Daryl Hugo; Casimiro, Kayla; Shroff, Natasha; Emery, Kirt W

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI). Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1) We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m × 750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2) We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3) We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp.

  10. Combining Forces - The Use of Landsat TM Satellite Imagery, Soil Parameter Information, and Multiplex PCR to Detect Coccidioides immitis Growth Sites in Kern County, California

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Antje; Talamantes, Jorge; Castañón Olivares, Laura Rosío; Medina, Luis Jaime; Baal, Joe Daryl Hugo; Casimiro, Kayla; Shroff, Natasha; Emery, Kirt W.

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI). Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1) We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m×750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2) We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3) We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp. PMID:25380290

  11. A bitmap index technology adapt to original TM/ETM+ image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Biyu; Sun, Yechao

    2009-10-01

    Spatial database is an essential component of Geographic Information System (GIS). With the development of modern remote sensors and data acquiring instruments, the amount of spatial data increases with geometric series. Retrieval required data in such massive database is a challenging issue to database engineers. Therefore, building efficient index is significant to spatial database. In this paper, bitmap index technology, which is rarely used in spatial database, is taken into consideration. In this paper, TM/ETM+ images covered main land of China are selected to establish a spatial database. In order to rapidly inquire and retrieval required data from the spatial database, an effective spatial index is very important. A bitmap index solution for original TM/ETM+ image is advanced in this paper. The bitmap index schema, which indexes field by building "0" and "1" binary bit vectors, is designed based on analyzing its principle and applicable conditions. In the image database, the strategy is programmed to implementation and applied for data retrieval. So that complex querying operations can be transformed to bitwise logical operations. A users' interface is developed based on building such bitmap index for original TM/ETM+ images database. Then the paper probes into the bitmap index update mechanism to address problems resulted from inserting and deleting images operation. In order to address the problem of high cardinality, an encoded bitmap index technology is proposed as well. At last, a simple comparison and efficiency analysis is carried out to illuminate its applicability.

  12. Research on impervious surface dynamic changes based on Landsat satellite images in Nantong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiu; Li, Jia; Duan, Ping; Wang, Jinliang; Zhang, Chi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the decision tree classification based on the CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Tree) is used to extract the impervious surface area of Nantong city in Jiangsu Province in China. Impervious surface dynamic change nearly 25 years in Nantong city is researched using four periods Landsat images of 1990, 2003, 2008, and 2014. The results show that the classification precision based on the CART algorithm is higher, which can more accurately extract the impervious surface. During the 25 years, the trend of the impervious surface of Nantong is increased year by year. Urban construction and expansion is one of the driving forces of the impervious surface increase.

  13. [Contrastive analysis on soil alkalinization predicting models based on measured reflectance and TM image reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-Gang; Long, Tao; Lu, Wen-Juan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitored data of soil pH and measured Vis-NIR reflectance on spot in Qitai oasis alkalinized area in Xinjiang, as well as comparison of the relationship between measured reflectance and soil pH and the relationship between TM reflectance and soil pH, both of the reflectance multivariate linear regression models were built to evaluate soil alkalinization level, and the model accuracy of pH fitting was discussed with error inspection of post-sample. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between soil pH and reflectance. With pH rising the reflectance increased concurrently. So the alkalinization soil characterized by hardening had good spectral response characteristics. Both measured reflectance and TM image reflectance had good potential ability for change detection of the alkalinization soil. The pH predicting model of measured reflectance had higher accuracy and the major error was from different hardening state. If building model by TM reflectance directly, the accuracy of fitting was lower because of the vegetation information in image spectrum. With the vegetation factor removed with NDVI, the accuracy of TM predicting model was near the accuracy of measured reflectance predicting model, and both of the model levels were good.

  14. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  15. Finding international Landsat data online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) lists Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data available from the participating international ground stations shown below. These databases of the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) can be searched, but not ordered, using GLIS. To order Landsat scenes identified on the GLIS data search, contact the international ground station where those scenes are available, indicated by the second character of the Entity ID.

  16. Landsat Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1960's, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) embarked on an initiative to develop and launch the first Earth monitoring satellite to meet the needs of resource managers and earth scientists. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a partnership with NASA in the early 1970?s to assume responsibility for archiving data and distributing data products. On July 23, 1972, NASA launched the first in a series of satellites designed to provide repetitive global coverage of the Earth?s land masses. Designated initially as the "Earth Resources Technology Satellite-A" ("ERTS-A"), it used a Nimbus-type platform that was modified to carry sensor systems and data relay equipment. When operational orbit was achieved, it was designated "ERTS-1." The satellite continued to function beyond its designed life expectancy of 1 year and finally ceased to operate on January 6, 1978, more than 5 years after its launch date. The second in this series of Earth resources satellites (designated ?ERTS-B?) was launched January 22, 1975. It was renamed "Landsat 2" by NASA, which also renamed "ERTS-1" as "Landsat 1." Three additional Landsats were launched in 1978, 1982, and 1984 (Landsats 3, 4, and 5 ). (See table 1). NASA was responsible for operating the program through the early 1980?s. In January 1983, operation of the Landsat system was transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In October 1985, the Landsat system was commercialized and the Earth Observation Satellite Company, now Space Imaging EOSAT, assumed responsibility for its operation under contract to NOAA. Throughout these changes, the USGS EROS Data Center (EDC) retained primary responsibility as the Government archive of Landsat data. The Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-5555) officially authorized the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive and assigned responsibility to the Department of the Interior. In addition to its Landsat

  17. Use of laboratory spectra for determining vegetation assemblages in Landsat images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. D.; Smith, M.; Adams, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    A spectral library is a diverse collection of reflectance spectra which are used, not as an image-matching data base, but rather as an interpretive link to the physical/chemical processes that cause absorption of light in plants, minerals, rocks, and soils. Techniques for using this library to interpret Landsat MSS data are described, including the process of normalization which largely eliminates brightness effects of both laboratory and image data. Three image-to-library programs are explained. These have been used successfully to descriminate very small (less than 10 percent) changes in plant species components, to detect the presence of vegetation in units where percent cover is only 5 percent, and to recognize unusual vegetation patterns that relate to substrate changes where the substrate is not directly resolvable.

  18. Effect of scene illumination conditions on digital enhancement techniques of multispectral scanner LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J.; Novo, E. M. L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Two sets of MSS/LANDSAT data with solar elevation ranging from 22 deg to 41 deg were used at the Image-100 System to implement the Eliason et alii technique for extracting the topographic modulation component. An unsupervised cluster analysis was used to obtain an average brightness image for each channel. Analysis of the enhanced imaged shows that the technique for extracting topographic modulation component is more appropriated to MSS data obtained under high sun elevation ngles. Low sun elevation increases the variance of each cluster so that the average brightness doesn't represent its albedo proprties. The topographic modulation component applied to low sun elevation angle damages rather than enhance topographic information. Better results were produced for channels 4 and 5 than for channels 6 and 7.

  19. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  20. Downscaling 250-m MODIS growing season NDVI based on multiple-date landsat images and data mining approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. The 250-m GSN data estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been used for terrestrial ecosystem modeling and monitoring. High temporal resolution with a wide range of wavelengths make the MODIS land surface products robust and reliable. The long-term 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detailed information for characterizing human-scale processes and have been used for land cover and land change studies. The main goal of this study is to combine 250-m MODIS GSN and 30-m Landsat observations to generate a quality-improved high spatial resolution (30-m) GSN database. A rule-based piecewise regression GSN model based on MODIS and Landsat data was developed. Results show a strong correlation between predicted GSN and actual GSN (r = 0.97, average error = 0.026). The most important Landsat variables in the GSN model are Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) in May and August. The derived MODIS-Landsat-based 30-m GSN map provides biophysical information for moderate-scale ecological features. This multiple sensor study retains the detailed seasonal dynamic information captured by MODIS and leverages the high-resolution information from Landsat, which will be useful for regional ecosystem studies.

  1. Multitemporal Snow Cover Mapping in Mountainous Terrain for Landsat Climate Data Record Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Christopher J.; Manson, Steven M.; Bauer, Marvin E.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2013-01-01

    A multitemporal method to map snow cover in mountainous terrain is proposed to guide Landsat climate data record (CDR) development. The Landsat image archive including MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery was used to construct a prototype Landsat snow cover CDR for the interior northwestern United States. Landsat snow cover CDRs are designed to capture snow-covered area (SCA) variability at discrete bi-monthly intervals that correspond to ground-based snow telemetry (SNOTEL) snow-water-equivalent (SWE) measurements. The June 1 bi-monthly interval was selected for initial CDR development, and was based on peak snowmelt timing for this mountainous region. Fifty-four Landsat images from 1975 to 2011 were preprocessed that included image registration, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance conversion, cloud and shadow masking, and topographic normalization. Snow covered pixels were retrieved using the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) and unsupervised classification, and pixels having greater (less) than 50% snow cover were classified presence (absence). A normalized SCA equation was derived to independently estimate SCA given missing image coverage and cloud-shadow contamination. Relative frequency maps of missing pixels were assembled to assess whether systematic biases were embedded within this Landsat CDR. Our results suggest that it is possible to confidently estimate historical bi-monthly SCA from partially cloudy Landsat images. This multitemporal method is intended to guide Landsat CDR development for freshwaterscarce regions of the western US to monitor climate-driven changes in mountain snowpack extent.

  2. Analysis of the landsat remote sensing images of the types of habitats of Yangtze alligators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhujian; Lin, Hengzhang; Zhang, Shengkai

    1986-12-01

    The Chinese “Yangtze” alligator is a rare reptile that has been listed as an “endangered species” by the United Nations, so its preservation has become an urgent task. A study of its habitats through analysis of their Landsat images will provide a scientific basis for the government departments concerned to select the best locations for its breeding. The Chinese alligator is a subtropical reptile of freshwater rivers, lakes and ponds. Found only in China, it is now distributed only in the border region between the three provinces of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu. On the basis of previous investigations by Chinese scientists, and from an analysis and interpretation of their Landsat images, we made a special study, review, and classification of the natural environment of the alligator’s present habitats (and the modern changes in the natural background of these hatitats) so that the government departments concerned with the preservation of the reptiles may have a scientific basis for determining the best locations for the breeding and propagation of the alligator.

  3. Mapping of the Seagrass Cover Along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey Using Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirman, T.; Gumusay, M. U.; Tuney, I.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic habitat is defined as ecological environment where marine animals, plants and other organisms live in. Benthic habitat mapping is defined as plotting the distribution and extent of habitats to create a map with complete coverage of the seabed showing distinct boundaries separating adjacent habitats or the use of spatially continuous environmental data sets to represent and predict biological patterns on the seafloor. Seagrass is an essential endemic marine species that prevents coast erosion and regulates carbon dioxide absorption in both undersea and atmosphere. Fishing, mining, pollution and other human activities cause serious damage to seabed ecosystems and reduce benthic biodiversity. According to the latest studies, only 5-10% of the seafloor is mapped, therefore it is not possible to manage resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas. In this study, it is aimed to map seagrass cover using Landsat 8 OLI images in the northern part of Mediterranean coast of Turkey. After pre-processing (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric, water depth correction) of Landsat images, coverage maps are produced with supervised classification using in-situ data which are underwater photos and videos. Result maps and accuracy assessment are presented and discussed.

  4. Cape Town, South Africa, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear in the foreground of this perspective view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located at Table Bay (at the lower left), adjacent to Table Mountain, a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark.

    Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there. Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen here far inland (mid-distance left) at the Theewaterskloof Dam.

    False Bay is the large bay to the south (right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (upper right) of this scene.

    This Landsat and SRTM perspective view uses a 2-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The back edges of the data sets form a false horizon and a false sky was added. Colors of the scene were enhanced by image processing but are the natural color band combination from the Landsat satellite.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  5. Anaysis of the quality of image data required by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner. [agricultural and forest cover types in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, geometric, and radiometric qualities of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting, through visual and computer means, film and digital products for selected agricultural and forest cover types in California. Multispectral analyses employing Bayesian maximum likelihood, discrete relaxation, and unsupervised clustering algorithms were used to compare the usefulness of TM and MSS data for discriminating individual cover types. Some of the significant results are as follows: (1) for maximizing the interpretability of agricultural and forest resources, TM color composites should contain spectral bands in the visible, near-reflectance infrared, and middle-reflectance infrared regions, namely TM 4 and TM % and must contain TM 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding TM 5; (2) using enlarged TM film products, planimetric accuracy of mapped poins was within 91 meters (RMSE east) and 117 meters (RMSE north); (3) using TM digital products, planimetric accuracy of mapped points was within 12.0 meters (RMSE east) and 13.7 meters (RMSE north); and (4) applying a contextual classification algorithm to TM data provided classification accuracies competitive with Bayesian maximum likelihood.

  6. Changes in soil sealing in Guadalajara (Spain): cartography with LANDSAT images.

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, Pilar; Pérez González, M Eugenia

    2007-05-25

    The great urban and industrial development of the towns surrounding Madrid has caused an irreversible and rapid soil loss. In this paper, soil sealed evolution in Guadalajara province during the past 15 years, mainly in the capital, industrial district and small municipalities near Madrid, has been studied. This province has experimented a sharp reduction of the most fertile soils, located on the Henares valley, due to the action of new models of local and regional development. The main goal of this paper is the mapping of the covered soils in a pilot area of Spain. Supervised classification of Landsat images from 1989 to 2002 has been carried out. Geo-referred image analysis allows us to detect precisely the amount of covered soils and where this phenomenon has taken place.

  7. MIDAS - A microcomputer-based image display and analysis system with full Landsat frame processing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofman, L. B.; Erickson, W. K.; Donovan, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Image Display and Analysis Systems (MIDAS) developed at NASA/Ames for the analysis of Landsat MSS images is described. The MIDAS computer power and memory, graphics, resource-sharing, expansion and upgrade, environment and maintenance, and software/user-interface requirements are outlined; the implementation hardware (including 32-bit microprocessor, 512K error-correcting RAM, 70 or 140-Mbyte formatted disk drive, 512 x 512 x 24 color frame buffer, and local-area-network transceiver) and applications software (ELAS, CIE, and P-EDITOR) are characterized; and implementation problems, performance data, and costs are examined. Planned improvements in MIDAS hardware and design goals and areas of exploration for MIDAS software are discussed.

  8. Glacier parameter extraction using Landsat 8 images in the eastern Karakorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Yang, R.; LI, X.; CAO, S.

    2017-02-01

    Changes in glacial melt and river runoff directly impact upon water resources and utilization. Glacier area data provide the basis of analysing glacier change. In this study, Landsat images from the end of the 2014 melt season were analysed using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We compared the band ratio method and Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) method for extracting glacial parameters. The results show that the band ratio method is better for glacier boundary extraction. However, for debris covered glaciers, textural analysis is needed for area extraction and needed to revise boundary extraction results through the visual interpretation of the remote sensing image Accurate area extraction is particularly important for glaciers, as these are major contributors to runoff.

  9. Satellite-based land use mapping: comparative analysis of Landsat-8, Advanced Land Imager, and big data Hyperion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, Wasim; Uddin, Vali; Khan, Shoab Ahmad; Khan, Junaid Aziz

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, Landsat technology has suffered from low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and comparatively poor radiometric resolution, which resulted in limited application for inland water and land use/cover mapping. The new generation of Landsat, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI), has improved SNR and high radiometric resolution. This study evaluated the utility of orthoimagery from OLI in comparison with the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and hyperspectral Hyperion (after preprocessing) with respect to spectral profiling of classes, land use/cover classification, classification accuracy assessment, classifier selection, study area selection, and other applications. For each data source, the support vector machine (SVM) model outperformed the spectral angle mapper (SAM) classifier in terms of class discrimination accuracy (i.e., water, built-up area, mixed forest, shrub, and bare soil). Using the SVM classifier, Hyperion hyperspectral orthoimagery achieved higher overall accuracy than OLI and ALI. However, OLI outperformed both hyperspectral Hyperion and multispectral ALI using the SAM classifier, and with the SVM classifier outperformed ALI in terms of overall accuracy and individual classes. The results show that the new generation of Landsat achieved higher accuracies in mapping compared with the previous Landsat multispectral satellite series.

  10. Investigation of surface changes of nanoparticles using TM-AFM phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rong; Yu, Liya E

    2003-06-15

    Tapping-mode AFM (TM-AFM) phase imaging was utilized to characterize the surface changes of nanosize particles, in regard to the effects of different amounts of condensed water and organic coatings on particle surfaces. Model nanoparticles were continuously examined under various relative humidity (RH) levels by concurrently obtaining both topographic and phase images. The condensed water appeared to soften particle surfaces and to increase tip-sample attractive interaction over relatively stiff surfaces, which were shown with dark phase contrasts and negative phase shift values in phase images. Under high RH, a massive amount of water gave the particles a droplet-like surface, which reversed the original negative phase shifts to positive values with bright contrasts. Glutaric-acid coatings provided a compliant surface with high viscosity resulting in a dark phase contrast, whereas water droplets containing relatively low viscosity gave a bright phase contrast and positive phase shift. Overall, our results show that it is essential to describe the physical properties of a sample surface as solid, soft, or droplet-like material in order to derive a meaningful understanding of the surface changes of nanosize particles based on TM-AFM phase images. In contrast to other phase imaging studies, this work clearly correlates continuous surface changes with phase images, demonstrating a promising approach to characterize environmental nanoparticles.

  11. The Exploratory Use of Landsat Multispectral Images by Grade Six Children: A New Tool for the Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using Landsat multispectral images as a geography enrichment activity was evaluated with a below average 6th grade class. Curriclum implications (such as the opportunity for deeper analysis for gifted or highly motivated students) are noted. Teaching objectives were generally achieved by the nine students tested. (DB)

  12. Changes in Meadow Vegetation Cover in Kings Canyon National Park (California) Based on Three Decades of Landsat Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Landsat (30 meter resolution) image analysis over the past 25 years in Kings Canyon National Park was used to track changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Results showed that NDVI values from the wet year of 2010 were significantly lower than NDVI values from the comparatively dry year of 2013 in the majority of meadow areas in the National Park.

  13. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA): A Cutting-Edge Way for Students and Teachers to Learn about Antarctica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian; Bindschadler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    By studying Antarctica via satellite and through ground-truthing research, we can learn where the ice is melting and why. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), a new and cutting-edge way for scientists, researchers, educators, students, and the public to look at Antarctica, supports this research and allows for unprecedented views of our…

  14. Regional Sediment Management Experiment Using the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of this RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment is to demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/ Radiometer Suite and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensors as key input to the RSM (Regional Sediment Management) GIS (geographic information system) DSS (Decision Support System). The project affects the Coastal Management National Application.

  15. Landsat 8 operational land imager on-orbit geometric calibration and performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Lee, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI) payload for moderate resolution imaging in the visible, near infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands. During the 90-day commissioning period following launch, several on-orbit geometric calibration activities were performed to refine the prelaunch calibration parameters. The results of these calibration activities were subsequently used to measure geometric performance characteristics in order to verify the OLI geometric requirements. Three types of geometric calibrations were performed including: (1) updating the OLI-to-spacecraft alignment knowledge; (2) refining the alignment of the sub-images from the multiple OLI sensor chips; and (3) refining the alignment of the OLI spectral bands. The aspects of geometric performance that were measured and verified included: (1) geolocation accuracy with terrain correction, but without ground control (L1Gt); (2) Level 1 product accuracy with terrain correction and ground control (L1T); (3) band-to-band registration accuracy; and (4) multi-temporal image-to-image registration accuracy. Using the results of the on-orbit calibration update, all aspects of geometric performance were shown to meet or exceed system requirements.

  16. Automated image processing of LANDSAT 2 digital data for watershed runoff prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasso, R. R.; Jensen, J. R.; Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model for watershed runoff prediction uses soil and land cover information as its major drivers. Kern County Water Agency is implementing the SCS model to predict runoff for 10,400 sq cm of mountainous watershed in Kern County, California. The Remote Sensing Unit, University of California, Santa Barbara, was commissioned by KCWA to conduct a 230 sq cm feasibility study in the Lake Isabella, California region to evaluate remote sensing methodologies which could be ultimately extrapolated to the entire 10,400 sq cm Kern County watershed. Digital results indicate that digital image processing of Landsat 2 data will provide usable land cover required by KCWA for input to the SCS runoff model.

  17. The Control Point Library Building System. [for Landsat MSS and RBV geometric image correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niblack, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota distributes precision corrected Landsat MSS and RBV data. These data are derived from master data tapes produced by the Master Data Processor (MDP), NASA's system for computing and applying corrections to the data. Included in the MDP is the Control Point Library Building System (CPLBS), an interactive, menu-driven system which permits a user to build and maintain libraries of control points. The control points are required to achieve the high geometric accuracy desired in the output MSS and RBV data. This paper describes the processing performed by CPLBS, the accuracy of the system, and the host computer and special image viewing equipment employed.

  18. Water quality indicators obtainable from aircraft and Landsat images and their use in classifying lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the interaction of sunlight and skylight with the surface of a lake, particles in the water to the depth where light is extinguished, and lake bottom are presented, and the use of aircraft and Landsat images to derive water quality indicators on the basis of these interactions is discussed. A very clear, deep lake with a backscatter signal similar to that of distilled water is used as a reference standard. The degree of turbidity of other target lakes is determined by comparing their residual radiance with the clear lake standard and with the residual radiance of a lake whose turbidity has been determined from water samples. The relative and absolute strengths of residual radiance are used to determine the type and concentration of suspended material, respectively. Oil slicks are characterized by an increased specular reflectance component, decreased signal from the underlying water, and added backscatter signal from the oil volume.

  19. Ten Years of Vegetation Change in Northern California Marshlands Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detected changes in perennial vegetation cover at marshland sites in Northern California reported to have undergone restoration between 1999 and 2009. Results showed extensive contiguous areas of restored marshland plant cover at 10 of the 14 sites selected. Gains in either woody shrub cover and/or from recovery of herbaceous cover that remains productive and evergreen on a year-round basis could be mapped out from the image results. However, LEDAPS may not be highly sensitive changes in wetlands that have been restored mainly with seasonal herbaceous cover (e.g., vernal pools), due to the ephemeral nature of the plant greenness signal. Based on this evaluation, the LEDAPS methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in marshland ecosystems of the Pacific Flyway.

  20. Analysis of multi-temporal landsat satellite images for monitoring land surface temperature of municipal solid waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Mahendrarajah, Prathees; Shaker, Ahmed; Faisal, Kamil; Luong, Robin; Al-Ahmad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This studypresents a remote sensing application of using time series Landsat satellite images for monitoring the Trail Road and Nepean municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Currently, the Trail Road landfill is in operation; however, during the 1960s and 1980s, the city relied heavily on the Nepean landfill. More than 400 Landsat satellite images were acquired from the US Geological Survey (USGS) data archive between 1984 and 2011. Atmospheric correction was conducted on the Landsat images in order to derive the landfill sites' land surface temperature (LST). The findings unveil that the average LST of the landfill was always higher than the immediate surrounding vegetation and air temperature by 4 to 10 °C and 5 to 11.5 °C, respectively. During the summer, higher differences of LST between the landfill and its immediate surrounding vegetation were apparent, while minima were mostly found in fall. Furthermore, there was no significant temperature difference between the Nepean landfill (closed) and the Trail Road landfill (active) from 1984 to 2007. Nevertheless, the LST of the Trail Road landfill was much higher than the Nepean by 15 to 20 °C after 2007. This is mainly due to the construction and dumping activities (which were found to be active within the past few years) associated with the expansion of the Trail Road landfill. The study demonstrates that the use of the Landsat data archive can provide additional and viable information for the aid of MSW disposal site monitoring.

  1. Implications of information from LANDSAT-4 for private industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The broader spectral coverage and higher resolution of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data open the door for identification from space of spectral phenomena associated with mineralization and microseepage of hydrocarbon. Digitally enhanced image products generated from TM data allow the mapping of many major and minor structural features that mark or influence emplacement of mineralization and accumulation of hydrocarbons. These improvements in capabilities over multispectral scanner data should accelerate the acceptance and integration of satellite data as a routinely used exploration tool that allows rapid examination of large areas in considerable detail. Imagery of Southern Ontario, Canada as well as of Cement, Oklahoma and Death Valley, California is discussed.

  2. Landsat and water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  3. A Preliminary Assessment of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, D. G.; Fleming, E. A.; Dickinson, K.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a preliminary assessment of both raw and NASA processed Thematic Mapper (TM) data are discussed. Geometric correction of NASA processed TM data was carried out. Correction was possible to within 3 pixels in the along track direction and 2 pixels in the across track direction. A preliminary evaluation of TM imagery provided by the NASA LANDSAT Assessmemt System for geometric accuracy and map information content was performed on samples of imagery. The initial indications were that bands 3, 5 and 7 contain the most useful cartographic information. The resolution of rural and urban detail as well as the fit to plotted map detail was found to be improved over LANDSAT MSS, and such images may provide adequate revision information for 1:250,000 maps in areas where it is not currently profitable to use LANDSAT MSS. The relative gains and offsets for each detector in each band of raw data were calculated in a study of the radiometric correction of TM data. This was done for different subscenes as well as a full scene and the variation of the results with direction of scan and position of subscene were studied.

  4. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, G.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P.R. ); Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. )

    1990-09-10

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combing thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  5. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, Grady; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.

    1990-09-01

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combining thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  6. Delineation of a Re-establishing Drainage Network Using SPOT and Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Self, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, The Philippines, provided a unique opportunity to study the effects on the landscape of a large eruption in part because it took place after the advent of regular satellite-based observations. The eruption formed one large (>100km2) ignimbrite sheet, with over 70% of the total deposit deposited in three primary drainage basins to the west of the volcano. High-resolution (20 m/pixel) satellite images, showing the western drainage basins and surrounding region both before and after the eruption were used to observe the re-establishment and evolution of drainage networks on the newly emplaced ignimbrite sheet. Changes in the drainage networks were delineated from a time series of SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) and Landsat multi-spectral satellite images. The analysis of which was supplemented by ground- based observations. The satellite images showed that the blue prints for the new drainage systems were established early (within days of the eruption) and at a large-scale followed the pre-eruption pattern. However, the images also illustrated the ephemeral nature of many channels due to the influence of secondary pyroclastic flows, lahar- dammed lake breakouts, stream piracy and shifts due to erosion. Characteristics of the defined drainage networks were used to infer the relative influence on the lahar hazard within each drainage basin.

  7. Options for using Landsat and RapidEye satellite images aiming the water productivity assessments in mixed agro-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    For water productivity (WP) assessments, the SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm for evapotranspiration (ET) and the Monteith's light use efficiency (LUE) model for biomass production (BIO), were applied to Landsat and RapidEye satellite images, in the Brazilian semiarid region, inside the dry season of 2011, in a mixture of irrigated and rainfed agro-ecosystems. Firstly, with the Landsat image, the methodology from which the surface temperature (T0) is derived as a residue in the radiation balance was tested. Low differences were detected, being Landsat ET with the thermal band averaged 0.9 +/- 1.5 mm d-1, while without it the mean value was 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm d-1. The corresponding Landsat BIO values were respectively 28 +/- 59 and 28 +/- 58 kg ha-1 d-1, resulting in mean WP of 1.3 +/- 1.3 kg m-3, in both cases. After having confidence on the residual methodology for retrieving T0 it was applied to the RapidEye image, resulting in average pixel values for ET, BIO and WP of 0.6 +/- 1.5 mm d-1, 26 +/- 58 kg ha-1 d-1 and 0.9 +/- 1.3 kg m-3, representing 75%, 93% and 69% of the Landsat ones obtained without the thermal band. In addition, the Surface Resistance Algorithm (SUREAL) was used to classify the agro-ecosystems into irrigated crops and natural vegetation by using the RapidEye image. The incremental values for ET, BIO and WP in 2011 were 2.0 +/- 1.3 mm d-1, 88 +/- 87 kg ha d-1 and 2.5 +/- 0.6 kg m-3, respectively, as a result of the replacement of the natural species by crops.

  8. Interim report on Landsat national archive activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, John E.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has the responsibility to preserve and to distribute most Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data that have been acquired by the five Landsat satellites operational since July 1972. Data that are still covered by exclusive marketing rights, which were granted by the U.S. Government to the commercial Landsat operator, cannot be distributed by the DOI. As the designated national archive for Landsat data, the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) has initiated two new programs to protect and make available any of the 625,000 MSS scenes currently archived and the 200,000 TM scenes to be archived at EDC by 1995. A specially configured system has begun converting Landsat MSS data from obsolete high density tapes (HDT's) to more dense digital cassette tapes. After transcription, continuous satellite swaths are (1) divided into standard scenes defined by a world reference system, (2) geographically located by latitude and longitude, and (3) assessed for overall quality. Digital browse images are created by subsampling the full-resolution swaths. Conversion of the TM HDT's will begin in the fourth quarter of 1992 and will be conducted concurrently with MSS conversion. Although the TM archive is three times larger than the entire MSS archive, conversion of data from both sensor systems and consolidation of the entire Landsat archive at EDC will be completed by the end of 1994. Some MSS HDT's have deteriorated, primarily as a result of hydrolysis of the pigment binder. Based on a small sample of the 11 terabytes of post-1978 MSS data and the 41 terabytes of TM data to be converted, it appears that to date, less than 2 percent of the data have been lost. The data loss occurs within small portions of some scenes; few scenes are lost entirely. Approximately 10,000 pre-1979 MSS HDT's have deteriorated to such an extent, as a result of hydrolysis, that the data cannot be recovered without special treatment of

  9. LANDSAT imagery of the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komer, C. A.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The central Andes of South America extend from approximately 14 deg. S to 28 deg. S as an unbroken chain of mountains and volcanoes over 2000 km long. It is here that the Nazca plate dives under the South American plate at angles varying from 10 deg to 30 deg. Very little is known about the volcanoes comprising this classic, subduction-type plate margin. A catalogue of the volcanoes in the central Andes is being prepared by Dr. P.W. Francis and Dr. C.A. Wood at the NASA Lunar and Planetary Institute. At present, more than 800 volcanoes of Cenozoic age have been recognized in the chain, with an estimated 75-80 major, active Quarternary volcanoes. Approximately one hundred 1536 x 1536 pixel color composite Optronics positives were produced from six full LANDSAT Thermatic Mapper scenes and three partial TM scenes. These positives cover a large portion of the central Andes. The positives were produced from LANDSAT data using the VAX imaging package, LIPS. The scenes were first transferred from magnetic tape to disk. The LIPS package was then used to select volcanically interesting areas which were then electronically enhanced. Finally, the selected areas were transferred back to tape and printed on the Optronics equipment. The pictures are color composites using LANDSAT TM bands 7,4, and 2 in the red, green, and blue filters, respectively.

  10. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

    2013-12-01

    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had

  11. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Plumas County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A seven step procedure developed for evaluating the geometric properties of MSS and TM film produces is being implemented. Some 476 control points were selected of which 238 are being tested and edited for digitization and scaling errors. Tables show statistics established for assessing the spectral characteristics and variability, as well as the spatial resolution and radiometric sensitivity of TM data for a forest environment in an effort to determine the extent to which major forest cover type can be detected and identified on TM digital and image products. Results thus far show that the high quality obtained are more than sufficient for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the renewable resource specialist. The TM data should be extremely valuable for: (1) estimating forest cover types; (2) updating land use survey maps; and (3) determining the size and shape and location of individual forest clearings and water resources.

  12. Comparison of EO1 Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI images over Rochester, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

    2002-08-01

    We present a comparison of images from the ETM+ sensor on Landsat-7 and the ALI instrument on EO-1 over a test site in Rochester, NY. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, grass fields, to urban areas. The nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected just one minute apart on 25 August, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each image with the 6S atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by a Cimel sun photometer within the Aerosol Robotic Network (Aeronet), along with ozone density derived from NCEP data. We present three-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement. We present ETM+ and ALI reflectance spectra for water, grass, and urban targets. We make a more detailed comparison for our forest site, where we use measured geometric and optical properties as input to the SAIL canopy reflectance model, which we compare to the ETM+, ALI, and EO-1 Hyperion reflectance spectra.

  13. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  14. Evaluation of LANDSAT-2 (ERTS) images applied to geologic structures and mineral resources of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work with the Image 100 clearly demonstrates that radiance values of LANDSAT data can be used for correlation of geologic formations across international boundaries. The Totora Formation of the Corocoro Group of Tertiary age was traced from known outcrops near Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, along the south side of Lake Titicaca westward into Peru where the same rocks are considered to be Cretaceous in age. This inconsistency suggests: (1) that a review of this formation is needed by joint geological surveys of both countries to determine similarities, differences, and the true age; (2) that recognition of the extension of the copper-bearing Totora Formation of Bolivia into Peru may provide Peru with a new target for exploration. Equal radiance maps made by use of the Image 100 system show as many as eight different units within salar deposits (salt flats) of the Bolivian Altiplano. Standard film processed images show them as nearly uniform areas of white because of lack of dynamic range in film products. The Image 100 system, therefore, appears to be of great assistance in subdividing the salt flats on the basis of moisture distribution, surface roughness, and distribution of windblown materials. Field work is needed to determine these relationships to mineral composition and distribution. Images representing seasonal changes should also improve the accuracy of such maps. Radiance values of alteration zones related to the occurrence of porphyry copper ores were measured at the San Juan del Abra deposit of northern Chile using the Image 100 system. The extent to which these same values may be used to detect similar alteration zones in other areas has not yet been tested.

  15. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  16. Evaluation of SIR-A (Shuttle Imaging Radar) images from the Tres Marias region (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) using derived spatial features and registration with MSS-LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Dutra, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Two image processing experiments are described using a MSS-LANDSAT scene from the Tres Marias region and a shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A image digitized by a vidicon scanner. In the first experiment the study area is analyzed using the original and preprocessed SIR-A image data. The following thematic classes are obtained: (1) water, (2) dense savanna vegetation, (3) sparse savanna vegetation, (4) reforestation areas and (5) bare soil areas. In the second experiment, the SIR-A image was registered together with MSS-LANDSAT bands five, six, and seven. The same five classes mentioned above are obtained. These results are compared with those obtained using solely MSS-LANDSAT data. The spatial information as well as coregistered SIR-A and MSS-LANDSAT data can increase the separability between classes, as compared to the use of raw SIR-A data solely.

  17. Landsat: building a strong future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Conceived in the 1960s, the Landsat program has experienced six successful missions that have contributed to an unprecedented 39-year record of Earth Observations that capture global land conditions and dynamics. Incremental improvements in imaging capabilities continue to improve the quality of Landsat science data, while ensuring continuity over the full instrument record. Landsats 5 and 7 are still collecting imagery. The planned launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission in December 2012 potentially extends the Landsat record to nearly 50 years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million Landsat images. All USGS Landsat data are available at no cost via the Internet. The USGS is committed to improving the content of the historical Landsat archive though the consolidation of Landsat data held in international archives. In addition, the USGS is working on a strategy to develop higher-level Landsat geo- and biophysical datasets. Finally, Federal efforts are underway to transition Landsat into a sustained operational program within the Department of the Interior and to authorize the development of the next two satellites — Landsats 9 and 10.

  18. Radiometric Calibration and Stability of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Edward; Ong, Lawrence; Morfitt, Ron; Haque, Md Obaidul

    2015-01-01

    Landsat-8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 1/2 years. The OLI radiometric calibration, which is monitored using on-board lamps, on-board solar diffusers, the moon and vicarious calibration techniques has been stable to within 1% over this period of time. The Coastal Aerosol band, band 1, shows the largest change at about 1% over the period; all other bands have shown no significant trend. OLI bands 1- 4 show small discontinuities in response (+0.1% to 0.2%) beginning about 7 months after launch and continuing for about 1 month associated with a power cycling of the instrument, though the origin of the recovery is unclear. To date these small changes have not been compensated for, but this will change with a reprocessing campaign that is currently scheduled for Fall 2015. The calibration parameter files (each typically covering a 3 month period) will be updated for these observed gain changes. A fitted response to an adjusted average of the lamps, solar and lunar results will represent the trend, sampled at the rate of one value per CPF.

  19. Noise correction on LANDSAT images using a spline-like algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijaykumar, N. L. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Many applications using LANDSAT images face a dilemma: the user needs a certain scene (for example, a flooded region), but that particular image may present interference or noise in form of horizontal stripes. During automatic analysis, this interference or noise may cause false readings of the region of interest. In order to minimize this interference or noise, many solutions are used, for instane, that of using the average (simple or weighted) values of the neighboring vertical points. In the case of high interference (more than one adjacent line lost) the method of averages may not suit the desired purpose. The solution proposed is to use a spline-like algorithm (weighted splines). This type of interpolation is simple to be computer implemented, fast, uses only four points in each interval, and eliminates the necessity of solving a linear equation system. In the normal mode of operation, the first and second derivatives of the solution function are continuous and determined by data points, as in cubic splines. It is possible, however, to impose the values of the first derivatives, in order to account for shapr boundaries, without increasing the computational effort. Some examples using the proposed method are also shown.

  20. A note on the temporary misregistration of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Roy, David P.; Masek, Jeffrey; Gascon, Ferran; Dwyer, John L.; Choate, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 sensors provide multi-spectral image data with similar spectral and spatial characteristics that together provide improved temporal coverage globally. Both systems are designed to register Level 1 products to a reference image framework, however, the Landsat-8 framework, based upon the Global Land Survey images, contains residual geolocation errors leading to an expected sensor-to-sensor misregistration of 38 m (2σ). These misalignments vary geographically but should be stable for a given area. The Landsat framework will be readjusted for consistency with the Sentinel-2 Global Reference Image, with completion expected in 2018. In the interim, users can measure Landsat-to-Sentinel tie points to quantify the misalignment in their area of interest and if appropriate to reproject the data to better alignment.

  1. Three-dimensional displays for natural hazards analysis, using classified Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and large-scale digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, David R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for using Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and digital elevation models for the display of natural hazard sites in a mountainous region of northwestern Montana, USA. Hazard zones can be easily identified on the three-dimensional images. Proximity of facilities such as highways and building locations to hazard sites can also be easily displayed. A temporal sequence of Landsat TM (or similar) satellite data sets could also be used to display landscape changes associated with dynamic natural hazard processes.

  2. Techniques for Producing Coastal Land Water Masks from Landsat and Other Multispectral Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hall, Callie

    2005-01-01

    Coastal erosion and land loss continue to threaten many areas in the United States. Landsat data has been used to monitor regional coastal change since the 1970s. Many techniques can be used to produce coastal land water masks, including image classification and density slicing of individual bands or of band ratios. Band ratios used in land water detection include several variations of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). This poster discusses a study that compares land water masks computed from unsupervised Landsat image classification with masks from density-sliced band ratios and from the Landsat TM band 5. The greater New Orleans area is employed in this study, due to its abundance of coastal habitats and its vulnerability to coastal land loss. Image classification produced the best results based on visual comparison to higher resolution satellite and aerial image displays. However, density sliced NDWI imagery from either near infrared (NIR) and blue bands or from NIR and green bands also produced more effective land water masks than imagery from the density-sliced Landsat TM band 5. NDWI based on NIR and green bands is noteworthy because it allows land water masks to be generated from multispectral satellite sensors without a blue band (e.g., ASTER and Landsat MSS). NDWI techniques also have potential for producing land water masks from coarser scaled satellite data, such as MODIS.

  3. Techniques for Producing Coastal Land Water Masks from Landsat and Other Multispectral Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joe; Hall, Callie

    2005-01-01

    Coastal erosion and land loss continue to threaten many areas in the United States. Landsat data has been used to monitor regional coastal change since the 1970's. Many techniques can be used to produce coastal land water masks, including image classification and density slicing of individual bands or of band ratios. Band ratios used in land water detection include several variations of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). This poster discusses a study that compares land water masks computed from unsupervised Landsat image classification with masks from density-sliced band ratios and from the Landsat TM band 5. The greater New Orleans area is imployed in this study, due to its abundance of coastal habitats and ist vulnerability to coastal land loss. Image classification produced the best results based on visual comparison to higher resolution satellite and aerial image displays. However, density-sliced NDWI imagery from either near infrared (NIR) and blue bands or from NIR and green bands also produced more effective land water masks than imagery from the density-sliced Landsat TM band 5. NDWI based on NIR and green bands is noteworthy because it allows land water masks to be generated form multispectral satellite sensors without a blue band (e.g., ASTER and Landsat MSS). NDWI techniques also have potential for producing land water masks from coarser scaled satellite data, such as MODIS.

  4. Interactions between river stage and wetland vegetation detected with a Seasonality Index derived from LANDSAT images in the Apalachicola delta, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    la Cecilia, Daniele; Toffolon, Marco; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of swamp floodplain vegetation and its evolution in the lower non-tidal reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida USA, is mapped using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) images captured over a period of 29 years. A newly developed seasonality index (SI), the ratio of the NDVI in winter months to the summer months, shows that the hardwood swamp, dominated by bald cypress and water tupelo, is slowly replaced by bottomland hardwood forest. This forest shift is driven by lower water levels in the Apalachicola River in the last 30 years, and predominantly occurs in the transitional area between low floodplains and high river banks. A negative correlation between maximum summer NDVI and water levels in winter suggests the growth of more vigorous vegetation in the vicinity of sloughs during years with low river flow. A negative correlation with SI further indicates that these vegetation patches are possibly replaced by species typical of drier floodplain conditions.

  5. Outgassing models for Landsat-4 thematic mapper short wave infrared bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses in the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) have been observed to follow an oscillatory behavior. This phenomenon is present only in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands and has been observed throughout the lifetime of the instrument, which was launched in July 1982 and imaged the Earth's surface until late 1993. These periodic changes in amplitude, which can be as large as 7.5 percent, are known as outgassing effects and are believed to be due to optical interference caused by a gradual buildup of an ice-like material on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar containing the SWIR detectors. Similar outgassing effects in the Landsat-5 TM have been characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector behavior to the ice film growth rate, which was found to gradually decrease with time. A similar approach, which takes into consideration the different operational history of the instrument, has been applied in this study to three closely sampled data sets acquired throughout the lifetime of the Landsat-4 TM. Although Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers are essentially identical instruments, data generated from analyses of outgassing effects indicate subtle, but important, differences between the two. The estimated lifetime model could improve radiometric accuracy by as much as five percent.

  6. Outgassing models for Landsat-4 thematic mapper short wave infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, Esad; Helder, Dennis L.

    2005-08-01

    Detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses in the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) have been observed to follow an oscillatory behavior. This phenomenon is present only in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands and has been observed throughout the lifetime of the instrument, which was launched in July 1982 and imaged the Earth's surface until late 1993. These periodic changes in amplitude, which can be as large as 7.5 percent, are known as outgassing effects and are believed to be due to optical interference caused by a gradual buildup of an ice-like material on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar containing the SWIR detectors. Similar outgassing effects in the Landsat-5 TM have been characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector behavior to the ice film growth rate, which was found to gradually decrease with time. A similar approach, which takes into consideration the different operational history of the instrument, has been applied in this study to three closely sampled data sets acquired throughout the lifetime of the Landsat-4 TM. Although Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers are essentially identical instruments, data generated from analyses of outgassing effects indicate subtle, but important, differences between the two. The estimated lifetime model could improve radiometric accuracy by as much as five percent.

  7. A simple and effective method for filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Xudong; Vogelmann, J.E.; Gao, F.; Jin, S.

    2011-01-01

    The scan-line corrector (SLC) of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor failed in 2003, resulting in about 22% of the pixels per scene not being scanned. The SLC failure has seriously limited the scientific applications of ETM+ data. While there have been a number of methods developed to fill in the data gaps, each method has shortcomings, especially for heterogeneous landscapes. Based on the assumption that the same-class neighboring pixels around the un-scanned pixels have similar spectral characteristics, and that these neighboring and un-scanned pixels exhibit similar patterns of spectral differences between dates, we developed a simple and effective method to interpolate the values of the pixels within the gaps. We refer to this method as the Neighborhood Similar Pixel Interpolator (NSPI). Simulated and actual SLC-off ETM+ images were used to assess the performance of the NSPI. Results indicate that NSPI can restore the value of un-scanned pixels very accurately, and that it works especially well in heterogeneous regions. In addition, it can work well even if there is a relatively long time interval or significant spectral changes between the input and target image. The filled images appear reasonably spatially continuous without obvious striping patterns. Supervised classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm was done on both gap-filled simulated SLC-off data and the original "gap free" data set, and it was found that classification results, including accuracies, were very comparable. This indicates that gap-filled products generated by NSPI will have relevance to the user community for various land cover applications. In addition, the simple principle and high computational efficiency of NSPI will enable processing large volumes of SLC-off ETM+ data.

  8. Identifying Sugarcane Plantation using LANDSAT-8 Images with Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyono, Sidik; Nadirah

    2016-11-01

    The use of remote sensing has been highly beneficial in the identification and also mapping and monitoring of plantations. The identification of plantations includes the physiology, disease, environmental conditions, and also the production and time of harvesting. It can be done by doing satellite imagery classification. However, to reach the final result of identification, it could be carried out by getting the solid ground truth information. This paper will discuss about detection of sugarcane plantation in Magetan district of East Java province area by using LANDSAT-8 image with specific approach of phenology profile using EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) value from satellite data, as an alternative vegetation index to address some of the limitation of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Method of classification used for detecting sugarcane plantation is Support Vector machines (SVM), which is a promising machine learning methodology. It has the ability to generalize well even with limited training samples and complex data. A number of samples of phenology profile for training purpose using SVMs are obtained from the area that identified as sugarcane plantation during field campaign in 2015. The same manner is also done for the objects instead of sugarcane plantation with relatively the same number of samples. The result of the research shows that Remote Sensing is able to detect the sugarcane plantation cross the district with good accuracy.

  9. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  10. Application of Time Series Landsat Images to Examining Land-use/Land-cover Dynamic Change

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio; Li, Guiying

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical-based classification method was designed to develop time series land-use/land-cover datasets from Landsat images between 1977 and 2008 in Lucas do Rio Verde, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A post-classification comparison approach was used to examine land-use/land-cover change trajectories, which emphasis is on the conversions from vegetation or agropasture to impervious surface area, from vegetation to agropasture, and from agropasture to regenerating vegetation. Results of this research indicated that increase in impervious surface area mainly resulted from the loss of cerrado in the initial decade of the study period and from loss of agricultural lands in the last two decades. Increase in agropasture was mainly at the expense of losing cerrado in the first two decades and relatively evenly from the loss of primary forest and cerrado in the last decade. When impervious surface area was less than approximately 40 km2 before 1999, impervious surface area was negatively related to cerrado and forest, and positively related to agropasture areas, but after impervious surface area reached 40 km2 in 1999, no obvious relationship exists between them. PMID:25328256

  11. Remote sensing evaluation of ecosystem service value of gas regulation with time series Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yancang; Yang, Guijun

    2014-10-01

    Gas regulation is one of the important ecological service functions of ecosystem. Plants transform solar energy into biotic energy through photosynthesis, fixing CO2 and releasing O2, which plays an irreplaceable role in maintaining the CO2/O2 balance and mitigating greenhouse gases emissions. The ecosystem service value of gas regulation can be evaluated from the amount of CO2 and releasing O2. Taken the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystem as transition parameter, the value of gas regulation service in Beijing city in recent 30 years was evaluated and mapped with time series LandSat images, which was used to analyze the spatial patterns and driving forces. Results showed that he order of ecosystem service value of gas regulation in Beijing area was 1978 < 1992 < 2000 < 2010, which was consistent with the order of NPP. The contribution order for gas regulation service of six ecosystems from1978 to 2010 was basically stable. The forest and farmland played important roles of gas regulation, of which the proportion reached 80% and varied with the area from 1978 to 2010. It indicated that increasing the area of forest and farmland was helpful for enhance the ecosystem service value of gas regulation.

  12. Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

  13. Monitoring urban growth by using segmentation-classification of multispectral Landsat images in Izmit, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Selin; Doker, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-07-01

    Assessing the spatial land use and land cover (LULC) information is essential for decision making and management of landscapes. In fact, LULC information has been changed dramatically in fast-growing cities. This results in wrong land use problems due to unplanned and uncontrolled urbanization. The planning and evaluating of limited natural resources under the pressure of a growing population can be possible when a precise land use management plan is established. Therefore, it is imperative to monitor continuous LULC changes for future planning. Remote sensing (RS) technique is used for determining changes in LULC in urban areas. In this study, we have focused on Izmit, which is one of a growing number of metropolitan cities where the impact of the spatial growing period on LULC has been assessed over the past 30 years by using RS data. We have utilized the segmentation process and supervised classification of Landsat satellite images for four different dates (1985, 1995, 2005, and 2015). The outcome of this research can be summarized by significant changes in the shares of urban areas and farmland LULC classes. The overall observed increase in urban area class is up to 2177 ha between 1985 and 2015 period and this dramatic change has resulted in the decline of 1211 ha of farmland. Another conclusion is that the new residential areas have been created to the north, south and east of Izmit during this period.

  14. Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Distribution Changes of LST Using Landsat Images (case STUDY:TEHRAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachar, H.; Vafsian, A. R.; Modiri, M.; Enayati, H.; Safdari Nezhad, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    In traditional approach, the land surface temperature (LST) is estimated by the permanent or portable ground-based weather stations. Due to the lack of adequate distribution of weather stations, a uniform LST could not be achieved. Todays, With the development of remote sensing from space, satellite data offer the only possibility for measuring LST over the entire globe with sufficiently high temporal resolution and with complete spatially averaged rather than point values. the remote sensing imageries with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution are used as suitable tools to uniformly LST estimation. Time series, generated by remote sensed LST, provide a rich spatial-temporal infrastructure for heat island's analysis. in this paper, a time series was generated by Landsat8 and Landsat7 satellite images to analysis the changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of the Tehran's LST. In this process, The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) threshold method was applied to extract the LST; then the changes in spatial and temporal distribution of LST over the period 1999 to 2014 were evaluated by the statistical analysis. Finally, the achieved results show the very low temperature regions and the middle temperature regions were reduced by the rate of 0.54% and 5.67% respectively. On the other hand, the high temperature and the very high temperature regions were increased by 3.68% and 0.38% respectively. These results indicate an incremental procedure on the distribution of the hot regions in Tehran in this period. To quantitatively compare urban heat islands (UHI), an index called Urban Heat Island Ratio Index(URI) was calculated. It can reveal the intensity of the UHI within the urban area. The calculation of the index was based on the ratio of UHI area to urban area. The greater the index, the more intense the UHI was. Eventually, Considering URI between 1999 and 2014, an increasing about 0.03 was shown. The reasons responsible for the changes

  15. Towards decadal soil salinity mapping using Landsat time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xingwang; Weng, Yongling; Tao, Jinmei

    2016-10-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil problems around the world. However, decadal variation in soil salinization has not yet been extensively reported. This study exploited thirty years (1985-2015) of Landsat sensor data, including Landsat-4/5 TM (Thematic Mapper), Landsat-7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), for monitoring soil salinity of the Yellow River Delta, China. The data were initially corrected for atmospheric effects, and then matched the spectral bands of EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager). Subsequently, soil salinity maps were derived with a previously developed PLSR (Partial Least Square Regression) model. On intra-annual scale, the retrievals showed that soil salinity increased in February, stabilized in March, and decreased in April. On inter-annual scale, soil salinity decreased within 1985-2000 (-0.74 g kg-1/10a, p < 0.001), and increased within 2000-2015 (0.79 g kg-1/10a, p < 0.001). Our study presents a new perspective for use of multiple Landsat data in soil salinity retrieval, and further the understanding of soil salinization development over the Yellow River Delta.

  16. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Central Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Image products and numeric data were extracted from both TM and MSS data in an effort to evaluate the quality of these data for interpreting major agricultural resources and conditions in California's Central Valley. The utility of TM data appears excellent for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the agricultural resource specialist. These data should be extremely valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation, for updating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000-scale and smaller, for field boundary definition, and for determining the size and location of individual farmsteads.

  17. Who will fund Landsat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    A first-ever joint hearing of the Science, Space, and Technology Committee and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence was held on June 26 to ascertain the true value of the civilian satellite program—Landsat—to the scientific, environmental, and military communities.Landsats collect multispectral images that are used for such purposes as environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and national security. Since the first launch in 1972, Landsat has provided a continuous data record that has proved invaluable in global change research. Currently, Landsats 4 and 5 are in orbit, with Landsat 6 still on schedule for a mid-1992 launch. No funding has been requested for any follow-on to Landsat 6, making users of the data uncertain that their future projects will go ahead.

  18. LANDSAT D operations control center study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L.; Brown, G.; Clemson, B.; Efner, J.; Engelberg, N.; Owen, J.; Winchester, T.

    1977-01-01

    Various aspects of the planned LANDSAT D system are discussed. LANDSAT D incorporates the Thematic Mapper (TM) as a sensor, it utilizes the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS), it makes use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and it employs a more advanced ground system. Each of these represent significant improvements in the state-of-the-art.

  19. Quantifying BRDF Effects in Comparing Landsat-7 and AVIRIS Near-Simultaneous Acquisitions for Studies of High Plains Vegetation Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Heidebrecht, K. B.; Gutmann, E. D.; Warner, A. S.; Johnson, E. L.; Lestak, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 sq. km of the High Plains of the central United States are covered by sand dunes and sand sheets deposited during the Holocene. Soil-dating evidence shows that there were at least four periods of dune reactivation during major droughts in the last 10,000 years. The dunes in this region are anchored by vegetation. We have undertaken a study of land-use change in the High Plains from 1985 to the present using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images to map variation in vegetation cover during wet and dry years. Mapping vegetation cover of less than 20% is important in modeling potential surface reactivation since at this level the vegetation no longer sufficiently shields sandy surfaces from movement by wind. Landsat TM data have both the spatial resolution and temporal coverage to facilitate vegetation cover analysis for model development and verification. However, there is still the question of how accurate TM data are for the measurement of both growing and senescent vegetation in and and semi-arid regions. AVIRIS provides both high spectral resolution as well as high signal-to-noise ratio and can be used to test the accuracy of Landsat TM and ETM+ data. We have analyzed data from AVIRIS flown nearly concurrently with a Landsat 7 overpass. The comparison between an AVIRIS image swath of 11 km width subtending a 30 deg. angle and the same area covered by a 0.8 deg. angle from Landsat required accounting for the BRDF. A normalization technique using the ratio of the reflectances from registered AVIRIS and Landsat data proved superior to the techniques of column averaging on AVIRIS data alone published previously by Kennedy et al. This technique can be applied to aircraft data covering a wider swath angle than AVIRIS to develop BRDF responses for a wide variety of surfaces more efficiently than from ground measurements.

  20. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  1. Assessment of Surface Water at the Sobradinho Reservoir Under the Effects of Drought Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, E. A.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Azevedo, S. C.; Cardim, G. P.; Carvalho, F. P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The matrix of energy generation in Brazil is predominantly hydroelectric power. Consequently, the reservoirs need constant monitoring due to the large volume of artificially dammed water. Images from remote sensing can provide reliable information concerning water bodies. In this paper, we use remote sensing imagery to monitor the Sobradinho dam in three different epochs. The objective was to verify quantitatively the area of the dam's surface reduced due to the drought of 2015, which was considered the worst in history. The approach used water surface area estimations from bands of Landsat5 and Landsat8 satellites which highlight water bodies better from other features present on surface of the Earth. Through the techniques of growth region and normalized difference water index (NDWI), we determined the surface area of the reservoir in 2011 and calculated the decrease caused by the drought. By analyzing the numbers provided by the results it is possible to estimate how the Sobradinho reservoir has been affected by the drastic drought. The results show that the Landsat images enable the monitoring of large reservoirs. Bearing in mind that monitoring is a primary and indispensable tool, not only for technical study, but also for economic and environmental research, it can help establish planning projects and water administration strategies for future decisions about the hydrical resource priority.

  2. Digital snow mapping technique using LANDSAT data and General Electric IMAGE 100 system. [Dinwoody Creek in Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallam, W. C.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    In this study, a technique and procedures using General Electric IMAGE 100 system were derived for performing a snow cover analysis of small watersheds for quasi-operational application. The study area was the Wind River Mountains of west central Wyoming. A small watershed, namely, Dinwoody Creek was selected as a test site. LANDSAT data and U-2 imagery were used in the analysis. From a minimal snowcover LANDSAT scene, multispectral analysis was performed yielding the distribution of forest, bare rock, grassland, water, and snow within the watershed. The forest and bare rock themes were saved and registered with other scenes containing greater snow cover. Likewise, elevation contours from a digitized map were stored and superimposed over the snowpack areas.

  3. Retrieval of Sea Surface Temperature Over Poteran Island Water of Indonesia with Landsat 8 Tirs Image: a Preliminary Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syariz, M. A.; Jaelani, L. M.; Subehi, L.; Pamungkas, A.; Koenhardono, E. S.; Sulisetyono, A.

    2015-10-01

    The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) retrieval from satellites data Thus, it could provide SST data for a long time. Since, the algorithms of SST estimation by using Landsat 8 Thermal Band are sitedependence, we need to develop an applicable algorithm in Indonesian water. The aim of this research was to develop SST algorithms in the North Java Island Water. The data used are in-situ data measured on April 22, 2015 and also estimated brightness temperature data from Landsat 8 Thermal Band Image (band 10 and band 11). The algorithm was established using 45 data by assessing the relation of measured in-situ data and estimated brightness temperature. Then, the algorithm was validated by using another 40 points. The results showed that the good performance of the sea surface temperature algorithm with coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.912 and 0.028, respectively.

  4. Identification of "ever-cropped" land (1984-2010) using Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites: Southwestern Kansas case study.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Susan K; Sylvester, Kenneth M

    2012-06-01

    A time series of 230 intra- and inter-annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images was used to identify land that was ever cropped during the years 1984 through 2010 for a five county region in southwestern Kansas. Annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (NDVI(ann-max)) were used to evaluate the inter-annual dynamics of cropped and non-cropped land. Three feature images were derived from the 27-year NDVI(ann-max) image time series and used in the classification: 1) maximum NDVI value that occurred over the entire 27 year time span (NDVI(max)), 2) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for all years (NDVI(sd)), and 3) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for years 1984-1986 (NDVI(sd84-86)) to improve Conservation Reserve Program land discrimination.Results of the classification were compared to three reference data sets: County-level USDA Census records (1982-2007) and two digital land cover maps (Kansas 2005 and USGS Trends Program maps (1986-2000)). Area of ever-cropped land for the five counties was on average 11.8 % higher than the area estimated from Census records. Overall agreement between the ever-cropped land map and the 2005 Kansas map was 91.9% and 97.2% for the Trends maps. Converting the intra-annual Landsat data set to a single annual maximum NDVI image composite considerably reduced the data set size, eliminated clouds and cloud-shadow affects, yet maintained information important for discriminating cropped land. Our results suggest that Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites will be useful for characterizing land use and land cover change for many applications.

  5. Image enhancements of Landsat 8 (OLI) and SAR data for preliminary landslide identification and mapping applied to the central region of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaniki, M. W.; Kuria, D. N.; Boitt, M. K.; Ngigi, T. G.

    2017-04-01

    Image enhancements lead to improved performance and increased accuracy of feature extraction, recognition, identification, classification and hence change detection. This increases the utility of remote sensing to suit environmental applications and aid disaster monitoring of geohazards involving large areas. The main aim of this study was to compare the effect of image enhancement applied to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and Landsat 8 imagery in landslide identification and mapping. The methodology involved pre-processing Landsat 8 imagery, image co-registration, despeckling of the SAR data, after which Landsat 8 imagery was enhanced by Principal and Independent Component Analysis (PCA and ICA), a spectral index involving bands 7 and 4, and using a False Colour Composite (FCC) with the components bearing the most geologic information. The SAR data were processed using textural and edge filters, and computation of SAR incoherence. The enhanced spatial, textural and edge information from the SAR data was incorporated to the spectral information from Landsat 8 imagery during the knowledge based classification. The methodology was tested in the central highlands of Kenya, characterized by rugged terrain and frequent rainfall induced landslides. The results showed that the SAR data complemented Landsat 8 data which had enriched spectral information afforded by the FCC with enhanced geologic information. The SAR classification depicted landslides along the ridges and lineaments, important information lacking in the Landsat 8 image classification. The success of landslide identification and classification was attributed to the enhanced geologic features by spectral, textural and roughness properties.

  6. Geomorphic classification of Icelandic and Martian volcanoes: Limitations of comparative planetology research from LANDSAT and Viking orbiter images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Some limitations in using orbital images of planetary surfaces for comparative landform analyses are discussed. The principal orbital images used were LANDSAT MSS images of Earth and nominal Viking Orbiter images of Mars. Both are roughly comparable in having a pixel size which corresponds to about 100 m on the planetary surface. A volcanic landform on either planet must have a horizontal dimension of at least 200 m to be discernible on orbital images. A twofold bias is directly introduced into any comparative analysis of volcanic landforms on Mars versus those in Iceland because of this scale limitation. First, the 200-m cutoff of landforms may delete more types of volcanic landforms on Earth than on Mars or vice versa. Second, volcanic landforms in Iceland, too small to be resolved or orbital images, may be represented by larger counterparts on Mars or vice versa.

  7. Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

  8. Use of Landsat MSS and TM imagery to improve reconnaissance geologic mapping in the Ruby quadrangle, west-central Alaska: A section in Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Burleigh, Kuuipo A.

    2001-01-01

    By using Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images, the spatial relation of units JMtu (mafic, ultramafic, and sedimentary rocks, undivided) and PzZrqs (pelitic and quartzitic schist) of Wilson and others (1998) from the northeastern portion of the Ruby 1:250,000-scale quadrangle geologic map was further defined. The MSS image was first analyzed using spectral signatures to separate and highlight pixels associated only with the units of interest. This approach was ineffective at separating the units from areas of the image with similar spectral signatures, but it did show that unit JMtu and associated areas consistently had a high brightness value, while unit PzZrqs and associated areas consistently had a low brightness value. Consequently, a new approach was developed using spectral enhancement to emphasize the differences between these high- and low- brightness areas. Once the TM image was obtained, the spectral signature separation and spectral enhancement approaches were again tested, but the results were similar to those found using the MSS image. By using the results from the spectral enhancement of the MSS image in combination with current ground-truth data, the locations of units JMtu and PzZrqs in the Ruby quadrangle were reinterpreted.

  9. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will describe the design, capabilities and status of the OLI and TIRS instruments. The OLI will provide 8 channel multispectral images at a spatial resolution of 30 meters and panchromatic images at 15 meter spatial resolution. The TIRS is a 100 meter spatial resolution push-broom imager whose two spectral channels, centered at 10.8 and 12 microns, split the ETM+ thermal bands. The two channels allow the use of the "split-window" technique to aid in atmospheric correction. The TIRS focal plane consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays to span the 185 km swath width. The OLI and TIRS instruments will be operated independently but in concert with each other. Data from both instruments will be merged into a single data stream at the (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) facility. The ground system, being developed by USGS, includes an Image Assessment System (lAS), similar to Landsat-7's, to operationally monitor, characterize and update the calibrations of the two sensors.

  10. Chlorophyll concentration estimates for coastal water using pixel-based atmospheric correction of Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, Eric

    Ocean color analysis is more challenging for coastal regions than the global ocean due the effects of optical brightness, shallow and turbid water, higher phytoplankton growth rates, and the complex geometry of coastal bays and estuaries. Also, one of the key atmospheric correction assumptions (zero water leaving radiance in the near infrared) is not valid for these complex conditions. This makes it difficult to estimate the spectral radiance noise caused by atmospheric aerosols, which can vary rapidly with time and space. This study conducts pixel-based atmospheric correction of Landsat-7 ETM+ images over the Texas coast. Precise satellite orbit data, operational weather data, and climate data are combined to create interpolated arrays of viewing angles and atmospheric profiles. These arrays vary with time and location, allowing calculation of the Rayleigh and aerosol radiances separately for all pixels. The resulting normalized water-leaving radiances are then compared with in situ chlorophyll fluorescence measurements from five locations inside a set of Texas coastal bays: the Mission-Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve. Curve-fitting analysis shows it is possible to estimate chlorophyll-a surface area concentrations by using ETM+ water-leaving radiance values and a third-order polynomial equation. Two pairs of ETM+ bands are identified as inputs (Bands 1 and 3, and the Log10 values of Bands 3 and 4), both achieving good performance (R2 of 0.69). Further research efforts are recommended to obtain additional data, identify better curve fitting equations, and potentially extend the radiative transfer model into the water column.

  11. Large Scale Crop Classification in Ukraine using Multi-temporal Landsat-8 Images with Missing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, N.; Skakun, S.; Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    At present, there are no globally available Earth observation (EO) derived products on crop maps. This issue is being addressed within the Sentinel-2 for Agriculture initiative where a number of test sites (including from JECAM) participate to provide coherent protocols and best practices for various global agriculture systems, and subsequently crop maps from Sentinel-2. One of the problems in dealing with optical images for large territories (more than 10,000 sq. km) is the presence of clouds and shadows that result in having missing values in data sets. In this abstract, a new approach to classification of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery with missing data due to clouds and shadows is proposed. First, self-organizing Kohonen maps (SOMs) are used to restore missing pixel values in a time series of satellite imagery. SOMs are trained for each spectral band separately using non-missing values. Missing values are restored through a special procedure that substitutes input sample's missing components with neuron's weight coefficients. After missing data restoration, a supervised classification is performed for multi-temporal satellite images. For this, an ensemble of neural networks, in particular multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), is proposed. Ensembling of neural networks is done by the technique of average committee, i.e. to calculate the average class probability over classifiers and select the class with the highest average posterior probability for the given input sample. The proposed approach is applied for large scale crop classification using multi temporal Landsat-8 images for the JECAM test site in Ukraine [1-2]. It is shown that ensemble of MLPs provides better performance than a single neural network in terms of overall classification accuracy and kappa coefficient. The obtained classification map is also validated through estimated crop and forest areas and comparison to official statistics. 1. A.Yu. Shelestov et al., "Geospatial information system

  12. Landsat TM-based analysis of land area and vegetation cover change on six selected Alabama and Mississippi barrier islands (1984-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstanley, Hunter Clark

    Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island are located 10-20 kilometers south of the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines. These six barrier islands serve as an important shield to southern areas of Mississippi and Alabama from tropical cyclone (hurricane) impacts such as storm surge and destructive waves. The islands are also home to a delicate ecosystem of many different types of flora and fauna. Over the course of the past three decades, all six islands have been subjected to several hurricane events. This, coupled with the natural state of the erosion, has led to the islands losing total land area and vegetation. This thesis research focuses on quantifying the vegetation loss and total land area loss on Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island during the time period from 1984 to 2011. A special focus is given to impacts of Hurricanes Georges, Ivan, Katrina, Gustav, and Ike which affected the northern Gulf Coast in 1998, 2004, 2005, and 2008, respectively. This research utilizes Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper Imagery. Supervised classifications and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analyses are performed on each scene to analyze the total land area and vegetation cover of each island. The results of this research show the total extent of land and vegetation loss on each island from 1984 to 2011, and which islands are most vulnerable to erosion and vegetation loss. The results also reveal how all five hurricanes affected each individual island.

  13. Analysis of forest and forest clearings in Amazonia with Landsat and Shuttle Imaging Radar-A data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat and Shuttle Imaging Radar-A L band (23.5 cm wavelength) data from 1981 were used to analyze areas of intact tropical forest and areas recently cleared from forest for agriculture and pasture in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Portions of SIR-A Data Takes #24C and #31 film were digitized using a microdensitometer. Landsat MSS data of July 1981 were also examined. The digital values from SIR-A DT 31 were compared with the normalized difference vegetation index values (NDVI) from the Landsat data for the same sites. Contrary to expectations some cleared areas had brighter radar responses than surrounding forest. The explanation seems to be that a recently cleared forest (cut and burned during the dry season) is texturally very rough as the exposed standing and fallen boles and woody litter may function as effective corner or dihedral reflectors. Combining radar data with NDVI data may help to assess the relative age of forest clearings and determine differences in both woody and green leaf biomass of primary and secondary tropical forests.

  14. Monitoring changes in the water volume of Hulun Lake by integrating satellite altimetry data and Landsat images between 1992 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Ke, Changqing; Shao, Zhude; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Lake level and volume are sensitive to climate change, and their changes can affect the sustainable utilization of regional water resources. Satellite radar/laser altimetry has effectively been used for monitoring water-level changes in recent years. In this study, satellite altimetry data and optical images were used to assess the changes in water level, area, and volume of Hulun Lake in north-eastern China. We derived a time series of lake levels for nearly two decades (1992 to 2010) from the altimetry data of two satellite sensors (Topex/Poseidon and Envisat RA-2); additionally, lake surface extent was extracted from Landsat TM/ETM+ images during the same period. The results indicate that the water level, area, and volume of Hulun Lake decreased over the past two decades. The water level shows a significant decrease (-0.36 m/year) of a total of -5.21 m from 1992 to 2010, specifically including a slight decrease (-0.4 m) during 1992 to 1999 and a sudden drop (-4.81 m) during 2000 to 2010. There has also been a consistent and significant reduction in lake area (-355.35 km2) and volume (-12.92 km3). An integrated examination on changes in temperature, evaporation, precipitation, and runoff during 1992 to 2010 shows that the main changes in the Hulun Lake area are correlated with increasing temperature (0.47°C/year) and evaporation (13.61 mm/year), as well as decreasing precipitation (-6.58 mm/year) and runoff (-1.04×108 m3/year). Thus, we infer that climate warming is likely the main cause of the changes in water level, area, and volume of Hulun Lake. In addition, anthropogenic factors accelerate the degradation of the Hulun Lake wetland to some extent.

  15. Assessment of water quality based on Landsat 8 operational land imager associated with human activities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jisang; Choi, Minha

    2015-06-01

    Water pollution such as green algae blooms and eutrophication in freshwater fatally influences both water quality and human society. Water quality issues in the 4 major rivers in Korea, including the Nakdong, have recently become a major concern. For this reason, it is essential to monitor water quality parameters (WQPs) that have a widespread characteristic to ensure maintenance of an effective water management system. The possibility of utilizing remote sensing technology for monitoring water quality on a regional scale has been recently investigated. The main objective of this study is to evaluate potential applications of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) for estimating water quality in the Nakdong River, Korea. Correlations between Landsat 8 bands and in situ measurements are determined, and water quality models are established for estimating suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and total phosphorus (TP). The results demonstrate that WQPs correlated well with band reflectance values from Landsat 8. Band 5 was reasonably correlated with all WQPs, particularly with SS (R = -0.74) and Chl-a (R = -0.71). This study constructed multiple regression equations for WQPs based on correlation analysis through band combination and band ratio. The spatial distribution of WQPs in the Nakdong River on October 27, 2013 and May 16, 2014 indicate that the river was nearly eutrophic from human activities. Based on the results, the Landsat 8 OLI may be an appropriate data for estimating and monitoring water quality parameters on a regional scale. However, further validation is required to support the findings of this study.

  16. Mapping paddy rice planting area in northeastern Asia with Landsat 8 images, phenology-based algorithm and Google Earth Engine.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Menarguez, Michael A; Zhang, Geli; Qin, Yuanwei; Thau, David; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Moore, Berrien

    2016-11-01

    Area and spatial distribution information of paddy rice are important for understanding of food security, water use, greenhouse gas emission, and disease transmission. Due to climatic warming and increasing food demand, paddy rice has been expanding rapidly in high latitude areas in the last decade, particularly in northeastern (NE) Asia. Current knowledge about paddy rice fields in these cold regions is limited. The phenology- and pixel-based paddy rice mapping (PPPM) algorithm, which identifies the flooding signals in the rice transplanting phase, has been effectively applied in tropical areas, but has not been tested at large scale of cold regions yet. Despite the effects from more snow/ice, paddy rice mapping in high latitude areas is assumed to be more encouraging due to less clouds, lower cropping intensity, and more observations from Landsat sidelaps. Moreover, the enhanced temporal and geographic coverage from Landsat 8 provides an opportunity to acquire phenology information and map paddy rice. This study evaluated the potential of Landsat 8 images on annual paddy rice mapping in NE Asia which was dominated by single cropping system, including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and NE China. The cloud computing approach was used to process all the available Landsat 8 imagery in 2014 (143 path/rows, ~3290 scenes) with the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. The results indicated that the Landsat 8, GEE, and improved PPPM algorithm can effectively support the yearly mapping of paddy rice in NE Asia. The resultant paddy rice map has a high accuracy with the producer (user) accuracy of 73% (92%), based on the validation using very high resolution images and intensive field photos. Geographic characteristics of paddy rice distribution were analyzed from aspects of country, elevation, latitude, and climate. The resultant 30-m paddy rice map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial distribution, and landscape pattern of paddy rice fields

  17. Bora Bora, Tahaa, and Raiatea, French Polynesia, Landsat and SIR-C Images Compared to SRTM Shaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Bora Bora, Tahaa, and Raiatea (top to bottom) are Polynesian Islands about 220 kilometers (135 miles) west-northwest of Tahiti in the South Pacific. Each of the islands is surrounded by a coral reef and its associated islets ('motus') that enclose a lagoon. Actually, as seen here, Tahaa and Raiatea are close enough together to share a common lagoon and reef. These islands are volcanic in origin and were built up from the sea floor by lava extrusions millions of years ago. None is now active, and all are deeply eroded.

    This display compares three differing 'views from space' of these islands. On the left, an image from the Landsat 7 satellite shows the islands as they might have appeared to an astronaut in orbit in 1999 (but a little sharper and with atmospheric haze suppressed). In the middle is an image created from data gathered by the third-generation Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C), flown in 1994. On the right is a graphic illustrating elevation data gathered by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000.

    Each of these images shows very different information as compared to the other two. Landsat sees clouds, which are almost always above these islands, blocking the view of the terrain. It also readily sees through shallow water down to the reefs. SIR-C sees the waves and other effects of winds upon the ocean surface. It does not look through water to see the reefs, but it clearly separates land and water. It also provides a bolder (but distorted) view of the islands' topographic patterns. With the ability of radar to see through clouds and provision of its own illumination, the SIR-C view is not limited by clouds nor their shadows.

    SRTM was designed to provide new information that is missing in the Landsat and SIR-C views. Specifically, SRTM created the world's first near-global, detailed elevation model. Natural topographic shading in Landsat imagery and radar topographic shadowing of SIR-C give some evidence of the shape of the

  18. Application of Landsat images to seagrass areal cover change analysis for Lawas, Terengganu and Kelantan of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. S.; Bujang, J. S.; Zakaria, M. H.; Hashim, M.

    2015-11-01

    Seagrass mapping and monitoring using remote sensing has been established using various imageries and mapping methods, ranging from complex optical modeling to manual interpretations. Few attempts have been made to find relations between spatiotemporal changes within seagrass habitats and their surrounding environment in the mapping efforts. In this study, issues of spatiotemporal changes in seagrass habitat including water quality, and causes and processes of seagrass degradation were addressed through assessing the ability of integrated manual enhancement and seed pixel growing techniques on multi-date Landsat images for mapping and monitoring seagrass resources. This integrated approach was tested on a total of forty-nine Landsat 5, 7 and 8 images of the seagrass meadow spatial distribution and cover change analysis for Punag-Sari estuary (Lawas), Pengkalan Nangka (Kelantan) lagoon, and Paka (Terengganu) lagoon of Malaysia. The resulted maps demonstrated the ability of Landsat images for producing spatially extensive maps and allowed quantitative estimation of seagrass coverage, accretion/erosion, and describe changes in noticeable areas. The findings indicated that a noticeable loss of seagrass habitats at varying magnitude occurred between 2000 and 2014 for Punang-Sari, between 1998 and 2014 for Pegkalan Nangka, and between 1988 and 2014 for Paka. The natural event mainly sand shifting was the main cause of seagrass habitat loss for Punang-Sari Lawas. Coastline change was identified as the most significant factor that caused seagrass spatial cover loss of the Pengkalan Nangka lagoon. The seagrass meadows of Pengkalan Nangka and Paka were greatly affected by natural events including floods, and local human-induced interferences such as dredging, and sand mining. The mapping approach and the map products presented in this paper will be a useful information source for the coastal management agencies involved in monitoring and management programs.

  19. Long term land cover and seagrass mapping using Landsat and object-based image analysis from 1972 to 2010 in the coastal environment of South East Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Mitchell B.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Roelfsema, Chris M.

    2012-07-01

    Long term global archives of high-moderate spatial resolution, multi-spectral satellite imagery are now readily accessible, but are not being fully utilised by management agencies due to the lack of appropriate methods to consistently produce accurate and timely management ready information. This work developed an object-based remote sensing approach to map land cover and seagrass distribution in an Australian coastal environment for a 38 year Landsat image time-series archive (1972-2010). Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery were used without in situ field data input (but still using field knowledge) to produce land and seagrass cover maps every year data were available, resulting in over 60 map products over the 38 year archive. Land cover was mapped annually using vegetation, bare ground, urban and agricultural classes. Seagrass distribution was also mapped annually, and in some years monthly, via horizontal projected foliage cover classes, sand and deep water. Land cover products were validated using aerial photography and seagrass maps were validated with field survey data, producing several measures of accuracy. An average overall accuracy of 65% and 80% was reported for seagrass and land cover products respectively, which is consistent with other studies in the area. This study is the first to show moderate spatial resolution, long term annual changes in land cover and seagrass in an Australian environment, created without the use of in situ data; and only one of a few similar studies globally. The land cover products identify several long term trends; such as significant increases in South East Queensland's urban density and extent, vegetation clearing in rural and rural-residential areas, and inter-annual variation in dry vegetation types in western South East Queensland. The seagrass cover products show that there has been a minimal overall change in seagrass extent, but that seagrass cover

  20. Landsat sensor performance: history and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Storey, James C.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The current Thematic Mapper (TM) class of Landsat sensors began with Landsat-4, which was launched in 1982. This series continued with the nearly identical sensor on Landsat-5, launched in 1984. The final sensor in the series was the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which was carried into orbit in 1999. Varying degrees of effort have been devoted to the characterization of these instruments and data over the past 22 years. Extensive short-lived efforts early in the history, very limited efforts in the middle years, and now a systematic program for continuing characterization of all three systems are apparent. Currently, both the Landsat-5 TM and the Landsat-7 ETM+ are operational and providing data. Despite 20+ years of operation, the TM on Landsat-5 is fully functional, although downlinks for the data are limited. Landsat-7 ETM+ experienced a failure of its Scan Line Corrector mechanism in May 2003. Although there are gaps in the data coverage, the data remain of equivalent quality to prefailure data. Data products have been developed to fill these gaps using other ETM+ scenes.

  1. The potential of Landsat-3 RBV images for thematic mapping. [geomorphological, geological and land cover applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) imagery from Landsat-3 is discussed for thematic mapping. The advantages of the imagery arising from its high spatial resolution are described as well as the restrictions stemming from its limited spectral characteristics. The principal application areas discussed are geomorphological and geological mapping and land cover mapping.

  2. Volcanism at Pacaya, Guatemala 1985-2001: Potential of TM Images in Assessing Strombolian Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, S.; Matias, O.; Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.; Flynn, L. P.; Harris, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    Pacaya is a basaltic volcano with a history of catastrophic collapse which has exhibited nearly continual low-level eruptive activity since 1965, and has also had periods of violent explosions. In the current year one of the authors (Matias) is beginning a synthesis of the diverse observational data on Pacaya's activity of that exist for the past four decades as a step toward improving the ability to assess potential hazards from the volcano. This is particularly important because the volcano (1) is located 25 km S of Guatemala City, (2) falls along the local airport final approach route, (3) has caused airport closure for several days in 2000, (4) is located in a national park where it and is thus visited and closely viewed by large groups of tourists every day, and (5) has 500-2000 inhabitants living within 5 km of its active crater. Since 1985 a time series of >25 cloud-free Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images have been assembled and these are being used with ground-based observations, mapping and modeling as an important tool in (a) quantifying activity (e.g. calculation of eruption rates and flow volumes), (b) tracking changes at the volcano and (c) in establishing time-based patterns that may be useful in hazards assessment. The study is just beginning and will be presented as a work in progress. Our plan is to interact with the large number of scientists who have visited this exciting volcano. Because we have abundant ground-based observational data to complement the satellite observations, we expect to be able to evaluate the potential value of multispectral satellite observations in tracking activity at Pacaya.

  3. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  4. Discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks along the Battle Mountain-Eureka, Nevada, mineral belt using Landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis; Abrams, Michael J.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of the northwestern part of the Battle Mountain-Eureki, Nevada mineral belt were evaluated for distinguishing hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper and disseminated gold deposits. Detection of altered rocks from Landsat is based on the distinctive spectral reflectance of limonite present at coatings on weathered surfaces Some altered rocks are visible as bleached areas in individual MSS bands; however, they cannot be consistently distinguished from unaltered rocks with high albedo nor from bright areas resulting .from topographic slope. Black-and-white ratio images were generated to subdue .topographic effects, and three ratio images were composited in color to portray spectral radiance differences, forming an image known as a color-ratio composite (CRC). The optimum CRC image for this area has MSS 4/5 as blue, MSS 4/6 as yellow, and MSS 6/7 as magenta, and differs in two respects from most CRC images of arid areas. First, as a result of the increased vegetation cover in the study area, MSS 5/6 was replaced by MSS 4/6 as the yellow layer. Second, 70 mm positive transparencies were replaced by large format images (64 cm), thereby improving the internal registration of the CRC image and the effective spatial resolution. The pattern of limonitic rocks depicted in the CRC closely agrees with the mapped pattern of the alteration zones at the Copper Canyon and Copper Basin porphyry copper deposits. Certain west-facing topographic slopes in the altered areas are depicted as unaltered in the CRC, apparently due to atmospheric scattering, and illustrate the need for atmospheric correction. The disseminated gold deposits at Gold Acres and Tenabo are poorly represented in the CRC because of the general absence of limonite on these deposits. The presence of unaltered limonitic sedimentary and volcanic rocks is the largest obstacle to discriminating altered areas within the mineral belt. Reflectance spectra, made

  5. LANDSAT, a data supplement to forest survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiede, G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT in providing forest data on a county basis was investigated. Image interpretation and classification techniques and their accuracy are addressed. LANDSAT data was also used to detect and delineate defoliation caused by tent caterpillars.

  6. Comparison of Skylab and LANDSAT images for geologic mapping in Northern Arizona. [Shivwits Plateau, Verde Valley, Coconino Plateau, and Red Lake in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H. (Principal Investigator); Abrams, M. J.; Gillespie, A. R.; Siegal, B. S.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchitta, I.; Wu, S. S. C.; Sanchez, A.; Dipaola, W. D.; Schafer, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that based on resolution, the Skylab S190A products were superior to LANDSAT images. Based on measurements of shoreline features in Lake Mead S190A images had 1.5 - 3 times greater resolution than LANDSAT. In general, the higher resolution of the Skylab data yielded better discrimination among rock units, but in the case of structural features, lower sun angle LANDSAT images (50 deg) were superior to higher sun angle Skylab images (77 deg). The most valuable advantage of the Skylab over the LANDSAT image products is the capability of producing stereo images. Field spectral reflectance measurements on the Coconino Plateau were made in an effort to determine the best spectral band for discrimination of the six geologic units in question, and these bands were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0, and 0.5 microns. The EREP multispectral scanner yielded data with a low signal to noise ratio which limited its usefulness for image enhancement work. Sites that were studied in Arizona were Shivwits Plateau, Verde Valley, Coconino Plateau, and Red Lake. Thematic maps produced by the three classification algorithms analyzed were not as accurate as the maps produced by photointerpretation of composites of enhanced images.

  7. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  8. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region. PMID:27688742

  9. Improving winter wheat yield estimation by assimilation of the leaf area index from Landsat TM and MODIS data into the WOFOST model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To predict regional-scale winter wheat yield, a framework was developed to assimilate leaf area index (LAI) values derived from MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) LAI remote sensing products into the WOFOST crop growth model. LAIs were measured in field during seven main phenologi...

  10. Comparison of different methods for estimating snowcover in forested, mountainous basins using LANDSAT (ERTS) images. [Washington and Santiam River, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. J.; Evans, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Snow-covered areas on LANDSAT (ERTS) images of the Santiam River basin, Oregon, and other basins in Washington were measured using several operators and methods. Seven methods were used: (1) Snowline tracing followed by measurement with planimeter, (2) mean snowline altitudes determined from many locations, (3) estimates in 2.5 x 2.5 km boxes of snow-covered area with reference to snow-free images, (4) single radiance-threshold level for entire basin, (5) radiance-threshold setting locally edited by reference to altitude contours and other images, (6) two-band color-sensitive extraction locally edited as in (5), and (7) digital (spectral) pattern recognition techniques. The seven methods are compared in regard to speed of measurement, precision, the ability to recognize snow in deep shadow or in trees, relative cost, and whether useful supplemental data are produced.

  11. Landsat-4/5 Band 6 relative radiometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Helder, D.L.; Boncyk, Wayne C.

    2002-01-01

    Relative radiometric responses for the thematic mapper (TM) band 6 data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were analyzed, and an algorithm has been developed that significantly reduces the striping in Band 6 images due to detector mismatch. The TM internal calibration system as originally designed includes a DC restore circuit, which acts as a feedback system designed to keep detector bias at a constant value. There is a strong indication that the DC restore circuitry implemented in Band 6 does not function as it had been designed to. It operates as designed only during a portion of the calibration interval and not at all during acquisition of scene data. This renders the data acquired during the calibration shutter interval period virtually useless for correction of the individual responses of the four detectors in Band 6. It was observed and statistically quantified that the relative response of each of the detectors to the band average is stable over the dynamic range and throughout the lifetime of the instrument. This allows an alternate approach to relative radiometric correction of TM Band 6 images

  12. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Several studies were performed using LANDSAT-4 and -5 simultaneous overpath data 40608-15472 and 50014-15465 over Pensacola, FL. The overlap region of these two scenes was determined visually on the IAT and then sampled into 32 x 32 segments. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for each segment were calculated. In general, the plots of the means of LANDSAT-4 versus LANDSAT-5 lie on the diagonal line. Some of the data lie out of the diagonal line, which indicates a possible bidirectional observation effect occurs. In addition to editing the five FCL files on CALDUMP tapes into seven 1000 minor frame (MF). CAL files, program LEE.FOR was modified to use information from start of shutter obscuration extracted from program START.FOR to create seven 200 MF.CAL files that can be run through the current TRAPP program for TM sensor characterization. The location of start of shutter obscuration was determined for both LANDSAT-4 and -5.

  13. Landsat's international partners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite 40 years ago, International Cooperators (ICs) have formed a key strategic alliance with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to not only engage in Landsat data downlink services but also to enable a foundation for scientific and technical collaboration. The map below shows the locations of all ground stations operated by the United States and IC ground station network for the direct downlink and distribution of Landsat 5 (L5) and Landsat 7 (L7) image data. The circles show the approximate area over which each station has the capability for direct reception of Landsat data. The red circles show the components of the L5 ground station network, the green circles show components of the L7 station network, and the dashed circles show stations with dual (L5 and L7) status. The yellow circles show L5 short-term ("campaign") stations that contribute to the USGS Landsat archive. Ground stations in South Dakota and Australia currently serve as the primary data capture facilities for the USGS Landsat Ground Network (LGN). The Landsat Ground Station (LGS) is located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Alice Springs (ASN) ground station is located at the Geoscience Australia facility in Alice Springs, Australia. These sites receive the image data, via X-band Radio Frequency (RF) link, and the spacecraft housekeeping data, via S-band RF link. LGS also provides tracking services and a command link to the spacecrafts.

  14. Modeling urban expansion in Yangon, Myanmar using Landsat time-series and stereo GeoEye Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    This research proposed a methodology to model the urban expansion based dynamic statistical model using Landsat and GeoEye Images. Landsat Time-Series from 1978 to 2010 have been applied to extract land covers from the past to the present. Stereo GeoEye Images have been employed to obtain the height of the building. The class translation was obtained by observing land cover from the past to the present. The height of the building can be used to detect the center of the urban area (mainly commercial area). It was assumed that the class translation and the distance of multi-centers of the urban area also the distance of the roads affect the urban growth. The urban expansion model based on the dynamic statistical model was defined to refer to three factors; (1) the class translation, (2) the distance of the multicenters of the urban areas, and (3) the distance from the roads. Estimation and prediction of urban expansion by using our model were formulated and expressed in this research. The experimental area was set up in Yangon, Myanmar. Since it is the major of country's economic with more than five million population and the urban areas have rapidly increased. The experimental results indicated that our model of urban expansion estimated urban growth in both estimation and prediction steps in efficiency.

  15. A comparison of the Landsat image and LAHARZ-simulated lahar inundation hazard zone by the 2010 Merapi eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seul-Ki; Lee, Chang-Wook; Lee, Saro

    2015-06-01

    Located above the Java subduction zone, Merapi Volcano is an active stratovolcano with a volcanic activity cycle of 1-5 years. Most Merapi eruptions are relatively small with volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 1-3. However, the most recent eruption, which occurred in 2010, was quite violent with a VEI of 4 and 386 people were killed. In this study, lahars and pyroclastic flow zones were detected using optical Landsat images and the lahar and pyroclastic flow zone simulated using the LAHARZ program. To detect areal extents of lahar and pyroclastic flows using Landsat images, supervised classification was performed after atmospheric correction by using a cosine of the solar zenith correction (COST) model. As a result, the extracted dimensions of pyroclastic flows are nearly identical to the Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) monthly reports. Then, areas of potential lahar and pyroclastic flow inundation based on flow volume using the LAHARZ program were simulated and mapped. Finally, the detected lahars and pyroclastic