Science.gov

Sample records for language acquisition

  1. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  2. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  3. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  4. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  5. Language acquisition meets language evolution.

    PubMed

    Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2010-09-01

    Recent research suggests that language evolution is a process of cultural change, in which linguistic structures are shaped through repeated cycles of learning and use by domain-general mechanisms. This paper draws out the implications of this viewpoint for understanding the problem of language acquisition, which is cast in a new, and much more tractable, form. In essence, the child faces a problem of induction, where the objective is to coordinate with others (C-induction), rather than to model the structure of the natural world (N-induction). We argue that, of the two, C-induction is dramatically easier. More broadly, we argue that understanding the acquisition of any cultural form, whether linguistic or otherwise, during development, requires considering the corresponding question of how that cultural form arose through processes of cultural evolution. This perspective helps resolve the "logical" problem of language acquisition and has far-reaching implications for evolutionary psychology. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Language acquisition and language change.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, David

    2010-09-01

    Children acquire a mature language system and sometimes this system differs from that of their parents. This is a significant part of language change and understanding acquisition is key to understanding this kind of change in people's internal grammars. I outline one approach to language acquisition, based on children finding cues expressed in the input they are exposed to. This enables us to understand historical change in grammars: change in external language sometimes triggers a new internal grammar as cues come to be expressed differently. Work on language variation, acquisition, and change converges, and these three areas are mutually dependent; empirical work in one area may enrich understanding more generally, opening the way to new kinds of empirical work. Seen this way, language is a complex system and language change can be treated productively in the context of complexity science. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  8. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  9. Assessment of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  12. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  13. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  14. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  15. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  16. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  17. Second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Markedness and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Byeon, Ja

    1999-01-01

    Discusses whether markedness is at work in second-language acquisition in the same way it is in first-language acquisition when Korean speakers learn English as a second language and English speakers learn Korean as a second language. Results are discussed in terms of no access to universal grammar, partial access to universal grammar, and access…

  19. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  20. Language acquisition and brain development.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2005-11-04

    Language acquisition is one of the most fundamental human traits, and it is obviously the brain that undergoes the developmental changes. During the years of language acquisition, the brain not only stores linguistic information but also adapts to the grammatical regularities of language. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have substantially contributed to systems-level analyses of brain development. In this Viewpoint, I review the current understanding of how the "final state" of language acquisition is represented in the mature brain and summarize new findings on cortical plasticity for second language acquisition, focusing particularly on the function of the grammar center.

  1. Investment and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    The article argues that Norton Peirce's (1995) concept of a language learner's investment should figure centrally in how instructors address the needs of adult learners in ESL classrooms. Investment is discussed in relation to second language acquisition research that addresses the role of social factors in second language acquisition. The article…

  2. First language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Goodluck, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current approaches to first language acquisition, arguing in favor of the theory that attributes to the child an innate knowledge of universal grammar. Such knowledge can accommodate the systematic nature of children's non-adult linguistic behaviors. The relationships between performance devices (mechanisms for comprehension and production of speech), non-linguistic aspects of cognition, and child grammars are also discussed. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 47-54 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.95 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Bootstrapping language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Language Acquisition and Machine Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the field of machine learning and examine its implications for computational models of language acquisition . As...limitations of the earlier work and propose an alternative approach to modeling the mechanisms underlying language acquisition . (Author)

  5. Universals of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Works on second language acquisition theories, affective variables and communicative competence, and interlanguage were compiled as a result of a symposium on universals of second language acquisition at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The papers include: "On the Variability of Interlangauge Systems" (Elaine Tarone); "Memory, Learning, and…

  6. Abduction Machines and Language Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    and modest numbers of variables. This implies that models for analogy to real world phenomena which exhibit language acquisition ability cannot be based on enumerative inference or finite search techniques.

  7. [First language acquisition research and theories of language acquisition].

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In principle, a child can seemingly easily acquire any given language. First language acquisition follows a certain pattern which to some extent is found to be language independent. Since time immemorial, it has been of interest why children are able to acquire language so easily. Different disciplinary and methodological orientations addressing this question can be identified. A selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was carried out and relevant monographies were considered. Different, partially overlapping phases can be distinguished in language acquisition research: whereas in ancient times, deprivation experiments were carried out to discover the "original human language", the era of diary studies began in the mid-19th century. From the mid-1920s onwards, behaviouristic paradigms dominated this field of research; interests were focussed on the determination of normal, average language acquisition. The subsequent linguistic period was strongly influenced by the nativist view of Chomsky and the constructivist concepts of Piaget. Speech comprehension, the role of speech input and the relevance of genetic disposition became the centre of attention. The interactionist concept led to a revival of the convergence theory according to Stern. Each of these four major theories--behaviourism, cognitivism, interactionism and nativism--have given valuable and unique impulses, but no single theory is universally accepted to provide an explanation of all aspects of language acquisition. Moreover, it can be critically questioned whether clinicians consciously refer to one of these theories in daily routine work and whether therapies are then based on this concept. It remains to be seen whether or not new theories of grammar, such as the so-called construction grammar (CxG), will eventually change the general concept of language acquisition.

  8. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  9. Music and early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability - one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  10. Statistical learning and language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    Human learners, including infants, are highly sensitive to structure in their environment. Statistical learning refers to the process of extracting this structure. A major question in language acquisition in the past few decades has been the extent to which infants use statistical learning mechanisms to acquire their native language. There have been many demonstrations showing infants’ ability to extract structures in linguistic input, such as the transitional probability between adjacent elements. This paper reviews current research on how statistical learning contributes to language acquisition. Current research is extending the initial findings of infants’ sensitivity to basic statistical information in many different directions, including investigating how infants represent regularities, learn about different levels of language, and integrate information across situations. These current directions emphasize studying statistical language learning in context: within language, within the infant learner, and within the environment as a whole. PMID:21666883

  11. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

    The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

  12. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

    The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

  13. Rhythm in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Langus, Alan; Mehler, Jacques; Nespor, Marina

    2016-12-16

    Spoken language is governed by rhythm. Linguistic rhythm is hierarchical and the rhythmic hierarchy partially mimics the prosodic as well as the morpho-syntactic hierarchy of spoken language. It can thus provide learners with cues about the structure of the language they are acquiring. We identify three universal levels of linguistic rhythm - the segmental level, the level of the metrical feet and the phonological phrase level - and discuss why primary lexical stress is not rhythmic. We survey experimental evidence on rhythm perception in young infants and native speakers of various languages to determine the properties of linguistic rhythm that are present at birth, those that mature during the first year of life and those that are shaped by the linguistic environment of language learners. We conclude with a discussion of the major gaps in current knowledge on linguistic rhythm and highlight areas of interest for future research that are most likely to yield significant insights into the nature, the perception, and the usefulness of linguistic rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Algebraic learning for language acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Kevin R.; Mammone, Richard J.; Gorin, Allen

    1994-02-01

    This paper explores the application of new algorithms to the adaptive language acquisition model formulated by Gorin. The new methods consists of incremental approaches for the algebraic learning of statistical associations proposed by Tishby. The incremental methods are evaluated on a text-based natural language experiment, namely the inward call manager task. Performance is evaluated with respect to the alternative methods, namely the smooth mutual information method and the pseudo-inverse solution.

  15. Language Acquisition and Learnability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Stefano, Ed.

    This book has been conceived as a companion to learnability for the benefit of those linguists who base their work on Chomsky's "Principles and Parameters Hypothesis." General concepts from formal theory and complexity theory and important facts from psycholinguistics, historical linguistics, and language processing have been introduced…

  16. Bilingualism and Third Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garate, Jose Valencia; Iragui, Jasone Cenoz

    A study investigated the role of bilingualism (Basque/Spanish) and motivation in third (English) language acquisition in Spain's Basque country. Subjects were 321 secondary school students in two programs, one with instruction primarily in Spanish and one with instruction primarily in Basque. The following independent variables were analyzed in…

  17. Approaches to Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towell, Richard; Hawkins, Roger

    This book defines and reviews five central problems in the study of second language acquisition (SLA): (subconscious) transfer, staged development, cross-learner systematicity, incompleteness, and variability. The central thesis of the text is that linguistic knowledge is an autonomous component of SLA, distinct from the socially determined use of…

  18. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  19. Schemas, Computation, and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jane C.; Arbib, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a general analysis of the problem of relating private, cognitive mechanisms of individuals to their public behavior. A computational model of language acquisition is offered. Conclusions are related to Piaget's notion of mutual verification and to some general philosophical questions about learning. (Author/RH)

  20. Pidginization and Creolization as Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    Pidginization and creolization are addressed from a language acquisition perspective. The 18 collected papers are organized around four areas of inquiry: (1) simplification in input to pidginization and second language acquisition, (2) simplification in interlanguage, (3) creolization and language acquisition, and (4) decreolization and language…

  1. Neurobiological Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Schumann, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Specifies language acquisition processes in terms of brain mechanisms to explain the variable success achieved by early and late learners and proposes a brain-based model for language acquisition on the basis of the literature. Two conditions for full acquisition of a language are motivation and grammatical ability. The neural underpinnings for…

  2. Studies in Filipino Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresita V.

    Very little research has been done on first or second language acquisition in the Philippines. Most second language learning studies cited in the literature concern acquisition of English in English-speaking communities, and most American studies of Filipino language acquisition are superficial, consisting primarily of morpheme analysis. The…

  3. Second Language Acquisition Research and Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, S. Pit

    1985-01-01

    Discusses second language acquisition, the importance of comprehensible input to this acquisition, and the inadequacy of the theory of language interference as an explanation for errors in second language speech. The role of the teacher in the language classroom and the "procedural syllabus" are described. (SED)

  4. Interkinesics and Interprosodics in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassin, June

    1992-01-01

    Assumes unified language behavior including verbal, kinesic, and prosodic forms. Proposes that interlanguage theory should be expanded to include kinesic and prosodic modes of behavior. Suggests that acquisition of second-language kinesic and prosodic forms takes place similarly to acquisition of verbal forms and that acquisition is developmental,…

  5. On Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    How to acquire a second language is a question of obvious importance to teachers and language learners, and how to teach a second language has also become a matter of concern to the linguists' interest in the nature of primary linguistic data. Starting with the development stages of second language acquisition and Stephen Krashen's theory, this…

  6. 76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement... accelerates ELs' acquisition of language, literacy, and content knowledge. Definition: The following... Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students...

  7. New Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas…

  8. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  9. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  10. Programmatic Ahistoricity in Second Language Acquisition Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that, despite some perceptions, second language acquisition theory has a history. Disputes arguments that might be formulated to support the notion that second language acquisition theory has no relevant earlier history, enumerates consequences of maintaining this belief, and speculates about benefits to the field that might accrue from…

  11. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  12. Studies in First and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; Hastings, Ashley J., Ed.

    Papers presented at a 1977 symposium on language acquisition held at the University of Wisconsin/Milwaukee are included. Contents are as follows: "Assumptions, Methods and Goals in Language Acquisition Research" (Sheldon); "The Mother as LAD: Interaction between Order and Frequency of Parental Input and Child Production"…

  13. New Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas…

  14. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  15. Cultural Universals in the Acquisition of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Elinor

    It is proposed that there are cultural universals in the use of language and that these universals have implications for language acquisition. The model rests on three hypotheses: (1) there are culturally universal tendencies in the linguistic marking of four dimensions of language (epistemic and affective stances, social acts, social activities,…

  16. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  17. Incidental Foreign Language Acquisition from Media Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, An H.

    2010-01-01

    A number of experimental studies have demonstrated the incidental acquisition of a foreign language by children and adolescents when watching foreign language television. While such experiments can only establish short-term effects, this article investigates the extent to which children's foreign language skills benefit from their long-term…

  18. Storytelling: Enhancing Language Acquisition in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Kathryne McGrath; Taylor, Deborah; Kamen, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    We know that children are active participants in their acquisition of language. Their language patterns are learned in social contexts while they are interacting with other children and adults. Studies continue to confirm that the development of vocabulary and syntactic complexity in language are more advanced in children who are frequently…

  19. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  20. First Language/Second Language: Acquisition, Writing, and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Diana M.

    Scholars from varied disciplines--first language (L1) acquisition, second language (L2) acquisition, composition research, and cognitive psychology--have found a high level of permeability in their search for more effective classroom models of writing instruction. Among the most influential work in this area has been Stephen Krashen's theory of L2…

  1. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  2. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    PubMed

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  3. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  4. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  5. Language acquisition from a biolinguistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Koring, Loes; Thornton, Rosalind

    2016-09-12

    This paper describes the biolinguistic approach to language acquisition. We contrast the biolinguistic approach with a usage-based approach. We argue that the biolinguistic approach is superior because it provides more accurate and more extensive generalizations about the properties of human languages, as well as a better account of how children acquire human languages. To distinguish between these accounts, we focus on how child and adult language differ both in sentence production and in sentence understanding. We argue that the observed differences resist explanation using the cognitive mechanisms that are invoked by the usage-based approach. In contrast, the biolinguistic approach explains the qualitative parametric differences between child and adult language. Explaining how child and adult language differ and demonstrating that children perceive unity despite apparent diversity are two of the hallmarks of the biolinguistic approach to language acquisition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  7. Preliminary Study of Child's Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumoto, Kazuko

    1984-01-01

    A naturalistic study looked at the acquisition of English by two Japanese boys, aged 4 and 8 years, during a 2.5-year stay in the United States. Data were collected through observation and transcription of spontaneous speech in daily life. Analysis included a variety of features of language use and of the acquisition process, including attitudes…

  8. Second Language Acquisition: Research and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the past several decades and highlights the ways in which it has retained its original applied and linguistic interests and enhanced them by addressing questions about acquisition processes. After discussing disciplinary contexts (SLA research and applied…

  9. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  10. A Research on Second Language Acquisition and College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Changyu

    2009-01-01

    It was in the 1970s that American linguist S.D. Krashen created the theory of "language acquisition". The theories on second language acquisition were proposed based on the study on the second language acquisition process and its rules. Here, the second language acquisition process refers to the process in which a learner with the…

  11. The Reading Venture: Accelerating Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sifontes, Aida I.; Baez, Dodie

    This presentation describes how to use reading to improve second language acquisition. Part 1, "Building Awareness of Reading Habits and Attitudes," has students report their habits and attitudes about reading in English and their native language and recognize the importance of reading for improving English skills. Part 2, "Choosing a Book," has…

  12. Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers on second language acquisition and instruction from the University of Wisconsin at Madison symposium include the following: "Learning and Teaching: The Necessary Intersection" (Susan M. Gass); "Reenvisioning the Second Language Classroom: A Vygotskian Approach" (Linda Schinke-Llano); "The FOCAL SKILLS…

  13. Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers on second language acquisition and instruction from the University of Wisconsin at Madison symposium include the following: "Learning and Teaching: The Necessary Intersection" (Susan M. Gass); "Reenvisioning the Second Language Classroom: A Vygotskian Approach" (Linda Schinke-Llano); "The FOCAL SKILLS…

  14. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  15. Cerebral Dominance, Language Acquisition, and Foreign Accents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scovel, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Implicit in the discussion of views taken by Wolfe, Geschwind, and Newmark is a claim that no learning theory based solely on "nurture" can account for the fact that language acquisition in childhood is a trait, in adulthood a skill. The child can master the language system completely, regardless of his intellectual capacity or his social…

  16. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  17. Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.; Beckett, Tracy G.

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) research informed by sociocultural theory (henceforth, SCT) began in earnest with the publication of Frawley & Lantolf's (1985) article on L2 (second language) discourse (described in the timeline proper). Since then, well over 300 journal articles, book chapters and doctoral dissertations have appeared in the…

  18. Linguistic Perspectives from Spanish Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark, Ed.; Koike, Dale April, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers reporting research on Spanish second language learning include: "Discourse Features of Spanish Oral Production at the Novice Level" (Rebecca Jo Bearden); "A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency" (Dale April Koike, Fanny Hinojosa); "Acquisition of Spanish Definite Articles by English-Speaking Learners of…

  19. An Emergentist Perspective on Heritage Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Kwak, Hye-Young; Lee, On-Soon; Lee, Miseon

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the processor has a key role to play in creating and strengthening the mapping between form and meaning that is integral to language use. Adopting an emergentist approach to heritage language acquisition, the current study considers the extent to which the operation of the processor can contribute to an account of what…

  20. Foreign Language Acquisition and Melody Singing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Carmen Fonseca

    2000-01-01

    Considers the value of relating music and language in the English-as-Foreign-Language (EFL) classroom. This "melodic" approach is based on evidence that musicality of speech has an effect not only on the pronunciation skills of EFL students but also their entire acquisition process. (Author/VWL)

  1. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  2. A new view of language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2000-01-01

    At the forefront of debates on language are new data demonstrating infants' early acquisition of information about their native language. The data show that infants perceptually “map” critical aspects of ambient language in the first year of life before they can speak. Statistical properties of speech are picked up through exposure to ambient language. Moreover, linguistic experience alters infants' perception of speech, warping perception in the service of language. Infants' strategies are unexpected and unpredicted by historical views. A new theoretical position has emerged, and six postulates of this position are described. PMID:11050219

  3. Speaking and Instructed Foreign Language Acquisition. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Miroslaw; Waniek-Klimczak, Ewa; Majer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Developing the ability to speak in a foreign language is an arduous task. This is because it involves the mastery of different language subsystems, simultaneous focus on comprehension and production, and the impact of a range of social factors. This challenge is further compounded in situations in which learners have limited access to the target…

  4. Speaking and Instructed Foreign Language Acquisition. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Miroslaw; Waniek-Klimczak, Ewa; Majer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Developing the ability to speak in a foreign language is an arduous task. This is because it involves the mastery of different language subsystems, simultaneous focus on comprehension and production, and the impact of a range of social factors. This challenge is further compounded in situations in which learners have limited access to the target…

  5. Neural substrates of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Patricia; Rivera-Gaxiola, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    Infants learn language(s) with apparent ease, and the tools of modern neuroscience are providing valuable information about the mechanisms that underlie this capacity. Noninvasive, safe brain technologies have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. The past decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's processing of language at the phonetic, word, and sentence levels. At all levels of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at remarkably early points in development. Individual continuity in linguistic development from infants' earliest responses to phonemes is reflected in infants' language abilities in the second and third year of life, a finding with theoretical and clinical implications. Developmental neuroscience studies using language are beginning to answer questions about the origins of humans' language faculty.

  6. Overpassivization in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Takako

    2005-01-01

    An important problem for a language learner is identifying how properties of argument structure are realized morphosyntactically in the particular language they are learning. Speakers of some L1s overgeneralize the morphosyntactic reflexes of the movement of Theme objects in English to unaccusative intransitive verbs, using passive morphology in…

  7. Overpassivization in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Takako

    2005-01-01

    An important problem for a language learner is identifying how properties of argument structure are realized morphosyntactically in the particular language they are learning. Speakers of some L1s overgeneralize the morphosyntactic reflexes of the movement of Theme objects in English to unaccusative intransitive verbs, using passive morphology in…

  8. Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University…

  9. Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University…

  10. Second Language Acquisition, Teacher Education and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Various positions regarding the Second Language Acquisition (SLA)-Language Pedagogy (LP) nexus have been advanced. Taking these as a starting point, this article will examine the nature of the SLA/LP relationship both more generally and more concretely. First, it will place the debates evident in the different positions regarding the relationship…

  11. Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A., Ed.; Churchill, Eton, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner…

  12. Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A., Ed.; Churchill, Eton, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner…

  13. Foreign Language Learning Strategy Choice: Naturalistic versus Instructed Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem

    2007-01-01

    This study explores whether there are differences in the choice of language learning strategy and in the frequency of its use in the concurrent acquisition of two foreign languages, one being learned in a tutored and the other in a non-tutored manner. Specifically, it investigates the tutored learning of English in a formal setting and the…

  14. Second Language Acquisition, Teacher Education and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Various positions regarding the Second Language Acquisition (SLA)-Language Pedagogy (LP) nexus have been advanced. Taking these as a starting point, this article will examine the nature of the SLA/LP relationship both more generally and more concretely. First, it will place the debates evident in the different positions regarding the relationship…

  15. Multilingual environment and natural acquisition of language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Shunichi; Nakamura, Shigeru

    2000-06-01

    Language and human are not anything in the outside of nature. Not only babies, even adults can acquire new language naturally, if they have a natural multilingual environment around them. The reason it is possible would be that any human has an ability to grasp the whole of language, and at the same time, language has an order which is the easiest to acquire for humans. The process of this natural acquisition and a result of investigating the order of Japanese vowels are introduced. .

  16. Three Myths from the Language Acquisition Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Three popular assertions have hindered the promotion of an empiricist approach to language acquisition: (a) that Brown and Hanlon (1970) claimed to offer data that parents do not reinforce their children's grammaticality; (b) that Brown and Hanlon also claimed to offer data that parents do not provide negative evidence (i.e., corrective feedback) for ungrammaticality; and (c) that Gold (1967) claimed to offer a formal proof showing that, without negative evidence, a child cannot acquire a language solely from environmental input. In this paper I offer introductory comments on the nature–nurture distinction (including interactionism, and the nativists' claim to have found a gene for language). Next I debunk the three aforementioned assertions by arguing that the authors (Brown & Hanlon; Gold) never made the claims attributed to them; review evidence on the role of reinforcement and corrective feedback in language acquisition; and offer some concluding comments. PMID:22477466

  17. Second Language Acquisition and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that results in language-related symptoms at various discourse levels, ranging from semantics (e.g. inventing words and producing nonsensical strands of similar-sounding words) to pragmatics and higher-level functioning (e.g. too little or too much information given to interlocutors, and tangential…

  18. Second Language Acquisition and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that results in language-related symptoms at various discourse levels, ranging from semantics (e.g. inventing words and producing nonsensical strands of similar-sounding words) to pragmatics and higher-level functioning (e.g. too little or too much information given to interlocutors, and tangential…

  19. Enseignement des langues et theories d'acquisition Sprachunterricht unde Spracherwerbstheorien. (Language Teaching and Acquisition Theories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Alexander, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles on language teaching and language acquisition theories includes: "Enseignement des langues et theories de l'acquisition. Introduction au colloque" ("Language Teaching and Theories of Acquisition. Introduction to the Colloquium") (Rene Richterich); "Apprendre une langue dans l'interaction verbale" ("Language Learning in…

  20. A Connectionist Approach to Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizardi, Luis O.

    This paper attempts to synthesize how biological-nativist theories emerged as a response to logical and empirical flaws in behaviorist learning theories, and how in turn, recent research findings in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience and Connectionist models of language acquisition are questioning the present innatist framework. As a result of…

  1. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  2. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.

  3. Complexity and Conflicting Grammars in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westergaard, Marit

    2014-01-01

    The article by Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) presents many interesting ideas about first and second language acquisition as well as some experimental data convincingly illustrating the difference between production and comprehension. The article extends the concept of Universal Bilingualism proposed in Roeper (1999) to second…

  4. Three Myths from the Language Acquisition Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Three popular assertions have hindered the promotion of an empiricist approach to language acquisition: (a) that Brown and Hanlon (1970) claimed to offer data that parents do not reinforce their children's grammaticality; (b) that Brown and Hanlon also claimed to offer data that parents do not provide negative evidence (i.e., corrective feedback)…

  5. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  6. Ovide Decroly's Views on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Yvan; Van De Craen, Piet

    1975-01-01

    Belgian physician and psychologist Ovide Decroly, keenly interested in language acquisition, devised tests to measure verbal skills in children and campaigned for the adoption of the sentence method rather than the word-building method in teaching reading and writing. (Author/CL)

  7. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  8. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  9. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  10. Dis-integrating Perspectives of Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Responds to L. Eubank and K. R. Gregg article (this issue), suggesting they have misinterpreted and misrepresented claims made by B. Jacobs and J. Schumann. Claims discussed include the micro- and macro-organization of neurobiology and language, the Explananda, Jacobs and Schumann's acquisition mechanism, and reductionism. The single acquisition…

  11. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  12. Three Myths from the Language Acquisition Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Three popular assertions have hindered the promotion of an empiricist approach to language acquisition: (a) that Brown and Hanlon (1970) claimed to offer data that parents do not reinforce their children's grammaticality; (b) that Brown and Hanlon also claimed to offer data that parents do not provide negative evidence (i.e., corrective feedback)…

  13. Communicative Tactics in Children's Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville-Troike, M.; And Others

    The development and use of verbal and nonverbal communication by children in the early stages of second language acquisition were investigated in a natural setting. Twenty young speakers of Japanese, Korean, Hebrew, Spanish, Icelandic, and Polish, enrolled in a multilingual program and ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, served as subjects. All of…

  14. The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    This book is about the prospect of a social turn in the field of second language acquisition (SLA), in particular, that part of SLA that is devoted to the input-interaction-output (IIO) model. The book is intended to critically examine some of the basic notions and assumptions that underpin this model and to suggest a more interdisciplinary and…

  15. Complexity and Conflicting Grammars in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westergaard, Marit

    2014-01-01

    The article by Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) presents many interesting ideas about first and second language acquisition as well as some experimental data convincingly illustrating the difference between production and comprehension. The article extends the concept of Universal Bilingualism proposed in Roeper (1999) to second…

  16. [Oral language acquisition: relation and risk for written language].

    PubMed

    França, Marcio Pezzini; Wolff, Clarice Lehnen; Moojen, Sônia; Rotta, Newra Tellechea

    2004-06-01

    The present study relates the acquisition of oral language to the development of writing in 236 children of a private school in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The objective of this research was to identify non-linguistic factors involved in phonological acquisition and to describe the relation of phonological acquisition with alterations of writing. At the age of 6 years, kindergarten students were divided into 2 groups, based on the test of Phonological Evaluation of Children. In the follow-up, at 9 years of age, students were evaluated by means of Balanced Dictation and textual production. The comparison of results from case and control groups showed statistically significant difference as to the number of mistakes made in writing, pointing to the acquisition of oral language as a predictive factor for the development of spelling.

  17. Naive Physics, Event Perception, Lexical Semantics, and Language Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AD-A276 799 Technical Report 1456 P Naive Physics, Event Perception, Lexical Semantics, and Language Acquisition DTICS ELFCTE MAR 0 91094D v F...Event Perception, Lexical Semantics, and Language Acquisition by .Jeffrev Mark Siskiiid Accesion For B.A. Computer Science (1979) NTIS CRAM Technion...hypotheses about child language acquisition , these systems use only positive examples to drive their acquisition of a language model. MAIMRA. the

  18. Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Han, Chung-Hye; Musolino, Julien; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We provide a previously unidentified kind of data identifying children's contribution to language acquisition. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language. We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent-child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by each learner independent of experience with the language. This structural feature is abstract because it controls variation in more than one construction. The particular case we examine is the position of the verb in the clause structure of Korean. Because Korean is a head-final language, evidence for the syntactic position of the verb is both rare and indirect. We show that (i) Korean speakers exhibit substantial variability regarding this aspect of the grammar, (ii) this variability is attested between speakers but not within a speaker, (iii) this variability controls interpretation in two surface constructions, and (iv) it is independent in parents and children. According to our findings, when the exposure language is compatible with multiple grammars, learners acquire a single systematic grammar. Our observation that children and their parents vary independently suggests that the choice of grammar is driven in part by a process operating internal to individual learners.

  19. Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chung-hye; Musolino, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We provide a previously unidentified kind of data identifying children’s contribution to language acquisition. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language. We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent–child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by each learner independent of experience with the language. This structural feature is abstract because it controls variation in more than one construction. The particular case we examine is the position of the verb in the clause structure of Korean. Because Korean is a head-final language, evidence for the syntactic position of the verb is both rare and indirect. We show that (i) Korean speakers exhibit substantial variability regarding this aspect of the grammar, (ii) this variability is attested between speakers but not within a speaker, (iii) this variability controls interpretation in two surface constructions, and (iv) it is independent in parents and children. According to our findings, when the exposure language is compatible with multiple grammars, learners acquire a single systematic grammar. Our observation that children and their parents vary independently suggests that the choice of grammar is driven in part by a process operating internal to individual learners. PMID:26755580

  20. Language Acquisition and the Second/Foreign Language Classroom. Anthology Series 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadtono, Eugenius, Ed.

    A selection of papers on second language learning includes: "Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom" (David Nunan); "A Place for Second Language Acquisition in Teacher Development and in Teacher Education Programmes" (Rod Bolitho); "Dimensions in the Acquisition of Oral Language" (Martin Bygate, Don Porter); "The Learner's…

  1. Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Second Language Acquisition Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David, Ed.

    This book considers the question of whether, or to what extent, a critical period limits the acquisition of a first language as well as a second language acquired postpubertally. The diversity of opinion on this question is represented in this volume. It is a question that has been approached by researchers working in linguistic theory, evolution…

  2. Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Second Language Acquisition Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David, Ed.

    This book considers the question of whether, or to what extent, a critical period limits the acquisition of a first language as well as a second language acquired postpubertally. The diversity of opinion on this question is represented in this volume. It is a question that has been approached by researchers working in linguistic theory, evolution…

  3. Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The state of second language acquisition research, particularly that which is classroom-oriented, is examined in a review of 50 empirical investigations undertaken over the last 25 years. The studies were analyzed according to the following dimensions: the environment in which the data were collected (classroom, naturalistic, simulated classroom,…

  4. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Second-Language Acquisition and Foreign Lanquage Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Rosario C., Ed.

    This volume presents two papers synthesizing current research in second-language acquisition and reactions to these papers from the point of view of researchers in foreign language learning. The introduction by Rosario Gingras provides an overview of the research in second-language acquisition as it applies to foreign language teaching. A…

  6. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting. PMID:24860518

  7. Frames of reference in spatial language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Anna; Li, Peggy

    2016-08-01

    Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms. Children interpreted ambiguous spatial terms as having environment-based meanings akin to north and south, and they readily learned and generalized north-south meanings. These studies provide the first direct evidence that children invoke geocentric representations in spatial language acquisition. However, the studies leave unanswered how children ultimately acquire "left" and "right." In Part II, with three more experiments, we investigated why children struggle to master body-based frame-of-reference words. Children successfully learned "left" and "right" when the novel words were systematically introduced on their own bodies and extended these words to novel (intrinsic and relative) uses; however, they had difficulty learning to talk about the left and right sides of a doll. This difficulty was paralleled in identifying the left and right sides of the doll in a non-linguistic memory task. In contrast, children had no difficulties learning to label the front and back sides of a doll. These studies begin to paint a detailed account of the acquisition of spatial terms in English, and provide insights into the origins of diverse spatial reference frames in the world's languages. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of Language Distance and Language Status on the Acquisition of L3 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llama, Raquel; Cardoso, Walcir; Collins, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Research in the field of third language acquisition has consistently identified two key factors which have an effect on the ways in which the two known languages may influence the acquisition of a third. These factors are language distance (typology) and language status (more specifically, second language, L2, or non-native language status). To…

  9. The Influence of Language Distance and Language Status on the Acquisition of L3 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llama, Raquel; Cardoso, Walcir; Collins, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Research in the field of third language acquisition has consistently identified two key factors which have an effect on the ways in which the two known languages may influence the acquisition of a third. These factors are language distance (typology) and language status (more specifically, second language, L2, or non-native language status). To…

  10. When Timing Is Everything: Age of First-Language Acquisition Effects on Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper summarizes three experiments that investigate the effects of age of acquisition on first-language (L1) acquisition in relation to second-language (L2) outcome. The experiments use the unique acquisition situations of childhood deafness and sign language. The key factors controlled across the studies are age of L1 acquisition, the…

  11. [Prosody, speech input and language acquisition].

    PubMed

    Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In order to acquire language, children require speech input. The prosody of the speech input plays an important role. In most cultures adults modify their code when communicating with children. Compared to normal speech this code differs especially with regard to prosody. For this review a selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was performed. Prosodic characteristics are a key feature of spoken language. By analysing prosodic features, children gain knowledge about underlying grammatical structures. Child-directed speech (CDS) is modified in a way that meaningful sequences are highlighted acoustically so that important information can be extracted from the continuous speech flow more easily. CDS is said to enhance the representation of linguistic signs. Taking into consideration what has previously been described in the literature regarding the perception of suprasegmentals, CDS seems to be able to support language acquisition due to the correspondence of prosodic and syntactic units. However, no findings have been reported, stating that the linguistically reduced CDS could hinder first language acquisition.

  12. Papers in Language Learning and Language Acquisition. AFinLA Yearbook 1980. No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    Papers include: (1) "Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT" (Henning Wode); (2) "Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum" (Norman F. Davies); (3) "Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication" (Kari Sajavaara, Jaakko Lehtonen); (4) "On the Distinction between…

  13. Papers in Language Learning and Language Acquisition. AFinLA Yearbook 1980. No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    Papers include: (1) "Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT" (Henning Wode); (2) "Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum" (Norman F. Davies); (3) "Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication" (Kari Sajavaara, Jaakko Lehtonen); (4) "On the Distinction between…

  14. First-language acquisition after childhood differs from second-language acquisition: the case of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, R I

    1993-12-01

    This study determined whether the long-range outcome of first-language acquisition, when the learning begins after early childhood, is similar to that of second-language acquisition. Subjects were 36 deaf adults who had contrasting histories of spoken and sign language acquisition. Twenty-seven subjects were born deaf and began to acquire American Sign Language (ASL) as a first language at ages ranging from infancy to late childhood. Nine other subjects were born with normal hearing, which they lost in late childhood; they subsequently acquired ASL as a second language (because they had acquired spoken English as a first language in early childhood). ASL sentence processing was measured by recall of long and complex sentences and short-term memory for signed digits. Subjects who acquired ASL as a second language after childhood outperformed those who acquired it as a first language at exactly the same age. In addition, the performance of the subjects who acquired ASL as a first language declined in association with increasing age of acquisition. Effects were most apparent for sentence processing skills related to lexical identification, grammatical acceptability, and memory for sentence meaning. No effects were found for skills related to fine-motor production and pattern segmentation.

  15. Contributions of the Study of Japanese as a Second language to our General Understanding of Second Language Acquisition and the Definition of Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2003-01-01

    Reviews three books on the acquisition of Japanese as a second language: "Second Language Acquisition Process in the Classroom" by A.S. Ohta;"The Acquisition of Grammar by Learners of Japanese" (English translation of title), by H. Noda, K. Sakoda, K. Shibuya, and N. Kobayashi; and "The Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language," B. K. Kanno,…

  16. Words, rules, and mechanisms of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Bonatti, Luca L

    2016-01-01

    We review recent artificial language learning studies, especially those following Endress and Bonatti (Endress AD, Bonatti LL. Rapid learning of syllable classes from a perceptually continuous speech stream. Cognition 2007, 105:247-299), suggesting that humans can deploy a variety of learning mechanisms to acquire artificial languages. Several experiments provide evidence for multiple learning mechanisms that can be deployed in fluent speech: one mechanism encodes the positions of syllables within words and can be used to extract generalization, while the other registers co-occurrence statistics of syllables and can be used to break a continuum into its components. We review dissociations between these mechanisms and their potential role in language acquisition. We then turn to recent criticisms of the multiple mechanisms hypothesis and show that they are inconsistent with the available data. Our results suggest that artificial and natural language learning is best understood by dissecting the underlying specialized learning abilities, and that these data provide a rare opportunity to link important language phenomena to basic psychological mechanisms. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overview of Theories of Language Learning and Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    The field of second language acquisition (SLA) developed from the study of second language teaching, and includes the study of the learning setting, learner variables, the nature of the target language and the learner native language, and the reasons for language learning. Much SLA research to date focuses on one or another of these dimensions…

  18. Acquisition by Processing: A Modular Perspective on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John; Smith, Mike Sharwood

    2004-01-01

    The paper offers a model of language development, first and second, within a processing perspective. We first sketch a modular view of language, in which competence is embodied in the processing mechanisms. We then propose a novel approach to language acquisition (Acquisition by Processing Theory, or APT), in which development of the module occurs…

  19. Comparing and Contrasting First and Second Language Acquisition: Implications for Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Hulya

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to understand and explain first language (L1) acquisition and second language (L2) acquisition scholars have put forward many theories. These theories can aid language teachers to understand language learning and to assist their students in their language learning process. The current paper will first look at the similarities between…

  20. Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

  1. A random matrix approach to language acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaidis, A.; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Argyrakis, Panos

    2009-12-01

    Since language is tied to cognition, we expect the linguistic structures to reflect patterns that we encounter in nature and are analyzed by physics. Within this realm we investigate the process of lexicon acquisition, using analytical and tractable methods developed within physics. A lexicon is a mapping between sounds and referents of the perceived world. This mapping is represented by a matrix and the linguistic interaction among individuals is described by a random matrix model. There are two essential parameters in our approach. The strength of the linguistic interaction β, which is considered as a genetically determined ability, and the number N of sounds employed (the lexicon size). Our model of linguistic interaction is analytically studied using methods of statistical physics and simulated by Monte Carlo techniques. The analysis reveals an intricate relationship between the innate propensity for language acquisition β and the lexicon size N, N~exp(β). Thus a small increase of the genetically determined β may lead to an incredible lexical explosion. Our approximate scheme offers an explanation for the biological affinity of different species and their simultaneous linguistic disparity.

  2. The Role of the Second Language in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Germanic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardel, Camilla; Falk, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe…

  3. The Role of the Second Language in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Germanic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardel, Camilla; Falk, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe…

  4. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  5. Insights into Second Language Acquisition Theory and Different Approaches to Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to review second language acquisition theory and some of the methods practiced in language classes. The review substantiates that comprehensible input as the crucial determining factor for language acquisition and consciously learned linguistic knowledge can be used only to edit the output of the acquired language sometimes…

  6. Identifying formulas in first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hickey, T

    1993-02-01

    With the increase in interest in formulas, or apparently non-productive utterances in children's speech, a range of definitions has emerged and sometimes conflicting criteria have been proposed for their identification. These definitions of formulas are compared, and the criteria of Brown (1973), Wong Fillmore (1976), Peters (1983) and Plunkett (1990) for the recognition of formulas are reviewed. A preference rule system is proposed, which distinguishes necessary, typical and graded conditions for the recognition of formulas. Using these conditions, some of the formulas found in the data of one child acquiring Irish between 1;4 and 2;1 are examined. Issues such as length of units, frequency of occurrence and appropriateness of use are discussed. The methods developed in this study could be used to assess the importance of formulas in the language acquisition of other children.

  7. Language Acquisition: The Age Factor. Multilingual Matters 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, David

    This book provides an overview of research and thinking on age-related dimensions of language acquisition, intended for students, researchers, and educators with some experience in linguistics and applied linguistics. The first chapter introduces the variety of issues associated with age and language acquisition. Chapter 2 examines the evidence…

  8. A Shared Platform for Studying Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWhinney, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The study of second language acquisition (SLA) can benefit from the same process of datasharing that has proven effective in areas such as first language acquisition and aphasiology. Researchers can work together to construct a shared platform that combines data from spoken and written corpora, online tutors, and Web-based experimentation. Many of…

  9. Assess the Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    The Critical Period Hypothesis aims to investigate the reason for significant difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition. Over the past few decades, researchers carried out a series of studies to test the validity of the hypothesis. Although there were certain limitations in these studies, most of their results…

  10. Revisiting First Language Acquisition through Empirical and Rational Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahriri, Abdorreza

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition in general and first language acquisition in particular is a very complex and a multifaceted phenomenon. The way that children acquire a language in a very limited period is astonishing. Various approaches have been proposed so far to account for this extraordinary phenomenon. These approaches are indeed based on various philosophical…

  11. Language Acquisition: The Age Factor. Multilingual Matters 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, David

    This book provides an overview of research and thinking on age-related dimensions of language acquisition, intended for students, researchers, and educators with some experience in linguistics and applied linguistics. The first chapter introduces the variety of issues associated with age and language acquisition. Chapter 2 examines the evidence…

  12. Problems in SLA. Second Language Acquisition Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    Second language acquisition has an identity problem. It is a young field struggling to emerge from the parent fields of education and applied linguistics. In this book, the author proposes a way to help second language acquisition develop a systematic and coherent focus using the philosophy of science as the lens. The structure of the book allows…

  13. Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wode, Henning

    Human capacity for language acquisition is not strictly compartmentalized, with one acquisitional mechanism for the native language and others totally unrelated to it; rather, it consists of a unified mechanism flexible enough to handle various differences in external settings. This learning system operates on the formal properties of the…

  14. Problems in SLA. Second Language Acquisition Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    Second language acquisition has an identity problem. It is a young field struggling to emerge from the parent fields of education and applied linguistics. In this book, the author proposes a way to help second language acquisition develop a systematic and coherent focus using the philosophy of science as the lens. The structure of the book allows…

  15. Teaching Second Language Acquisition Courses: Views from New Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta J.; Beglar, David

    2004-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) courses are a perennial feature of graduate level teacher preparation programs in Applied Linguistics and TESOL. While there has been recent interest in exploring the interfaces of second language acquisition research and classroom teaching (Ellis, 1997), the teaching of SLA courses at the university level is…

  16. Sociolinguistic Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Research: 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses sociolinguistically oriented research on second language acquisition (SLA) in the decade since Firth and Wagner (1997). Over the last 10 years, substantial progress has been made in developing a model of the sociolinguistic processes that inform second language acquisition. This model is supported by empirical evidence on…

  17. Facilitating Beginning English Second Language Acquisition in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustafa, Margaret

    Views on the role of speech in the early stages of English as second language (ESL) acquisition are discussed in relation to experiences with elementary school children. In examining the roles of speech and grammar in the early stages of ESL acquisition in an English speaking elementary school environment, six types of expressive language were…

  18. Language Acquisition and the Neurosciences: Towards a More Integrative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bob; Schumann, John

    1992-01-01

    Selected neurobiological terminology is clarified in this paper, which also highlights neurobiological information relevant to language acquisition research, discusses the neural plausibility of cognitive models of language acquisition, and illustrates the difference between abstract characterizations of learner behavior and mechanisms that cause…

  19. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  20. Markedness and Salience in Language Contact and Second-Language Acquisition: Evidence from a Non-Canonical Contact Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deumert, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the study of contact varieties of a language are relevant to understanding of second language acquisition and use, because non-canonical contact languages are often situated on a continuum between pidginization and the more general processes of untutored second language acquisition. Data on participle regularization in Namibian Black…

  1. Markedness and Salience in Language Contact and Second-Language Acquisition: Evidence from a Non-Canonical Contact Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deumert, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the study of contact varieties of a language are relevant to understanding of second language acquisition and use, because non-canonical contact languages are often situated on a continuum between pidginization and the more general processes of untutored second language acquisition. Data on participle regularization in Namibian Black…

  2. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  3. The Critical Period and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Learning a second or foreign language is a long and time-consuming process, and not all language learners may be able to achieve a very high level of proficiency in the target language. It is even rarer to find second or foreign language learners who can use the target language as well as native speakers of the language. Researchers in the field…

  4. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  5. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  6. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  7. Two Paradoxes in the Acquisition of Language Structure and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazden, Courtney B.

    This paper considers language development among children and discusses the influence of the learning environment in the acquisition of language use as distinct from language structure. The results of the five studies reported here suggest that the child is aided by what he is encouraged to say, not simply by what he hears, and that adults seem to…

  8. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  9. Bilingual Language Acquisition by Korean Schoolchildren in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.; Milroy, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Examines bilingual language development of young Korean-American children with respect to acquisition of English grammatical morphemes and different plural marking systems of Korean and English. Addresses whether first and second language (L1, L2) learners acquire grammatical features of a given language in the same sequence and whether L2…

  10. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  11. Language Input and Acquisition in a Mayan Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, Laura Ann

    2010-01-01

    Theories of language acquisition have highlighted the importance of adult speakers as active participants in children's language learning. However, in many communities children are reported to be rarely directly engaged by their caregivers. This raises the possibility that children in these communities learn language from observing 3 rd party…

  12. Markedness and Second Language Acquisition: The Question of Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    1987-01-01

    Discusses various definitions of markedness in terms of second language acquisition and describes a study testing one such definition which found that second language learners did not accept preposition stranding in the second language but did accept double object construction and suggested that transfer took place only with one of two marked…

  13. The Development of Theories of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a relatively new field of enquiry. Before the late 1960s, educators did write about L2 learning, but very much as an adjunct of language teaching pedagogy, underpinned by behaviourism, the then-dominant learning theory in psychology. In this view, the task facing learners of foreign languages was to rote-learn…

  14. Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations in Native and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Charles

    A list of 1,036 terms and definitions used in native and second language acquisition and instruction, linguistics, language testing, and bicultural-multicultural education, including identical items with different meanings, is presented. The terms were derived from manual searches of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics and ERIC…

  15. The Development of Theories of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a relatively new field of enquiry. Before the late 1960s, educators did write about L2 learning, but very much as an adjunct of language teaching pedagogy, underpinned by behaviourism, the then-dominant learning theory in psychology. In this view, the task facing learners of foreign languages was to rote-learn…

  16. Finiteness and Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parodi, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Provides a new perspective on whether there is a correlation between finiteness and verb placement in second language acquisition by analyzing data from speakers of Romance languages learning German as a second language. Verbs are classified as thematic and nonthematic and analyzed with respect to overt subject-verb agreement and verb placement as…

  17. Language Input and Acquisition in a Mayan Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, Laura Ann

    2010-01-01

    Theories of language acquisition have highlighted the importance of adult speakers as active participants in children's language learning. However, in many communities children are reported to be rarely directly engaged by their caregivers. This raises the possibility that children in these communities learn language from observing 3 rd party…

  18. Input and Input Processing in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcon, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes second-language learners' processing of linguistic data within the target language, focusing on input and intake in second-language acquisition and factors and cognitive processes that affect input processing. Input factors include input simplification, input enhancement, and interactional modifications. Individual learner differences…

  19. Do Cultural Perceptions Facilitate Second-Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Georges

    1985-01-01

    The relative influence of cultural insights, first language skills, and purely cognitive or linguistic factors in successful second-language learning is discussed. The teacher is encouraged to reflect on the value of and experiment with providing cultural background to language acquisition. (MSE)

  20. Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

  1. Effects of Age and Language in the Second Language Acquisition of the English Nominal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mis, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the impossibility of withholding language from children to assess sensitive period effects on syntactic acquisition, the study of second language learning has been seen as an alternate method that can be used to understand the natural time course of language acquisition. In order to do so, both the age at which immersion is begun and the…

  2. Effects of Age and Language in the Second Language Acquisition of the English Nominal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mis, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the impossibility of withholding language from children to assess sensitive period effects on syntactic acquisition, the study of second language learning has been seen as an alternate method that can be used to understand the natural time course of language acquisition. In order to do so, both the age at which immersion is begun and the…

  3. Natural selection of the critical period for language acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, N. L.; Nowak, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The language acquisition period in humans lasts about 13 years. After puberty it becomes increasingly difficult to learn a language. We explain this phenomenon by using an evolutionary framework. We present a dynamical system describing competition between language acquisition devices, which differ in the length of the learning period. There are two selective forces that play a role in determining the critical learning period: (i) having a longer learning period increases the accuracy of language acquisition; (ii) learning is associated with certain costs that affect fitness. As a result, there exists a limited learning period which is evolutionarily stable. This result is obtained analytically by means of a Nash equilibrium analysis of language acquisition devices. Interestingly, the evolutionarily stable learning period does not maximize the average fitness of the population. PMID:11375108

  4. The Role of Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition: A Model for Research in Listening Comprehension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    role of learning strategies in second language acquisition . While strategies used in acquiring productive language skills are discussed briefly, the...comprehensions. Keywords: Learning strategies, English as a second language, Second language acquisition , Basic skills, Research model.

  5. Perspectives of Bilingualism in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primlyn, A. Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems faced by students in the second language classroom. It focuses on their integration of social and cultural aspects in language learning, because every language is an amalgamation of both. The author adds that the learner of a second language finds difficulty in learning the culture of the first language and it…

  6. Perspectives of Bilingualism in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primlyn, A. Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems faced by students in the second language classroom. It focuses on their integration of social and cultural aspects in language learning, because every language is an amalgamation of both. The author adds that the learner of a second language finds difficulty in learning the culture of the first language and it…

  7. A Theory of Language Acquisition Based on General Learning Principles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-17

    AO-AIOS 6" CAMS19-HLLON W4ZV PITTSBURGH PA DEPT OF COMPUTER --ETC P/S 5/10 THEORY OF LANGUAGE ( ACQUISITION BASED ON GENERAL LEARNING PIN--EYC U) ,RM...961 A ~~~~LEVEL/ .... " LEVEL ~r MJ-CS-81 -129 V. A Theory of Language Acquisition Based on General ,00 Learning Principles John R. Anderson Dertment...Approved for public release Distribution Unlimited Carnegie-Mellon University 8 12 16 05o CM-CS-81-129 A Theory of Language Acquisition Based on General

  8. Experimental methods in studying child language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Rowland, Caroline F

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the some of the most widely used methods used for studying children's language acquisition including (1) spontaneous/naturalistic, diary, parental report data, (2) production methods (elicited production, repetition/elicited imitation, syntactic priming/weird word order), (3) comprehension methods (act-out, pointing, intermodal preferential looking, looking while listening, conditioned head turn preference procedure, functional neuroimaging) and (4) judgment methods (grammaticality/acceptability judgments, yes-no/truth-value judgments). The review outlines the types of studies and age-groups to which each method is most suited, as well as the advantage and disadvantages of each. We conclude by summarising the particular methodological considerations that apply to each paradigm and to experimental design more generally. These include (1) choosing an age-appropriate task that makes communicative sense (2) motivating children to co-operate, (3) choosing a between-/within-subjects design, (4) the use of novel items (e.g., novel verbs), (5) fillers, (6) blocked, counterbalanced and random presentation, (7) the appropriate number of trials and participants, (8) drop-out rates (9) the importance of control conditions, (10) choosing a sensitive dependent measure (11) classification of responses, and (12) using an appropriate statistical test. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:149-168. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1215 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Transfer across Second Language Acquisition Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Transfer has been discussed from different points of view since the advent of Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis [13], [8]. Mishina-Mori [19] has defied transfer as merging grammatical properties from one language to another. The effect of transfer from a first language (L1) to a second language (L2) or a third language (L3) has been viewed…

  10. A Study in Content Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broer, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This study examines how young second language learners acquire academic language. Among the main language groups represented were Punjabi, Hindi, Tamil, Estonian, Serbian, Arabic as well as 23 other language groups. I monitored over 75 students, in grades 1, 2 and 4. I was interested in exploring what strategies best promoted coherence in…

  11. Markedness and Salience in Second-Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    Examines the acquisition of a typologically marked construction, preposition stranding, and its unmarked counterpart, preposition pied piping, by learners of English as a second language (ESL). Data demonstrate that preposition stranding is acquired before preposition pied piping. (Author/CB)

  12. The Competence of Processing Theories of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the distinction between competence theories and processing theories of second-language acquisition by examining Chomsky's definitions for competence and performance, and by setting out criteria for competence theories. (70 references) (JL)

  13. Language acquisition in premature and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Peña, Marcela; Pittaluga, Enrica; Mehler, Jacques

    2010-02-23

    We tested healthy preterm (born near 28 +/- 2 weeks of gestational age) and full-term infants at various different ages. We compared the two populations on the development of a language acquisition landmark, namely, the ability to distinguish the native language from a rhythmically similar one. This ability is attained 4 months after birth in healthy full-term infants. We measured the induced gamma-band power associated with passive listening to (i) the infants' native language (Spanish), (ii) a rhythmically close language (Italian), and (iii) a rhythmically distant language (Japanese) as a marker of gains in language discrimination. Preterm and full-term infants were matched for neural maturation and duration of exposure to broadcast speech. We found that both full-term and preterm infants only display a response to native speech near 6 months after their term age. Neural maturation seems to constrain advances in speech discrimination at early stages of language acquisition.

  14. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  15. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  16. Second Language Acquisition, Culture Shock and Language Stress of Adult Latina Students in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…

  17. Bilingual Education Enhances Third Language Acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of English as a third language by Catalan/Spanish bilingual high school students in an immersion program with the acquisition of English by Spanish monolinguals. Data from 201 participants were submitted to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, rendering results that show that bilingualism has a positive effect on…

  18. Frequency Effects in Second Language Acquisition: An Annotated Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Galip; Sarigul, Ece

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between frequency and language acquisition from many perspectives including implicit and explicit instruction, frequency effects on morpheme acquisition in L2, the relationship between frequency and multi-word constructions, frequency effects on phonetics, vocabulary, gerund and infinitive…

  19. The Ubiquity of Frequency Effects in First Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Kidd, Evan; Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    This review article presents evidence for the claim that frequency effects are pervasive in children's first language acquisition, and hence constitute a phenomenon that any successful account must explain. The article is organized around four key domains of research: children's acquisition of single words, inflectional morphology, simple…

  20. The Syntactic Positions of Adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zi-hong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of linguistic universal and Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the paper discusses the acquisition of syntactic positions of adverbs in English. According to the data collected, the paper concludes that what adult learners acquire about adverbs is the distinction of different adverbs and the different scopes they take.…

  1. Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgort, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

  2. The Ubiquity of Frequency Effects in First Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Kidd, Evan; Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    This review article presents evidence for the claim that frequency effects are pervasive in children's first language acquisition, and hence constitute a phenomenon that any successful account must explain. The article is organized around four key domains of research: children's acquisition of single words, inflectional morphology, simple…

  3. Bilingual Education Enhances Third Language Acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of English as a third language by Catalan/Spanish bilingual high school students in an immersion program with the acquisition of English by Spanish monolinguals. Data from 201 participants were submitted to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, rendering results that show that bilingualism has a positive effect on…

  4. Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgort, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

  5. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  6. Age of language acquisition and cortical language organization in multilingual patients undergoing awake brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Coello, Alejandro; Havas, Viktória; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sierpowska, Joanna; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Gabarrós, Andreu

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Most knowledge regarding the anatomical organization of multilingualism is based on aphasiology and functional imaging studies. However, the results have still to be validated by the gold standard approach, namely electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) during awake neurosurgical procedures. In this ESM study the authors describe language representation in a highly specific group of 13 multilingual individuals, focusing on how age of acquisition may influence the cortical organization of language. METHODS Thirteen patients who had a high degree of proficiency in multiple languages and were harboring lesions within the dominant, left hemisphere underwent ESM while being operated on under awake conditions. Demographic and language data were recorded in relation to age of language acquisition (for native languages and early- and late-acquired languages), neuropsychological pre- and postoperative language testing, the number and location of language sites, and overlapping distribution in terms of language acquisition time. Lesion growth patterns and histopathological characteristics, location, and size were also recorded. The distribution of language sites was analyzed with respect to age of acquisition and overlap. RESULTS The functional language-related sites were distributed in the frontal (55%), temporal (29%), and parietal lobes (16%). The total number of native language sites was 47. Early-acquired languages (including native languages) were represented in 97 sites (55 overlapped) and late-acquired languages in 70 sites (45 overlapped). The overlapping distribution was 20% for early-early, 71% for early-late, and 9% for late-late. The average lesion size (maximum diameter) was 3.3 cm. There were 5 fast-growing and 7 slow-growing lesions. CONCLUSIONS Cortical language distribution in multilingual patients is not homogeneous, and it is influenced by age of acquisition. Early-acquired languages have a greater cortical representation than languages acquired

  7. Negotiation of Meaning in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimino, Andy

    A basic principle of second language learning is the need to negotiate meaning in any language-learning situation. Once meaning is established, comprehension follows. Clusters of meaning result in schemata, which serve as the basis for sustained communication and ultimately, permanence of language learning. The comprehension approach to second…

  8. Use of Analogy in Computer Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Heidi L.; Nutter, Jane Terry

    1985-01-01

    Subjects in a study of analogic reasoning use in learning a computer language read text describing an invented LISP dialect and then solved problems and described language constructs. Five of six factors studied indicating use of analogy with a familiar computer language showed statistically significant results, supporting the hypothesis.…

  9. Language Acquisition in Late Critical Period: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheitury, Amer; Sahraee, Ahmad Hosein; Hoseini, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Studies carried out to support the existence of a critical period for language acquisition have concentrated mainly on the case of being in total deprivation from language contact, and in particular deprivation from auditory input in the entire time span before puberty. While arguing for a useful distinction between early and late critical…

  10. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  11. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  12. Infant Language Development Is Related to the Acquisition of Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walle, Eric A.; Campos, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation explored the question of whether walking onset is related to infant language development. Study 1 used a longitudinal design (N = 44) to assess infant locomotor and language development every 2 weeks from 10 to 13.5 months of age. The acquisition of walking was associated with a significant increase in both receptive and…

  13. Language Acquisition after Mutism: A Longitudinal Case Study of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This longitudinal case study follows the development of a woman with autism from mutism at age 10 to acquisition of a range of spoken and written language skills by age 26. Results support hypotheses that both spoken and written language may become feasible forms of communication in such cases, although some skills may plateau or decline.…

  14. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  15. Modularity, Working Memory, and Second Language Acquisition: A Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2017-01-01

    Considerable reason exists to view the mind, and language within it, as modular, and this view has an important place in research and theory in second language acquisition (SLA) and beyond. But it has had very little impact on the study of working memory and its role in SLA. This article considers the need for modular study of working memory,…

  16. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  17. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  18. Lingua Franca English, Multilingual Communities, and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Firth and Wagner (1997) questioned the dichotomies nonnative versus native speaker, learner versus user, and interlanguage versus target language, which reflect a bias toward innateness, cognition, and form in language acquisition. Research on lingua franca English (LFE) not only affirms this questioning, but reveals what multilingual communities…

  19. Lexical Learning in Second Language Acquisition: Optionality in the Numeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere suggests that second language acquisition (SLA) researchers should pay more attention to the distribution of a given feature in source and target languages, using the distribution of [plural] in English, Chinese and Korean to illustrate. I argue that the distribution of [definite] in English shows a similar complexity, and that this has…

  20. Psycholinguistic Techniques and Resources in Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a survey of current psycholinguistic techniques relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) research is presented. I summarize many of the available methods and discuss their use with particular reference to two critical questions in current SLA research: (1) What does a learner's current knowledge of the second language (L2)…

  1. Implicit and Explicit Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebuschat, Patrick; Williams, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Language development is frequently characterized as a process where learning proceeds implicitly, that is, incidentally and in absence of awareness of what was learned. This article reports the results of two experiments that investigated whether second language acquisition can also result in implicit knowledge. Adult learners were trained on an…

  2. Portraits of the L2 User. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vivian, Ed.

    This collection of papers treats second language users in their own right rather than as failed native speakers, reflecting a new shift within the field of second language acquisition research. The 13 papers are: (1) "Background to the L2 User" (Vivian Cook); (2) "Lexical Representation and Lexical Processing in the L2 User"…

  3. Semantics-Syntax Correspondences in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffs, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines knowledge of semantics-syntax correspondences in second-language acquisition (SLA) within the Principles and Parameters framework. A parameter of semantic structure is used to investigate change of state locatives and "psychological" verbs. Results indicate that for some learners, first-language influence persists until advanced stages of…

  4. Portraits of the L2 User. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vivian, Ed.

    This collection of papers treats second language users in their own right rather than as failed native speakers, reflecting a new shift within the field of second language acquisition research. The 13 papers are: (1) "Background to the L2 User" (Vivian Cook); (2) "Lexical Representation and Lexical Processing in the L2 User"…

  5. Implicit and Explicit Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebuschat, Patrick; Williams, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Language development is frequently characterized as a process where learning proceeds implicitly, that is, incidentally and in absence of awareness of what was learned. This article reports the results of two experiments that investigated whether second language acquisition can also result in implicit knowledge. Adult learners were trained on an…

  6. Lexical Learning in Second Language Acquisition: Optionality in the Numeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere suggests that second language acquisition (SLA) researchers should pay more attention to the distribution of a given feature in source and target languages, using the distribution of [plural] in English, Chinese and Korean to illustrate. I argue that the distribution of [definite] in English shows a similar complexity, and that this has…

  7. Psycholinguistic Techniques and Resources in Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a survey of current psycholinguistic techniques relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) research is presented. I summarize many of the available methods and discuss their use with particular reference to two critical questions in current SLA research: (1) What does a learner's current knowledge of the second language (L2)…

  8. On Predicting Phonological Difficulty in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the amount of influence that a learner's native language has on the acquisition of a second language. Suggests that some important properties of a learner's interlanguage (IL) can be predicted, as shown by the different IL rules that Cantonese and Japanese use in dealing with English word-final voice contrasts. (Author/MES)

  9. The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Catherine J., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    This handbook provides an integrated discussion of key issues in second language acquisition (SLA). The 24 chapters include the following: (1) "The Scope of Inquiry and the Goals of SLA" (Catherine J. Doughty and Michael H. Long); (2) "On the Nature of Interlanguage Representation: Universal Grammar in the Second Language"…

  10. A Probe into Classroom Teaching and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhengdan

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularization of foreign language study, more and more people from education field further enhance their exploration and researches in how to apply second acquisition theories into classroom teaching. This paper probes into the orientation, research objects, age, language environment and classroom activities of second language…

  11. Language Acquisition in Late Critical Period: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheitury, Amer; Sahraee, Ahmad Hosein; Hoseini, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Studies carried out to support the existence of a critical period for language acquisition have concentrated mainly on the case of being in total deprivation from language contact, and in particular deprivation from auditory input in the entire time span before puberty. While arguing for a useful distinction between early and late critical…

  12. Metrical Phonology and the Acquisition of a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broselow, Ellen

    It is proposed that error patterns in acquisition of a second language can provide otherwise unavailable evidence for testing linguistic hypotheses about the second language itself. Three types of production and perceptual error patterns found in the learning of English by native Arabic speakers are outlined to support this suggestion. The error…

  13. Infant Language Development Is Related to the Acquisition of Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walle, Eric A.; Campos, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation explored the question of whether walking onset is related to infant language development. Study 1 used a longitudinal design (N = 44) to assess infant locomotor and language development every 2 weeks from 10 to 13.5 months of age. The acquisition of walking was associated with a significant increase in both receptive and…

  14. Second Language Acquisition: Possible Insights from Studies on How Birds Acquire Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Denise M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research that demonstrates parallels between general linguistic and cognitive processes in human language acquisition and avian acquisition of song and discusses how such research may provide new insights into the processes of second-language acquisition. (Author/CB)

  15. Second Language Acquisition Studies. Series on Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kathleen M., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 16 papers covers theoretical issues and research on interlanguage development and second language acquisition variables. Among the specific topics addressed are: morpheme group interactions, acquisition of complex sentences in English as a second language, uniformity in interlanguage development, Spanish-English basilang,…

  16. Some Implications of Research in Second Language Acquisition for Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Linda

    On the continuum along which theories of first and second language acquisition are located, the two extremes represent the classic controversy of nature (nativist) vs. nurture (environmentalist), while those in the middle view language acquisition as a result of a more or less balanced interaction between innate capacities and linguistic…

  17. Taking a Social Turn for the Worse: The Language Socialization Paradigm for Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a number of researchers in the field of second language acquisition have voiced discontent regarding the tendency of second language acquisition (SLA) research to be conducted within a framework of cognitive science (Firth and Wagner, 1997; Atkinson, 2002; Johnson, 2004). Watson-Gegeo (2004) expresses this same discontent, and…

  18. Taking a Social Turn for the Worse: The Language Socialization Paradigm for Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a number of researchers in the field of second language acquisition have voiced discontent regarding the tendency of second language acquisition (SLA) research to be conducted within a framework of cognitive science (Firth and Wagner, 1997; Atkinson, 2002; Johnson, 2004). Watson-Gegeo (2004) expresses this same discontent, and…

  19. Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Patricia K

    2010-09-09

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. The phonetic level of language is especially accessible to experimental studies that document the innate state and the effect of learning on the brain. The neural signatures of learning at the phonetic level can be documented at a remarkably early point in development. Continuity in linguistic development from infants' earliest brain responses to phonetic stimuli is reflected in their language and prereading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and clinical impact. There is evidence that early mastery of the phonetic units of language requires learning in a social context. Neuroscience on early language learning is beginning to reveal the multiple brain systems that underlie the human language faculty.

  20. Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. The phonetic level of language is especially accessible to experimental studies that document the innate state and the effect of learning on the brain. The neural signatures of learning at the phonetic level can be documented at a remarkably early point in development. Continuity in linguistic development from infants’ earliest brain responses to phonetic stimuli is reflected in their language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and clinical impact. There is evidence that early mastery of the phonetic units of language requires learning in a social context. Neuroscience on early language learning is beginning to reveal the multiple brain systems that underlie the human language faculty. PMID:20826304

  1. First Language Acquisition Differs from Second Language Acquisition in Prelingually Deaf Signers: Evidence from Sensitivity to Grammaticality Judgement in British Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Kearsy; Schembri, Adam; Vinson, David; Orfanidou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) effects have been used to support the notion of a critical period for first language acquisition. In this study, we examine AoA effects in deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users via a grammaticality judgment task. When English reading performance and nonverbal IQ are factored out, results show that accuracy of…

  2. A Statistical-Physics Approach to Language Acquisition and Language Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassandro, Marzio; Collet, Pierre; Galves, Antonio; Galves, Charlotte

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why Statistical Physics can help understanding two related linguistic questions. The first question is how to model first language acquisition by a child. The second question is how language change proceeds in time. Our approach is based on a Gibbsian model for the interface between syntax and prosody. We also present a simulated annealing model of language acquisition, which extends the Triggering Learning Algorithm recently introduced in the linguistic literature.

  3. Verb particle and preposition acquisition in language-impaired preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Watkins, R V; Rice, M L

    1991-10-01

    This study examined the acquisition of verb particles and prepositions in language-impaired, language-matched, and age-matched preschool children. A videotape experimental task, in which subjects viewed and described brief action sequences, was implemented. The videotape task included particle, preposition, full noun phrase, and pronoun noun phrase items for six different particle/preposition words. Primary results indicated that the use of verb particles constituted a particularly challenging linguistic task for the language-impaired subjects relative to both their age- and language-matched peers. These results suggest multiple sources of difficulty for language-impaired children in the acquisition of grammatical form classes. Lexical and grammatical difficulties, as well as possible processing limitations, are implicated.

  4. A Study in Content Area Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broer, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted at a public school with a population of over 900 students. Among the main language groups represented were Punjabi, Hindi, Tamil, Estonian, Serbian, Arabic as well as 23 other language groups. The author monitored over 75 students, in grades 1, 2 and 4. She was interested in exploring what strategies best promoted…

  5. Dimensions in the Acquisition of Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygate, Martin; Porter, Don

    A small-scale study at a British university investigated two issues: the effect of task familiarity on language production; and the effects of the task on oral production. Three university students of differing language backgrounds, all non-native speakers of English, were interviewed in autumn and again 3 months later. On both occasions they were…

  6. The 'What' of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    Definitions of communicative competence and research on developing communicative competence in a second language are reviewed and implications for teaching are discussed. Communicative competence refers not only to knowledge of the forms of a language but to their functions and appropriate use in context. Five areas of communicative competence are…

  7. AUDITORY FACTORS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEUTENEGGER, RALPH R.; AND OTHERS

    INFORMATION ON THE AUDITORY SKILLS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDENTS WAS OBTAINED AND A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE SKILLS TO EASE OF MASTERY OF FRENCH AND SPANISH. THIS RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED TO ANSWER QUESTIONS RAISED BY THE CURRENT TREND IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION TOWARD THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDIOLINGUAL SKILLS BY PREDOMINANTLY AURAL…

  8. Role of Phonology in Foreign Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskhi, Anna

    This paper highlights the importance of phonology in second language learning, comparing phonetic mistakes made by adult native speakers of English learning Georgian and adult native speakers of Georgian learning English. It emphasizes the importance of a holistic, systemic approach to teaching second languages that involves making the first…

  9. Language Acquisition and the Conrad Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Three hypotheses of second-language learning (Interference Hypothesis, Input Hypothesis, Fundamental Difference Hypothesis) are applied to the case of Polish-born English novelist Joseph Conrad, to see how well they explain his language learning. The first two hypotheses fail to explain adequately his mastery of written English, whereas the last…

  10. The Status of the "Weaker" Language in Unbalanced French/German Bilingual Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnesen, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the status of the so-called "weaker" language, French, in French/German bilingual first language acquisition, using data from two children from the DuFDE-corpus (see Schlyter, 1990a), Christophe and Francois. Schlyter (1993, 1994) proposes that the "weaker" language in the unbalanced children she studied has the status…

  11. Hit or Miss, or Missing: The Role of Second Language Acquisition Research in Language Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jamie

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses how the syllabus for language teacher training in German has evolved and considers what direction foreign language teacher training might take if it were to follow the cue of "Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and appropriate the research agenda of second-language acquisition studies. (Contains 51 references.) (JL)

  12. The Status of the "Weaker" Language in Unbalanced French/German Bilingual Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnesen, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the status of the so-called "weaker" language, French, in French/German bilingual first language acquisition, using data from two children from the DuFDE-corpus (see Schlyter, 1990a), Christophe and Francois. Schlyter (1993, 1994) proposes that the "weaker" language in the unbalanced children she studied has the status…

  13. Hit or Miss, or Missing: The Role of Second Language Acquisition Research in Language Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jamie

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses how the syllabus for language teacher training in German has evolved and considers what direction foreign language teacher training might take if it were to follow the cue of "Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and appropriate the research agenda of second-language acquisition studies. (Contains 51 references.) (JL)

  14. First Language Phonetic Drift during Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Charles Bond

    2010-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence of malleability in speech production, previous studies of the effects of late second-language learning on first-language production have been limited to advanced learners. This dissertation examines these effects in novice learners, finding that experience in a second language rapidly, and possibly inexorably, affects…

  15. First Language Phonetic Drift during Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Charles Bond

    2010-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence of malleability in speech production, previous studies of the effects of late second-language learning on first-language production have been limited to advanced learners. This dissertation examines these effects in novice learners, finding that experience in a second language rapidly, and possibly inexorably, affects…

  16. Acquisition of Language Information from Online Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hikomaro

    This report describes the methods to acquire language information from online databases, which are usually employed to retrieve technical information. Typical uses are shown to obtain equivalent foreign words, language usages, illustrative sentences and statistical linguistic data, by use of JOIS, DIALOG, SDC and BRS online information systems. In comparison with dictionaries and usage books, the online databases provide a vast file of language information, which is unabridged, continually updated and accessible through any words or their combinations. In addition, they give quantitative data such as frequencies in use of words and expressions.

  17. The Cumulative-Enhancement Model for Language Acquisition: Comparing Adults' and Children's Patterns of Development in First, Second and Third Language Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Suzanne; Foley, Claire; Vinnitskaya, Inna

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we argue that investigation of third language (L3) acquisition by adults and children provides essential new insights about the language learning process that neither the study of first language (L1) nor second language (L2) acquisition alone can provide. The focus of this paper concerns the role the learner's L1 plays in succeeding…

  18. The Cumulative-Enhancement Model for Language Acquisition: Comparing Adults' and Children's Patterns of Development in First, Second and Third Language Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Suzanne; Foley, Claire; Vinnitskaya, Inna

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we argue that investigation of third language (L3) acquisition by adults and children provides essential new insights about the language learning process that neither the study of first language (L1) nor second language (L2) acquisition alone can provide. The focus of this paper concerns the role the learner's L1 plays in succeeding…

  19. The acquisition of a second language.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that if children can begin to acquire a second language at an early age they will find it easier to develop fluency, and will speak it without an accent. Age is a factor in acquiring one's mother tongue, and this also applies when learning a second language. One essential to developing such a skill is the ability to switch from one language to the other, as appropriate. Studies on the effects of age on this learning are reviewed. Techniques such as positron emission tomography can now be used to show which areas of the brain are involved in developing new skills, and much has been learnt in this way. Differences can be demonstrated between the cerebral function of the children who learn a second language at an early age and those who do this when they are older, and also between those who acquire a high degree of fluency and those who never do. If children speak a second language by hearing it in the environment in which they live, they are acquiring it as they do their mother tongue, but if they start at the age of 12 years they are learning it like any other subject they study. If the opportunity is present, surely it is better to acquire a second language than learn it.

  20. Second Language Acquisition: The Pidginization Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the untutored acquisition of English by a 33-year-old Costa Rican male. Three causes for his lack of linguistic development over a 10-month period are considered: ability, age, and social and psychological distance. The third of these is seen as the cause. (Author/POP)

  1. Grammar and the lexicon: developmental ordering in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dixon, James A; Marchman, Virginia A

    2007-01-01

    Recent accounts of language acquisition propose that the knowledge structures that comprise language develop within a single, unified system that shares computational resources and representations. One implication of this approach is that developmental relations within the system become central to theorizing about language acquisition. Previous work suggested that lexical development preceded grammatical development, a developmental ordering with strong theoretical implications. One purpose of the current article is to test this developmental ordering hypothesis. Results showed that children (aged 16-30 months) developed lexicon and grammar synchronously. The second purpose is to demonstrate a recently developed method for testing developmental ordering, the nonlinear-mapping approach, and show how the method can be extended to capitalize on multiply determined developmental systems, such as language.

  2. Acquisition, learning, or development of language? Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" revisited.

    PubMed

    López Ornat, Susana; Gallo, Pilar

    2004-11-01

    In 1957, Skinner, in his "Verbal Behavior", proposed an explanation on how a language is learned. In 1959, Chomsky strongly argued the non-learnability of language, establishing in the field of developmental psycholinguistics the substitution of the term "learning" for that of "acquisition". Currently, the constructivist models describe language acquisition as a process of ontogenetic, gradual, complex, and adaptive change. This new theoretical framework has been especially useful for rereading Verbal Behavior because it facilitates recovering the Skinnerian learning mechanisms. This can be observed in the recent research trends that recapture reinforcement and imitation (echoic responses), although they are now located in the initial phases of the process and are included in a cognitive dynamic that, by gradually increasing its complexity, can achieve grammar. The new constructivist theoretical framework, by retrieving the functional and referential aspects of language, can also take advantage of the classic Skinnerian proposal about the pragmatic types of verbal behavior, providing it with new meaning.

  3. The developmental acquisition of English grammar as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Quinn, C

    2001-01-01

    The results are presented here of an investigation into the development of receptive and expressive English grammar when this is acquired as a second language. A cross-sectional survey using standardised assessments was conducted. 103 children were randomly selected from three local primary schools. These children were aged between 5 and 11 years and were acquiring English sequentially. Data relating to the receptive and expressive grammar of English as a second language was collected from each child. Analysis of this data revealed preliminary developmental patterns that appear to be specific to the sequential acquisition of English grammar. This data confirms the importance of not using data pertaining to the acquisition of first language English for English that is acquired as a second language.

  4. What is the role of reinforcement in early language acquisition?

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, G J; Valdez-Menchaca, M C

    1988-04-01

    Monolingual American and Mexican 2- and 3-year-old children were exposed to a foreign language in a naturalistic but controlled environment. Children were randomly assigned to 2 groups. 1 group was differentially reinforced throughout the study for the use of foreign vocabulary. The control group was first reinforced nondifferentially for use of the native language or the foreign language and later was switched to differential reinforcement for the foreign language. Frequencies of spontaneous foreign word production and other verbal responses were computed, and formal assessments of comprehension and production of the foreign words were conducted. Differential reinforcement resulted in accelerating frequencies of spontaneous foreign language use and better performance on both comprehension and production tests. Under nondifferential reinforcement, rates of spontaneous foreign language use were low and static. Results are interpreted as evidence that the acquisition of expressive vocabulary is a function of socially mediated reinforcement.

  5. Preschool Second Language Acquisition: What We Know and How We Can Effectively Communicate with Young Second Language Learners. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones-Eatman, Janet

    This technical report presents concrete ways of meeting recommended practice by providing an overview of principles and practices in the area of second language acquisition. It discusses some of the major theories in the area of second language acquisition, as well as the developmental process of first and second language acquisition in the…

  6. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  7. Songs as an Aid for Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Daniele; Boyer, Maud; Moreno, Sylvain; Besson, Mireille; Peretz, Isabelle; Kolinsky, Regine

    2008-01-01

    In previous research, Saffran and colleagues [Saffran, J. R., Aslin, R. N., & Newport, E. L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science, 274, 1926-1928; Saffran, J. R., Newport, E. L., & Aslin, R. N. (1996). Word segmentation: The role of distributional cues. "Journal of Memory and Language," 35, 606-621.] have shown that adults…

  8. The Study of Bilingual Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Kathy; And Others

    The English and Spanish utterances of 19 bilingual preschool children were monitored as they conversed with experimenters. Characteristics of the children's language are reported for a bilingual prestage (exhibited by the youngest subject) and for four developmental stages in English and Spanish. These stages are characterized by approximately…

  9. Language Acquisition and Development. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on strategies to enhance learning of English as a second language and on the importance of bilingual education. In "Bilingual Education Makes the Difference in Learning," Roberto Feliz, who was born in the Dominican Republic and is now a doctor, describes how bilingual education saved him from academic failure…

  10. Modality and Intake in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.

    1995-01-01

    Replicates R. P. Leow's 1993 study on the effects of simplification, type of linguistic item, and second/foreign language experience on learners' intake of linguistic items contained in written output. Results on the type of linguistic item underscore the need for research to consider seriously the role of modality while addressing cognitive…

  11. Morphology in Language Comprehension, Production and Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    This Special Issue on Morphological Processing is based on the sixth MOrphological PROcessing Conference (MOPROC), which was kept in June 2009 in Turku, Finland. The issue contains 13 articles by leading scholars in the field of morphological processing. These articles investigate the role morphemes play in language comprehension, production and…

  12. Foreign Accents, Language Acquisition, and Cerebral Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scovel, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Paper presented to the Michigan Linguistic Society, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, October 4, 1969. Theorizes that the nature of the brain, not its nurture, inhibits the ability of a person to master the sound patterns of a second language without an accent. (DS)

  13. Songs as an Aid for Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Daniele; Boyer, Maud; Moreno, Sylvain; Besson, Mireille; Peretz, Isabelle; Kolinsky, Regine

    2008-01-01

    In previous research, Saffran and colleagues [Saffran, J. R., Aslin, R. N., & Newport, E. L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science, 274, 1926-1928; Saffran, J. R., Newport, E. L., & Aslin, R. N. (1996). Word segmentation: The role of distributional cues. "Journal of Memory and Language," 35, 606-621.] have shown that adults…

  14. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

  15. Natural Phonology Interference in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Geoffrey S.

    The natural phonology theory, related to European structuralism, makes two fundamental assumptions: (1) phonemes are mental images of the sounds of language, and (2) phonological processes represent subconscious mental substitutions of one sound or class of sounds for another that are the natural response to the relative difficulties of sound…

  16. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

  17. Training to Teach a Foreign Language. Principles of Second Language Acquisition: An Orientation for Foreign Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuche, Anthony; And Others

    The manual designed to accompany a seminar for teachers concerning some of the central issues in contemporary foreign language teaching and focusing on how adults go about acquiring language includes materials for five sessions, in three sections. The first section covers language learning and acquisition in general, and contains a survey of the…

  18. Three factors in the design and acquisition of language.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, William

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in linguistic theory offer new proposals about the factors that are crucial to understanding the design and acquisition of language-the genetic endowment, experience, and principles not specific to the language faculty. Of particular interest is the third of these factors, whose importance is now widely recognized, raising questions about its character, its role in shaping the language faculty, and its impact on the future of linguistic research. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1188 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. ESL Learners, Writing and the Acquisition of Academic Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rashid A.; Zainuddin, Hanizah

    Most research conducted on the amount of time English language learners (ELLs) require for the acquisition of academic English suggests that 4-10 years are required to be near or on par with fully proficient English (FEP) peers. In this study, data from three administrations (1999, 2000, and 2001) of the FCAT writing test of the Florida Writing…

  20. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Second Language and Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang Leimbigler, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    This article iterates the results of integrating literacy into SLA (Second Language Acquisition) from a constructivist's perspective in preparing syllabi, pedagogical activities and testing. The observation of Mandarin-learning students' performance and conversations with them suggest that introducing certain vocabulary, expressions and…

  1. Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use: The Taipei Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen D.

    This book is based on a series of four lectures, presented at National Taipei University, Taiwan, which reviewed the fundamentals of second language acquisition theory, presented original research supporting the theory, offered counterarguments to criticisms, and explored new areas that appeared to have promise for progress in both theory and…

  2. Statistical Literacy among Applied Linguists and Second Language Acquisition Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Lavolette, Elizabeth; Spino, Le Anne; Papi, Mostafa; Schmidtke, Jens; Sterling, Scott; Wolff, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of statistical knowledge in applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research has been emphasized in recent publications. However, the last investigation of the statistical literacy of applied linguists occurred more than 25 years ago (Lazaraton, Riggenbach, & Ediger, 1987). The current study undertook a partial…

  3. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  4. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  5. Factors Influencing the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Vibrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Luz Marcela; Estrada, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. The vibration (simple or multiple) and the…

  6. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  7. Informed Consent in Research on Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret; Pettitt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The practice of securing informed consent from research participants has a relatively low profile in second language (L2) acquisition research, despite its prominence in the biomedical and social sciences. This review article analyses the role that informed consent now typically plays in L2 research; discusses an example of an L2 study where…

  8. Application Features of Language Acquisition Assessment System in Kazakhstan: KAZTEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinayeva, Bekzat B.; Sapina, Sabira M.; Utanova, Aizada K.; Aitova, Nurlykhan N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of peculiarities of language acquisition assessment system in Kazakhstan--KAZTEST. The author pays attention to the role of control as a way of assessment students' skills, habits and knowledge. In addition, author determined the place and functions of tests as a form of control. The author explores the…

  9. Consonants and Vowels: Different Roles in Early Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochmann, Jean-Remy; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Language acquisition involves both acquiring a set of words (i.e. the lexicon) and learning the rules that combine them to form sentences (i.e. syntax). Here, we show that consonants are mainly involved in word processing, whereas vowels are favored for extracting and generalizing structural relations. We demonstrate that such a division of labor…

  10. The role of mirror neurons in language acquisition and evolution.

    PubMed

    Behme, Christina

    2014-04-01

    I argue that Cook et al.'s attack of the genetic hypothesis of mirror neurons misses its target because the authors miss the point that genetics may specify how neurons may learn, not what they learn. Paying more attention to recent work linking mirror neurons to language acquisition and evolution would strengthen Cook et al.'s arguments against a rigid genetic hypothesis.

  11. Factors Influencing the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Vibrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Luz Marcela; Estrada, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. The vibration (simple or multiple) and the…

  12. Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan. JALT Applied Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter, Ed.; Sawyer, Mark, Ed.; Ross, Steven, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan: Theoretical Issues" (Peter Robinson, Mark Sawyer, and Steven Ross); (2) "Focus on Form: Implicit and Explicit Form Focused Instruction Incorporated into a Communicative Task" (Hitoshi Muranoi); (3) "A Task that Works for…

  13. Statistical Literacy among Applied Linguists and Second Language Acquisition Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Lavolette, Elizabeth; Spino, Le Anne; Papi, Mostafa; Schmidtke, Jens; Sterling, Scott; Wolff, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of statistical knowledge in applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research has been emphasized in recent publications. However, the last investigation of the statistical literacy of applied linguists occurred more than 25 years ago (Lazaraton, Riggenbach, & Ediger, 1987). The current study undertook a partial…

  14. Chaos/Complexity Science and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the similarities between the science of chaos/complexity and second language acquisition (SLA). Notes that chaos/complexity scientists focus on how disorder yields to order and on how complexity arises in nature. Points out that the study of dynamic, complex nonlinear systems is meaningful in SLA as well. (78 references) (Author/CK)

  15. The Construction of a Second Language Acquisition Index of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diana; Strom, Virginia

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to find an index of development for second language acquisition, compositions written by non-native speakers of English were classified into proficiency levels and analyzed. Measures that seemed most suitable as an index of development were average length of the T-unit and number of error-free T-units. (CHK)

  16. Second Language Acquisition Research: Staking Out the Territory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    1991-01-01

    Documents 20 years of second-language acquisition research, highlighting two subthemes involving the alternate broadening and narrowing of research perspectives and predicting that the next phase of research will unite the historically distinct research foci on learning and the learner. (209 references) (CB)

  17. Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

  18. The Optimal Distance Model of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, H. Douglas

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that acculturation, anomie, social distance, and perceived social distance rather than biological factors define a critical period independent of the age of the learner for second language acquisition. Suggestions for planning instructional strategies and selecting materials based on this hypothesis are given. (PMJ)

  19. The Optimal Distance Model of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, H. Douglas

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that acculturation, anomie, social distance, and perceived social distance rather than biological factors define a critical period independent of the age of the learner for second language acquisition. Suggestions for planning instructional strategies and selecting materials based on this hypothesis are given. (PMJ)

  20. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  1. The Role of Variable Rules in Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, H. D.

    This paper attempts to show the relationship between variable rules and more widely used psycholinguistic constructs such as amalgams and schemas, and to point out how variationists' methods can be useful in the study of language acquisition. The traditional rule, the rule for forming the past tense of regular verbs in English, is discussed as it…

  2. Language and Culture Acquisition among Iranians in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between language use and second culture acquisition is examined in this study of first generation Iranian immigrants and exiles in the United States. The use of both Farsi and English is found to be instrumental in the process by which American culture is incorporated within the Iranian worldview. (AF)

  3. Spanish Second Language Acquisition: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A., Ed.; Salaberry, Rafael, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides an overview of previous studies on the acquisition of Spanish as a second or foreign language, theoretical approaches used in these studies, and effects of various pedagogical approaches on the development of Spanish interlanguage systems. The 10 chapters include the following: (1) "Phonology: Staking Out…

  4. Delayed Motor Skill Acquisition in Kindergarten Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…

  5. Exact Repetition as Input Enhancement in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eva Dam; Vinther, Thora

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies on input enhancement used to support learners' selection of focus of attention in Spanish second language listening material. Input consisted of video recordings of dialogues between native speakers. Exact repetition and speech rate reduction were examined for effect on comprehension, acquisition of decoding strategies, and…

  6. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  7. Spanish Second Language Acquisition: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A., Ed.; Salaberry, Rafael, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides an overview of previous studies on the acquisition of Spanish as a second or foreign language, theoretical approaches used in these studies, and effects of various pedagogical approaches on the development of Spanish interlanguage systems. The 10 chapters include the following: (1) "Phonology: Staking Out…

  8. Delayed Motor Skill Acquisition in Kindergarten Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…

  9. Acculturation in Relation to the Acquisition of a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Mei; Green, Raymond J.; Henley, Tracy B.; Masten, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Learners who begin to acquire a second language (L2) in a naturalistic environment after puberty are thought to be constrained by biological age factors and to have greater difficulty obtaining native-like L2. However, the extant literature suggests that L2 acquisition may be positively affected by post-maturational factors, such as acculturation.…

  10. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  11. Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Clive, Ed.

    The field manual for a series of coordinated studies of the spontaneous acquisition of a second language by adult immigrant workers provides a theoretical and practical framework for the entire project and a source of information about it for other researchers. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the project's objectives and organization. Chapter 3 reviews…

  12. Art and Science in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Expands on Ochsner's (1979) call for a "bilingual" attitude toward second language acquisition research. Suggests work be viewed as science and art in order to better understand what we do and how we do it. Argues that theorists use artistic and scientific devices in building theories, and consumers of those theories use aesthetic and…

  13. Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

  14. Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use: The Taipei Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen D.

    This book is based on a series of four lectures, presented at National Taipei University, Taiwan, which reviewed the fundamentals of second language acquisition theory, presented original research supporting the theory, offered counterarguments to criticisms, and explored new areas that appeared to have promise for progress in both theory and…

  15. Language-Motor Skill Acquisition and Shorthand Theory Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippinger, Dorinda A.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the ST-ART shorthand theory presentation method, this article discusses the following principles of language-motor skill acquisition: mental practice, symbol-sound association, verbal mediation, recitation and articulation, hierarchy of habits, overlearning, learner anxiety, sense modality, guided practice, kinesthetic imagery, visual…

  16. Transmission, Acquisition, Parameter-Setting, Reanalysis, and Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    2011-01-01

    Jurgen Meisel's (JM) article is literally thought-provoking, especially for the issues that one can raise out of the central position that he develops, viz., "although bilingual acquisition in situations of language contact can be argued to be of significant importance for explanations of grammatical change, reanalysis affecting parameter settings…

  17. Comprehensible Input and Second Language Acquisition: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loschky, Lester

    1994-01-01

    Examined the influence of input and interactional modifications on second-language acquisition, assigning 41 learners of Japanese to 1 of 3 experimental groups: (1) unmodified input with no interaction; (2) premodified input with no interaction; and (3) unmodified input with the chance for negotiated input. Results indicated that comprehension was…

  18. The Relationship Between Language Acquisition and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Rodney Louis

    Theories concerning the relationship between language acquisition and cognitive development are examined, and implications for education are discussed. There is disagreement about the sources and processes involved in achieving linguistic performance, and in particular, determining linguistic competence. Among the many theories and modifications…

  19. Research on the Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of second language acquisition based on the social-psychology of acculturation, including factors in social, affective, personality, cognitive, biological, aptitude, personal, input, and instructional areas. Studies which test this model are reviewed and evaluated. (Author/CB)

  20. Multiunit Sequences in First Language Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the computational modeling of children's grammars. However, much of this research is on English, which is unusual in its rigid word order and impoverished inflectional morphology. We summarize these results and explore their implications for languages with more flexible word order and/or much richer inflectional morphology. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Language, Culture and Cognition: A Collection of Studies in First and Second Language Acquisition. Multilingual Matters 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malave, Lilliam M., Ed.; Duquette, Georges, Ed.

    Papers on language processing, culture, and language learning and teaching include: "A Theory of Intelligence as Semiosis: With a Couple of Comments on Interlanguage Development" (John W. Oller, Jr.); "Along the Way: Interlanguage Systems in Second Language Acquisition" (Larry Selinker); "Strategy and Tactics in Second Language Acquisition"…

  2. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  3. Infant language development is related to the acquisition of walking.

    PubMed

    Walle, Eric A; Campos, Joseph J

    2014-02-01

    The present investigation explored the question of whether walking onset is related to infant language development. Study 1 used a longitudinal design (N = 44) to assess infant locomotor and language development every 2 weeks from 10 to 13.5 months of age. The acquisition of walking was associated with a significant increase in both receptive and productive language, independent of age. Study 2 used an age-held-constant study with 12.5-month-old infants (38 crawling infants; 37 walking infants) to further explore these findings. Results from Study 2 replicated the differences in infant language development between locomotor groups. Additionally, a naturalistic observation of parent-infant interactions (20 crawling dyads; 24 walking dyads) revealed that language development was predicted by multiple factors in the social environment, but only for walking infants. Possible explanations of the findings (e.g., social, cognitive, neurological) are discussed, and topics for future research are highlighted.

  4. The Relationship of Pidginization, Creolization and Decreolization to Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents arguments for the view that pidginization can be a model of early second language acquisition, decreolization can be a model for later second language acquisition, and creolization is inappropriate for any aspect of this process. (Author/AM)

  5. Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Petitto, L A; Katerelos, M; Levy, B G; Gauna, K; Tétreault, K; Ferraro, V

    2001-06-01

    Divergent hypotheses exist concerning the types of knowledge underlying early bilingualism, with some portraying a troubled course marred by language delays and confusion, and others portraying one that is largely unremarkable. We studied the extraordinary case of bilingual acquisition across two modalities to examine these hypotheses. Three children acquiring Langues des Signes Québécoise and French, and three children acquiring French and English (ages at onset approximately 1;0, 2;6 and 3;6 per group) were videotaped regularly over one year while we empirically manipulated novel and familiar speakers of each child's two languages. The results revealed that both groups achieved their early linguistic milestones in each of their languages at the same time (and similarly to monolinguals), produced a substantial number of semantically corresponding words in each of their two languages from their very first words or signs (translation equivalents), and demonstrated sensitivity to the interlocutor's language by altering their language choices. Children did mix their languages to varying degrees, and some persisted in using a language that was not the primary language of the addressee, but the propensity to do both was directly related to their parents' mixing rates, in combination with their own developing language preference. The signing-speaking bilinguals did exploit the modality possibilities, and they did simultaneously mix their signs and speech, but in semantically principled and highly constrained ways. It is concluded that the capacity to differentiate between two languages is well in place prior to first words, and it is hypothesized that this capacity may result from biological mechanisms that permit the discovery of early phonological representations. Reasons why paradoxical views of bilingual acquisition have persisted are also offered.

  6. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  7. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Bill; Lee, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Research on second language acquisition (SLA) and research on foreign language learning (FLL), often regarded as different and separate fields of inquiry, are compared in a brief review of literature. Perceptions about the scopes and characteristics of the research are examined. Concerns about the relationship between SLA research and theory and…

  9. Border Crossings? Exploring the Intersection of Second Language Acquisition, Conversation Analysis, and Foreign Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Junko

    2007-01-01

    This article explores recent changes in the landscape of second language acquisition (SLA) and foreign language pedagogical (FLP) research. Firth and Wagner's (1997) proposal for the reconceptualization of SLA has been supported by SLA and FLP researchers who share the sentiment concerning the need for increased attention to social and contextual…

  10. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In this randomized controlled trial,…

  11. Language Attrition and Reactivation in the Context of Bilingual First Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of a child raised in the context of bilingual first-language acquisition in English and Bulgarian, where the latter represents a minority (heritage) language. Using diary data and spontaneous speech recordings, the study identifies a period of loss of production in Bulgarian (1;7-2;3) and a subsequent…

  12. Saying What We Mean: Making a Case for "Language Acquisition" to Become "Language Development"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    As applied linguists know very well, how we use language both constructs and reflects our understanding. It is therefore important that we use terms that do justice to our concerns. In this presentation, I suggest that a more apt designation than "multilingual" or "second language acquisition" (SLA) is "multilingual"…

  13. The Evolution of Language Acquisition in Immigrant Students in Catalonia: The Role of the Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansó, Clara; Navarro, José Luis; Huguet, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The development of immigrant students' language proficiency is one of the main challenges facing education professionals today. Our study was a longitudinal analysis of Catalan and Spanish language acquisition. Method: Participants were 72 immigrant students (27 Spanish speakers and 45 non-Spanish speakers) enrolled in compulsory…

  14. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  15. The Evolution of Language Acquisition in Immigrant Students in Catalonia: The Role of the Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansó, Clara; Navarro, José Luis; Huguet, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The development of immigrant students' language proficiency is one of the main challenges facing education professionals today. Our study was a longitudinal analysis of Catalan and Spanish language acquisition. Method: Participants were 72 immigrant students (27 Spanish speakers and 45 non-Spanish speakers) enrolled in compulsory…

  16. Constructing Another Language--Usage-Based Linguistics in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskildsen, Soren W.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this article is to discuss the application of Usage-Based Linguistics (UBL) to an investigation of developmental issues in second language acquisition (SLA). Particularly, the aim is to discuss the relevance for SLA of the UBL suggestion that language learning is item-based, going from formulas via low-scope patterns to fully…

  17. Saying What We Mean: Making a Case for "Language Acquisition" to Become "Language Development"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    As applied linguists know very well, how we use language both constructs and reflects our understanding. It is therefore important that we use terms that do justice to our concerns. In this presentation, I suggest that a more apt designation than "multilingual" or "second language acquisition" (SLA) is "multilingual"…

  18. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  19. Summary Frames: Language Acquisition for Special Education and English Language Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honnert, Alicia M.; Bozan, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    For most middle school-level students, summarizing main ideas can prove to be difficult, especially for those with low vocabulary and language acquisition skills. Working specifically with students who are English Language Learners (ELLs) and in a special education program, we discovered that teaching summarization as a reading strategy increased…

  20. Language Attrition and Reactivation in the Context of Bilingual First Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of a child raised in the context of bilingual first-language acquisition in English and Bulgarian, where the latter represents a minority (heritage) language. Using diary data and spontaneous speech recordings, the study identifies a period of loss of production in Bulgarian (1;7-2;3) and a subsequent…

  1. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In this randomized controlled trial,…

  2. Summary Frames: Language Acquisition for Special Education and English Language Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honnert, Alicia M.; Bozan, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    For most middle school-level students, summarizing main ideas can prove to be difficult, especially for those with low vocabulary and language acquisition skills. Working specifically with students who are English Language Learners (ELLs) and in a special education program, we discovered that teaching summarization as a reading strategy increased…

  3. Language acquisition is model-based rather than model-free.

    PubMed

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) propose that learning language is learning to process language. However, we believe that the general-purpose prediction mechanism they propose is insufficient to account for many phenomena in language acquisition. We argue from theoretical considerations and empirical evidence that many acquisition tasks are model-based, and that different acquisition tasks require different, specialized models.

  4. Variability and Variation in Second Language Acquisition Orders: A Dynamic Reevaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowie, Wander; Verspoor, Marjolijn

    2015-01-01

    The traditional morpheme order studies in second language acquisition have tried to demonstrate the existence of a fixed order of acquisition of English morphemes, regardless of the second language learner's background. Such orders have been taken as evidence of the preprogrammed nature of language acquisition. This article argues for a…

  5. Color, reference, and expertise in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Eve V

    2006-08-01

    In learning the meaning of a new term, children need to fix its reference, learn its conventional meaning, and discover the meanings with which it contrasts. To do this, children must attend to adult speakers--the experts--and to their patterns of use. In the domain of color, children need to identify color terms as such, fix the reference of each one, and learn how each is used in the language. But color is a property, and terms for properties appear to be more difficult to grasp than do those for objects, actions, and relations. Although children find some domains easier to learn than others, they depend in each case on the expertise of adult speakers.

  6. Acquisition of speech rhythm in a second language by learners with rhythmically different native languages.

    PubMed

    Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona

    2015-08-01

    The development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) acquisition was investigated. Speech rhythm was defined as durational variability that can be captured by the interval-based rhythm metrics. These metrics were used to examine the differences in durational variability between proficiency levels in L2 English spoken by French and German learners. The results reveal that durational variability increased as L2 acquisition progressed in both groups of learners. This indicates that speech rhythm in L2 English develops from more syllable-timed toward more stress-timed patterns irrespective of whether the native language of the learner is rhythmically similar to or different from the target language. Although both groups showed similar development of speech rhythm in L2 acquisition, there were also differences: German learners achieved a degree of durational variability typical of the target language, while French learners exhibited lower variability than native British speakers, even at an advanced proficiency level.

  7. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  8. Research in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Papers of the Los Angeles Second Language Acquisition Research Forum. Issues In Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarcella, Robin C., Ed.; Krashen, Stephen D., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "The Theoretical and Practical Relevance of Simple Codes in Second Language Acquisition" (Krashen); (2) "Talking to Foreigners versus Talking to Children: Similarities and Differences" (Freed); (3) "The Levertov Machine" (Stevick); (4) "Acquiring a Second Language when You're Not the Underdog" (Edelsky and…

  9. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  10. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-11-19

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories.

  11. Grammatical Acquisition: Inductive Bias and Coevolution of Language and the Language Acquisition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted

    2000-01-01

    An account of grammatical acquisition is developed within the parameter setting framework applied to a generalized categorical grammar (GCG). Computational simulation shows that several resulting acquisition procedures are effective on a parameter set expressing major typological distinctions based on constituent order, and defining 70 distinct…

  12. Grammatical Acquisition: Inductive Bias and Coevolution of Language and the Language Acquisition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted

    2000-01-01

    An account of grammatical acquisition is developed within the parameter setting framework applied to a generalized categorical grammar (GCG). Computational simulation shows that several resulting acquisition procedures are effective on a parameter set expressing major typological distinctions based on constituent order, and defining 70 distinct…

  13. Late acquisition of literacy in a native language.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Keim, Roland; Brambati, Simona M; Tettamanti, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F; De Bleser, Ria; Perani, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    With event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and with behavioral measures we studied the brain processes underlying the acquisition of native language literacy. Adult dialect speakers were scanned while reading words belonging to three different conditions: dialect words, i.e., the native language in which subjects are illiterate (dialect), German words, i.e., the second language in which subjects are literate, and pseudo-words. Investigating literacy acquisition of a dialect may reveal how novel readers of a language build an orthographic lexicon, i.e., establish a link between already available semantic and phonological representations and new orthographic word forms. The main results of the study indicate that a set of regions, including the left anterior hippocampal formation and subcortical nuclei, is involved in the buildup of orthographic representations. The repeated exposure to written dialect words resulted in a convergence of the neural substrate to that of the language in which these subjects were already proficient readers. The latter result is compatible with a "fast" brain plasticity process that may be related to a shift of reading strategies.

  14. Natural Language Control of Resources for Experimental Data Acquisition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harbort, Robert A.; Franklin, David; Spencer, James H.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation outlines the results of research into providing a “friendly interface” between a medical scientist and a medical data acquisition system for doing clinical research. The intended user of the system is presumed to have no knowledge of programming languages. The research has emphasized outlining the needs of such a user in terms of hardware configuration, developing specifications for meeting these needs dynamically, and creating a natural language control structure for setting up experiments without the help of a programmer or electronics technician.

  15. Linguistic Diversity in First Language Acquisition Research: Moving beyond the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Barbara F.; Forshaw, William; Nordlinger, Rachel; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The field of first language acquisition (FLA) needs to take into account data from the broadest typological array of languages and language-learning environments if it is to identify potential universals in child language development, and how these interact with socio-cultural mechanisms of acquisition. Yet undertaking FLA research in remote…

  16. Linguistic Diversity in First Language Acquisition Research: Moving beyond the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Barbara F.; Forshaw, William; Nordlinger, Rachel; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The field of first language acquisition (FLA) needs to take into account data from the broadest typological array of languages and language-learning environments if it is to identify potential universals in child language development, and how these interact with socio-cultural mechanisms of acquisition. Yet undertaking FLA research in remote…

  17. Prosody's role in language acquisition and adult parsing.

    PubMed

    Gerken, L

    1996-03-01

    There has been recent interest in the role of prosody in language acquisition as well as in adult sentence processing. Although the specific questions about prosody asked in these two domains may appear to differ, there are at least three basic issues that they have in common. These include the role of prosody in segmentation (i.e., deciding whether two adjacent sections of speech belong to the same or to different linguistic units), structural bracketing (i.e., discerning structural relations among linguistic units), and the reliability of prosodic cues. Data from both language acquisition and adult parsing research suggest that, although prosody almost certainly plays a role in segmentation, it probably does not aid in bracketing. Research on the reliability of prosodic cues suggest that these are probably more reliable and robust in child-directed than in adult-directed speech registers, raising questions about how child and adult listeners interpret the presence vs. absence of prosodic cues.

  18. An empirical generative framework for computational modeling of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Heidi R; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of generative grammars from raw CHILDES data and give an account of the generative performance of the acquired grammars. Next, we summarize findings from recent longitudinal and experimental work that suggests how certain statistically prominent structural properties of child-directed speech may facilitate language acquisition. We then present a series of new analyses of CHILDES data indicating that the desired properties are indeed present in realistic child-directed speech corpora. Finally, we suggest how our computational results, behavioral findings, and corpus-based insights can be integrated into a next-generation model aimed at meeting the four requirements of our modeling framework.

  19. [Child-directed speech. Does it really help language acquisition?].

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Jungheim, M; Ptok, M

    2011-11-01

    Infant- or child-directed speech (CDS) defines the code used to communicate with infants or children, which differs from standard adult speech in prosody, expressions, diction and word repetition etc. A selective literature search in PubMed was carried out for the purposes of this systematic review. Due to its specific advantages, child-directed speech facilitates the extraction and representation of relevant, meaningful sections from the continuous speech signal. Different speech communities use different variants of CDS. CDS is not only seen to be used by adults, but also by children communicating with younger children. However, there are speech communities that do not use CDS. Taking into consideration findings previously described in the literature, CDS appears to positively support language acquisition in children, but does not represent a necessary prerequisite. However, there are no findings in the literature to indicate that the linguistically reduced CDS hinders early language acquisition.

  20. A Minimalist Approach to Null Subjects and Objects in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, H.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the second language acquisition of pronominal arguments have observed that: (1) L1 speakers of null subject languages of the Spanish type drop more subjects in their second language (L2) English than first language (L1) speakers of null subject languages of the Korean type and (2) speakers of Korean-type languages drop more objects than…

  1. A Minimalist Approach to Null Subjects and Objects in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, H.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the second language acquisition of pronominal arguments have observed that: (1) L1 speakers of null subject languages of the Spanish type drop more subjects in their second language (L2) English than first language (L1) speakers of null subject languages of the Korean type and (2) speakers of Korean-type languages drop more objects than…

  2. Learning to Learn a Foreign Language. Principles of Second Language Acquisition: An Orientation for Foreign Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuche, Anthony; And Others

    The manual designed to accompany an orientation seminar for students concerning language learning processes and strategies and the design of their program includes materials for five sessions, in three sections. The first section covers language learning and acquisition in general and contains a survey of the participants' foreign language…

  3. Social and Cognitive Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie, Ed.; Morris, Frank, Ed.; Anderson, Michael E., Ed.; Klee, Carol A., Ed.; Tarone, Elaine, Ed.

    This edited volume includes the following chapters: "Three Kinds of Sociolinguistics and SLA: A Psycholinguistic Perspective" (Dennis R. Preston); "Getting Serious about Language Play: Language Play, Interlanguage Variation, and Second Language Acquisition" (Elaine Tarone); "Oppositional Talk and the Acquisition of Modality in L2 English" (Tom…

  4. Social and Cognitive Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie, Ed.; Morris, Frank, Ed.; Anderson, Michael E., Ed.; Klee, Carol A., Ed.; Tarone, Elaine, Ed.

    This edited volume includes the following chapters: "Three Kinds of Sociolinguistics and SLA: A Psycholinguistic Perspective" (Dennis R. Preston); "Getting Serious about Language Play: Language Play, Interlanguage Variation, and Second Language Acquisition" (Elaine Tarone); "Oppositional Talk and the Acquisition of Modality in L2 English" (Tom…

  5. Second Language Acquisition: A Classroom Perspective. Australian Studies in Language Acquisition No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Malcolm

    Issues and patterns in second language learning are discussed, drawing on a 1985 study with learners of English as a second language in Australia. Discussion begins with an analysis of the process of learning one form of verb marking, the ending "-ing." The inherent complexity of this form in English is examined, and ways in which…

  6. Language Acquisition by Children with Down Syndrome: A Naturalistic Approach to Assisting Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilaseca, R.M.; Del Rio, M-J.

    2004-01-01

    Many child language studies emphasize the value of verbal and social support, of 'scaffolding' processes and mutual adjustments that naturally occur in adult-child interactions in everyday contexts. Based on such theories, this study attempted to improve the language and communication skills in children with special educational needs through…

  7. Language laterality in English/Welsh bilinguals: language-acquisitional and language-specific factors in the development of lateralisation.

    PubMed

    Workman, L; Brookman, F; Mayer, P; Rees, V; Bellin, W

    2000-10-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that monolinguals differ from bilinguals in their pattern of language lateralisation and to examine the relative merits of language-acquisitional versus language-specific factors, two experiments involving divided screen presentation of two languages were conducted using Welsh/English speaking participants. In the first experiment 80 monolingual teenagers were compared to 80 bilingual teenagers on a tachistoscopic "visual half-field" test of Welsh and English nouns and verbs. ANOVA revealed a greater left hemisphere advantage for Welsh-English bilinguals as compared to English monolinguals. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, in our bilinguals there was evidence of greater left hemisphere involvement in the processing of language. In the second experiment, four separate groups of 40 teenagers, varying in the age and manner of acquisition of their languages, were compared on the same test of Welsh and English words. These groups can be viewed as graded from the early to late bilinguals. ANOVA revealed a greater left hemisphere advantage when processing Welsh as compared to English words for all four groups. However no significant difference was observed between the four groups in respect of laterality for Welsh and English, indicating an equally greater left hemisphere bias for all four groups when processing Welsh words. We discuss these results in terms of a language-specific effect and suggest the specific orthography of the Welsh language (for individually presented nouns and verbs) promotes a left hemisphere advantage over and above language-acquisitional factors.

  8. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caralho, Ana Maria; da Silva, Antonio Jose Bacelar

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates typological distance and order of acquisition (i.e., the order in which languages were acquired) in the context in which Spanish-English bilingual students, whose first language is English or Spanish, are learning Portuguese as a third language (L3). Participants were asked to think aloud as they worked on pedagogical tasks…

  9. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caralho, Ana Maria; da Silva, Antonio Jose Bacelar

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates typological distance and order of acquisition (i.e., the order in which languages were acquired) in the context in which Spanish-English bilingual students, whose first language is English or Spanish, are learning Portuguese as a third language (L3). Participants were asked to think aloud as they worked on pedagogical tasks…

  10. The ubiquity of frequency effects in first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Kidd, Evan; Rowland, Caroline F; Theakston, Anna L

    2015-03-01

    This review article presents evidence for the claim that frequency effects are pervasive in children's first language acquisition, and hence constitute a phenomenon that any successful account must explain. The article is organized around four key domains of research: children's acquisition of single words, inflectional morphology, simple syntactic constructions, and more advanced constructions. In presenting this evidence, we develop five theses. (i) There exist different types of frequency effect, from effects at the level of concrete lexical strings to effects at the level of abstract cues to thematic-role assignment, as well as effects of both token and type, and absolute and relative, frequency. High-frequency forms are (ii) early acquired and (iii) prevent errors in contexts where they are the target, but also (iv) cause errors in contexts in which a competing lower-frequency form is the target. (v) Frequency effects interact with other factors (e.g. serial position, utterance length), and the patterning of these interactions is generally informative with regard to the nature of the learning mechanism. We conclude by arguing that any successful account of language acquisition, from whatever theoretical standpoint, must be frequency sensitive to the extent that it can explain the effects documented in this review, and outline some types of account that do and do not meet this criterion.

  11. A Case for "Acquisitional Strategies": Some Methodological Observations on Investigation into Second Language Learners' Initial State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polomska, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory application of the "acquisitional strategies" framework investigated English-speaking language learners' acquisition of preposition stranding in Dutch. Interesting syntactic and morphological contrasts in both English and Dutch render the framework a valuable empirical tool for evaluating language acquisition strategies. (Author/CB)

  12. A New View of Language Development: The Acquisition of Lexical Tone.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L

    2016-05-01

    Research in first language development draws disproportionately from nontone languages. Such research is often presumed to reveal developmental universals in spite of the fact that most languages are tone languages. Recent research in the acquisition of tone languages points to a distinct course of development as compared to nontone languages. Our purpose is to provide an integrated review of research on lexical tone acquisition. First, the linguistic properties and origins of tone languages are described. Following this, research on the acquisition of tones in perception and production is reviewed and integrated. Possible reasons for the uniqueness of tone in language acquisition are discussed. Finally, theoretical advances promised by further research on tone acquisition and specific research directions are proposed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. First language acquisition differs from second language acquisition in prelingually deaf signers: Evidence from sensitivity to grammaticality judgement in British Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Kearsy; Schembri, Adam; Vinson, David; Orfanidou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) effects have been used to support the notion of a critical period for first language acquisition. In this study, we examine AoA effects in deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users via a grammaticality judgment task. When English reading performance and nonverbal IQ are factored out, results show that accuracy of grammaticality judgement decreases as AoA increases, until around age 8, thus showing the unique effect of AoA on grammatical judgement in early learners. No such effects were found in those who acquired BSL after age 8. These late learners appear to have first language proficiency in English instead, which may have been used to scaffold learning of BSL as a second language later in life. PMID:22578601

  14. First language acquisition differs from second language acquisition in prelingually deaf signers: evidence from sensitivity to grammaticality judgement in British Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Kearsy; Schembri, Adam; Vinson, David; Orfanidou, Eleni

    2012-07-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) effects have been used to support the notion of a critical period for first language acquisition. In this study, we examine AoA effects in deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users via a grammaticality judgment task. When English reading performance and nonverbal IQ are factored out, results show that accuracy of grammaticality judgement decreases as AoA increases, until around age 8, thus showing the unique effect of AoA on grammatical judgement in early learners. No such effects were found in those who acquired BSL after age 8. These late learners appear to have first language proficiency in English instead, which may have been used to scaffold learning of BSL as a second language later in life.

  15. Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Exploring the Limits of the Language Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Reviews current research in three domains of bilingual acquisition: pragmatic features of bilingual code mixing, grammatical constraints on child bilingual code mixing, and bilingual syntactic development. Examines implications from these domains for the understanding of the limits of the mental faculty to acquire language. (Author/VWL)

  16. Combining Language Corpora with Experimental and Computational Approaches for Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Padraic; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, first language acquisition research was a painstaking process of observation, requiring the laborious hand coding of children's linguistic productions, followed by the generation of abstract theoretical proposals for how the developmental process unfolds. Recently, the ability to collect large-scale corpora of children's language…

  17. Intonation and Language Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Eleanor L.

    It is the contention here that the "prelinguistic" period is an important phase of the language acquisition process. Accordingly the research reported represents an attempt to begin mapping out the types of linguistically relevant information to which a young child attends. Specifically it is hypothesized that young children are…

  18. Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment: Barriers to Language Acquisition and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    2010 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED SPONSORED BY: SOFLO, USSOCOM RESEARCH CONDUCTED BY: SWA CONSULTING INC. Special...Forces (SF) Command]. Two foundational reports document the methodology and participants associated with this project. Relationship of Barriers...removed. Research Questions This section addresses the following questions: • What are the biggest barriers to language acquisition and

  19. Language Learning in Mindbodyworld: A Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent research in cognitive science, interaction, and second language acquisition (SLA), I describe a sociocognitive approach to SLA. This approach adopts a "non-cognitivist" view of cognition: Instead of an isolated computational process in which input is extracted from the environment and used to build elaborate internal…

  20. Language Learning in Mindbodyworld: A Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent research in cognitive science, interaction, and second language acquisition (SLA), I describe a sociocognitive approach to SLA. This approach adopts a "non-cognitivist" view of cognition: Instead of an isolated computational process in which input is extracted from the environment and used to build elaborate internal…

  1. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition in Wales (2003-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tess

    2010-01-01

    An objective selection protocol identified 25 Ph.D. theses from Welsh universities in the period 2003-2008 which are relevant to the field of second language acquisition. Most of these fall into three broad subject areas: language in school, acquisition and assessment of spoken language, and lexical issues. The last of these encompasses the…

  2. The Role of Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition: A selected Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes theoretical developments in the cognitive psychology of second language acquisition . One conclusion reached is that such...of John Anderson. Anderson’s theory is seen as having promise for serving as the foundation for a research model on the role of learning strategies in second language acquisition . Keywords: English as a second language.

  3. The Role of Native Language Transfer and Task Formality in the Acquisition of Spanish Spirantization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies the role played by native language transfer and task formality in the second-language acquisition of the Spanish voiced stop phonemes /b d g/ and their spirantized variants to identify specific problems affecting learners. Results indicate that native language transfer markedly inhibits acquisition of the voiced spirants. (21 references)…

  4. Acquisition of Kinship Reference: A Study on Word-Formation Processes of Adult Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

    1991-01-01

    The use of kinship reference devices in processes of second-language acquisition are examined in a longitudinal and cross-linguistic study of adult Turkish and Moroccan immigrants learning Dutch. Evidence is offered for both general and source-language-specific principles of language acquisition. (JL)

  5. The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: insights from different stages of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Brunner, Martin; Landerl, Karin; Schiltz, Christine; Ugen, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Solving arithmetic problems is a cognitive task that heavily relies on language processing. One might thus wonder whether this language-reliance leads to qualitative differences (e.g., greater difficulties, error types, etc.) in arithmetic for bilingual individuals who frequently have to solve arithmetic problems in more than one language. The present study investigated how proficiency in two languages interacts with arithmetic problem solving throughout language acquisition in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, we examined whether the number word structure that is specific to a given language plays a role in number processing over and above bilingual proficiency. We addressed these issues in a German-French educational bilingual setting, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as teaching language. Importantly, German and French number naming structures differ clearly, as two-digit number names follow a unit-ten order in German, but a ten-unit order in French. We implemented a transversal developmental design in which bilingual pupils from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and young adults were asked to solve simple and complex additions in both languages. The results confirmed that language proficiency is crucial especially for complex addition computation. Simple additions in contrast can be retrieved equally well in both languages after extended language practice. Additional analyses revealed that over and above language proficiency, language-specific number word structures (e.g., unit-ten vs. ten-unit) also induced significant modulations of bilinguals' arithmetic performances. Taken together, these findings support the view of a strong relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals.

  6. The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: insights from different stages of language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Brunner, Martin; Landerl, Karin; Schiltz, Christine; Ugen, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Solving arithmetic problems is a cognitive task that heavily relies on language processing. One might thus wonder whether this language-reliance leads to qualitative differences (e.g., greater difficulties, error types, etc.) in arithmetic for bilingual individuals who frequently have to solve arithmetic problems in more than one language. The present study investigated how proficiency in two languages interacts with arithmetic problem solving throughout language acquisition in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, we examined whether the number word structure that is specific to a given language plays a role in number processing over and above bilingual proficiency. We addressed these issues in a German–French educational bilingual setting, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as teaching language. Importantly, German and French number naming structures differ clearly, as two-digit number names follow a unit-ten order in German, but a ten-unit order in French. We implemented a transversal developmental design in which bilingual pupils from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and young adults were asked to solve simple and complex additions in both languages. The results confirmed that language proficiency is crucial especially for complex addition computation. Simple additions in contrast can be retrieved equally well in both languages after extended language practice. Additional analyses revealed that over and above language proficiency, language-specific number word structures (e.g., unit-ten vs. ten-unit) also induced significant modulations of bilinguals' arithmetic performances. Taken together, these findings support the view of a strong relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals. PMID:25821442

  7. 75 FR 60261 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Award-Fee Language Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Award-Fee Language Revision AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General.... SUMMARY: The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council and the Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) have adopted as final, with changes, the interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR...

  8. What predicts successful literacy acquisition in a second language?

    PubMed

    Frost, Ram; Siegelman, Noam; Narkiss, Alona; Afek, Liron

    2013-07-01

    In the study reported here, we examined whether success (or failure) in assimilating the structure of a second language can be predicted by general statistical-learning abilities that are nonlinguistic in nature. We employed a visual-statistical-learning (VSL) task, monitoring our participants' implicit learning of the transitional probabilities of visual shapes. A pretest revealed that performance in the VSL task was not correlated with abilities related to a general g factor or working memory. We found that, on average, native speakers of English who more accurately picked up the implicit statistical structure embedded in the continuous stream of shapes better assimilated the Semitic structure of Hebrew words. Languages and their writing systems are characterized by idiosyncratic correlations of form and meaning, and our findings suggest that these correlations are picked up in the process of literacy acquisition, as they are picked up in any other type of learning, for the purpose of making sense of the environment.

  9. What predicts successful literacy acquisition in a second language?

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Ram; Siegelman, Noam; Narkiss, Alona; Afek, Liron

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether success (or failure) in assimilating the structure of a second language could be predicted by general statistical learning abilities that are non-linguistic in nature. We employed a visual statistical learning (VSL) task, monitoring our participants’ implicit learning of the transitional probabilities of visual shapes. A pretest revealed that performance in the VSL task is not correlated with abilities related to a general G factor or working memory. We found that native speakers of English who picked up the implicit statistical structure embedded in the continuous stream of shapes, on average, better assimilated the Semitic structure of Hebrew words. Our findings thus suggest that languages and their writing systems are characterized by idiosyncratic correlations of form and meaning, and these are picked up in the process of literacy acquisition, as they are picked up in any other type of learning, for the purpose of making sense of the environment. PMID:23698615

  10. Two by two: a twin study of second-language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Philip S; Harlaar, Nicole; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In this report, we provide initial results of the first application of the classic twin design to second-language acquisition. The analysis was conducted on assessments teachers made using United Kingdom National Curriculum standards and included 604 pairs of 14-year-old twins. The results demonstrate substantial heritability (.67) and low influence of shared environment (.13) on this measure of second-language acquisition. The heritability of second-language acquisition at 14 years is comparable to the heritability of the two first-language acquisition measures obtained at 12 and 14 years, respectively, and is higher than heritability estimates previously published for first-language acquisition in early childhood. Multivariate behavior genetic analyses suggest very high, but not complete, overlap of genetic influences on first- and second-language acquisition, and less overlap between shared environmental influences on the two domains.

  11. Second-language acquisition via immersion in daycare.

    PubMed

    Karniol, R

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of second-language acquisition of Hebrew via immersion in daycare between 1.10 and 3.0. A period of silence was followed by rapid onset of L2 production simultaneously with many references to language itself. Eight types of language awareness were identified, and of these, several types may be prerequisites for starting L2 production. The nature of L2 speech during the first stages of production suggests that to crack the sematic code of L2, the child relies on identifiable contingencies between utterances and subsequent behaviours by speakers and listeners. As a result there are many more imperatives and interrogatives in L2 than are evident in L1 speech, and these appear to be learned by rote in an unanalysed manner. The transition to complex constructions occurs via the juxtaposition of known but syntactically unanalysed chunks, and results in patterns of syntactic errors similar to those of adult second-language learners. Reliance on L1 as a fall-back strategy was also evident. Several implications of these data for cognitive development in general are discussed.

  12. Lexical segmentation and vocabulary growth in early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, K

    1993-02-01

    The identification of appropriate lexical segmentations of the speech signal constitutes a problem for the language learner and the child language researcher alike. Articulatory precision and fluency criteria for identifying formulaic expressions, sub-lexical forms and target lexemes in linguistic productions are defined and applied to the analysis of two Danish children's language development between the ages of 1;0 and 2;0. The results of this analysis are compared to the results of applying standard distributional and frequency criteria in the tabulation of mean length of utterance and vocabulary profiles for both standard and non-standard lexical segmentations. It is argued that although the two methods yield converging profiles of development during the latter part of the period studied, articulatory precision and fluency criteria offer a more powerful tool for identifying alternative segmentation strategies in early language acquisition. Profiles of vocabulary development for these two children suggest that the solution to the segmentation problem may be an important trigger for their vocabulary spurts.

  13. Inhibiting your native language: the role of retrieval-induced forgetting during second-language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Levy, Benjamin J; McVeigh, Nathan D; Marful, Alejandra; Anderson, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words--a phenomenon known as first-language attrition. We propose that first-language attrition arises in part from the suppression of native-language phonology during second-language use, and thus is a case of phonological retrieval-induced forgetting. In two experiments, we investigated this hypothesis by having native English speakers name visual objects in a language they were learning (Spanish). Repeatedly naming the objects in Spanish reduced the accessibility of the corresponding English words, as measured by an independent-probe test of inhibition. The results establish that the phonology of the words was inhibited, as access to the concepts underlying the presented objects was facilitated, not impaired. More asymmetry between English and Spanish fluency was associated with more inhibition for native-language words. This result supports the idea that inhibition plays a functional role in overcoming interference during the early stages of second-language acquisition.

  14. Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary through Brief Multi-Modal Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed. PMID:23579363

  15. Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed.

  16. A deaf child's language acquisition verified through text retelling.

    PubMed

    Luetke-Stahlman, B; Griffiths, C; Montgomery, N

    1999-07-01

    The researchers studied a method of mediation with a deaf second grader. Language needs were identified through transcription of the child's retellings of weekly basal stories. These were either targeted for adult-mediated conversations during reading activities or left "untargeted but tracked." During two intervention phases, the student's performance on semantic and syntactic features of interest incorporated into retellings improved when an adult facilitated; when an adult was intentionally unavailable to mediate retellings, documentation of positive linguistic changes indicated internalization or acquisition of these features. Analysis of language behaviors that did not improve during unmediated retellings indicated a need for continued mediation. Untargeted but tracked behaviors that went unchanged during data collection further documented that language behavior changes resulted from adult mediation, not maturation. The child achieved 1 year's reading growth during the data collection period (1 academic year) on the Gates-MacGinite Test of Reading (hearing norms; W. MacGinite & R. MacGinite, 1989). Text retelling methodology proved useful, although group design study is warranted.

  17. Psych verbs, the linking problem, and the acquisition of language.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; O'Donnell, Timothy J; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki; Lee, Miseon; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-12-01

    In acquiring language, children must learn to appropriately place the different participants of an event (e.g., causal agent, affected entity) into the correct syntactic positions (e.g., subject, object) so that listeners will know who did what to whom. While many of these mappings can be characterized by broad generalizations, both within and across languages (e.g., semantic agents tend to be mapped onto syntactic subjects), not all verbs fit neatly into these generalizations. One particularly striking example is verbs of psychological state: The experiencer of the state can appear as either the subject (Agnes fears/hates/loves Bartholomew) or the direct object (Agnes frightens/angers/delights Bartholomew). The present studies explore whether this apparent variability in subject/object mapping may actually result from differences in these verbs' underlying meanings. Specifically, we suggest that verbs like fear describe a habitual attitude towards some entity whereas verbs like frighten describe an externally caused emotional episode. We find that this distinction systematically characterizes verbs in English, Mandarin, and Korean. This pattern is generalized to novel verbs by adults in English, Japanese, and Russian, and even by English-speaking children who are just beginning to acquire psych verbs. This results support a broad role for systematic mappings between semantics and syntax in language acquisition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of automatic reinforcement in early language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.; Michael, Jack; Partington, James W.; Sundberg, Cindy A.

    1996-01-01

    The vocal behavior of five children was recorded and analyzed during pre- and post-pairing conditions. Between these conditions there was a pairing condition where a target sound, word, or phrase was paired with an established form of reinforcement (e.g., tickling). In the first experiment all of the children emitted the targeted responses during the post-pairing condition. The results showed that the children acquired new vocal and verbal responses by pairing neutral stimuli with established forms of conditioned or unconditioned reinforcement. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these results was that new vocal responses were acquired by the children without the use of direct reinforcement, echoic training, or prompts. In the second experiment several parameters of the pairing procedure were examined. The results of the two experiments have implications for the analysis of native language acquisition, and for the development of language intervention procedures for individuals who fail to acquire language. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:22477108

  19. The Acquisition of Task-Specific Word Formation Devices in American Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane

    The acquisition of several word formation devices in American Sign Language (ASL) by deaf children learning ASL as a native language focused on some devices analogous to word formation devices in spoken languages (compounding, affixation, and derivation) and some in ASL that may not have counterparts in spoken languages. They were examined using…

  20. The Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by English, Japanese and Korean Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by speakers of non-tonal languages within the framework of Optimality Theory. The effects of three L1s are analyzed: American English, a stress-accent language; Tokyo Japanese, a lexical pitch accent language; and Seoul Korean, a non-stress and non-pitch accent…

  1. Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

  2. The Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by English, Japanese and Korean Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by speakers of non-tonal languages within the framework of Optimality Theory. The effects of three L1s are analyzed: American English, a stress-accent language; Tokyo Japanese, a lexical pitch accent language; and Seoul Korean, a non-stress and non-pitch accent…

  3. Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

  4. The Missing Link in Vision and Governance: Foreign Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire J.

    1987-01-01

    Foreign language acquisition research (concerned with the theoretical and practical issues related to socialization into and literacy in another language and culture) can help integrate language, literature, and culture in foreign language departments because it draws on insights gained from such diverse fields as anthropology, sociology,…

  5. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs for current second language learning. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs' report (2002), more than nine million…

  6. The Missing Link in Vision and Governance: Foreign Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire J.

    1987-01-01

    Foreign language acquisition research (concerned with the theoretical and practical issues related to socialization into and literacy in another language and culture) can help integrate language, literature, and culture in foreign language departments because it draws on insights gained from such diverse fields as anthropology, sociology,…

  7. Three Fundamental Concepts in Second Language Acquisition and Their Relevance in Multilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire; Whiteside, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This article considers how 3 fundamental concepts of second language acquisition (SLA), the native speaker, interlanguage, and the language learner have fared since Firth and Wagner (1997). We review the ascendancy of these concepts and their relationship to the traditional dichotomies of language learning versus language use and individual mind…

  8. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child’s development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method In this randomized controlled trial, 188 Latino preschoolers with SLI participated in a small-group academic enrichment program for 12 weeks and were followed up 3 and 5 months later. Children were randomly assigned to either a bilingual or an English-only program. Predictors of English growth included measures of Spanish language skills and English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure. Performance on English outcomes (i.e., picture description and narrative sample) was assessed over time. A series of longitudinal models were tested via multilevel modeling with baseline and posttreatment measures nested within child. Results Children demonstrated growth on the English outcomes over time. The language of intervention, Spanish skills, English vocabulary, and English use significantly predicted differences in rates of growth across children for specific measures of English development. Conclusions This study underscores the role of the child’s first language skills, the child’s level of English vocabulary development, and level of English use for predicting differences in English acquisition in Latino preschoolers with SLI. These factors should be carefully considered in making clinical decisions. PMID:22230174

  9. Predictors of second language acquisition in Latino children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this randomized controlled trial, 188 Latino preschoolers with SLI participated in a small-group academic enrichment program for 12 weeks and were followed up 3 and 5 months later. Children were randomly assigned to either a bilingual or an English-only program. Predictors of English growth included measures of Spanish language skills and English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure. Performance on English outcomes (i.e., picture description and narrative sample) was assessed over time. A series of longitudinal models were tested via multilevel modeling with baseline and posttreatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on the English outcomes over time. The language of intervention, Spanish skills, English vocabulary, and English use significantly predicted differences in rates of growth across children for specific measures of English development. This study underscores the role of the child's first language skills, the child's level of English vocabulary development, and level of English use for predicting differences in English acquisition in Latino preschoolers with SLI. These factors should be carefully considered in making clinical decisions.

  10. Social Network Development, Language Use, and Language Acquisition during Study Abroad: Arabic Language Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Dan P.; Belnap, R. Kirk; Hillstrom, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Language learners and educators have subscribed to the belief that those who go abroad will have many opportunities to use the target language and will naturally become proficient. They also assume that language learners will develop relationships with native speakers allowing them to use the language and become more fluent, an assumption…

  11. The Acquisition of Tense in English: Distinguishing child second language from first language and specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Johanne; Rice, Mabel L; Crago, Martha; Marquis, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on a comparison of the use and knowledge of tense-marking morphemes in English by first language (L1), second language (L2) and specifically language-impaired (SLI) children. The objective of our research was to ascertain whether the L2 children's tense acquisition patterns were similar or dissimilar to those of the L1 and SLI groups, and whether they would fit an (Extended) Optional Infinitive profile, or an L2-based profile, e.g., the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis. Results showed that the L2 children had a unique profile compared with their monolingual peers, which was better characterized by the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis. At the same time, results reinforce the assumption underlying the (Extended) Optional Infinitive profile that internal constraints on the acquisition of tense could be a component of L1 development, with and without SLI.

  12. First-language acquisition in adolescence: evidence for a critical period for verbal language development.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, G M; Adelstein, A; Bryden, M P; MacKinnon, G E

    1998-06-15

    It has been hypothesized that there is a critical period for first-language acquisition that extends into late childhood and possibly until puberty. The hypothesis is difficult to test directly because cases of linguistic deprivation during childhood are fortunately rare. We present here the case of E.M., a young man who has been profoundly deaf since birth and grew up in a rural area where he received no formal education and had no contact with the deaf community. At the age of 15, E.M. was fitted with hearing aids that corrected his hearing loss to 35 dB, and he began to learn verbal Spanish. We describe his language development over the 4-year period since his acquisition of hearing aids and conclude that the demonstrates severe deficits in verbal comprehension and production that support the critical period hypothesis.

  13. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities.

  14. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon but also what people are intending to convey with their utterances: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this article we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of…

  15. The Comparative Method of Language Acquisition Research: A Mayan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and…

  16. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  17. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon but also what people are intending to convey with their utterances: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this article we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of…

  18. Some Aspects of Developing Background Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zashchitina, Galina; Moysyak, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on defining how background knowledge impacts on second-language acquisition by giving a brief overview of schema theory, the interaction of the basic modes of information processing. A challenge of dealing with culturally specific texts in second language acquisition is also touched upon. Different research-supported views on…

  19. Simulation/Gaming and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence in Another Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Rising, Beverly; Montero, Begona; Watts, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of communicative competence in second language acquisition focuses on a theoretical and practical meshing of simulation and gaming methodology with theories of foreign language acquisition, including task-based learning, interaction, and comprehensible input. Describes experiments conducted with computer-assisted simulations in…

  20. Simulation/Gaming and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence in Another Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Rising, Beverly; Montero, Begona; Watts, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of communicative competence in second language acquisition focuses on a theoretical and practical meshing of simulation and gaming methodology with theories of foreign language acquisition, including task-based learning, interaction, and comprehensible input. Describes experiments conducted with computer-assisted simulations in…

  1. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  2. Field Dependence/Independence in Second Language Acquisition and Implications for Educators and Instructional Designers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Suzanne Q.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses whether the relationship between field dependence/independence (FD/I) and second-language acquisition is significant. The article contains introductory material defining FD/I within the context of second-language acquisition, a review of relevant research, and a discussion of the research's implications for educators and instructional…

  3. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  4. The Guided Acquisition of First Language Skills. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerk, Ernst L.

    This book provides a summary of past and cutting-edge research on the acquisition of language by young children. It lends support to the behavioralist paradigm of language acquisition, namely, that maternal rewards and corrections should be integrated with perceptual, cognitive, and social learning conceptualizations in a skill-learning approach…

  5. Tense and Aspect in Second Language Acquisition: Form, Meaning, and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    This book is about the acquisition of temporal expression in a second language. Temporal expression has come into its own as an arena of research in adult second language acquisition. The investigation of temporal expression includes all linguistic means of reference to time. The study of tense-apart morphology has been the focus of many…

  6. The Comparative Method of Language Acquisition Research: A Mayan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and…

  7. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  8. Field Dependence/Independence in Second Language Acquisition and Implications for Educators and Instructional Designers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Suzanne Q.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses whether the relationship between field dependence/independence (FD/I) and second-language acquisition is significant. The article contains introductory material defining FD/I within the context of second-language acquisition, a review of relevant research, and a discussion of the research's implications for educators and instructional…

  9. Caregivers' Suffix Frequencies and Suffix Acquisition by Language Impaired, Late Talking, and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ;…

  10. Caregivers' Suffix Frequencies and Suffix Acquisition by Language Impaired, Late Talking, and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ;…

  11. English language learners who struggle with reading: language acquisition or LD?

    PubMed

    Klingner, Janette K; Artiles, Alfredo J; Barletta, Laura Méndez

    2006-01-01

    We review empirical research on English language learners (ELLs) who struggle with reading and who may have learning disabilities (LD). We sought to determine research indicators that can help us better differentiate between ELLs who struggle to acquire literacy because of their limited proficiency in English and ELLs who have actual LD. We conclude that more research is warranted to further elucidate the strengths and learning needs of subgroups of underachieving ELLs, to help us determine who should qualify for special education, and to clarify why some ELLs who do not have LD still struggle with language and literacy acquisition. Future research should account for the complexities involved in becoming literate in another language and focus more on cultural and contextual factors that affect student achievement.

  12. Project G.L.A.D. A Program of Academic Excellence. Language Acquisition to Literacy in a Multilingual Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    Project GLAD (Guided Language Acquisition Design), a model of inservice teacher training in which teachers learn to modify instruction to promote acquisition of English as a Second Language, is outlined. The model uses the whole language approach to language learning. Its development was guided by research in whole language theory; integration of…

  13. Bilingual Language Acquisition in a Minority Context: Using the Irish-English Communicative Development Inventory to Track Acquisition of an Endangered Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of language exposure in vocabulary acquisition in Irish, a threatened minority language in Ireland which is usually acquired with English in a bilingual context. Using a bilingual Irish-English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories) [Fenson, L., V. A. Marchman, D. J. Thal, P. S.…

  14. Onnanohito wa duressu desu. That's Why the Lady Is a Dress: Developmental Stages in Japanese Second Language Acquisition. Australian Studies in Language Acquisition No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huter, Kirsten Ina

    This study investigated the process of acquisition of syntax in Japanese as a second language (JSL) in five university students over a period of 3 years. The report begins with an overview of Japanese syntax and an explanatory model of second language learning based on human information processing. Four phases of JSL learning with 16 sub-stages…

  15. Bilingual Language Acquisition in a Minority Context: Using the Irish-English Communicative Development Inventory to Track Acquisition of an Endangered Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of language exposure in vocabulary acquisition in Irish, a threatened minority language in Ireland which is usually acquired with English in a bilingual context. Using a bilingual Irish-English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories) [Fenson, L., V. A. Marchman, D. J. Thal, P. S.…

  16. The Study of the Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. the State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning…

  17. The Study of the Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. the State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning…

  18. Identifying Features in the Presence of Competing Evidence: the Case of First-Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Roberto; Galves, Antonio

    We discuss mathematical issues suggested by the processes of first-language acquisition and language change. We present a model of language acquisition with two components: A probability measure describing sentence selection by a native speaker, and an identification principle modeling how the child chooses an element of the finite set of natural grammars. More generally, we present an approach to the problem of classifying existing evidence to choose among a finite set of policies in the presence of possibly conflicting hints.

  19. The Evolutionary Significance of Pongid Sign Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Gordon W.

    Experiments in teaching language or language-like behavior to chimpanzees and other primates may bear on the problem of the origin of language. Evidence appears to support the theory that man's first language was gestural. Recent pongid language experiments suggest: (1) a capacity for language is not solely human and therefore does not represent…

  20. Structural brain changes linked to delayed first language acquisition in congenitally deaf individuals.

    PubMed

    Pénicaud, Sidonie; Klein, Denise; Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Hyde, Krista; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2013-02-01

    Early language experience is essential for the development of a high level of linguistic proficiency in adulthood and in a recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiment, we showed that a delayed acquisition of a first language results in changes in the functional organization of the adult brain (Mayberry et al., 2011). The present study extends the question to explore if delayed acquisition of a first language also modulates the structural development of the brain. To this end, we carried out anatomical MRI in the same group of congenitally deaf individuals who varied in the age of acquisition of a first language, American Sign Language -ASL (Mayberry et al., 2011) and used a neuroanatomical technique, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM), to explore changes in gray and white matter concentrations across the brain related to the age of first language acquisition. The results show that delayed acquisition of a first language is associated with changes in tissue concentration in the occipital cortex close to the area that has been found to show functional recruitment during language processing in these deaf individuals with a late age of acquisition. These findings suggest that a lack of early language experience affects not only the functional but also the anatomical organization of the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Listening to accented speech in a second language: First language and age of acquisition effects.

    PubMed

    Larraza, Saioa; Samuel, Arthur G; Oñederra, Miren Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    Bilingual speakers must acquire the phonemic inventory of 2 languages and need to recognize spoken words cross-linguistically; a demanding job potentially made even more difficult due to dialectal variation, an intrinsic property of speech. The present work examines how bilinguals perceive second language (L2) accented speech and where accommodation to dialectal variation takes place. Dialectal effects were analyzed at different levels: An AXB discrimination task tapped phonetic-phonological representations, an auditory lexical-decision task tested for effects in accessing the lexicon, and an auditory priming task looked for semantic processing effects. Within that central focus, the goal was to see whether perceptual adjustment at a given level is affected by 2 main linguistic factors: bilinguals' first language and age of acquisition of the L2. Taking advantage of the cross-linguistic situation of the Basque language, bilinguals with different first languages (Spanish or French) and ages of acquisition of Basque (simultaneous, early, or late) were tested. Our use of multiple tasks with multiple types of bilinguals demonstrates that in spite of very similar discrimination capacity, French-Basque versus Spanish-Basque simultaneous bilinguals' performance on lexical access significantly differed. Similarly, results of the early and late groups show that the mapping of phonetic-phonological information onto lexical representations is a more demanding process that accentuates non-native processing difficulties. L1 and AoA effects were more readily overcome in semantic processing; accented variants regularly created priming effects in the different groups of bilinguals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-09-19

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture.

  3. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-01-01

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. PMID:25092666

  4. The Road to Language Learning Is Not Entirely Iconic: Iconicity, Neighborhood Density, and Frequency Facilitate Acquisition of Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-07-01

    Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.

  5. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone, Ed.; Hufeisen, Britta, Ed.; Jessner, Ulrike, Ed.

    This volume focuses on the psycholinguistic aspects of language transfer when three languages are in contact, and provides an overview of the state of the art in cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition. This edited volume contains, in addition to an introduction, ten chapters. Chapter titles include the following: "The Effect of…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone, Ed.; Hufeisen, Britta, Ed.; Jessner, Ulrike, Ed.

    This volume focuses on the psycholinguistic aspects of language transfer when three languages are in contact, and provides an overview of the state of the art in cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition. This edited volume contains, in addition to an introduction, ten chapters. Chapter titles include the following: "The Effect of…

  7. A Place for Second Language Acquisition in Teacher Development and in Teacher Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolitho, Rod

    If teacher education is to train second language teachers to be principled practitioners, it is essential to resist the attraction of panaceas and recipe-type solutions to instructional problems, and to promote teachers' better understanding of what constitutes successful language learning. Second language acquisition (SLA) research, both applied…

  8. Some Thoughts on the Contrastive Analysis of Features in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lardiere, Donna

    2009-01-01

    In this article I discuss the selection and assembly of formal features in second language acquisition. Assembling the particular lexical items of a second language (L2) requires that the learner reconfigure features from the way these are represented in the first language (L1) into new formal configurations on possibly quite different types of…

  9. The Probabilistic Analysis of Language Acquisition: Theoretical, Computational, and Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Anne S.; Chater, Nick; Vitanyi, Paul M. B.

    2011-01-01

    There is much debate over the degree to which language learning is governed by innate language-specific biases, or acquired through cognition-general principles. Here we examine the probabilistic language acquisition hypothesis on three levels: We outline a novel theoretical result showing that it is possible to learn the exact "generative model"…

  10. Second Language Acquisition: A Social Psychological Approach. Research Bulletin No. 332.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert C.; Smythe, Padric C.

    A two-year research project was conducted to investigate factors that promote second language acquisition and to monitor changes in these factors associated with increased training and proficiency in the second language. Two French programs in London, Ontario second language program beginning in grade 7 and the secondary school French program in…

  11. Directed Blogging with Community College ESL Students: Its Effects on Awareness of Language Acquisition Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    English as a Second Language (ESL) students often have problems progressing in their acquisition of the language and frequently do not know how to solve this dilemma. Many of them think of their second language studies as just another school subject that they must pass in order to move on to the next level, so few of them realize the metacognitive…

  12. Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Park, Yoonjung; Lee, Kyoung Rang

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes--phonological…

  13. Language Input and Acquisition in a Mayan Village: How Important Is Directed Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, Laura A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Theories of language acquisition have highlighted the importance of adult speakers as active participants in children's language learning. However, in many communities children are reported to be directly engaged by their caregivers only rarely (Lieven, 1994). This observation raises the possibility that these children learn language from…

  14. Some Thoughts on the Contrastive Analysis of Features in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lardiere, Donna

    2009-01-01

    In this article I discuss the selection and assembly of formal features in second language acquisition. Assembling the particular lexical items of a second language (L2) requires that the learner reconfigure features from the way these are represented in the first language (L1) into new formal configurations on possibly quite different types of…

  15. Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

  16. Directed Blogging with Community College ESL Students: Its Effects on Awareness of Language Acquisition Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    English as a Second Language (ESL) students often have problems progressing in their acquisition of the language and frequently do not know how to solve this dilemma. Many of them think of their second language studies as just another school subject that they must pass in order to move on to the next level, so few of them realize the metacognitive…

  17. Language Input and Acquisition in a Mayan Village: How Important Is Directed Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, Laura A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Theories of language acquisition have highlighted the importance of adult speakers as active participants in children's language learning. However, in many communities children are reported to be directly engaged by their caregivers only rarely (Lieven, 1994). This observation raises the possibility that these children learn language from…

  18. Labov's Concept of the Vernacular Speech: The Site of Language Structure, Acquisition and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnihotri, Rama Kant

    2013-01-01

    The basic questions that a scholar interested in the study of language asks are concerned with language structure, acquisition, and change. William Labov is a linguist who has deeply influenced the linguistic scene in the past 60 years. It is to Labov's credit that he showed, backed by solid evidence, that the questions concerning language change,…

  19. Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

  20. Second-language instinct and instruction effects: nature and nurture in second-language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Noriaki; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kim, Jungho; Kimura, Naoki; Uchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Satoru; Miura, Naoki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    Adults seem to have greater difficulties than children in acquiring a second language (L2) because of the alleged "window of opportunity" around puberty. Postpuberty Japanese participants learned a new English rule with simplex sentences during one month of instruction, and then they were tested on "uninstructed complex sentences" as well as "instructed simplex sentences." The behavioral data show that they can acquire more knowledge than is instructed, suggesting the interweaving of nature (universal principles of grammar, UG) and nurture (instruction) in L2 acquisition. The comparison in the "uninstructed complex sentences" between post-instruction and pre-instruction using functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals a significant activation in Broca's area. Thus, this study provides new insight into Broca's area, where nature and nurture cooperate to produce L2 learners' rich linguistic knowledge. It also shows neural plasticity of adult L2 acquisition, arguing against a critical period hypothesis, at least in the domain of UG.

  1. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  2. Recovery from First-Language Transfer: The Second Language Acquisition of English Double Objects by Korean Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Eunjeong

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on second language (L2) acquisition of English dative alternation by Korean speakers (Oh and Zubizarreta, 2003, 2006a, 2006b) have shown that the acquisition of English benefactive double object (DO) (e.g. "John baked Mary a cake") lags behind that of its counterpart goal double object (e.g. "John sent Mary the letter"). This…

  3. Recovery from First-Language Transfer: The Second Language Acquisition of English Double Objects by Korean Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Eunjeong

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on second language (L2) acquisition of English dative alternation by Korean speakers (Oh and Zubizarreta, 2003, 2006a, 2006b) have shown that the acquisition of English benefactive double object (DO) (e.g. "John baked Mary a cake") lags behind that of its counterpart goal double object (e.g. "John sent Mary the letter"). This…

  4. Assumptions behind Singapore's Language-in-Education Policy: Implications for Language Planning and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2009-01-01

    Singapore's officially bilingual education policy, in which the majority of children are schooled through a non-native medium with their "Mother Tongue" (an ethnic heritage language that is not necessarily spoken in the home) as a single school subject only, has resulted in dramatic language shifts in the population and high academic…

  5. Assumptions behind Singapore's Language-in-Education Policy: Implications for Language Planning and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2009-01-01

    Singapore's officially bilingual education policy, in which the majority of children are schooled through a non-native medium with their "Mother Tongue" (an ethnic heritage language that is not necessarily spoken in the home) as a single school subject only, has resulted in dramatic language shifts in the population and high academic…

  6. Problemes poses par l'investigation du langage en voie d'acquisition: examen critique de quelques tests de langage (Problems Arising from the Investigation of Language Acquisition: Critical Examination of Language Tests)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrard, Jean

    1975-01-01

    By analyzing different language tests currently in use for elementary school children, the article criticizes psychometric means of evaluation and ideas about language and language acquisition resulting from psychometric evaluation. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  7. Profound deafness and the acquisition of spoken language in children.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V

    2012-12-08

    Profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is not so infrequent, affecting 1 to 2 of every 1000 newborns in western countries. Nevertheless, universal hearing screening programs have not been widely applied, although such programs are already established for metabolic diseases. The acquisition of spoken language is a time-dependent process, and some form linguistic input should be present before the first 6 mo of life for a child to become linguistically competent. Therefore, profoundly deaf children should be detected early, and referred timely for the process of auditory rehabilitation to be initiated. Hearing assessment methods should reflect the behavioural audiogram in an accurate manner. Additional disabilities also need to be taken into account. Profound congenital SNHL is managed by a multidisciplinary team. Affected infants should be bilaterally fitted with hearing aids, no later than 3 mo after birth. They should be monitored until the first year of age. If they are not progressing linguistically, cochlear implantation can be considered after thorough preoperative assessment. Prelingually deaf children develop significant speech perception and production abilities, and speech intelligibility over time, following cochlear implantation. Age at intervention and oral communication, are the most important determinants of outcomes. Realistic parental expectations are also essential. Cochlear implant programs deserve the strong support of community members, professional bodies, and political authorities in order to be successful, and maximize the future earnings of pediatric cochlear implantation for human societies.

  8. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  9. Advances in the computational study of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brent, M R

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a tutorial introduction to computational studies of how children learn their native languages. Its aim is to make recent advances accessible to the broader research community, and to place them in the context of current theoretical issues. The first section locates computational studies and behavioral studies within a common theoretical framework. The next two sections review two papers that appear in this volume: one on learning the meanings of words and one or learning the sounds of words. The following section highlights an idea which emerges independently in these two papers and which I have dubbed autonomous bootstrapping. Classical bootstrapping hypotheses propose that children begin to get a toc-hold in a particular linguistic domain, such as syntax, by exploiting information from another domain, such as semantics. Autonomous bootstrapping complements the cross-domain acquisition strategies of classical bootstrapping with strategies that apply within a single domain. Autonomous bootstrapping strategies work by representing partial and/or uncertain linguistic knowledge and using it to analyze the input. The next two sections review two more more contributions to this special issue: one on learning word meanings via selectional preferences and one on algorithms for setting grammatical parameters. The final section suggests directions for future research.

  10. Social Distance as a Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Examines a series of societal factors that promote either social distance or proximity between two groups and thus affect the degree to which a second language learning group acquires the language of a particular target language group. (Author/RM)

  11. Age constraints on first versus second language acquisition: evidence for linguistic plasticity and epigenesis.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Rachel I; Lock, Elizabeth

    2003-12-01

    Does age constrain the outcome of all language acquisition equally regardless of whether the language is a first or second one? To test this hypothesis, the English grammatical abilities of deaf and hearing adults who either did or did not have linguistic experience (spoken or signed) during early childhood were investigated with two tasks, timed grammatical judgement and untimed sentence to picture matching. Findings showed that adults who acquired a language in early life performed at near-native levels on a second language regardless of whether they were hearing or deaf or whether the early language was spoken or signed. By contrast, deaf adults who experienced little or no accessible language in early life performed poorly. These results indicate that the onset of language acquisition in early human development dramatically alters the capacity to learn language throughout life, independent of the sensory-motor form of the early experience.

  12. Language-General and Language-Specific Influences on Children's Acquisition of Argument Structure: A Comparison of French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Lehrer, Nadine

    2002-01-01

    This research investigates language-general and language-specific properties of the acquisition of argument structure. Ten French preschoolers enacted forty sentences containing motion verbs; sixteen sentences were ungrammatical in that the syntactic frame was incompatible with the standard argument structure for the verb (e.g. *"Le tigre va le…

  13. The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Guzman-Orth, Danielle A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose…

  14. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning and Teaching in Poland (2006-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdzial-Szelest, Krystyna; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 doctoral dissertations on second language acquisition (SLA), English language learning and teaching submitted in Poland in the years 2006-2010. The theses were selected for review on the basis of the recommendations of Ph.D. supervisors from leading Polish universities and they are divided into six groups: learner autonomy,…

  15. Prospective Foreign Language Teachers' Preference of Teaching Methods for the Language Acquisition Course in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GüvendIr, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Considering the significance of taking student preferences into account while organizing teaching practices, the current study explores which teaching method prospective foreign language teachers mostly prefer their teacher to use in the language acquisition course. A teaching methods evaluation form that includes six commonly used teaching…

  16. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning and Teaching in Poland (2006-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdzial-Szelest, Krystyna; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 doctoral dissertations on second language acquisition (SLA), English language learning and teaching submitted in Poland in the years 2006-2010. The theses were selected for review on the basis of the recommendations of Ph.D. supervisors from leading Polish universities and they are divided into six groups: learner autonomy,…

  17. Prospective Foreign Language Teachers' Preference of Teaching Methods for the Language Acquisition Course in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GüvendIr, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Considering the significance of taking student preferences into account while organizing teaching practices, the current study explores which teaching method prospective foreign language teachers mostly prefer their teacher to use in the language acquisition course. A teaching methods evaluation form that includes six commonly used teaching…

  18. First-Language Constrained Variability in the Second-Language Acquisition of Argument-Structure-Changing Morphology with Causative Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2001-01-01

    Presents three related experiments on the acquisition of two classes of causative verbs: physical change of state verbs with agentive subjects and psychological change of state verbs with experiencer objects in English, Spanish, and Turkish as second languages by speakers whose native languages are English, Spanish, Turkish, and Japanese.…

  19. The Irreversibility of Sensitive Period Effects in Language Development: Evidence from Second Language Acquisition in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrman, Gunnar; Bylund, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    The question of a sensitive period in language acquisition has been subject to extensive research and debate for more than half a century. While it has been well established that the ability to learn new languages declines in early years, the extent to which this outcome depends on biological maturation in contrast to previously acquired knowledge…

  20. Impact of Home Language and Literacy Support on English-Chinese Biliteracy Acquisition among Chinese Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chan; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Studies on monolingual children have shown that home language and literacy support is crucial in children's early literacy acquisition. However, such support has not been examined as thoroughly among bilingual children, including heritage speakers. This study investigated the effect of home language and literacy support on important precursors of…

  1. Language-General and Language-Specific Influences on Children's Acquisition of Argument Structure: A Comparison of French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Lehrer, Nadine

    2002-01-01

    This research investigates language-general and language-specific properties of the acquisition of argument structure. Ten French preschoolers enacted forty sentences containing motion verbs; sixteen sentences were ungrammatical in that the syntactic frame was incompatible with the standard argument structure for the verb (e.g. *"Le tigre va le…

  2. Impact of Home Language and Literacy Support on English-Chinese Biliteracy Acquisition among Chinese Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chan; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Studies on monolingual children have shown that home language and literacy support is crucial in children's early literacy acquisition. However, such support has not been examined as thoroughly among bilingual children, including heritage speakers. This study investigated the effect of home language and literacy support on important precursors of…

  3. The Associations between Language Aptitude and Second Language Grammar Acquisition: A Meta-Analytic Review of Five Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a meta-analysis that synthesizes the empirical research on the role of language aptitude in second language grammar acquisition. A total of 33 study reports were identified including 17 predictive studies that investigated the correlations between aptitude and ultimate L2 attainment and 16 interactional studies that examined the…

  4. The Effect of Age of Second Language Acquisition on the Representation and Processing of Second Language Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Stu; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of second language (i.e., L2) proficiency and age of second language acquisition are assessed. Three types of bilinguals are compared: Early L2 learners, Late highly proficient L2 learners, and Late less proficient L2 learners. A lexical decision priming paradigm is used in which the critical trials consist of first…

  5. The Effect of Age of Second Language Acquisition on the Representation and Processing of Second Language Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Stu; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of second language (i.e., L2) proficiency and age of second language acquisition are assessed. Three types of bilinguals are compared: Early L2 learners, Late highly proficient L2 learners, and Late less proficient L2 learners. A lexical decision priming paradigm is used in which the critical trials consist of first…

  6. The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Guzman-Orth, Danielle A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose…

  7. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists' viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-11-08

    To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child's language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child's language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with "associated" pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program.

  8. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists’ viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? METHODS To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. RESULTS Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child’s language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child’s language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with “associated” pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. CONCLUSION It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program. PMID:27872829

  9. Apercu de certains developpements recents des recherches sur l'acquisition du langage (Recent Developments in Language Acquisition Research)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoz-Proux, Michelle

    1975-01-01

    The goal of this article is to give a survey of the literature and theoretical trends relevant to language acquisition. Developments in the fields of psychology, psycholinguistics, sociology, sociolinguistics and in various interdisciplinary studies are discussed. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  10. Curriculum Issues: Second Language Acquisition for Special Needs Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coven, Ludmilla

    The issue of whether high school and postsecondary students with native language communication deficits can succeed in second language study is discussed. It is noted that before World War II, language education was considered primarily a good form of mental discipline. More recent trends toward "relevant" language learning have emphasized…

  11. Linguistic Evolution through Language Acquisition: Formal and Computational Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how children acquire language and how this affects language change over the generations. It proceeds from the basis that it is important to address not only the language faculty per se within the framework of evolutionary theory, but also the origins and subsequent development of languages themselves, suggesting…

  12. Linguistic Evolution through Language Acquisition: Formal and Computational Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how children acquire language and how this affects language change over the generations. It proceeds from the basis that it is important to address not only the language faculty per se within the framework of evolutionary theory, but also the origins and subsequent development of languages themselves, suggesting…

  13. The interaction of language and thought in children's language acquisition: a crosslinguistic study.

    PubMed

    Weist, R M; Lyytinen, P; Wysocka, J; Atanassova, M

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential interaction of conceptual representations and linguistic systems in the process of language acquisition. Language-thought interactions were studied in 80 American, 48 Finnish and 48 Polish preschool children. The research focused on the conceptual and linguistic development of space and time. The spatial and temporal conceptual tasks were designed to measure the transition from experimental to inferential knowledge of space/time representations. In the linguistic domain, comprehension and production tests were used to evaluate the children's capacity to understand mono- and bi-referential location in space and time, where mono-referential location involves a single referent object/event with intrinsic properties (e.g. in/on or past/non-past), and bi-referential location requires two or more referent objects/events and relative perspective (e.g. deictic front/back or before/after). The conceptual and linguistic tests revealed significant changes during the period from two to five years of age, and measures of conceptual development were correlated with measures of linguistic development. As spatial and temporal representations became more structured, children were able to move from mono- to bi-referential location. In a comprehension test, we discovered an interaction of language by dimension. Finnish children found spatial distinctions relatively easy and Polish children found temporal distinctions relatively easy. This interaction was expected on the basis of the relative complexity of the morpho-syntactic coding in the spatial and temporal systems of the two languages. However, the argument relating the timing of acquisition to the transparency versus opacity of the linguistic systems was not supported by the English language comparison. Finally, the Finnish children were relatively better able to accomplish the spatial conceptual tasks as compared to the Polish children. This finding is consistent

  14. The Acquisition of Tense and Agreement by Early Child Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the acquisition of tense and agreement morphology by child L2 learners in an early stage of language acquisition. The objectives of this study are twofold. The first is to observe the development of verb inflections and syntactic competence over time from an early stage by Chinese child L2 learners of English. The…

  15. 76 FR 46206 - NASA Implementation of Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Award Fee Language Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1816 RIN 2700-AD69 NASA Implementation of Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Award Fee Language Revision AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... Supplement (NFS) to implement the FAR Award Fee revision issued in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-46...

  16. 76 FR 6696 - NASA Implementation of Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Award Fee Language Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1816 RIN 2700-AD69 NASA Implementation of Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Award Fee Language Revision AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... Fee revision issued in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-46. DATES: Effective Date: February 8...

  17. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying levels of…

  18. The Role of Repeated Exposure to Multimodal Input in Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has reported incidental vocabulary acquisition with complete beginners in a foreign language (FL), within 8 exposures to auditory and written FL word forms presented with a picture depicting their meaning. However, important questions remain about whether acquisition occurs with fewer exposures to FL words in a multimodal situation…

  19. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying levels of…

  20. Deletion of /T, D/ and the Acquisition of Linguistic Variation by Second Language Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jette G. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of English /t, d/ deletion patterns in word-final consonant clusters, (a) focusing on how constraints such as grammatical conditioning and phonological environment affect deletion of /t, d/ in L2 acquisition and (b) determining the extent to which these L2 learners had acquired…