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Sample records for language cancer information

  1. Language, terminology and the readability of online cancer information.

    PubMed

    Peters, Pam; Smith, Adam; Funk, Yasmin; Boyages, John

    2016-03-01

    Medical terms are a recognised problem in doctor-patient consultations. By contrast, the language difficulties of online healthcare documents are underestimated, even though patients are often encouraged to go to the internet for information. Literacy levels in the community vary, and for patients, carers and health workers with limited reading skills (including first- and second-language users of English), the language of web-based health documents may be challenging or impenetrable. Online delivery of health information is inherently problematic because it cannot provide two-way discussion; and amid the range of health documents on the web, the intended readership (whether general or specialist) is rarely indicated up front. In this research study, we focus on the language and readability of web-based cancer documents, using lexicostatistical methods to profile the vocabularies in two large test databases of breast cancer information, one consisting of material designed for health professionals, the other for the general public. They yielded significantly different word frequency rankings and keyness values, broadly correlating with their different readerships, that is, scientifically literate readers for the professional dataset, and non-specialist readers for the public dataset. The higher type/token ratio in the professional dataset confirms its greater lexical demands, with no concessions to the variable language and literacy skills among second-language health workers. Their language needs can, however, be addressed by a new online multilingual termbank of breast cancer vocabulary, HealthTermFinder, designed to sit alongside health documents on the internet, and provide postconsultation help for patients and carers at their point of need.

  2. Colon cancer information preferences of English-as-a-second-language immigrant women: does language of interview matter?

    PubMed

    Thomson, Maria D; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2010-06-01

    Language of interview, an acculturation proxy measure, may differentiate between cancer information preferences of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) immigrant women in Canada. Using directed content analysis, we compared 28 interviews conducted in Spanish or English. Demographic comparisons were completed using paired t tests and McNemar related samples. Themes identified were: (1) using English language information and (2) improving information for ESL speakers. No differences were found in women's conversations about colon cancer by age, income, education, or employment. However, English interviewees resided in Canada longer and watched less television. Language skill and contextual factors influence women's confidence using English cancer information.

  3. Cancer information comprehension by English-as-a-second-language immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M D; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2011-01-01

    Limited acculturation and socioeconomic factors have been associated with lower participation in cancer screening. Limited comprehension of cancer prevention information may contribute to this association. The authors used a stepwise linear regression to model acculturation and socioeconomic factors as predictors of comprehension (colon cancer and general health information) and screening intention in a sample of 78 Spanish-speaking immigrant women in Canada. The authors used the McNemar test to look for changes in women's screening intention. They used the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale, a language-based scale, to assess acculturation. Among English-as-a-second-language immigrant women, acculturation, television and Internet use, age, and Spanish-language education predicted comprehension of cancer prevention information, F(3, 69) = 6.76, p < .001, R(2) = .23. These variables also predicted comprehension of general health information, via the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, F(4, 68) = 12.13, p < .001, R(2) = .42; and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, F(2, 70) = 7.54, p = .001, R(2) = .17. However, the variables did not predict screening intention. More women expressed intention to be screened after reading the cancer prevention information than expected by chance alone, p = .002. Acculturation is an important influence on the comprehension of health information by older English-as-a-second-language immigrant women. However, other culture-related factors not measured by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale likely influence their exposure to and understanding of health and cancer prevention information.

  4. Tailored information for cancer patients on the Internet: effects of visual cues and language complexity on information recall and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    van Weert, Julia C M; van Noort, Guda; Bol, Nadine; van Dijk, Liset; Tates, Kiek; Jansen, Jesse

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of visual cues and language complexity on satisfaction and information recall using a personalised website for lung cancer patients. In addition, age effects were investigated. An experiment using a 2 (complex vs. non-complex language)×3 (text only vs. photograph vs. drawing) factorial design was conducted. In total, 200 respondents without cancer were exposed to one of the six conditions. Respondents were more satisfied with the comprehensibility of both websites when they were presented with a visual cue. A significant interaction effect was found between language complexity and photograph use such that satisfaction with comprehensibility improved when a photograph was added to the complex language condition. Next, an interaction effect was found between age and satisfaction, which indicates that adding a visual cue is more important for older adults than younger adults. Finally, respondents who were exposed to a website with less complex language showed higher recall scores. The use of visual cues enhances satisfaction with the information presented on the website, and the use of non-complex language improves recall. The results of the current study can be used to improve computer-based information systems for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. Assessment of the contents related to screening on Portuguese language websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daniel; Carreira, Helena; Silva, Susana; Lunet, Nuno

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%), although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.

  7. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Cervical Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cervical Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cervicalcancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  9. Cancer Chemotherapy - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cancer Chemotherapy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cancerchemotherapy.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  10. Bone Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonecancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Natural Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strzalkowski, Tomek

    1995-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in which advanced natural language processing is used to enhance the effectiveness of term-based document retrieval by preprocessing the documents; discovering interterm dependencies and build a conceptual hierarchy specific to database domain; and processing the user's natural language requests into…

  12. Comparing written and oral measures of comprehension of cancer information by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer; Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-09-01

    The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Cloze test are commonly used tools to measure comprehension of health information (i.e., health literacy); however, little is known about their use in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) populations. In this study, we compared written (Cloze test) and oral (Teach Back) measures of colon cancer information comprehension among ESL Chinese immigrant women to Canada. Performances on colon cancer-specific measures were compared to a general measure of health literacy (S-TOFHLA). On the S-TOFHLA, Cloze, and Teach Back, respectively, the following percentage of participants had adequate comprehension: 62.1%, 14.8%, and 89.7%. Correlation between performance on the Cloze and Teach Back was significant albeit weakly so (r = 0.38, p = 0.04); performances on the S-TOFHLA and Teach Back were not correlated. Measures of health literacy skill that require written English language skills may not be appropriate for measuring understanding of health information for ESL populations.

  13. Predicting health literacy among English-as-a-second-Language older Chinese immigrant women to Canada: comprehension of colon cancer prevention information.

    PubMed

    Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-06-01

    Inadequate health literacy has been identified as a barrier to the utilization of health-care services, including cancer screening. This study examined predictors of health literacy among 106 older Chinese immigrant women to Canada and how colon cancer information presented in their first versus second language affected health literacy skill. Only 38.7% of the women had adequate health literacy based on Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults, and 54.3% had adequate comprehension of the colon cancer information. Comprehension of the cancer information was significantly lower among women who received the information in English compared with those who received the information in Chinese. Age, acculturation, self-reported proficiency reading English, and education were significant predictors of health literacy but varied depending on the measure of health literacy used and language of the information. Presentation of cancer prevention information in one's first rather than second language improves health literacy but does not eliminate comprehension difficulties for older ESL Chinese immigrants.

  14. Basic Information about Health Disparities in Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes of Death Among American Indians and Alaska Natives African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Partners Related Links Stay Informed Cancer Home Basic Information About Health Disparities in Cancer Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cervical Cancer Screening URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cervicalcancerscreening.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  16. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  17. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  18. Kidney Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Portuguese (português) Lung Cancer Câncer de pulmão - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Cáncer de riñón Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  19. The Quality of Patient Information Booklets for Cancer Patients-an Evaluation of Free Accessible Material in German Language.

    PubMed

    Keinki, Christian; Rudolph, Ivonne; Ruetters, Dana; Kuenzel, Ulrike; Lobitz, Jessica; Schaefer, Maike; Hanaya, Hani; Huebner, Jutta

    2017-05-04

    According to the information-seeking behaviors of patients, booklets which can be downloaded from the Internet for free are an important source of information notably for patients with cancer. This study investigated whether information booklets for patients with cancer available at German websites are in accordance with the formal and content criteria of evidence-based information. We compared and compiled both content and formal criteria by matching different national and international standards for written patient information using a merged instrument. A catalog with a total of 16 items within 4 categories (quality of the publication, quality of information, quality of information representation, and transparency) was created. Patient information booklets for the most frequent tumor types were collected from the Internet. A total of 52 different patient booklets were downloaded and assessed. Overall, no booklet fulfilled all criteria. The quality of the publications was evaluated with an average value of 1.67 while the quality of the information had a mean value of 1.45, and the quality of information presentation had a similar rating (1.39). The transparency criteria were evaluated as lowest with an average of 1.07. In summary, German booklets for cancer patients have some shortcomings concerning formal and content criteria for evidence-based patient information. The applied requirement catalog is suitable for wide use and may help in quality assurance of health information. It may be used as part of an obligatory external evaluation, which could help improving the quality of health information.

  20. Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Testicular Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doszkocs, Tamase

    1986-01-01

    Examines role and contributions of natural-language processing in information retrieval and artificial intelligence research in context of large operational information retrieval systems and services. State-of-the-art information retrieval systems combining the functional capabilities of conventional inverted file term adjacency approach with…

  2. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Русский) Oral Cancer English Рак полости рта - Русский (Russian) ... not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  3. [Semantic information. Internal language. Thinking].

    PubMed

    Azcoaga, J E

    1993-06-01

    Semantic information has reached an objective condition after a lengthy history of semantic inquiries that instrumental neurophysiological devices--such as event-related potentials, electroencephalographic spectral analysis, regional brain circulation, PET scan, deep brain electrodes, and other--have made easier. In turn, internal language, as screened according to Vigotsky's perspective, is considered a product of semantic information circulation understood as neurosemae interconnection. Finally, in normal adults, thinking processes are assumed to be made up by both sensoperceptive information (proprioceptive information included) and semantic information. Thus, an "extraverbal thinking" can be distinguished, whose activity is hardly describable in healthy adults but should be considered as a condition of non-educated deaf persons, and a "verbal thinking", or internal language, made up by semantic information.

  4. Avoiding Cancer Risk Information

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Amber S.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Hay, Jennifer L.; Waters, Erika A.; Orom, Heather; Shepperd, James A.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE Perceived risk for health problems such as cancer is a central construct in many models of health decision making and a target for behavior change interventions. However, some portion of the population actively avoids cancer risk information. The prevalence of, explanations for, and consequences of such avoidance are not well understood. OBJECTIVE We examined the prevalence and demographic and psychosocial correlates of cancer risk information avoidance preference in a nationally representative sample. We also examined whether avoidance of cancer risk information corresponds with avoidance of cancer screening. RESULTS Based on our representative sample, 39% of the population indicated that they agreed or strongly agreed that they would “rather not know [their] chance of getting cancer.” This preference was stronger among older participants, female participants, and participants with lower levels of education. Preferring to avoid cancer risk information was stronger among participants who agreed with the beliefs that everything causes cancer, that there’s not much one can do to prevent cancer, and that there are too many recommendations to follow. Finally, the preference to avoid cancer risk information was associated with lower levels of screening for colon cancer. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that cancer risk information avoidance is a multi-determined phenomenon that is associated with demographic characteristics and psychosocial individual differences and also relates to engagement in cancer screening. PMID:26560410

  5. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    PubMed

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  6. Information and Language for Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitoy, Sammy P.

    2012-01-01

    Information and Language for Effective Communication (ILEC) is a language teaching approach emphasizing learners' extensive exposure in different language communicative sources. In ILEC, the language learners will first receive instructions of ILEC principles and application. Afterwards, they will receive autonomous, direct, purposeful, and…

  7. Information and Language for Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitoy, Sammy P.

    2012-01-01

    Information and Language for Effective Communication (ILEC) is a language teaching approach emphasizing learners' extensive exposure in different language communicative sources. In ILEC, the language learners will first receive instructions of ILEC principles and application. Afterwards, they will receive autonomous, direct, purposeful, and…

  8. Information, Physics, and Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Chris

    Many researchers have doubts that a ''theory of cancer'' can exist, given the fact that there are so many different cancer phenotypes. However, such a situation-many significantly different manifestations of an underlying law-is not at all uncommon in physics. I argue that a unified cause for all forms of cancer is possible, but that such a theory must be cast in terms of information and communication theory. I briefly revisit key concepts of that theory, then discuss possible applications to communication in game theory that could lead us to view cancer as a disease that, at its root, is a cellular failure to properly communicate.

  9. Examining Language of Information Books for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, inclusion of information books in early childhood centers is well-advised since children show fast developing knowledge of information book language and enjoy reading those books. The aim of the current study is to discuss features of information books' language by examining the illustrations and texts of randomly selected 15…

  10. "Facebook" for Informal Language Learning: Perspectives from Tertiary Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Antonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of "Facebook" for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish) completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1) their perceptions of "Facebook" as a multilingual environment, (2) their online writing…

  11. Acquisition of Language Information from Online Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hikomaro

    This report describes the methods to acquire language information from online databases, which are usually employed to retrieve technical information. Typical uses are shown to obtain equivalent foreign words, language usages, illustrative sentences and statistical linguistic data, by use of JOIS, DIALOG, SDC and BRS online information systems. In comparison with dictionaries and usage books, the online databases provide a vast file of language information, which is unabridged, continually updated and accessible through any words or their combinations. In addition, they give quantitative data such as frequencies in use of words and expressions.

  12. Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreyer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

  13. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  14. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  15. Languages and Careers: An Information Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ann, Ed.; Thomas, Gareth, Ed.

    A set of materials compiled for use in British schools and designed to provide information for students, teachers, administrators, and counselors concerning the relationship between second language knowlege and careers is presented in this packet. It consists of the following items: (1) a collection of essays for teachers on languages and careers,…

  16. The Language of Information Technology: Accessibility in the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmkessel, Marjorie M.

    The language of information technology is discussed, with a focus on accessibility in the information society. The metaphors of information technology as an "information superhighway" or "infobahn" are analyzed; limitations of the "road system" and developments of Internet systems are considered. The concept of…

  17. Latinos and Cancer Information: Perspectives of Patients, Health Professionals and Telephone Cancer Information Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Celia P.; Nápoles, Anna; Davis, Sharon; Lopez, Monica; Pasick, Rena J.; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2016-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 Latino cancer patients diagnosed in California; 10 health professionals from the San Francisco Bay Area and Fresno, California; and 10 Cancer Information Services (CIS) information specialists from the regional offices handling calls from Spanish-speakers. Interview guides were designed by the investigators to answer three main research questions: 1) How do Latinos obtain information about cancer and what types of information do they access?; 2) What sources of cancer information do they seek out and find credible?; and 3) What are the barriers and facilitators to Latinos obtaining cancer information? Stakeholders generally viewed health professionals as the most credible source of cancer information. All groups regarded family and friends as important sources of information. Patients and health professionals tended to differ on the value of print materials. Although patients found them generally useful, health professionals tended to view them as inadequate for meeting the informational needs of their Latino patients due to the challenge of low health literacy. Health professionals also tended to undervalue Internet resources compared to patients and CIS specialists. All stakeholders viewed language, ethnic discordance and the impact on patients of the initial diagnosis as barriers to effective communication of cancer information. Health professionals and CIS specialists, but not patients, mentioned low literacy as a barrier. Our findings underscore the importance of the physician-patient relationship as a point of intervention to address the unmet informational and psychosocial needs of Latino cancer patients. PMID:27642542

  18. Latinos and Cancer Information: Perspectives of Patients, Health Professionals and Telephone Cancer Information Specialists.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Celia P; Nápoles, Anna; Davis, Sharon; Lopez, Monica; Pasick, Rena J; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2016-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 Latino cancer patients diagnosed in California; 10 health professionals from the San Francisco Bay Area and Fresno, California; and 10 Cancer Information Services (CIS) information specialists from the regional offices handling calls from Spanish-speakers. Interview guides were designed by the investigators to answer three main research questions: 1) How do Latinos obtain information about cancer and what types of information do they access?; 2) What sources of cancer information do they seek out and find credible?; and 3) What are the barriers and facilitators to Latinos obtaining cancer information? Stakeholders generally viewed health professionals as the most credible source of cancer information. All groups regarded family and friends as important sources of information. Patients and health professionals tended to differ on the value of print materials. Although patients found them generally useful, health professionals tended to view them as inadequate for meeting the informational needs of their Latino patients due to the challenge of low health literacy. Health professionals also tended to undervalue Internet resources compared to patients and CIS specialists. All stakeholders viewed language, ethnic discordance and the impact on patients of the initial diagnosis as barriers to effective communication of cancer information. Health professionals and CIS specialists, but not patients, mentioned low literacy as a barrier. Our findings underscore the importance of the physician-patient relationship as a point of intervention to address the unmet informational and psychosocial needs of Latino cancer patients.

  19. Language of Information Science: Convertibility in Information Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report is the result of a study of the language of information science based on the terminology contained in a collected set of lexical resources...Groupe d’Etude sur l’Information Scientifique’, selected because it represents an international concensus of the domain of information science . A

  20. 'You have a swelling': The language of cancer diagnosis and implications for cancer management in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Githaiga, Jennifer Nyawira; Swartz, Leslie

    2017-05-01

    To examine the ramifications of language as a vehicle of communication in the Kenyan healthcare system. (1) A review of literature search on language access and health care in Kenya, using Scopus, Web of Science, Ebscohost, ProQuest and Google Scholar electronic databases. (2) Two illustrative case studies from a Nairobi based qualitative research project on family cancer caregivers' experiences. Evidence from the case studies shows that language barriers may hinder understanding of cancer diagnoses and consequently, the nature of interventions sought by family members as informal caregivers of cancer patients. Findings demonstrate the significance of language in understanding cancer diagnosis as a basis for treatment seeking behaviour and specifically in light of the critical role played by informal caregivers in under resourced health care contexts. (1) The assumption that English and Swahili are adequate in communication in Kenyan health care contexts ought to be reviewed. (2) Further research and assessment of language needs as a basis for training of language interpreters in the Kenyan health care system is a necessity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Information technology in learning sign language].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Cesar; Pulido, Jose L; Arias, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    To develop a technological tool that improves the initial learning of sign language in hearing impaired children. The development of this research was conducted in three phases: the lifting of requirements, design and development of the proposed device, and validation and evaluation device. Through the use of information technology and with the advice of special education professionals, we were able to develop an electronic device that facilitates the learning of sign language in deaf children. This is formed mainly by a graphic touch screen, a voice synthesizer, and a voice recognition system. Validation was performed with the deaf children in the Filadelfia School of the city of Bogotá. A learning methodology was established that improves learning times through a small, portable, lightweight, and educational technological prototype. Tests showed the effectiveness of this prototype, achieving a 32 % reduction in the initial learning time for sign language in deaf children.

  2. Thyroid Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Thyroid Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  3. Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example is presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section is analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, are developed. The presentation steps through the modeling process and shows where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

  4. Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

    1993-12-31

    Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example will be presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section will be analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, will be developed. The presentation will step through the modeling process and show where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

  5. Lung Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) سرطان الرئة - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Lung Cancer Karcinom pluća - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Lung Cancer 肺癌 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  6. Natural language information retrieval in digital libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Strzalkowski, T.; Perez-Carballo, J.; Marinescu, M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we report on some recent developments in joint NYU and GE natural language information retrieval system. The main characteristic of this system is the use of advanced natural language processing to enhance the effectiveness of term-based document retrieval. The system is designed around a traditional statistical backbone consisting of the indexer module, which builds inverted index files from pre-processed documents, and a retrieval engine which searches and ranks the documents in response to user queries. Natural language processing is used to (1) preprocess the documents in order to extract content-carrying terms, (2) discover inter-term dependencies and build a conceptual hierarchy specific to the database domain, and (3) process user`s natural language requests into effective search queries. This system has been used in NIST-sponsored Text Retrieval Conferences (TREC), where we worked with approximately 3.3 GBytes of text articles including material from the Wall Street Journal, the Associated Press newswire, the Federal Register, Ziff Communications`s Computer Library, Department of Energy abstracts, U.S. Patents and the San Jose Mercury News, totaling more than 500 million words of English. The system have been designed to facilitate its scalability to deal with ever increasing amounts of data. In particular, a randomized index-splitting mechanism has been installed which allows the system to create a number of smaller indexes that can be independently and efficiently searched.

  7. Cancer Alternative Therapies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cancer Alternative Therapies URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cancer Alternative Therapies - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCI Dictionaries NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications Reports PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection (Testing for Cancer) Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ®) patient | ...

  9. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  10. Language as Information and the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koga, Kant

    2010-01-01

    Language attracts everyone on earth. That is because we have and use language. Although there are some minority languages that have limited expressions such as the lack of writing systems in "Aynu itak" and "Shona" languages, they can effectively express their emotion and thought with their languages. In addition, every human being can acquire…

  11. Integration of language and sensor information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.; Weijers, Bertus

    2003-04-01

    The talk describes the development of basic technologies of intelligent systems fusing data from multiple domains and leading to automated computational techniques for understanding data contents. Understanding involves inferring appropriate decisions and recommending proper actions, which in turn requires fusion of data and knowledge about objects, situations, and actions. Data might include sensory data, verbal reports, intelligence intercepts, or public records, whereas knowledge ought to encompass the whole range of objects, situations, people and their behavior, and knowledge of languages. In the past, a fundamental difficulty in combining knowledge with data was the combinatorial complexity of computations, too many combinations of data and knowledge pieces had to be evaluated. Recent progress in understanding of natural intelligent systems, including the human mind, leads to the development of neurophysiologically motivated architectures for solving these challenging problems, in particular the role of emotional neural signals in overcoming combinatorial complexity of old logic-based approaches. Whereas past approaches based on logic tended to identify logic with language and thinking, recent studies in cognitive linguistics have led to appreciation of more complicated nature of linguistic models. Little is known about the details of the brain mechanisms integrating language and thinking. Understanding and fusion of linguistic information with sensory data represent a novel challenging aspect of the development of integrated fusion systems. The presentation will describe a non-combinatorial approach to this problem and outline techniques that can be used for fusing diverse and uncertain knowledge with sensory and linguistic data.

  12. PIML: the Pathogen Information Markup Language.

    PubMed

    He, Yongqun; Vines, Richard R; Wattam, Alice R; Abramochkin, Georgiy V; Dickerman, Allan W; Eckart, J Dana; Sobral, Bruno W S

    2005-01-01

    A vast amount of information about human, animal and plant pathogens has been acquired, stored and displayed in varied formats through different resources, both electronically and otherwise. However, there is no community standard format for organizing this information or agreement on machine-readable format(s) for data exchange, thereby hampering interoperation efforts across information systems harboring such infectious disease data. The Pathogen Information Markup Language (PIML) is a free, open, XML-based format for representing pathogen information. XSLT-based visual presentations of valid PIML documents were developed and can be accessed through the PathInfo website or as part of the interoperable web services federation known as ToolBus/PathPort. Currently, detailed PIML documents are available for 21 pathogens deemed of high priority with regard to public health and national biological defense. A dynamic query system allows simple queries as well as comparisons among these pathogens. Continuing efforts are being taken to include other groups' supporting PIML and to develop more PIML documents. All the PIML-related information is accessible from http://www.vbi.vt.edu/pathport/pathinfo/

  13. 29 CFR 500.78 - Information in foreign language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information in foreign language. 500.78 Section 500.78... § 500.78 Information in foreign language. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural employer and... English or, as necessary and reasonable, in Spanish or another language common to migrant or...

  14. 29 CFR 500.78 - Information in foreign language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information in foreign language. 500.78 Section 500.78... § 500.78 Information in foreign language. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural employer and... English or, as necessary and reasonable, in Spanish or another language common to migrant or...

  15. 29 CFR 500.78 - Information in foreign language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information in foreign language. 500.78 Section 500.78... § 500.78 Information in foreign language. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural employer and... English or, as necessary and reasonable, in Spanish or another language common to migrant or...

  16. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  17. Rewriting public health information in plain language.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rima E; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Colton, Tayla; Gregoire, John; Hyde, James

    2004-01-01

    Public health materials are often designed to inform and rally the public to spur action and maintain vigilance on important issues to family, work, community, and public policy. Limited access to public health information certainly curtails knowledge and awareness but may also hamper action and civic involvement. A growth in published assessments of health materials indicates an increased interest in the mismatch between the reading level of most health materials and the reading ability of the average adult. However, while several guidebooks offer suggestions for developing new materials, little attention has been given to the process of rewriting materials and grappling with bureaucratic language. We describe, in this case study, a process we used to assess and then rewrite a federally mandated report to consumers about the quality of their water.

  18. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  19. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  20. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  1. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Small Intestine Cancer Treatment Research Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Intestine Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  2. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: An Analysis of Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Miguel E.; Srinivasan, Padmini

    1998-01-01

    Investigates an automatic method for Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) that utilizes the multilingual Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to translate Spanish natural-language queries into English. Results indicate that for Spanish, the UMLS Metathesaurus-based CLIR method is at least equivalent to if not better than…

  3. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: An Analysis of Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Miguel E.; Srinivasan, Padmini

    1998-01-01

    Investigates an automatic method for Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) that utilizes the multilingual Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to translate Spanish natural-language queries into English. Results indicate that for Spanish, the UMLS Metathesaurus-based CLIR method is at least equivalent to if not better than…

  4. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  5. 77 FR 6168 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: English Language Evaluation Surveys, OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: English Language Evaluation Surveys, OMB Control Number 1405... Information Collection: English Language Evaluation: Fulbright English Teaching Assistantship (ETA) Program...: Voluntary. Title of Information Collection: English Language Evaluation: English Language Specialist...

  6. Limits on negative information in language input.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J L; Travis, L L

    1989-10-01

    Hirsh-Pasek, Treiman & Schneiderman (1984) and Demetras, Post & Snow (1986) have recently suggested that certain types of parental repetitions and clarification questions may provide children with subtle cues to their grammatical errors. We further investigated this possibility by examining parental responses to inflectional over-regularizations and wh-question auxiliary-verb omission errors in the sets of transcripts from Adam, Eve and Sarah (Brown 1973). These errors were chosen because they are exemplars of overgeneralization, the type of mistake for which negative information is, in theory, most critically needed. Expansions and Clarification Questions occurred more often following ill-formed utterances in Adam's and Eve's input, but not in Sarah's. However, these corrective responses formed only a small proportion of all adult responses following Adam's and Eve's grammatical errors. Moreover, corrective responses appear to drop out of children's input while they continue to make overgeneralization errors. Whereas negative feedback may occasionally be available, in the light of these findings the contention that language input generally incorporates negative information appears to be unfounded.

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Second Language Writing: Potential Outcomes of Informal Target Language Learning Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony; Solovieva, Raissa V.; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes a method applied at a U.S. university in a third-year Russian language course designed to facilitate Advanced and Superior second language writing proficiency through the forum of argumentation and debate. Participants had extensive informal language experience living in a Russian-speaking country but comparatively little…

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Second Language Writing: Potential Outcomes of Informal Target Language Learning Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony; Solovieva, Raissa V.; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes a method applied at a U.S. university in a third-year Russian language course designed to facilitate Advanced and Superior second language writing proficiency through the forum of argumentation and debate. Participants had extensive informal language experience living in a Russian-speaking country but comparatively little…

  9. Listening to the consumer voice: developing multilingual cancer information resources for people affected by liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Robotin, Monica C; Porwal, Mamta; Hopwood, Max; Nguyen, Debbie; Sze, Minglo; Treloar, Carla; George, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    In Australia, liver cancer incidence is rising, particularly among people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. We sought to build an understanding of the information needs of people affected by liver cancer, to inform the design of in-language consumer information resources. We searched the World Wide Web for available in-language consumer information and conducted a literature search on consumers' information needs and their preferred means of accessing it. Qualitative data collection involved bilingual researchers conducting focus group discussions (26 participants) and in-depth interviews (22 participants) with people affected by liver cancer in English, Vietnamese, Cantonese and Mandarin. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. The key themes and salient findings informed the development of in-language multimedia information resources. Many consumer resources did not cater for people with low literacy levels. The participants wanted more information on cancer diagnostic and treatment options, nutrition and Chinese Medicine and experienced communication challenges speaking to health professionals. While Vietnamese speakers relied entirely on information provided by their doctors, other participants actively searched for additional treatment information and commonly used the Internet to source it. We developed multilingual, multimedia consumer information resources addressing identified consumer information needs through an iterative process, in collaboration with our multilingual consumer panel. These resources are available in four languages, as separate modules accessible online and in DVD format. This process enabled the development of user-friendly patient resources, which complement health-care provider information and supports informed patient decision making. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An Expressive and Efficient Language for XML Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinenyanga, Taurai Tapiwa; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML and information retrieval and describes a query language, ELIXIR (expressive and efficient language for XML information retrieval), with a textual similarity operator that can be used for similarity joins. Explains the algorithm for answering ELIXIR queries to generate intermediate relational data. (Author/LRW)

  11. An Expressive and Efficient Language for XML Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinenyanga, Taurai Tapiwa; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML and information retrieval and describes a query language, ELIXIR (expressive and efficient language for XML information retrieval), with a textual similarity operator that can be used for similarity joins. Explains the algorithm for answering ELIXIR queries to generate intermediate relational data. (Author/LRW)

  12. Cancer stage knowledge and desire for information: mismatch in Latino cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Costas-Muniz, Rosario; Sen, Rohini; Leng, Jennifer; Aragones, Abraham; Ramirez, Julia; Gany, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Having more health knowledge has a crucial and positive impact on cancer outcomes. Patients' cancer knowledge influences their ability to participate actively in decision-making processes for medical care and in treatment choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic and medical correlates of lack of cancer stage knowledge and desire for information among Latino cancer patients. The sample included 271 underserved Latino cancer patients recruited from four cancer clinics in New York City. Participants completed a needs assessment survey in their preferred language, which included sociodemographic and health-related questions. Close to two-thirds of the sample (65%) had no knowledge of their stage, and 38% were unaware of the metastatic state of their tumor. Only 15% of the patients expressed that they would like additional information about their diagnosis and/or treatment. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, being an immigrant with limited English proficiency and monolingual in Spanish were predictors of stage unawareness and less desire/need for cancer information. Patients needing interpretation for health care were less likely to know whether their tumor had metastasized and their cancer stage and to desire information about their cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. This study shows considerably low levels of stage awareness among Latinos diagnosed with cancer. This lack of knowledge might adversely impact their treatment decisions and disease management. Future studies should focus on identifying barriers to acquisition of disease information and other disease-specific informational deficits.

  13. Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methologies for World Language Teachers. Research in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, David, Ed.; Petron, Mary, Ed.; Luke, Christopher, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methodologies for World Language Educators" is an edited volume that focuses on innovative, nontraditional methods of teaching and learning world languages. Using teacher-research projects, each author in the volume guides readers through their own personal…

  14. Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methologies for World Language Teachers. Research in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, David, Ed.; Petron, Mary, Ed.; Luke, Christopher, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methodologies for World Language Educators" is an edited volume that focuses on innovative, nontraditional methods of teaching and learning world languages. Using teacher-research projects, each author in the volume guides readers through their own personal…

  15. Cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook

    2014-01-01

    Linguistically and culturally isolated Korean Americans have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all U.S population. Lack of adequate cancer information is one of the barriers to undergoing cancer screening tests. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs if we are to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. The purpose of the study was to identify cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 273 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed for this study. The extracted terms were categorized based on the coding system. The primary reason for asking questions was inquiry followed by sharing experiences. The main topics of the postings were categorized as medical or non-medical. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their current cancer information seeking trends and information needs.

  16. Cancer prevention information-seeking among Hispanic and non-Hispanic users of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service: trends in telephone and LiveHelp use.

    PubMed

    Waters, Erika A; Sullivan, Helen W; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based strategies to enable, encourage, and support cancer prevention information seeking among Hispanic populations are needed. We examined cancer prevention information requests to the Cancer Information Service (CIS) via telephone (1-800-4-CANCER toll-free telephone information service) and LiveHelp (an instant messaging service provided in English only) from 2003 to 2006. We summarized differences in the communication channel utilized by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic) and, among Hispanic information seekers, the language used during the contact (English vs. Spanish). Utilization of LiveHelp was higher among non-Hispanic than Hispanic seekers of cancer prevention information. LiveHelp use for seeking cancer prevention information increased between 2003 and 2006 for both groups, but the increase was greater among non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Nearly half of Hispanics who sought cancer prevention information did so in Spanish. Because LiveHelp is not available in Spanish, the number of Spanish-only speakers who preferred to contact CIS via LiveHelp instead of telephone is unknown. When communicating cancer prevention information via multiple channels, it is important to consider differences in access to communication technologies and preferred communication channels among ethnic minority groups.

  17. Prospects for Intelligent, Language-Based Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike conventional information retrieval systems, natural language processing (NLP) systems translate queries automatically into the language of the system. This paper discusses the potential impact of NLP on both the indexing and retrieval of text and examines some current NLP projects and systems that have established knowledge bases in narrow…

  18. Language Arts Topics and Educational Issues: Information Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelsky, Carole, Ed.

    This collection of 29 succinct information articles discusses issues relating to language arts, including whole language, phonics, student evaluation, spelling, and censorship. Some of the authors contributing to the collection are Ken Goodman, Yetta Goodman, Jerome Harste, Patrick Shannon, and Constance Weaver. Titles of articles are:…

  19. Prospects for Intelligent, Language-Based Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike conventional information retrieval systems, natural language processing (NLP) systems translate queries automatically into the language of the system. This paper discusses the potential impact of NLP on both the indexing and retrieval of text and examines some current NLP projects and systems that have established knowledge bases in narrow…

  20. Languages and the Information Professions: Implications for the Storage, Management, and Retrieval of Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SantaVicca, Edmund F.

    As more professionals come to rely on computer-based online information systems, knowledge of foreign languages and cultures plays a crucial role in the accurate storage, management, and retrieval of needed information. In the storage and management of information, foreign language knowledge is important in word choice and thesaurus control,…

  1. Toward Native Language Software for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santaella, Eduardo M.; Slamecka, Vladimir

    1984-01-01

    Examines general technical issues involved in placing latest computer systems, operable by end users in programer-free environment, at disposal of non-English-speaking users. User environment, classification of software products (token dependent, communications intensive, language dependent), approaches to bilingual software modification,…

  2. Perspectives from older adults receiving cancer treatment about the cancer-related information they receive

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Margaret I.; McAndrew, Alison; Harth, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cancer patients have reported that information plays a significant role in their capacity to cope with cancer and manage the consequences of treatment. This study was undertaken to identify the importance older adults receiving cancer treatment assign to selected types of cancer-related information, their satisfaction with the cancer-related information they received, and the barriers to effective information provision for this age group. Methods: This study was conducted in two phases with separate samples. Six hundred and eighty-four older cancer patients receiving treatment completed a standardized survey and 39 completed a semi-structured interview to gather perspectives about cancer-related information. Data were analyzed for 65-79 years and 80+ year groups. Results: Information topics about their medical condition, treatment options, and side effects of treatment were rated as most important by the older cancer patients. Women assigned a higher importance ratings than men to information overall (t = 4.8, P < 0.01). Although participants were generally satisfied with the information, they received many described challenges they experienced in communicating with health care professionals because of the medical language and fast pace of speaking used by the professionals. Conclusions: The older cancer patients in this study endorsed the same topics of cancer-related information as most important as has been reported in studies for other age groups. However, this older group recommended that, during their interactions with older individuals, health care professionals use fewer medical words, speak at a slower pace, and provide written information in addition to the actual conversation. PMID:27981110

  3. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  4. The Language of Information Literacy: Do Students Understand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Gayle; Cadena, Cara; Bravender, Patricia; Kierkus, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    To effectively access and use the resources of the academic library and to become information-literate, students must understand the language of information literacy. This study analyzes undergraduate students' understanding of fourteen commonly used information-literacy terms. It was found that some of the terms least understood by students are…

  5. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  6. FromTo-CLIR: Web-Based Natural Language Interface for Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taewan; Sim, Chul-Min; Yuh, Sanghwa; Jung, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Kil; Choi, Sung-Kwon; Park, Dong-In; Choi, Key Sun

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of FromTo-CLIR, a Web-based natural-language interface for cross-language information retrieval that was tested with Korean and Japanese. Proposes a method that uses a semantic category tree and collocation to resolve the ambiguity of query translation. (Author/LRW)

  7. Statistical Language Modeling for Information Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    inference network model (Turtle & Croft, 1991). Detailed treatment of these earlier probabilistic IR theories and approaches is beyond the scope of...Baeza-Yates & 6 Ribeiro-Neto (1999) give a good discussion on these measures and their appropriateness. In order for the performance of language models...independently of one another in a document. These assumptions are the same as those underlie the binary independence model proposed in earlier

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  10. General Information about Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... D Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research ... major research initiatives R&D Resources Tools and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find ...

  11. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems after prostate cancer surgery include the following: Impotence . Leakage of urine from the bladder or stool ... and/or gastrointestinal cancer. Radiation therapy can cause impotence and urinary problems. Hormone therapy Hormone therapy is ...

  12. General Information about Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory ... History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers ...

  13. Minority Languages Learned Informally: The Social Construction of Language Skills through the Discourse of Ontario Employers. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michelle; Corson, David

    Many immigrants, refugees, and aboriginal Canadians learn their own languages in the normal, informal way. These minority languages learned informally are not valued as a skill that yields returns in the labor market in the same way the official languages or formally learned languages do. What counts as a skill in a society, in a given point in…

  14. Cancer Caregivers Information Needs and Resource Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Longacre, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to characterize the need for information about personal psychosocial care, providing direct care, and managing care among cancer caregivers, and explore preferred resources for caregiving information. Methods Data comes from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,247 family caregivers, which included 104 cancer caregivers. Results A majority of cancer caregivers expressed one or more information need for each of the three content categories. Four out of ten caregivers expressed needing information about managing physical and emotional stress. A significantly higher percentage of male caregivers reported needing more information pertinent to providing direct care than females. Heightened objective burden was significantly associated with caregivers preferring to receive information from health professionals than informal sources (e.g., Internet), while the opposite was found among caregivers with lower objective burden. Conclusion These findings suggest that specific types of information and resources may be most relevant to specific subgroups of cancer caregivers. PMID:23553000

  15. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid cancer and the age of the patient: Papillary and follicular thyroid cancer in patients younger than 45 years Stage I: ... the body, such as the lungs or bones. Papillary and follicular thyroid cancer in patients 45 years and older Stage I: ...

  16. Large Scale Information Processing System. Volume I. Compiler, Natural Language, and Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Philip L.; And Others

    This volume, the first of three dealing with a number of investigations and studies into the formal structure, advanced technology and application of large scale information processing systems, is concerned with the areas of compiler languages, natural languages and information storage and retrieval. The first report is entitled "Semantics and…

  17. Information Transfer Capacity of Articulators in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Malaia, Evie; Borneman, Joshua D; Wilbur, Ronnie B

    2017-05-01

    The ability to convey information is a fundamental property of communicative signals. For sign languages, which are overtly produced with multiple, completely visible articulators, the question arises as to how the various channels co-ordinate and interact with each other. We analyze motion capture data of American Sign Language (ASL) narratives, and show that the capacity of information throughput, mathematically defined, is highest on the dominant hand (DH). We further demonstrate that information transfer capacity is also significant for the non-dominant hand (NDH), and the head channel too, as compared to control channels (ankles). We discuss both redundancy and independence in articulator motion in sign language, and argue that the NDH and the head articulators contribute to the overall information transfer capacity, indicating that they are neither completely redundant to, nor completely independent of, the DH.

  18. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to LSA not only for

  19. Literary and Informational Texts in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1976-01-01

    Informational texts are useful for teaching fundamental linguistic structures, because their stylistic variables can be ignored, and because they provide information about aspects of the world which the student will encounter in literary texts. Literary texts speak directly to the reader, and have high motivational value. (IFS/WGA)

  20. Informed Consent in Research on Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret; Pettitt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The practice of securing informed consent from research participants has a relatively low profile in second language (L2) acquisition research, despite its prominence in the biomedical and social sciences. This review article analyses the role that informed consent now typically plays in L2 research; discusses an example of an L2 study where…

  1. Intentionality and Wisdom in Language, Information, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Ross, Haj; O'Connor, Brian; Spector, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach from linguistics, information sciences, learning sciences, and educational technology is used to explore the concept of information. Several key issues are highlighted, including: (1) learning language through meaning or probability; (2) the situational difference between message and meaning; (3) relationship between…

  2. Intentionality and Wisdom in Language, Information, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Ross, Haj; O'Connor, Brian; Spector, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach from linguistics, information sciences, learning sciences, and educational technology is used to explore the concept of information. Several key issues are highlighted, including: (1) learning language through meaning or probability; (2) the situational difference between message and meaning; (3) relationship between…

  3. Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information By the National Cancer Institute To many, cancer remains one of the most frightening ... cancer. It is important to separate fact from fiction. Some of the most common cancer myths not ...

  4. General Information about Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use of an electric current to kill cancer cells. New types of treatment are being tested in clinical ... in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. ... attack specific cancer cells. Targeted therapies usually cause less harm to normal ...

  5. Cancer News Coverage and Information Seeking

    PubMed Central

    NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; FROSCH, DOMINICK L.; HORNIK, ROBERT C.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future. PMID:18300068

  6. Cancer news coverage and information seeking.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Frosch, Dominick L; Hornik, Robert C

    2008-03-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future.

  7. Information status and word order in Croatian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Milkovic, Marina; Bradaric-Joncic, Sandra; Wilbur, Ronnie B

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on information structure and word order in narrative sentences taken from signed short stories in Croatian Sign Language (HZJ). The basic word order in HZJ is SVO. Factors that result in other word orders include: reversible arguments, verb categories, locative constructions, contrastive focus, and prior context. Word order in context depends on communication rules, based on the relationship between old (theme) and new (rheme) information, which is predicated of the theme. In accordance with Grice's Maxim of Quantity, HZJ has a tendency to omit old information, or to reduce it to pronominal status. If old information is overtly signed in non-pronominal form, it precedes the rheme. We have observed a variety of sign language mechanisms that are used to show items of reduced contextual significance: use of assigned spatial location for previously introduced referents; eyegaze to indicate spatial location of previously introduced referents; use of the non-dominant hand for backgrounded information; use of a special category of signs known as classifiers as pronominal indicators of previously introduced referents; and complex noun phrases that allow a single occurrence of a noun to simultaneously serve multiple functions. These devices permit information to be conveyed without the need for separate signs for every referent, which would create longer constructions that could be taxing to both production and perception. The results of this research are compatible with well-known word order generalizations - HZJ has its own grammar, independent of spoken language, like any other sign language.

  8. Public Information Materials for Language Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Rockville, MD.

    Fourteen programs that provide civil rights and criminal justice information to non-English speakers are described. The services provided by each program are summarized and a contact address is provided. The programs are located in Albany, New York; Chester County, Pennsylvania; Rockville, Maryland; Dade County, Florida; Lansing, Michigan; Laredo,…

  9. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 tumor markers are used in staging testicular cancer : Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Tumor marker levels are measured again, ...

  10. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  11. General Information about Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... removed by surgery. If the cancer has spread, palliative treatment can improve the patient's quality of life ... and cannot be removed, the following types of palliative surgery may be done to relieve symptoms and ...

  12. General Information about Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of hypopharyngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain. These and other signs and ... A change in voice. Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find) ...

  13. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Richard R.; Kretschmer, Laura W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses language in use, focusing on English, including definitions of language as well as how it has been and how it should be taught inside and outside the classroom. Impact of this information on the process of evaluation of hearing-impaired students' language is also considered. (Author/PB)

  14. Language use in the informed consent discussion for emergency procedures.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Danielle M; Leone, Katrina A; Salzman, David H; Vozenilek, John A; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2012-01-01

    The field of health literacy has closely examined the readability of written health materials to optimize patient comprehension. Few studies have examined spoken communication in a way that is comparable to analyses of written communication. The study objective was to characterize the structural elements of residents' spoken words while obtaining informed consent. Twenty-six resident physicians participated in a simulated informed consent discussion with a standardized patient. Audio recordings of the discussions were transcribed and analyzed to assess grammar statistics for evaluating language complexity (e.g., reading grade level). Transcripts and time values were used to assess structural characteristics of the dialogue (e.g., interactivity). Discussions were characterized by physician verbal dominance. The discussions were interactive but showed significant differences between the physician and patient speech patterns for all language complexity metrics. In this study, physicians spoke significantly more and used more complex language than the patients.

  15. Non-Procedural Languages for Information Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearley, William L.

    The future of information resources management requires new approaches to implementing systems which will include a type of data base management that frees users to solve data processing problems logically by telling the system what they want, together with powerful non-procedural languages that will permit communication in simple, concise…

  16. Non-Procedural Languages for Information Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearley, William L.

    The future of information resources management requires new approaches to implementing systems which will include a type of data base management that frees users to solve data processing problems logically by telling the system what they want, together with powerful non-procedural languages that will permit communication in simple, concise…

  17. Information Status and Word Order in Croatian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkovic, Marina; Bradaric-Joncic, Sandra; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on information structure and word order in narrative sentences taken from signed short stories in Croatian Sign Language (HZJ). The basic word order in HZJ is SVO. Factors that result in other word orders include: reversible arguments, verb categories, locative constructions, contrastive focus, and prior…

  18. Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

  19. Cancer survivors' use of numerous information sources for cancer-related information: does more matter?

    PubMed

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-09-01

    A large proportion of the 14 million cancer survivors in the USA are actively seeking health information. This study builds on the informed- and shared-decision making literature, examining cancer survivors' health information seeking behaviors to (1) quantify the number of health information sources used; (2) create a demographic profile of patients who report seeking cancer information from numerous sources versus fewer sources in five areas: cancer information overall, disease/treatment, self-care/management, health services, and work/finances; and (3) examine whether seeking cancer information from numerous sources is associated with self-efficacy, fear of recurrence, perceptions of information seeking difficulty, and resultant patient-provider communication. Data came from a survey of post-treatment cancer survivors (N = 501) who responded to a mailed questionnaire about health information seeking. Participants were divided into two groups using a median split: those who sought health information from more than five sources (numerous source seekers) and those that sought information from less than five sources (fewer source seekers). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model differential information seeking behaviors and outcomes for numerous versus fewer source seekers. On average, survivors sought cancer-related information from five different sources. Numerous source seekers were more likely to be women, have higher levels of education, and report fewer problems with cancer information-seeking. Overall, numerous source seekers were no more or less likely to discuss information with their providers or bring conflicting information to their providers. Understanding the characteristics, behaviors, and experiences of survivors who seek cancer-related information from numerous sources can contribute to informed decision making and patient-centered care.

  20. General Information about Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may have chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that ... lymph node , nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Radiation therapy for patients who cannot have surgery . Check the list of ...

  1. Foreign Language Teachers' Professional Development in Information Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiying; Wu, Gang

    Cultivation of students' learning autonomy has raised new challenges to teachers' professional development, dynamic, continuous, lifelong full-scale development, with emphasis on the creativity and constancy of the teachers' quality development. The teachers' professional development can take the following approaches: studying theories about foreign language teaching with the aid of modern information technology; organizing online teaching research activities supported by information technology and carrying peer observation and dialogue -teaching reflection in internet environment and fostering scholarly teachers.

  2. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  3. Efficient identification of nationally mandated reportable cancer cases using natural language processing and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Osborne, John D; Wyatt, Matthew; Westfall, Andrew O; Willig, James; Bethard, Steven; Gordon, Geoff

    2016-11-01

    To help cancer registrars efficiently and accurately identify reportable cancer cases. The Cancer Registry Control Panel (CRCP) was developed to detect mentions of reportable cancer cases using a pipeline built on the Unstructured Information Management Architecture - Asynchronous Scaleout (UIMA-AS) architecture containing the National Library of Medicine's UIMA MetaMap annotator as well as a variety of rule-based UIMA annotators that primarily act to filter out concepts referring to nonreportable cancers. CRCP inspects pathology reports nightly to identify pathology records containing relevant cancer concepts and combines this with diagnosis codes from the Clinical Electronic Data Warehouse to identify candidate cancer patients using supervised machine learning. Cancer mentions are highlighted in all candidate clinical notes and then sorted in CRCP's web interface for faster validation by cancer registrars. CRCP achieved an accuracy of 0.872 and detected reportable cancer cases with a precision of 0.843 and a recall of 0.848. CRCP increases throughput by 22.6% over a baseline (manual review) pathology report inspection system while achieving a higher precision and recall. Depending on registrar time constraints, CRCP can increase recall to 0.939 at the expense of precision by incorporating a data source information feature. CRCP demonstrates accurate results when applying natural language processing features to the problem of detecting patients with cases of reportable cancer from clinical notes. We show that implementing only a portion of cancer reporting rules in the form of regular expressions is sufficient to increase the precision, recall, and speed of the detection of reportable cancer cases when combined with off-the-shelf information extraction software and machine learning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Patients' need for information about cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Skalla, Karen A; Bakitas, Marie; Furstenberg, Charlotte T; Ahles, Tim; Henderson, Joseph V

    2004-01-01

    To obtain detailed information about the preferences of patients with cancer and their need for information about side effects of cancer treatment to design an interactive multimedia educational program. Qualitative. Regional rural academic medical center. 51 patients and 14 spouses of patients who either currently were undergoing or recently had completed chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer. Focus groups. Information needs and common and distressing symptoms. Patients wanted information about the process of getting treatment, specific side effects that might occur, and the impact of treatment on their lives. Patients sought information from a variety of sources, but many found that other patients were the most helpful source. Although most patients wanted as much information as possible so they would be prepared for whatever happened, some patients preferred to avoid information about possible side effects. Several obstacles related to information were reported, including access to providers, communication difficulties with providers, informational overload, and problems with retention. Several aspects regarding information needs confirmed previous findings, and new aspects were illuminated. This led to a conclusion that multimedia technology offered many advantages to meet these informational needs. New approaches to patient education that will meet the needs of patients as well as clinicians and educators need to be developed.

  5. On-Demand Associative Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldo, André Pinto; Moreira, Viviane P.; Gonçalves, Marcos A.

    This paper proposes the use of algorithms for mining association rules as an approach for Cross-Language Information Retrieval. These algorithms have been widely used to analyse market basket data. The idea is to map the problem of finding associations between sales items to the problem of finding term translations over a parallel corpus. The proposal was validated by means of experiments using queries in two distinct languages: Portuguese and Finnish to retrieve documents in English. The results show that the performance of our proposed approach is comparable to the performance of the monolingual baseline and to query translation via machine translation, even though these systems employ more complex Natural Language Processing techniques. The combination between machine translation and our approach yielded the best results, even outperforming the monolingual baseline.

  6. Representing Information in Patient Reports Using Natural Language Processing and the Extensible Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Shagina, Lyuda; Liu, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To design a document model that provides reliable and efficient access to clinical information in patient reports for a broad range of clinical applications, and to implement an automated method using natural language processing that maps textual reports to a form consistent with the model. Methods: A document model that encodes structured clinical information in patient reports while retaining the original contents was designed using the extensible markup language (XML), and a document type definition (DTD) was created. An existing natural language processor (NLP) was modified to generate output consistent with the model. Two hundred reports were processed using the modified NLP system, and the XML output that was generated was validated using an XML validating parser. Results: The modified NLP system successfully processed all 200 reports. The output of one report was invalid, and 199 reports were valid XML forms consistent with the DTD. Conclusions: Natural language processing can be used to automatically create an enriched document that contains a structured component whose elements are linked to portions of the original textual report. This integrated document model provides a representation where documents containing specific information can be accurately and efficiently retrieved by querying the structured components. If manual review of the documents is desired, the salient information in the original reports can also be identified and highlighted. Using an XML model of tagging provides an additional benefit in that software tools that manipulate XML documents are readily available. PMID:9925230

  7. Who Avoids Cancer Information? Examining a Psychological Process Leading to Cancer Information Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2016-07-01

    Although cancer information avoidance (CIA) is detrimental to public health, predictors of CIA have not been fully investigated. Based on uncertainty management theory, this study viewed CIA as a response to uncertainty related to the distress associated with cancer information and illustrated the psychological process leading to CIA. Given the current information context, it was hypothesized that cancer information overload (CIO), accompanied by confusion and stress about cancer information, causes CIA. As trait anxiety is a strong predictor of CIO, it was also hypothesized that trait anxiety has an indirect effect on CIA through CIO. Study 1 tested this relationship in a U.S. sample (N = 384); the results showed that CIO was positively associated with CIA and that trait anxiety indirectly influenced CIA through CIO. Whereas Study 1 tested the relationship with cross-sectional data in the general cancer context, Study 2 replicated Study 1 with 3-wave longitudinal data in the context of a specific cancer (i.e., stomach cancer) in South Korea (N = 1,130 at Wave 1, 813 at Wave 2, and 582 at Wave 3). Trait anxiety at Wave 1 predicted CIO at Wave 2, which in turn increased CIA at Wave 3, suggesting that some people are inherently inclined to avoid cancer information due to their trait anxiety, which results in confusion about cancer information.

  8. Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Contact InformationCapital Consulting Corporation is providing logistical support for this meeting. If you have questions or need assistance, please call Jennifer Adona at (301) 468-6073, or e-mail her at jenniferk@capconcorp.com. |

  9. Cancer Information on the Internet

    MedlinePlus

    ... or by an organization? What type of organization – business, government agency, or non-profit organization? Any honest, ... source Knowing whether the information came from a business, a university, or a non-profit group can ...

  10. Improving Modern Cancer Care Through Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Clauser, Steven B.; Wagner, Edward H.; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Tuzzio, Leah; Greene, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    The cancer care system is increasingly complex, marked by multiple hand-offs between primary care and specialty providers, inadequate communication among providers, and lack of clarity about a “medical home” (the ideal accountable care provider) for cancer patients. Patients and families often cite such difficulties as information deficits, uncoordinated care, and insufficient psychosocial support. This article presents a review of the challenges of delivering well coordinated, patient-centered cancer care in a complex modern healthcare system. An examination is made of the potential role of information technology (IT) advances to help both providers and patients. Using the published literature as background, a review is provided of selected work that is underway to improve communication, coordination, and quality of care. Also discussed are additional challenges and opportunities to advancing understanding of how patient data, provider and patient involvement, and informatics innovations can support high-quality cancer care. PMID:21521595

  11. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  12. [Pain and cancer Information dedicated to cancer patients and relatives].

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Ivan; Déchelette, Marie; Arbiol, Evelyne; Chvetzoff, Gisèle; Cullet, Danièle; Delorme, Thierry; Fontaine, Alain; Lavillat, Dominique; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Torloting, Gérard; Vuillemin, Nicole; Brusco, Sylvie; Carretier, Julien; Delavigne, Valérie; Leichtnam-Dugarin, Line; Fervers, Béatrice; Philip, Thierry

    2008-04-01

    Patient information is a major challenge for public health. It has become part of the patients' rights, in response to their need for information and involvement in medical decision-making. Since 1998, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) has developed an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives: the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of the program adheres to the quality criteria established for the elaboration of documents containing patient information. The SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guide Pain and Cancer aims to answer patients' questions regarding cancer specific pain and to help them become actively involved in their care. It was elaborated by a multidisciplinary workgroup, which included methodologists, one linguist, pain specialists and twenty patients and relatives. Patients' information needs and personal experience of pain were assessed using focus groups, semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Through eight chapters, which can be read in an independent way, Pain and cancer provides key information on the causes, the mechanisms, the evaluation, the prevention and the treatment of pain. The guide also presents advices and practical tools to facilitate the assessment of the pain and the communication between patients and professionals. Finally, this guide aims to overcome ideas such as that morphine is synonymous of end of life or drug addiction, that pain is a sign of aggravation of cancer and that nurses know how to detect the pain. Intended first for the patients and their close relations, Pain and Cancer is also a useful tool for health professionals. Indeed, it presents knowledge based on the most recent recommendations developed for clinical practice. Thanks to a wide distribution of the guide to patients, their families and the professionals, we trust that this guide will facilitate dialogue around pain, and ultimately its care. This article is an abstract of the guide. The

  13. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  14. Where Do We Stand? Language Program Direction as Reflected in the "MLA Job Information List."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glew, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Compares information gleaned from the Modern Language Association's "MLA Job Information List" seeking language program directors in 1996 and provides an overview of changes in the profession during that time. (Author/VWL)

  15. Childhood Cancer in the Classroom: Information for the School Nurse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDenburgh, Kari

    2003-01-01

    The school nurse is a resource and support to students, school personnel, and communities with respect to students with cancer. This article discusses: general cancer information and statistics; childhood cancer versus adult cancer; treatments for childhood cancer; and information for school nurses (e.g., central venous catheters in school,…

  16. Childhood Cancer in the Classroom: Information for the School Nurse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDenburgh, Kari

    2003-01-01

    The school nurse is a resource and support to students, school personnel, and communities with respect to students with cancer. This article discusses: general cancer information and statistics; childhood cancer versus adult cancer; treatments for childhood cancer; and information for school nurses (e.g., central venous catheters in school,…

  17. Colorectal Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (Arabic) ...

  18. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  19. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  20. 77 FR 65927 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor Application Form ACTION...: LSApplications@state.gov . Mail: Department of State, Office of Language Services SA- 1, Fourteenth Floor, 2401 E....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Office of Language Services...

  1. 76 FR 55390 - Guidance on Exculpatory Language in Informed Consent, Draft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Exculpatory Language in Informed Consent, Draft AGENCY: Office for Human... the availability of a draft guidance entitled, ``Guidance on Exculpatory Language in Informed Consent... will supersede OHRP's November 15, 1996 guidance document entitled ```Exculpatory Language' in Informed...

  2. Breast cancer education for the Deaf community in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Sean; Merz, Erin L; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Gunsauls, Darlene Clark; Huang, Jessica; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-05-01

    To create and evaluate an educational video designed to increase breast cancer-related knowledge and screening behaviors among women who are deaf and use American Sign Language (ASL) as their preferred communication method. A test-retest survey was used to determine retained knowledge following an intervention with an ASL breast cancer education video. Deaf-friendly community settings in southern California. 122 women who were deaf with a preference for communicating via ASL. Participants completed a knowledge survey to determine their breast cancer screening practices and baseline breast cancer awareness. Participants then viewed a 30-minute video in ASL. Immediately after viewing the video, participants completed an identical knowledge survey. The survey was administered again two months after the initial intervention to determine long-term breast cancer knowledge retention. Age, breast cancer knowledge and screening practices, education, and health insurance. At baseline, breast cancer knowledge varied widely and respondents' answered an average of 3 out of 10 questions correctly. Postintervention, respondents answered an average of 8 out of 10 questions correctly, a significant increase from the baseline scores. At the two-month follow-up, respondents answered an average of 6 out of 10 questions correctly, still a significant increase from the baseline scores. Breast cancer knowledge of women who are deaf increased significantly by viewing an educational video in ASL and most of the new knowledge remained at the two-month follow-up. Nurses can help improve the Deaf community's (DC's) access to breast cancer-related information by disseminating awareness of this online program. With this online resource, nurses can more easily initiate discussions to help improve knowledge and screening behaviors in a linguistically and culturally appropriate manner. Improving the DC's access to breast cancer information is of paramount importance to reducing breast cancer

  3. Opportunities for Foreign Language Learning and Use within a Learner's Informal Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurata, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgement of the importance of the social dimensions of second language acquisition, there has been little research on second language (L2) use and learning in the social networks of foreign language learners. This study examines the language use of a student of Japanese in Australia in two informal conversations he had…

  4. Success story in software engineering using NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology)

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, S.M.; Eaton, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    To create an information system, we employ NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology). NIAM supports the goals of both the customer and the analyst completely understanding the information. We use the customer`s own unique vocabulary, collect real examples, and validate the information in natural language sentences. Examples are discussed from a successfully implemented information system.

  5. What information do cancer genetic counselees prioritize?

    PubMed

    Hayat Roshanai, Afsaneh; Lampic, Claudia; Ingvoldstad, Charlotta; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Bjorvatn, Chathrine; Rosenquist, Richard; Nordin, Karin

    2012-08-01

    This study explored the informational needs of individuals attending genetic counseling for hereditary cancer, using a free-choice and a forced choice method. Prior to the consultation the informational needs of 334 counselees from Sweden and Norway were assessed by the QUOTE-gene (ca) questionnaire and by a study specific forced choice method, using Q-methodology. Questionnaire responses indicated that counselees' major concerns pertained to the need to be taken seriously, to be provided with sufficient risk estimation and medical/genetic information and to be involved in the decision making process. Furthermore, prior to counseling, counselees noted that the counselors' consideration and skillfulness were also extremely important. Analysis of the Q-sorting results revealed that counselees' needs could be assigned to one of five groups: the "need for facts; caring communication and medical information; information and support in communicating the genetic information to others; practical care and practical/medical information". Particularly noteworthy, counselees with varying backgrounds characteristics prioritized different needs. Cancer genetic counselees probably have different needs due to their medical and demographic background when attending genetic counseling. Addressing counselees' specific concerns more sufficiently and thereby increasing the overall effectiveness of the counseling session requires increased insight into individual needs, by for instance, utilizing screening methods such as QUOTE-gene (ca) prior to the counseling session.

  6. Can Ada™ Be a Standard Language for Medical Information Processing?*

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michael B.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the virtues of the new programming language Ada are discussed with respect to the design and implementation of integrated information systems, in particular for medical applications. Ada provides a number of important facilities for building large on-line systems. These include modern data structures and program control operations; built-in operations for describing concurrent real-time processes; direct programmer control of computational precision; straightforward description of low-level hardware dependencies; and an unprecedentedly high degree of standardization and portability.

  7. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. 77 FR 30045 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: English Language Evaluation Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...: One time. Obligation to Respond: Voluntary. Title of Information Collection: English Language... Information Collection: English Language Evaluation Surveys ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and... English Language Evaluation, to conduct surveys of participants in the ETA Program, E-Teacher Scholarship...

  9. 78 FR 13394 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor Application Form ACTION... Language Services Contractor Application Form. OMB Control Number: 1405-0191. Type of Request: Extension of... U.S. Department of State, Office of Language Services, the information collected is used to initiate...

  10. 76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice of request... Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre Program Survey Questions OMB Control Number: None Type... participants in ECA exchange programs that focus on critical language learning instruction. Estimated Number of...

  11. Cancer--Living with Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Changes in Taste and Smell with Cancer ...

  12. College counselors' use of informal language online: student perceptions of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Haberstroh, Shane

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine language formality and informality in online counseling sessions. Specifically, the author compared undergraduate student (n = 224) perceptions of college counselors' use of informal language and mirroring of client's formality in four mock online counseling scenarios. A multivariate analysis of covariance found significant differences between conditions. Pairwise analyses revealed that counselors who used informal language following their client's formal expressions were perceived as having less expertise. However, language mirroring seemed to moderate perceptions of expertise when counselors followed their client's informal language use.

  13. PS2-37: Oral Cancer Information on the Web: Assessing the Quality and Content of English and Spanish Oral Cancer Websites

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jeannie Y; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Schleyer, Titus; Wali, Teena; Kerr, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: In the United States, about 8,000 people a year die from oral cancer and more than 30,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. A recent study showed that 80% of American adult Internet users have searched the Web for health information and 15% of those specifically searched for dental health information. Having high quality oral cancer information available via the Web is important given the significance of this health problem. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality and content of multiple English and Spanish oral cancer websites. Methods: We developed a search strategy using the keywords: oral cancer, mouth cancer, and tongue cancer to find oral cancer sites via Medline Plus, Google, and Yahoo. We then used the translations cancer oral, cancer de la boca, and cancer de la lengua to search Medline Plus en Español, Google Español, and Yahoo Telemundo. We added sites to the datasets based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two native speaking raters evaluated each site within their set for quality using the modified Information Quality Tool (IQT). We then developed a survey tool to asses the content of the sites. Two native speaking oral cancer experts evaluated each site within their set using this new tool. Results: Our search strategy produced 24 English language sites and 24 Spanish language sites for evaluation. English language websites had an average IQT score of 74.7 (out of 100) and average content score of 51.5 (out of 100). Spanish-language sites had an average IQT score of 48.8 and an average content score of 25.9. Conclusions: Despite higher scores for the English language websites, our analysis showed that there was a great variation in overall quality and content with room for improvement for both language types. English sites could make the biggest improvements by providing more information about their sponsors and who controls site content as well as updated and fixing links and author credentials. The Spanish sites should

  14. Markovian language model of the DNA and its information content

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, S.; Baptista, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a Markovian memoryless model for the DNA that simplifies enormously the complexity of it. We encode nucleotide sequences into symbolic sequences, called words, from which we establish meaningful length of words and groups of words that share symbolic similarities. Interpreting a node to represent a group of similar words and edges to represent their functional connectivity allows us to construct a network of the grammatical rules governing the appearance of groups of words in the DNA. Our model allows us to predict the transition between groups of words in the DNA with unprecedented accuracy, and to easily calculate many informational quantities to better characterize the DNA. In addition, we reduce the DNA of known bacteria to a network of only tens of nodes, show how our model can be used to detect similar (or dissimilar) genes in different organisms, and which sequences of symbols are responsible for most of the information content of the DNA. Therefore, the DNA can indeed be treated as a language, a Markovian language, where a ‘word’ is an element of a group, and its grammar represents the rules behind the probability of transitions between any two groups. PMID:26909179

  15. Scarce information about breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Attena, Francesco; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Pelullo, Concetta Paola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the public should have complete and correct information about risk/benefit ratio of breast cancer screening, public knowledge appears generally scarce and oriented to overestimate benefits, with little awareness of possible disadvantages of the screening. We evaluated any document specifically addressed to the general female public and posted on internet by Italian public health services. The presence of false positive, false positive after biopsy, false negative, interval cancer, overdiagnosis, lead-time bias, exposure to irradiation, and mortality reduction was analyzed. Of the 255 websites consulted, 136 (53.3%) had sites addressed to the female public. The most commonly reported information points were the false-positive (30.8% of sites) and radiation exposure (29.4%) rates. Only 11 documents mentioned overdiagnosis, 2 mentioned risk of false positive with biopsy, and only 1 mentioned lead-time bias. Moreover, only 15 sites (11.0%) reported quantitative data for any risk variables. Most documents about breast cancer screening published on the web for the female public contained little or no information about risk/benefit ratio and were biased in favor of screening. PMID:27977602

  16. Information needs of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in an ambulatory-care setting.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen K; Willson, Barbara

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the information needs of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and to explore their preferred styles of receiving education in an ambulatory-care setting. Patient information needs and preferences were measured using a 17-item questionnaire. This descriptive study included a sample of 101 cancer patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. The most commonly expressed information needs concerned: side effects of treatment, drug information, and coping strategies. Some patients expressed a preference for information in their primary language. The results support the use of online learning in this setting. Patients identified one-on-one discussion with nurses and doctors as the preferred way to receive information. In order to meet the individual needs of cancer patients, education should be provided in a variety of learning modalities. The results of this study should help to guide patient education initiatives in oncology ambulatory care.

  17. Assessment of Language Proficiency: Informing Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, JoAnn

    A discussion of language proficiency focuses on the conceptual framework for assessing proficiency and its implications for educational policy formation at the state and local levels. First, the concept of language is defined in terms of the interaction of these elements: language subsystems, communication skills, language domains, language…

  18. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  19. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  20. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  1. The Effects of Modality, Information Type, and Language Experience on Recall by Foreign Language Learners of Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecartty, Frances H.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effects of modality, information type, and language experience on recall by foreign language learners of Spanish. Fifty-four intermediate and advanced level university students participated in the study by reading and listening to an expository passage, and then performing a recall task. The protocols were then statistically…

  2. Uses of Formal and Informal Assessments of English Language Learners in a Language Experience Class, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will compare the uses of selected formal and informal assessments of English language learners (ELLs) in the Language Experience class [TRANSLANGEXP7(&8)-008] at Kimball Middle School, Illinois School District U-46, Elgin, Illinois, during school year 2007- 2008. See figure 1 (page 14) for a graphic display of these assessments…

  3. Language Micro-gaming: Fun and Informal Microblogging Activities for Language Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perifanou, Maria A.

    'Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge and instruction is a process of supporting that construction rather than communicating knowledge' [1]. Can this process of learning be fun for the learner? Successful learning involves a mixture of work and fun. One of the recent web 2.0 services that can offer great possibilities for learning is Microblogging [2]. This kind of motivation can raise students' natural curiosity and interest which promotes learning. Play can also promote excitement, enjoyment, and a relaxing atmosphere. As Vygotsky (1933) [3] advocates, play creates a zone of proximal development (ZDP) in children. According to Vygotsky, the ZDP is the distance between one's actual developmental level and one's potential developmental level when interacting with someone and/or something in the social environment [4]. Play can be highly influential in learning. What happens when play becomes informal learning supported by web 2.0 technologies? Practical ideas applied in an Italian foreign language classroom using microblogging to promote fun and informal learning showed that microblogging can enhance motivation, participation, collaboration and practice in basic language skills.

  4. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are being studied in clinical trials. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors ... lower your risk of cancer. The following risk factors may increase the risk of liver cancer: Hepatitis ...

  5. Breast cancer and the language of risk, 1750-1950.

    PubMed

    Jasen, Patricia

    2002-04-01

    The language of risk, in relation to disease, is usually viewed as having developed in the post-war era, but in fact it has a much longer history. Focusing on the period from the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth century, this article examines evolving beliefs about what makes women vulnerable to breast cancer and traces the history of certain 'risk factors', such as the presence of benign breast disease, the experience of injury to the breast, the influence of unhappy emotions, the onset of menopause, and a family history of cancer. It situates beliefs about breast cancer within their social and cultural contexts, examining ideas concerning the relationship between mind and body, the impact of new medical knowledge, the social meanings of cancer, definitions of femininity and images of the female body, and women's own views on what places them at risk. It concludes that an historical perspective adds an important dimension to our contemporary understanding of the concept of medical risk.

  6. Unified Modeling Language (UML) for hospital-based cancer registration processes.

    PubMed

    Shiki, Naomi; Ohno, Yuko; Fujii, Ayumi; Murata, Taizo; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Hospital-based cancer registry involves complex processing steps that span across multiple departments. In addition, management techniques and registration procedures differ depending on each medical facility. Establishing processes for hospital-based cancer registry requires clarifying specific functions and labor needed. In recent years, the business modeling technique, in which management evaluation is done by clearly spelling out processes and functions, has been applied to business process analysis. However, there are few analytical reports describing the applications of these concepts to medical-related work. In this study, we initially sought to model hospital-based cancer registration processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), to clarify functions. The object of this study was the cancer registry of Osaka University Hospital. We organized the hospital-based cancer registration processes based on interview and observational surveys, and produced an As-Is model using activity, use-case, and class diagrams. After drafting every UML model, it was fed-back to practitioners to check its validity and improved. We were able to define the workflow for each department using activity diagrams. In addition, by using use-case diagrams we were able to classify each department within the hospital as a system, and thereby specify the core processes and staff that were responsible for each department. The class diagrams were effective in systematically organizing the information to be used for hospital-based cancer registries. Using UML modeling, hospital-based cancer registration processes were broadly classified into three separate processes, namely, registration tasks, quality control, and filing data. An additional 14 functions were also extracted. Many tasks take place within the hospital-based cancer registry office, but the process of providing information spans across multiple departments. Moreover, additional tasks were required in comparison to using a

  7. EarthServer: Information Retrieval and Query Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perperis, Thanassis; Koltsida, Panagiota; Kakaletris, George

    2013-04-01

    Establishing open, unified, seamless, access and ad-hoc analytics on cross-disciplinary, multi-source, multi-dimensional, spatiotemporal Earth Science data of extreme-size and their supporting metadata are the main challenges of the EarthServer project (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program. One of EarthServer's main objectives is to provide users with higher level coverage and metadata search, retrieval and processing capabilities to multi-disciplinary Earth Science data. Six Lighthouse Applications are being established, each one providing access to Cryospheric, Airborne, Atmospheric, Geology, Oceanography and Planetary science raster data repositories through strictly WCS 2.0 standard based service endpoints. EarthServers' information retrieval subsystem aims towards exploiting the WCS endpoints through a physically and logically distributed service oriented architecture, foreseeing the collaboration of several standard compliant services, capable of exploiting modern large grid and cloud infrastructures and of dynamically responding to availability and capabilities of underlying resources. Towards furthering technology for integrated, coherent service provision based on WCS and WCPS the concept of a query language (QL), unifying coverage and metadata processing and retrieval is introduced. EarthServer's information retrieval subsystem receives QL requests involving high volumes of all Earth Science data categories, executes them on the services that reside on the infrastructure and sends the results back to the requester through a high performance pipeline. In this contribution we briefly discuss EarthServer's service oriented coverage data and metadata search and retrieval architecture and further elaborate on the potentials of EarthServer's Query Language, called xWCPS (XQuery compliant WCPS). xWCPS aims towards merging the path that the two widely adopted standards (W3C XQuery, OGC WCPS) have paved, into a

  8. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  9. 29 CFR 500.78 - Information in foreign language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... English or, as necessary and reasonable, in Spanish or another language common to migrant or seasonal... available in English, Spanish, Haitian-Creole and other languages, as necessary, which may be used in...

  10. 29 CFR 500.78 - Information in foreign language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... English or, as necessary and reasonable, in Spanish or another language common to migrant or seasonal... available in English, Spanish, Haitian-Creole and other languages, as necessary, which may be used in...

  11. Mobile City and Language Guides--New Links between Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo-Kristensen, Mads; Ankerstjerne, Niels Ole; Neutzsky-Wulff, Chresteria; Schelde, Herluf

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in…

  12. 34 CFR 303.401 - Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions of consent, native language, and personally... Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information. As used in this subpart— (a... which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; (2) The...

  13. Language Resources: The Foundations of a Pan-European Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubert, Wolfgang

    Language, once a cultural asset in Europe, has become an economic commodity. The national language institutes now have the task of providing the means for making knowledge available in the national language and distributing locally produced information worldwide. This includes not only training more translators, but also developing the necessary…

  14. 34 CFR 303.401 - Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions of consent, native language, and personally... Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information. As used in this subpart— (a... which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; (2) The parent...

  15. Information given to cancer patients on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment: the clinical oncologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Belvedere, Ornella; Minisini, Alessandro; Ramello, Monica; Sobrero, Alberto; Grossi, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    The extent of information to cancer patients is, in general, culture-dependent. Information mainly refers to three aspects, namely diagnosis (Dx), prognosis (Px) and treatment (Rx), but the relative contribution of each domain to the information given overall is not available. To address this issue, we e-mailed a questionnaire to 9893 members of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) asking whether they agree that information about Dx, Px and Rx contribute differently to the information given to the cancer patient overall and, if so, to what extent, both in the adjuvant and advanced settings. 857 questionnaires were evaluable. There was no statistically significant difference between the contribution of these 3 domains in the adjuvant setting (33%, 34% and 33%, respectively). In subgroup analysis, medical oncologists and haematologists attributed a significantly higher contribution of Px information compared with other specialists (P < 0.05). In the advanced setting, respondents estimated a higher contribution of Px (41%) to patient information overall compared with Dx and Rx (28% and 31%, respectively; P < 0.05). This finding was more pronounced in North America than in Europe (P < 0.0001), and in Germanic-language than in Romance-language countries (P = 0.005). In conclusion, information on Dx, Px and Rx are believed to contribute differently to the information delivered to cancer patients overall, depending on the stage of disease, the cultural environment and the specialty of the physician.

  16. An exploratory study of older adults' comprehension of printed cancer information: is readability a key factor?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    Printed cancer information often is written at or beyond high school reading levels, despite lower average literacy abilities of the public. The objectives of this exploratory study were twofold: (1) to evaluate older adults' comprehension of breast (BC), prostate (PC), and colorectal (CC) cancer information; and (2) to determine if comprehension of BC, PC, and CC information varies according to text readability. Comprehension of printed cancer resources was evaluated with 44 community-dwelling older adults using the Cloze procedure and recall questions. Participants' comprehension scores were compared with Simple Measure of Gobbledegook (SMOG) readability scores (cancer information as measured by Cloze (.86 +/- .01) and recall (.71 +/- .02). For CC information written at grade 13, however, a significant negative correlation between readability and Cloze comprehension was found (r(s) = -.44, SE = .17, p = .019), indicating poorer participant comprehension at higher readability levels. Comprehension of BC or PC information did not vary by readability level. Though readability plays a role in older adults' understanding of cancer information, cancer type and content are also important factors that influence comprehension. Use of plain language is recommended for CC resources.

  17. Background Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints. |

  18. Cancer information disclosure in different cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilila, Eleni; Katsouda, Emmanuela; Vlahos, Lambros

    2004-03-01

    The relationship between truth telling and culture has been the subject of increasing attention in the literature. The issue of whether, how and how much to tell cancer patients concerning diagnosis is still approached differently depending on country and culture. The majority of physicians tell the truth more often today than in the past, in both developed and developing countries, but most of them prefer to disclose the truth to the next of kin. Nurses in Anglo-Saxon countries are considered to be the most suitable health-care professionals for the patients to share their thoughts and feelings with. Nevertheless, in most other cultures the final decision on information disclosure lies with the treating physician. Regardless of cultural origin, the diagnosis of cancer affects both family structure and family dynamics. In most cases patients' families, in an effort to protect them from despair and a feeling of hopelessness, exclude the patient from the process of information exchange. The health-care team-patient relationship is a triangle consisting of the health-care professional, the patient and the family. Each part supports the other two and is affected by the cultural background of each of the others as well as the changes that occur within the triangle.

  19. Psychologic predictors of cancer information avoidance among older adults: the role of cancer fear and fatalism.

    PubMed

    Miles, Anne; Voorwinden, Sanne; Chapman, Sarah; Wardle, Jane

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about the correlates of cancer information avoidance and whether people with negative feelings and beliefs about cancer are more likely to avoid cancer information, allowing such thoughts and feelings to persist unchallenged. Using the Extended Parallel Processing Model as a theoretical guide, we tested the hypothesis that cancer fear and fatalism would predict cancer information avoidance but that part of this effect would be mediated via cancer-specific threat and efficacy beliefs. A community sample of older adults, ages 50 to 70 years (n = 1,442), completed a postal questionnaire that included the Powe Fatalism Inventory and the Champion Cancer Fear scale along with other measures of cancer-specific beliefs and demographic variables. Higher levels of cancer fear were positively associated with higher levels of cancer information avoidance, and part of this relationship was mediated via perceived cancer severity. The relationship between cancer fatalism and cancer information avoidance was partly mediated by severity and response-efficacy beliefs. This research shows that people with negative views about cancer are more likely to avoid cancer information. This means people with higher levels of cancer fear and fatalism are less likely to learn about positive developments made in the field of cancer control, allowing such negative feelings and views to continue. Research needs to focus on how to get positive messages about improvements in cancer prevention and control through to people who are fearful of and fatalistic about the disease.

  20. National Cancer Information Service in Italy: an information points network as a new model for providing information for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Truccolo, Ivana; Bufalino, Rosaria; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Caruso, Anita; Costantini, Anna; Cognetti, Gaetana; Florita, Antonio; Pero, Dina; Pugliese, Patrizia; Tancredi, Roberta; De Lorenzo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The international literature data report that good information and communication are fundamental components of a therapeutic process. They contribute to improve the patient-health care professional relationship, to facilitate doctor-patient relationships, therapeutic compliance and adherence, and to the informed consent in innovative clinical trials. We report the results of a multicentric national initiative that developed a 17-information-structure network: 16 Information Points located in the major state-funded certified cancer centers and general hospitals across Italy and a national Help-line at the nonprofit organization AIMaC (the Italian oncologic patients, families and friends association), and updated the already existing services with the aim to create the National Cancer Information Service (SION). The project is the result of a series of pilot and research projects funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The Information Service model proposed is based on some fundamental elements: 1) human interaction with experienced operators, adequately trained in communication and information, complemented with 2) virtual interaction (Help line, Internet, blog, forum and social network); 3) informative material adequate for both scientific accuracy and communicative style; 4) adequate locations for appropriate positioning and privacy (adequate visibility); 5) appropriate advertising. First results coming from these initiatives contributed to introduce issues related to "Communication and Information to patients" as a "Public Health Instrument" to the National Cancer Plan approved by the Ministry of Health for the years 2010-2012.

  1. Content, Usability, and Utilization of Plain Language in Breast Cancer Mobile Phone Apps: A Systematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sayyed Fawad Ali; West, Andrew J; Bentley, Joshua M; Caburnay, Charlene A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Kinney, Anita Y

    2017-01-01

    composite score was 3 (mean 2.60, SD 1.20) of the six recommended usability items. With eight plain language items, the median of the composite health literacy score was 5 (mean 5.06, SD 2.00). Most apps did not use easy-to-understand words (44/101, 43.6%) and few (24/101, 23.8%) defined key terms. Conclusions Current breast cancer apps provide important information about breast cancer, but the most common topic covered is breast self-examination, a non-evidence-based screening strategy. Apps that focus on evidence-based strategies on the cancer continuum are needed, with a notable pressing need for apps that would address survivorship and end of life. Finally, developers of breast cancer apps should adhere to IOM standards to meet the needs of diverse populations and reduce current disparities. PMID:28288954

  2. Content, Usability, and Utilization of Plain Language in Breast Cancer Mobile Phone Apps: A Systematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ginossar, Tamar; Shah, Sayyed Fawad Ali; West, Andrew J; Bentley, Joshua M; Caburnay, Charlene A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Kinney, Anita Y

    2017-03-13

    .20) of the six recommended usability items. With eight plain language items, the median of the composite health literacy score was 5 (mean 5.06, SD 2.00). Most apps did not use easy-to-understand words (44/101, 43.6%) and few (24/101, 23.8%) defined key terms. Current breast cancer apps provide important information about breast cancer, but the most common topic covered is breast self-examination, a non-evidence-based screening strategy. Apps that focus on evidence-based strategies on the cancer continuum are needed, with a notable pressing need for apps that would address survivorship and end of life. Finally, developers of breast cancer apps should adhere to IOM standards to meet the needs of diverse populations and reduce current disparities.

  3. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregivers Flu Treatment for Cancer Patients and Survivors Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Information for Patients and Caregivers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cancer patients ...

  4. Information theory as a general language for functional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, John

    2000-05-01

    Function refers to a broad family of concepts of varying abstractness and range of application, from a many-one mathematical relation of great generality to, for example, highly specialized roles of designed elements in complex machines such as degaussing in a television set, or contributory processes to control mechanisms in complex metabolic pathways, such as the inhibitory function of the appropriate part of the lac-operon on the production of lactase through its action on the genome in the absence of lactose. We would like a language broad enough, neutral enough, but yet powerful enough to cover all such cases, and at the same time to give a framework form explanation both of the family resemblances and differences. General logic and mathematics are too abstract, but more importantly, too broad, whereas other discourses of function, such as the biological and teleological contexts, are too narrow. Information is especially suited since it is mathematically grounded, but also has a well-known physical interpretation through the Schrodinger/Brillouin Negentropy. Principle of Information, and an engineering or design interpretation through Shannon's communication theory. My main focus will be on the functions of autonomous anticipatory systems, but I will try to demonstrate both the connections between this notion of function and the others, especially to dynamical systems with a physical interpretation on the one side and intentional systems on the other. The former are based in concepts like force, energy and work, while the latter involve notions like representation, control and purpose, traditionally, at least in Modern times, on opposite sides of the Cartesian divide. In principle, information can be reduced to energy, but it has the advantage of being more flexible, and easier to apply to higher level phenomena.

  5. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  6. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  7. Is Cancer Information Exchanged on Social Media Scientifically Accurate?

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; LaValley, Susan; Warunek, Molli; Beaupin, Lynda Kwon; Mollica, Michelle

    2017-07-19

    Cancer patients and their caregivers are increasingly using social media as a platform to share cancer experiences, connect with support, and exchange cancer-related information. Yet, little is known about the nature and scientific accuracy of cancer-related information exchanged on social media. We conducted a content analysis of 12 months of data from 18 publically available Facebook Pages hosted by parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (N = 15,852 posts) and extracted all exchanges of medically-oriented cancer information. We systematically coded for themes in the nature of cancer-related information exchanged on personal Facebook Pages and two oncology experts independently evaluated the scientific accuracy of each post. Of the 15,852 total posts, 171 posts contained medically-oriented cancer information. The most frequent type of cancer information exchanged was information related to treatment protocols and health services use (35%) followed by information related to side effects and late effects (26%), medication (16%), medical caregiving strategies (13%), alternative and complementary therapies (8%), and other (2%). Overall, 67% of all cancer information exchanged was deemed medically/scientifically accurate, 19% was not medically/scientifically accurate, and 14% described unproven treatment modalities. These findings highlight the potential utility of social media as a cancer-related resource, but also indicate that providers should focus on recommending reliable, evidence-based sources to patients and caregivers.

  8. Sociolinguistically Informed Natural Language Processing: Automating Irony Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    Language Processing ( NLP ) approaches, which tend to rely on simple statistical models built on top of word counts, are not very good at it. We...distinction has proven to be a particularly difficult classification problem. Existing Machine Learning (ML) and Natural Language Processing ( NLP ) approaches...irony detection leverage statistical natural language processing ( NLP ) and machine learning (ML) methods. These models tend to be relatively ‘shallow

  9. Language preferences on websites and in Google searches for human health and food information.

    PubMed

    Singh, Punam Mony; Wight, Carly A; Sercinoglu, Olcan; Wilson, David C; Boytsov, Artem; Raizada, Manish N

    2007-06-28

    While it is known that the majority of pages on the World Wide Web are in English, little is known about the preferred language of users searching for health information online. (1) To help global and domestic publishers, for example health and food agencies, to determine the need for translation of online information from English into local languages. (2) To help these agencies determine which language(s) they should select when publishing information online in target nations and for target subpopulations within nations. To estimate the percentage of Web publishers that translate their health and food websites, we measured the frequency at which domain names retrieved by Google overlap for language translations of the same health-related search term. To quantify language choice of searchers from different countries, Google provided estimates of the rate at which its search engine was queried in six languages relative to English for the terms "avian flu," "tuberculosis," "schizophrenia," and "maize" (corn) from January 2004 to April 2006. The estimate was based on a 20% sample of all Google queries from 227 nations. We estimate that 80%-90% of health- and food-related institutions do not translate their websites into multiple languages, even when the information concerns pandemic disease such as avian influenza. Although Internet users are often well-educated, there was a strong preference for searching for health and food information in the local language, rather than English. For "avian flu," we found that only 1% of searches in non-English-speaking nations were in English, whereas for "tuberculosis" or "schizophrenia," about 4%-40% of searches in non-English countries employed English. A subset of searches for health information presumably originating from immigrants occurred in their native tongue, not the language of the adopted country. However, Spanish-language online searches for "avian flu," "schizophrenia," and "maize/corn" in the United States occurred

  10. Satisfaction with Information Used to Choose Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Scott M.; Sanda, Martin G.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hembroff, Larry; Klein, Eric; Saigal, Christopher S.; Pisters, Louis; Michalski, Jeff; Sandler, Howard M.; Litwin, Mark S.; Wei, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose After being diagnosed with prostate cancer men must assimilate information regarding the cancer. Satisfaction with information reflects the evaluation of information sources used before treatment to select a therapy. We describe the use and helpfulness of several information sources available to prostate cancer survivors. We also identified factors associated with satisfaction with information. Materials and Methods A total of 1,204 men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were enrolled in the prospective, multicenter Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Therapy Quality Assessment study. The validated satisfaction with information domain of the Service Satisfaction Scale-Cancer was administered to subjects 2 months after treatment. The relationship between several factors, such as demographics, socioeconomic factors, cancer severity and types of information sources, and satisfaction with information were evaluated using multiple regression. Results Sources of information endorsed by subjects varied by race, education and study site. The most helpful sources were treatment description by the treating physician (33.1%), Internet sites (18.9%) and books (18.1%). In multiple variable models patient age (p = 0.005) and information provided by the physician regarding outcomes in their patients (p = 0.01) were independently associated with patient satisfaction with the information provided. Conclusions Various information sources were used and endorsed as helpful by subjects, although results for physician patients was the only source independently associated with satisfaction with information. Providing patients with information about possible or expected courses of care and outcomes may improve satisfaction. PMID:24333514

  11. The Sound of Motion in Spoken Language: Visual Information Conveyed by Acoustic Properties of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2007-01-01

    Language is generally viewed as conveying information through symbols whose form is arbitrarily related to their meaning. This arbitrary relation is often assumed to also characterize the mental representations underlying language comprehension. We explore the idea that visuo-spatial information can be analogically conveyed through acoustic…

  12. English Language Development Theory and Practices: Background Information for "EE" Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, Jean

    This document provides environmental educators with background information on English language development theory and practices. Information was derived from a series of workshops that focused on the objectives of increasing facilitators' familiarity with the theory and practices of English Language Development (ELD) and demonstrating how the…

  13. The Sound of Motion in Spoken Language: Visual Information Conveyed by Acoustic Properties of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2007-01-01

    Language is generally viewed as conveying information through symbols whose form is arbitrarily related to their meaning. This arbitrary relation is often assumed to also characterize the mental representations underlying language comprehension. We explore the idea that visuo-spatial information can be analogically conveyed through acoustic…

  14. The role of knowledge, language, and insurance in endorsement of cancer screening in women of African origin.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Vanessa B; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Song, Minna; Hirpa, Fikru; Nwabukwu, Ify

    2015-01-01

    African women have lower use of cancer screening services compared to women born in the United States yet empirical data are limited about their cancer screening attitudes. To examine factors that are associated with higher endorsement of screening. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 200 women of African origin recruited via community-based outreach activities in Washington, DC. Endorsement of screening was assessed via self-report. The primary independent variables were cancer knowledge and English-language proficiency. Information was also collected about access, cancer-related beliefs, and prior breast screening behaviors. Most participants (60%) were ≥ 40 years of age, 54% were married, and 77% were insured. Participants more likely to endorse breast cancer screening were insured (vs. uninsured) (odds ratio = 3.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 9.17) and married (odds ratio = 3.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 9.10) controlling for other factors. The likelihood of endorsing screening was higher among participants with English as a primary language (odds ratio = 3.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 11.87) and those with greater breast cancer knowledge (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.08, per 1 point increase). Average cancer knowledge in the sample was low as were non-conventional causes of cancer. Study results highlight the importance of improving cancer knowledge and reducing barriers related to language and insurance. Future studies are needed to consider nuances among diverse women of African origin.

  15. Synthesizing Information From Language Samples and Standardized Tests in School-Age Bilingual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population—school-age bilingual speakers with primary language impairment—and considers the clinical implications for bilingual assessment. Method Fifty-one bilingual children with primary language impairment completed narrative language samples and standardized language tests in English and Spanish. Children were separated into younger (ages 5;6 [years;months]–8;11) and older (ages 9;0–11;2) groups. Analysis included correlations with age and partial correlations between language sample measures and test scores in each language. Results Within the younger group, positive correlations with large effect sizes indicated convergence between test scores and microstructural language sample measures in both Spanish and English. There were minimal correlations in the older group for either language. Age related to English but not Spanish measures. Conclusions Tests and language samples complement each other in assessment. Wordless picture-book narratives may be more appropriate for ages 5–8 than for older children. We discuss clinical implications, including a case example of a bilingual child with primary language impairment, to illustrate how to synthesize information from these tools in assessment. PMID:28055056

  16. Does Language Moderate the Influence of Information Scanning and Seeking on HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Awareness and Initiation among Hispanics?

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Clare F.; Caughy, Margaret O.; Lee, Simon Craddock; Bishop, Wendy P.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether language moderates associations between three communication variables: media use, information scanning (attending to and remembering information) and seeking (actively looking for information), and three HPV outcomes: knowledge, vaccine awareness and vaccine initiation among Hispanics. Participants Hispanic mothers of females aged 8–22 years (N=288) were surveyed. Methods Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions investigated associations between communication variables and HPV outcomes. To examine moderation by language, we compared main effects and interaction models using the likelihood ratio test. Results For English- and Spanish-speakers, Internet use was associated with more HPV knowledge and vaccine awareness, but not initiation. Scanning and seeking were associated with more knowledge, vaccine awareness, and initiation. Language moderated effects of scanning and seeking only on vaccine awareness. Spanish speakers who scanned for information were more likely to be aware of the vaccine than those who did not (80% vs 26%); Spanish speakers who sought information were also more likely to be aware (95% vs 55%). For English speakers, vaccine awareness did not differ between those who scanned and sought and those who did not. Conclusions Effects of information scanning and seeking on HPV vaccine awareness were much greater for Spanish than for English speakers. Providers, therefore, should not assume that Spanish-speaking mothers are already aware of the vaccine. Our findings call attention to heterogeneity within Hispanics which could be particularly important when examining health communication and cancer prevention behaviors. PMID:23495629

  17. Making Cancer Health Text on the Internet Easier to Read for Deaf People Who Use American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Smith, Scott; Hopper, Melinda; Ryan, Claire; Rinkevich, Micah; Kushalnagar, Raja

    2016-06-08

    People with relatively limited English language proficiency find the Internet's cancer and health information difficult to access and understand. The presence of unfamiliar words and complex grammar make this particularly difficult for Deaf people. Unfortunately, current technology does not support low-cost, accurate translations of online materials into American Sign Language. However, current technology is relatively more advanced in allowing text simplification, while retaining content. This research team developed a two-step approach for simplifying cancer and other health text. They then tested the approach, using a crossover design with a sample of 36 deaf and 38 hearing college students. Results indicated that hearing college students did well on both the original and simplified text versions. Deaf college students' comprehension, in contrast, significantly benefitted from the simplified text. This two-step translation process offers a strategy that may improve the accessibility of Internet information for Deaf, as well as other low-literacy individuals.

  18. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  19. Tools for Language Programs. ICEM Technical Information Bulletin No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezard, M.; Bourguignon, C.

    This overview of available technologies and how they can be used in teaching languages is divided into three sections. The first, "Multimedia Inputs," examines digitized multimedia tools and their role in language courses, electronic books, encyclopedias and dictionaries, and games, and takes a closer look at "unimedia"…

  20. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  1. Searching for Bridges between Formal and Informal Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebera, Pavel; Hlouskova, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Life in the contemporary society and ongoing globalisation processes result in growing demands on educators, including language teachers in higher education. The frequently accentuated so-called postmethod approach to foreign language teaching gives teachers a lot of freedom and flexibility but also creates a large space for various types of…

  2. Less Frequently Taught Languages: Basic Information and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conwell, Marilyn; And Others

    The following articles are presented in the section of the Northeast Conference Report on less frequently taught languages: (1) "American Sign Language," by M. Conwell and A. Nelson; (2) "Chinese," by D. Gidman; (3) "Japanese," by J. P. Berwald and T. Phipps; (4) "Latin," by M. Cleary; (5) "Portuguese," by R. Pedro Carvalho; and (6) "Russian," by…

  3. Information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Teng; Butow, Phyllis; Mills, Jill; Miller, Annie; Goldstein, David

    2017-10-01

    The information needs of patients and carers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, including from the Chinese community, are not well understood, and there has been no previous synthesis of the literature. We conducted a systematic review of the information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Database, reference list, and author searches were conducted to identify studies reporting information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Data synthesis was undertaken to define categories of information needs. Initial searches yielded 2558 articles. Out of the 40 full-text articles reviewed, 26 met all the eligibility criteria. Cancer-specific, treatment, and prognosis information were the most frequently reported information needs across the cancer care continuum. Similarly, this information was the most commonly reported information needs across different health systems, migration statuses, and Chinese cultural values. Though less frequent, information needs related to interpersonal/social, financial/legal, and body image/sexuality were also raised. Thirteen studies quantified the prevalence of unmet needs, and the most frequently reported unmet needs were related to health system and information, followed by psychological, patient care and support, physical daily living, and sexuality needs. Language and cultural factors were identified in all studies involving Chinese migrants living in English-speaking countries. Failing to meet the information needs of the Chinese community members affected by cancer increases the risk for poor cancer outcomes. Potential interventions such as translated resources, bilingual advocates, an online information portal, and communication aids can be helpful in addressing the unmet needs for this community. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inferring Identity From Language: Linguistic Intergroup Bias Informs Social Categorization.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shanette C; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined whether a communicator's verbal, implicit message regarding a target is used as a cue for inferring that communicator's social identity. Previous research has found linguistic intergroup bias (LIB) in individuals' speech: They use abstract language to describe in-group targets' desirable behaviors and concrete language to describe their undesirable behaviors (favorable LIB), but use concrete language for out-group targets' desirable behaviors and abstract language for their undesirable behaviors (unfavorable LIB). Consequently, one can infer the type of language a communicator is likely to use to describe in-group and out-group targets. We hypothesized and found evidence for the reverse inference. Across four studies, individuals inferred a communicator's social identity on the basis of the communicator's use of an LIB. Specifically, participants more strongly believed that a communicator and target shared a social identity when the communicator used the favorable, rather than the unfavorable, LIB in describing that target.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer, A Mis-interpreter of the Epigenetic Language

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Eriko; Safgren, Stephanie L.; Marks, David L.; Olson, Rachel L.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the U.S. with close to 40,000 deaths per year. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents approximately 90 percent of all pancreatic cancer cases and is the most lethal form of the disease. Current therapies for PDAC are ineffective and most patients cannot be treated by surgical resection. Most research efforts have primarily focused on how genetic alterations cause, alter progression, contribute to diagnosis, and influence PDAC management. Over the past two decades, a model has been advanced of PDAC initiation and progression as a multi-step process driven by the acquisition of mutations leading to loss of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenes. The recognition of the essential roles of these genetic alterations in the development of PDAC has revolutionized our knowledge of this disease. However, none of these findings have turned into effective treatment for this dismal malignancy. In recent years, studies in the areas of chromatin modifications, and non-coding RNAs have uncovered mechanisms for regulating gene expression which occur independently of genetic alterations. Chromatin-based mechanisms are interwoven with microRNA-driven regulation of protein translation to create an integrated epigenetic language, which is grossly dysregulated in PDAC. Thus in PDAC, key tumor suppressors that are well established to play a role in PDAC may be repressed, and oncogenes can be upregulated secondary to epigenetic alterations. Unlike mutations, epigenetic changes are potentially reversible. Given this feature of epigenetic mechanisms, it is conceivable that targeting epigenetic-based events promoting and maintaining PDAC could serve as foundation for the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic approaches for this disease. PMID:28018146

  6. Pancreatic Cancer, A Mis-interpreter of the Epigenetic Language.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Eriko; Safgren, Stephanie L; Marks, David L; Olson, Rachel L; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the U.S. with close to 40,000 deaths per year. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents approximately 90 percent of all pancreatic cancer cases and is the most lethal form of the disease. Current therapies for PDAC are ineffective and most patients cannot be treated by surgical resection. Most research efforts have primarily focused on how genetic alterations cause, alter progression, contribute to diagnosis, and influence PDAC management. Over the past two decades, a model has been advanced of PDAC initiation and progression as a multi-step process driven by the acquisition of mutations leading to loss of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenes. The recognition of the essential roles of these genetic alterations in the development of PDAC has revolutionized our knowledge of this disease. However, none of these findings have turned into effective treatment for this dismal malignancy. In recent years, studies in the areas of chromatin modifications, and non-coding RNAs have uncovered mechanisms for regulating gene expression which occur independently of genetic alterations. Chromatin-based mechanisms are interwoven with microRNA-driven regulation of protein translation to create an integrated epigenetic language, which is grossly dysregulated in PDAC. Thus in PDAC, key tumor suppressors that are well established to play a role in PDAC may be repressed, and oncogenes can be upregulated secondary to epigenetic alterations. Unlike mutations, epigenetic changes are potentially reversible. Given this feature of epigenetic mechanisms, it is conceivable that targeting epigenetic-based events promoting and maintaining PDAC could serve as foundation for the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic approaches for this disease.

  7. 29 CFR 37.35 - What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... Communication § 37.35 What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages... services or information in a language other than English in order to be effectively informed about, or able...

  8. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  9. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles and tumor which kills cancer cells . Microwave therapy : A type of treatment in which the tumor is exposed to high temperatures created by microwaves. This can damage and kill cancer cells or ...

  10. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  11. Adapting a program to inform African American and Hispanic American women about cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Gonzalez, Jenny; Mumman, Manpreet; Cullen, Lisa; Lahousse, Sheila F; Malcarne, Vanessa; Conde, Viridiana; Riley, Natasha

    2010-06-01

    The dearth of evidence-based clinical trial education programs may contribute to the under-representation of African American and Hispanic American women in cancer research studies. This study used focus group-derived data from 80 women distributed among eight Spanish- and English-language focus groups. These data guided the researchers' adaptation and refinement of the National Cancer Institute's various clinical trials education programs into a program that was specifically focused on meeting the information needs of minority women and addressing the barriers to study participation that they perceived. A "sisterhood" theme was adopted and woven throughout the presentation.

  12. English and Spanish oral cancer information on the internet: a pilot surface quality and content evaluation of oral cancer web sites.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jeannie Y; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Spallek, Heiko; Wali, Teena; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Schleyer, Titus

    2011-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are responsible for over 7600 deaths each year in the United States. Given the significance of the disease and the fact that many individuals increasingly rely on health information on the Internet, it is important that patients and others can access clear and accurate oral cancer information on the Web. The objective of this study was threefold: (a) develop an initial method to evaluate surface and content quality of selected English- and Spanish-language oral cancer Web sites; (b) conduct a pilot evaluation; and (c) discuss implications of our findings for dental public health. We developed a search strategy to find oral cancer sites frequented by the public using Medline Plus, Google, and Yahoo in English and Spanish. We adapted the Information Quality Tool (IQT) to perform a surface evaluation and developed a novel tool to evaluate site content for 24 sites each in English and Spanish. English-language sites had an average IQT score of 76.6 (out of 100) and an average content score of 52.1 (out of 100). Spanish-language sites had an average IQT score of 50.3 and an average content score of 25.6. The study produced a quality assessment of oral cancer Web sites useful for clinicians and patients. Sites provided more information on clinical presentation, and etiology, and risk factors, than other aspects of oral cancer. The surface and quality of Spanish-language sites was low, possibly putting Hispanic populations at a disadvantage regarding oral cancer information on the Web.

  13. English and Spanish oral cancer information on the Internet: a pilot surface quality and content evaluation of oral cancer Web sites

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jeannie Y.; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Spallek, Heiko; Wali, Teena; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Schleyer, Titus

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oral and pharyngeal cancers are responsible for over 7,600 deaths each year in the United States. Given the significance of the disease and the fact that many individuals increasingly rely on health information on the Internet, it is important that patients and others can access clear and accurate oral cancer information on the Web. The objective of this study was threefold: a) develop an initial method to evaluate surface and content quality of selected English- and Spanish-language oral cancer Web sites; b) conduct a pilot evaluation; and c) discuss implications of our findings for dental public health. Methods We developed a search strategy to find oral cancer sites frequented by the public using Medline Plus, Google, and Yahoo in English and Spanish. We adapted the Information Quality Tool (IQT) to perform a surface evaluation and developed a novel tool to evaluate site content for 24 sites each in English and Spanish. Results English-language sites had an average IQT score of 76.6 (out of 100) and an average content score of 52.1 (out of 100). Spanish-language sites had an average IQT score of 50.3 and an average content score of 25.6. Conclusions The study produced a quality assessment of oral cancer Web sites useful for clinicians and patients. Sites provided more information on clinical presentation, and etiology, and risk factors, than other aspects of oral cancer. The surface and quality of Spanish-language sites was low, possibly putting Hispanic populations at a disadvantage regarding oral cancer information on the Web. PMID:21774133

  14. Multicultural media outreach: increasing cancer information coverage in minority communities.

    PubMed

    Alexander, James; Kwon, Harry T; Strecher, Rachael; Bartholomew, Jill

    2013-12-01

    Ethnic media can serve as an opportunity for cancer education and outreach to minority communities. The National Cancer Institute developed the Multicultural Media Outreach (MMO) program which utilizes an integrated approach of both traditional and social media to disseminate evidence-based cancer education information for minority communities. The MMO program is the contact point for multicultural media outlets seeking evidence-based cancer information, education materials, minority spokespersons, and news tailored to minority communities affected by cancer health disparities. MMO developed Lifelines®, a cancer education series that addresses cancer prevention, treatment, survivorship, clinical trials, and other cancer-related topics for African American, Hispanic, Asian American, American Indian, and Alaska Native audiences. Lifelines® content is disseminated through traditional media (radio, print, and television) as well as social media (web, Twitter, YouTube, and RSS feed). This article describes the MMO program and lessons learned to date.

  15. Using Principles of Learning to Inform Language Therapy Design for Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. Aims: To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how…

  16. Using Principles of Learning to Inform Language Therapy Design for Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. Aims: To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how…

  17. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  18. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  19. Cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans in the online community.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans tend to have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all US population. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. However, there is little known about their cancer information seeking behaviors and needs. The purpose of the study was to understand cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from MissyUSA, which is one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 393 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed; 120 were deleted because the messages were not related to cancer health information. A total of 273 posted free-texts were analyzed for this study, using an open source text-mining software program called AntConc 3.2.4. The extracted terms were categorized based on coding systems, after linguistic variations were handled. Terms such as "surgery," "breast cancer," "examination," "cancer" (unspecified), "Korea," and "pain" were most frequently identified. Medical topics accounted for 71.4 % of the main topics of the postings. Treatment was the most frequently discussed in the medical topics while in the non-medical category, the most frequently discussed topic was recommendations for hospitals or doctors. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern, followed by cervical and liver cancer. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their cancer information seeking trends and information needs.

  20. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  1. The Grammar of Information: Challenges for Older Students With Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Cheryl M.; Balthazar, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the nature of informational (expository) language in terms of unique grammatical characteristics and discuss applications for assessment and intervention for older school-age children and adolescents with language impairments. Methods Information presented is based on a selected literature review of topics including the nature of academic texts, expository text processing of older children and adolescents with language impairments and/or learning disabilities, and language intervention studies that target higher level language in the same populations. Results We summarize key grammatical strategies found in informational text: (1) complex nominal (noun phrase) groups, (2) clausal subordination, and (3) theme and information mechanisms. Although facility with these structures is not routinely or systematically tested by language clinicians, we highlight assessment procedures useful this purpose. Promising intervention evidence suggests that grammatical features characteristic of informational text can be targeted with positive results for students who struggle with this aspect of higher level language. Conclusions Success comprehending and producing informational text requires unique grammatical knowledge. A qualitative literature review is used to derive best practices in assessment and intervention with school-age children who are particularly challenged by these types of texts. PMID:23596344

  2. Information needs and sources of information for patients during cancer follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shea–Budgell, M.A.; Kostaras, X.; Myhill, K.P.; Hagen, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Now more than ever, cancer patients want health information. Little has been published to characterize the information needs and preferred sources of that information for patients who have completed cancer treatment. Methods We used a nationally validated instrument to prospectively survey patients attending a cancer clinic for a post-treatment follow-up visit. All patients who came to the designated clinics between December 2011 and June 2012 were approached (N = 648), and information was collected only from those who agreed to proceed. Results The 411 patients who completed the instrument included individuals with a wide range of primary malignancies. Their doctor or health professional was overwhelmingly the most trusted source of cancer information, followed by the Internet, family, and friends. The least trusted sources of information included radio, newspaper, and television. Patients most preferred to receive personalized written information from their health care provider. Conclusions Cancer survivors are keenly interested in receiving information about cancer, despite having undergone or finished active therapy. The data indicate that, for patients, their health care provider is the most trusted source of cancer information. Cancer providers should ask patients about the information they want and should direct them to trusted sources. PMID:25089098

  3. Cross-Language Differences in Informational Masking of Speech by Speech: English versus Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xihong; Yang, Zhigang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Jing; Li, Liang; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine why perceived spatial separation provides a greater release from informational masking in Chinese than English when target sentences in each of the languages are masked by other talkers speaking the same language. Method: Monolingual speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese listened to…

  4. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Experiments Based on CLEF 2000 Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Discusses cross-language, multilingual, and bilingual information retrieval on the Web; evaluates retrieval effectiveness of indexing and search strategies based on test collections from CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) in English, French, German, and Italian; and suggests and evaluates database merging strategies. Appendices include…

  5. Availability of Pre-Admission Information to Prospective Graduate Students in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekieli Koay, Mary Ellen; Lass, Norman J.; Parrill, Madaline; Naeser, Danielle; Babin, Kelly; Bayer, Olivia; Cook, Megan; Elmore, Madeline; Frye, Rachel; Kerwood, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    An extensive Internet search was conducted to obtain pre-admission information and acceptance statistics from 260 graduate programmes in speech-language pathology accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in the United States. ASHA is the national professional, scientific and credentialing association for members and…

  6. Availability of Pre-Admission Information to Prospective Graduate Students in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekieli Koay, Mary Ellen; Lass, Norman J.; Parrill, Madaline; Naeser, Danielle; Babin, Kelly; Bayer, Olivia; Cook, Megan; Elmore, Madeline; Frye, Rachel; Kerwood, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    An extensive Internet search was conducted to obtain pre-admission information and acceptance statistics from 260 graduate programmes in speech-language pathology accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in the United States. ASHA is the national professional, scientific and credentialing association for members and…

  7. Cross-Language Differences in Informational Masking of Speech by Speech: English versus Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xihong; Yang, Zhigang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Jing; Li, Liang; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine why perceived spatial separation provides a greater release from informational masking in Chinese than English when target sentences in each of the languages are masked by other talkers speaking the same language. Method: Monolingual speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese listened to…

  8. The Timing of Foreign Language Instruction and Related Issues. Information Capsule. Volume 0610

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to support the development of higher levels of foreign language proficiency among our nation's students, researchers have examined the effectiveness of foreign language programs based on the amount of time students receive instruction, the age at which instruction begins, and the course schedule utilized. This Information Capsule…

  9. Using a Corpus-Informed Pedagogical Intervention to Develop Language Awareness toward Appropriate Lexicogrammatical Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Julieta; Yuldashev, Aziz

    The corpus-informed pedagogical intervention described in this article was developed for an advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) course designed for prospective International Teaching Assistants (ITAs) and implemented over the course of two class periods. Its primary goal was to offer students opportunities to gain language awareness of…

  10. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Experiments Based on CLEF 2000 Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Discusses cross-language, multilingual, and bilingual information retrieval on the Web; evaluates retrieval effectiveness of indexing and search strategies based on test collections from CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) in English, French, German, and Italian; and suggests and evaluates database merging strategies. Appendices include…

  11. Disclosure of Information about English Proficiency: Preservice Teachers' Presumptions about English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…

  12. Disclosure of Information about English Proficiency: Preservice Teachers' Presumptions about English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…

  13. Synthesizing Information from Language Samples and Standardized Tests in School-Age Bilingual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population--school-age bilingual speakers with primary language…

  14. [Comparative evaluation of information products regarding cancer screening of German-speaking cancer organizations].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Julia; Kien, Christina; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based information materials about the pros and cons of cancer screening are important sources for men and women to decide for or against cancer screening. The aim of this paper was to compare recommendations from different cancer institutions in German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland) regarding screening for breast, cervix, colon, and prostate cancer and to assess the quality and development process of patient information materials. Relevant information material was identified through web searches and personal contact with cancer institutions. To achieve our objective, we employed a qualitative approach. The quality of 22 patient information materials was analysed based on established guidance by Bunge et al. In addition, we conducted guided interviews about the process of developing information materials with decision-makers of cancer institutes. Overall, major discrepancies in cancer screening recommendations exist among the Austrian, German, and Swiss cancer institutes. Process evaluation revealed that crucial steps of quality assurance, such as assembling a multi-disciplinary panel, assessing conflicts of interest, or transparency regarding funding sources, have frequently not been undertaken. All information materials had substantial quality deficits in multiple areas. Three out of four institutes issued information materials that met fewer than half of the quality criteria. Most patient information materials of cancer institutes in German-speaking countries are fraught with substantial deficits and do not provide an objective source for patients to be able to make an informed decision for or against cancer screening. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Association of eHealth literacy with cancer information seeking and prior experience with cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health.

  16. Moving from Informal to Formal Mathematical Language in Maltese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, Marie Therese

    2013-01-01

    In Malta, mathematics is often taught through code-switching between Maltese and English, mainly due to the use of textbooks published in the UK. The mixing of the languages has been a source of discussion for several years, with some educators accepting the mixed pattern, and others arguing in favour of using English alone. Furthermore, the…

  17. Moving from Informal to Formal Mathematical Language in Maltese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, Marie Therese

    2013-01-01

    In Malta, mathematics is often taught through code-switching between Maltese and English, mainly due to the use of textbooks published in the UK. The mixing of the languages has been a source of discussion for several years, with some educators accepting the mixed pattern, and others arguing in favour of using English alone. Furthermore, the…

  18. Evaluating and Improving Informal Assessment in the University Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlaska, Andrea; Krekeler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on previous research to identify a specific set of criteria for evaluating assessments for learning which are not trialled and for which the teacher is the only rater. The paper suggests that four criteria be used for the evaluation of assessment for learning in the language classroom: impact, fairness, activity, and feedback. The…

  19. Aids to English Language Teaching: Information Guide No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This is an annotated guide to English language instructional materials useful for both native and non-native speakers of English at primary and secondary levels. Materials relate to and are available in Great Britain; prices and addresses of publishers and suppliers are included. The sections cover: (1) Visual aids specifically designed for…

  20. El Espanol, una Lengua "Familiar." (Spanish, an Informal Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1976-01-01

    This article describes what is perceived as a gradual relaxation of language usage norms in Spanish, and calls for the creation of a center to help modernize technical Spanish and to minimize the intrusion of English technical vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  1. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  2. Cancer Fatalism, Literacy, and Cancer Information Seeking in the American Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Smith, Samuel G.

    2016-01-01

    Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer…

  3. Cancer Fatalism, Literacy, and Cancer Information Seeking in the American Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Smith, Samuel G.

    2016-01-01

    Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer…

  4. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources.

    PubMed

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy S L; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients' engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at 1-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical and clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease.

  5. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed.

  6. Information gathering over time by breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Melisa J; McCaul, Kevin D; Sandgren, Ann K

    2003-01-01

    Unlike many patients of the past, today's health-care users want to become more informed about their illnesses, and they want the most current information. The Internet has become a popular way to access current information, and since its introduction more people are turning to it to find medical information. Studies report that anywhere from 36% to 55% of the American population that use the Internet is using the Internet to research medical information, and these percentages have been rising. Cancer is 1 of the top 2 diseases about which people seek information on the Internet. Some studies have specifically asked whether breast cancer patients access the Internet for medical information; estimates range from 10% to 43% of breast cancer patients who use the Internet, with higher usage being associated with more education, greater income, and younger age. To identify where breast cancer patients find medical information about their illness and to track changes over time, from active treatment to survivorship status. Participants were 224 women who had been recently diagnosed with Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III breast cancer. Each woman was contacted approximately 8 months and 16 months after diagnosis and was asked about 10 different information sources they could have used to obtain information or support about their breast cancer. Eight months after diagnosis, the top 3 information sources used by women were books (64%), the Internet (49%), and videos (41%). However, at follow-up (16 months after diagnosis), the most frequently cited information source was the Internet (40%), followed by books (33%), and the American Cancer Society (17%). We found that women continued to use the Internet as a means of gathering information even after their treatment ended. Significant unique predictors of Internet use were more years of formal education and younger ages. Cancer stage was not a significant predictor of Internet use. Previous research has been mixed about the

  7. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Nastassja A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP)-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics. PMID:26199848

  8. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; McInnes, Bridget T

    2015-01-01

    Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP)-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  9. Do cancer-specific websites meet patient's information needs?

    PubMed

    Warren, Emily; Footman, Katharine; Tinelli, Michela; McKee, Martin; Knai, Cécile

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate commonly used cancer websites' information provision, we developed and applied an Information Comprehensiveness Tool to breast and prostate cancer websites. We first collated questions from a systematic literature review on patient information needs. We then classified the questions in terms of spectrum of care, theme, and nature of question. "Breast cancer" and "prostate cancer" were typed into Google, and websites listed on the first page of results were selected. Two researchers, blind to each others' scores, assessed the same websites using the coding system. Each question was scored on a 3-point scale as not (0%), partially (50%) and fully (100%) answered by two researchers. Average scores were calculated across all questions. Inter-rater reliability was assessed. We identified 79 general, 5 breast, and 5 prostate cancer questions. Inter-rater reliability was good, with an intraclass coefficient of 0.756 (95% CIs 0.729-0.781). 17 questions were not answered thoroughly by any website. Questions about "future planning", "monitoring", and "decision-making" were discussed least. Biomedical questions scored highest. More comprehensive information needs to be provided on breast and prostate cancer websites. This ICT can improve cancer information online and enable patients to engage more actively regarding their information needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not go away. Tests that examine the head, neck, and the inside of the mouth are used ... team of doctors who are experts in treating head and neck cancer. Your treatment will be overseen by a ...

  11. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  12. General Information about Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can rarely be completely removed by surgery. Palliative therapy may relieve symptoms and improve the patient's ... cancer from coming back. The following types of palliative surgery may be done to relieve symptoms caused ...

  13. General Information about Unusual Cancers of Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer ) cells form in the tissues of the larynx . The larynx is also called the voice box . It's the ... following: Laryngoscopy : A procedure to look at the larynx (voice box) for abnormal areas. A mirror or ...

  14. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  15. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  16. Looking beyond the Internet: examining socioeconomic inequalities in cancer information seeking among cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Ramírez, A Susana; Lewis, Nehama; Gray, Stacy W; Hornik, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The gap in cancer information seeking between high-socioeconomic-status (high-SES) cancer patients and low-SES cancer patients deserves serious attention, considering the importance of information and knowledge in cancer control. We thus explored the association of SES, as measured by education, with cancer patients' overall cancer information seeking, and with seeking from each source (i.e., the Internet, mass media, medical sources, and nonmedical interpersonal sources) and across two topic categories (i.e., treatment, quality of life). We then asked whether the effect of education on treatment information seeking is reduced among those who are particularly motivated to control treatment choices. We conducted a survey with breast, prostate, and colon cancer patients diagnosed in 2005 (n = 2,013), who were randomly drawn from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry in the fall of 2006. We found that education was more strongly associated with Internet use than with the use of other sources regardless of topics. Also, when information was sought from mass media, education had a greater association with treatment information seeking than with quality-of-life information seeking. Preference for active participation in treatment decision making, however, did not moderate the effect of education on treatment information seeking. The implications of these findings for public health research and cancer patient education were discussed.

  17. Collection of Biospecimen & Clinical Information in Patients w/ Gastrointestinal Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-24

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer

  18. Breast cancer patients' information needs and information-seeking behavior in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Kimiafar, Khalil; Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Shahid Sales, Soudabeh; Esmaeili, Mojtaba; Javame Ghazvini, Zohre

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women both around the world and in Iran. By studying the information needs of patients with breast cancer, the quality of the information provided for them can be improved. This study investigated the information needs of breast cancer patients and their information-seeking behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June, 2015. The research population was 120 women diagnosed with breast cancer and informed about their disease who referred to oncology outpatient clinics at a specialized cancer hospital and a radiotherapy oncology center in Mashhad (the only specialized cancer centers in eastern and northeastern Iran). Average participant age was 46.2 years (SD = 9.9). Eighty-five percent of patients desired more information about their disease. Results showed that the attending physician (mean = 3.76), television health channel (mean = 3.30), and other patients (mean = 3.06) were the most popular sources of information for breast cancer patients. Patients stated their strongest reasons for using information sources as achieving a better understanding of the disease (mean = 3.59), less anxiety (mean = 3.92), and curiosity to learn more about the disease (mean = 3.66), sequentially. Results further indicated that disease management (mean = 4.18) and nutritional options during treatment (mean = 4.14) were the most often mentioned areas in which patients required information, while knowing the progress rate of their disease was the least (mean = 3.73). It seems necessary to have a good, organized plan to provide breast cancer patients with information and increase their information literacy, one of their undeniable rights. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unpacking cancer patients' preferences for information about their care.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erin M; Varner, Ashley

    2017-08-08

    Patient-centered decision making requires cancer patients beactively involvedand feel sufficiently informed about their care, but patients'preferences for information are often unrecognizedor unmet by their oncologist, particularly for more distressing topics. This study examined cancer patients' preferences for information about three care-related topics: 1) diagnostic information, 2) treatment costs, and 3) prognosis. We tested whether factors known to influence information preferences (psychological distress, control preferences, and financial distress) were differently associated with information preferences for each topic. Cancer patients (N = 176) receiving ongoing treatment completed a questionnaire that assessed their out-of-pocket treatment costs, psychological distress, preferences for control over their medical decisions, and the amount of information they desired and received from their oncologists about the three topics. Patients' preferences were less often met for treatment cost information than for the other topics, p< .001, with half wanting more cost information than they received.One-third of patientsalso wanted more prognosticinformation than they received.Patients' preferences for diagnostic information did not differ as a function of financial burden, distress, or control preferences, ps> .05. Preferences for cost information were greater among patients who preferredmore control over their medical decisions, p = .016. Patients' preferences for prognostic information were greater among those desiring more control and with lower distress, ps< .05. Financial burden was not associated with information preferences. Appreciating the variability in information preferences across topics and patients may aid efforts to meet patients' information needs and improve outcomes.

  20. Cancer articles in weekly magazines: useful media to deliver cancer information to the public?

    PubMed

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Takita, Morihito; Kishi, Yukiko; Kodama, Yuko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Murashige, Naoko; Homma, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    Japanese weekly magazines, which have a circulation of over 2 700 000, play important roles in communicating with the public. They offer a wide range of information, entertainment, gossip, politics and economics, and often include articles on cancer. However, cancer articles in magazines have not been systematically analyzed. We investigated cancer-related articles and advertisements in six major Japanese weekly magazines to demonstrate trends in public interest regarding cancer. The total number of articles assessed from July 2009 to December 2010 was 36 914, of which 696 (1.9%) were cancer articles. The total number of advertisements was 21 718, of which 340 (1.6%) were related to cancer. The number of cancer articles demonstrated an upward trend during the study period. Articles focused on lung (n = 145) and urogenital cancer (n = 122). The most common content comprised therapies and diagnosis (n = 340) and case reports on individual patients (n = 160). After a famous Japanese comedian revealed his prostate cancer diagnosis, the number of articles on prostate cancer increased from 2.0 to 6.6 per month. Immunotherapy including some dubious folk therapies was the most frequently reported cancer therapy in articles and advertisements (30.4%). A small group of oncologists were repeatedly referred to in comment sources; 35.6% of comments were presented by only five doctors. Cancer articles in weekly magazines are common paper media for providing cancer information to the public. However, the information provided might place emphasis on unestablished treatments or biased opinions.

  1. Language Preferences on Websites and in Google Searches for Human Health and Food Information

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Punam Mony; Wight, Carly A; Sercinoglu, Olcan; Wilson, David C; Boytsov, Artem

    2007-01-01

    Background While it is known that the majority of pages on the World Wide Web are in English, little is known about the preferred language of users searching for health information online. Objectives (1) To help global and domestic publishers, for example health and food agencies, to determine the need for translation of online information from English into local languages. (2) To help these agencies determine which language(s) they should select when publishing information online in target nations and for target subpopulations within nations. Methods To estimate the percentage of Web publishers that translate their health and food websites, we measured the frequency at which domain names retrieved by Google overlap for language translations of the same health-related search term. To quantify language choice of searchers from different countries, Google provided estimates of the rate at which its search engine was queried in six languages relative to English for the terms “avian flu,” “tuberculosis,” “schizophrenia,” and “maize” (corn) from January 2004 to April 2006. The estimate was based on a 20% sample of all Google queries from 227 nations. Results We estimate that 80%-90% of health- and food-related institutions do not translate their websites into multiple languages, even when the information concerns pandemic disease such as avian influenza. Although Internet users are often well-educated, there was a strong preference for searching for health and food information in the local language, rather than English. For “avian flu,” we found that only 1% of searches in non-English-speaking nations were in English, whereas for “tuberculosis” or “schizophrenia,” about 4%-40% of searches in non-English countries employed English. A subset of searches for health information presumably originating from immigrants occurred in their native tongue, not the language of the adopted country. However, Spanish-language online searches for “avian flu

  2. 75 FR 13751 - Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... exclusively teach one or more of the following less commonly taught languages: Arabic, Chinese, Korean... includes a thorough, high-quality review of the relevant literature, a high- quality plan for project... relevant literature, including a review of available curriculum, instructional materials, and...

  3. Readers Use Black Newspapers for Health/Cancer Information

    PubMed Central

    Len-Ríos, María E.; Cohen, Elisia; Caburnay, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of readers of black newspapers shows that whether readers depend on black newspapers for cancer and health information depends on their black newspaper use, black self-identity and general media dependency. PMID:21833156

  4. Impact of patient and navigator race and language concordance on care after cancer screening abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Charlot, Marjory; Santana, M Christina; Chen, Clara A; Bak, Sharon; Heeren, Timothy C; Battaglia, Tracy A; Egan, A Patrick; Kalish, Richard; Freund, Karen M

    2015-05-01

    Patient navigation improves the timely diagnosis of cancer among minorities, but little is known about the effects of patient and navigator race and language concordance on health outcomes. The authors investigated the effects of patient and navigator race and language concordance on the time to diagnosis of cancer screening abnormalities among participants in the Boston Patient Navigation Research Program, a clinical effectiveness trial for women who had breast or cervical cancer screening abnormalities identified from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using proportional hazards regression adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. In total, 1257 women had breast cancer screening abnormalities (n = 655) or cervical cancer screening abnormalities (n = 602) identified, and 56% were nonwhite. Language concordance was associated with timelier resolution for all patients in the cervical cancer screening abnormalities group during the first 90 days (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.80), and specifically for Spanish speakers during the first 90 days (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.84), but no difference was observed after 90 days for women who had cervical cancer screening abnormalities or at any time for those who had breast cancer screening abnormalities. Race concordance was associated with significant decreases in the time to diagnosis for minority women with breast and cervical cancer screening abnormalities in analyses stratified by race, but no differences were observed in analyses that included all women. Patient navigator race and language concordance improved the timeliness of care in a minority population. Patient navigators who are racially/ethnically diverse and multilingual may help address barriers to care and improve cancer outcomes for low-income minorities. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  5. Domain-General Mechanisms for Speech Segmentation: The Role of Duration Information in Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Speech segmentation is supported by multiple sources of information that may either inform language processing specifically, or serve learning more broadly. The Iambic/Trochaic Law (ITL), where increased duration indicates the end of a group and increased emphasis indicates the beginning of a group, has been proposed as a domain-general mechanism that also applies to language. However, language background has been suggested to modulate use of the ITL, meaning that these perceptual grouping preferences may instead be a consequence of language exposure. To distinguish between these accounts, we exposed native-English and native-Japanese listeners to sequences of speech (Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (Experiment 2), and examined segmentation using a 2AFC task. Duration was manipulated over 3 conditions: sequences contained either an initial-item duration increase, or a final-item duration increase, or items of uniform duration. In Experiment 1, language background did not affect the use of duration as a cue for segmenting speech in a structured artificial language. In Experiment 2, the same results were found for grouping structured sequences of visual shapes. The results are consistent with proposals that duration information draws upon a domain-general mechanism that can apply to the special case of language acquisition. PMID:27893268

  6. Domain-general mechanisms for speech segmentation: The role of duration information in language learning.

    PubMed

    Frost, Rebecca L A; Monaghan, Padraic; Tatsumi, Tomoko

    2017-03-01

    Speech segmentation is supported by multiple sources of information that may either inform language processing specifically, or serve learning more broadly. The Iambic/Trochaic Law (ITL), where increased duration indicates the end of a group and increased emphasis indicates the beginning of a group, has been proposed as a domain-general mechanism that also applies to language. However, language background has been suggested to modulate use of the ITL, meaning that these perceptual grouping preferences may instead be a consequence of language exposure. To distinguish between these accounts, we exposed native-English and native-Japanese listeners to sequences of speech (Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (Experiment 2), and examined segmentation using a 2AFC task. Duration was manipulated over 3 conditions: sequences contained either an initial-item duration increase, or a final-item duration increase, or items of uniform duration. In Experiment 1, language background did not affect the use of duration as a cue for segmenting speech in a structured artificial language. In Experiment 2, the same results were found for grouping structured sequences of visual shapes. The results are consistent with proposals that duration information draws upon a domain-general mechanism that can apply to the special case of language acquisition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Information theoretic sub-network mining characterizes breast cancer subtypes in terms of cancer core mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinwoo; Hur, Benjamin; Rhee, Sungmin; Lim, Sangsoo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Kwangsoo; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sun

    2016-10-01

    A breast cancer subtype classification scheme, PAM50, based on genetic information is widely accepted for clinical applications. On the other hands, experimental cancer biology studies have been successful in revealing the mechanisms of breast cancer and now the hallmarks of cancer have been determined to explain the core mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Thus, it is important to understand how the breast cancer subtypes are related to the cancer core mechanisms, but multiple studies are yet to address the hallmarks of breast cancer subtypes. Therefore, a new approach that can explain the differences among breast cancer subtypes in terms of cancer hallmarks is needed. We developed an information theoretic sub-network mining algorithm, differentially expressed sub-network and pathway analysis (DeSPA), that retrieves tumor-related genes by mining a gene regulatory network (GRN) of transcription factors and miRNAs. With extensive experiments of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) breast cancer sequencing data, we showed that our approach was able to select genes that belong to cancer core pathways such as DNA replication, cell cycle, p53 pathways while keeping the accuracy of breast cancer subtype classification comparable to that of PAM50. In addition, our method produces a regulatory network of TF, miRNA, and their target genes that distinguish breast cancer subtypes, which is confirmed by experimental studies in the literature.

  8. Home bowel cancer tests and informed choice--is current information sufficient?

    PubMed

    Howard, K; Salkeld, G

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the type of information that is available to purchasers of home-based bowel cancer test kits. Manufacturers, pharmacies and independent testing programs were contacted to obtain faecal occult blood test (FOBT) kits. State cancer organisations were contacted for information on bowel cancer screening. Information on bowel cancer, the FOBT kit, the testing process and potential benefits and harms of the screening process were assessed using guidelines provided by the UK General Medical Council (GMC). FOBT kits and cancer organisation information provided adequate information on the purpose of screening, the screening process itself and potential benefits, but provided no information concerning uncertainties of screening or potential harms. On the basis of both the UK GMC criteria and patient desires for information, the information available at present falls short of being considered adequate for an informed decision to purchase a home-based FOBT. We must ensure adequate and balanced information is available to redress the present information asymmetry to facilitate informed participation in a potentially valuable public health initiative.

  9. Improving the Deaf community's access to prostate and testicular cancer information: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    Folkins, Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine; Branz, Patricia; Marsh, Shane; Bovee, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background Members of the Deaf community face communication barriers to accessing health information. To resolve these inequalities, educational programs must be designed in the appropriate format and language to meet their needs. Methods Deaf men (102) were surveyed before, immediately following, and two months after viewing a 52-minute prostate and testicular cancer video in American Sign Language (ASL) with open text captioning and voice overlay. To provide the Deaf community with information equivalent to that available to the hearing community, the video addressed two cancer topics in depth. While the inclusion of two cancer topics lengthened the video, it was anticipated to reduce redundancy and encourage men of diverse ages to learn in a supportive, culturally aligned environment while also covering more topics within the partnership's limited budget. Survey data were analyzed to evaluate the video's impact on viewers' pre- and post-intervention understanding of prostate and testicular cancers, as well as respondents' satisfaction with the video, exposure to and use of early detection services, and sources of cancer information. Results From baseline to immediately post-intervention, participants' overall knowledge increased significantly, and this gain was maintained at the two-month follow-up. Men of diverse ages were successfully recruited, and this worked effectively as a support group. However, combining two complex cancer topics, in depth, in one video appeared to make it more difficult for participants to retain as many relevant details specific to each cancer. Participants related that there was so much information that they would need to watch the video more than once to understand each topic fully. When surveyed about their best sources of health information, participants ranked doctors first and showed a preference for active rather than passive methods of learning. Conclusion After viewing this ASL video, participants showed significant increases

  10. Standard pediatric oncology data and information technology: necessities for cancer care management.

    PubMed

    Maserat, Elham; Rahimi, Mehrdad Mirza; Maserat, Elnaz; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in children and survivors require life time follow-up. There is a growing recognition of the need to base cancer control policies on accurate, detailed and timely information on cancer management and outcomes. Coordination and central documentation ensure quality of treatment and permit clinical and scientific investigations. The combined data thus obtained create a comprehensive picture of disease, leading to more effective prevention and cure. Medical information can be gathered, processed and analyzed in different ways and the importance of precise language cannot be overestimated. All medical activity arises from the ability to observe and communicate intelligibly and a lack of standardized documentation leads to insufficient integration of clinical work. The Minimal Standard data set is the result of a global effort to establish a common structure and vocabulary for electronic reports. In addition, information technology combines research aspects of decision support and clinical documentation, allowing formal representation of general protocols, calculating of a particular therapy for a patient, data acquisition in the clinics. Our aim in this papers is to stress the need for standard pediatric oncology data and information technology as an approach to cancer care management.

  11. Infants’ Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language

    PubMed Central

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants’ preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants’ looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants’ allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment. PMID:27536263

  12. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    PubMed

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment.

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Cancer-Related Information Seeking among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    SMITH-McLALLEN, AARON; FISHBEIN, MARTIN; HORNIK, ROBERT C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the utility of using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction as a framework for predicting cancer patients’ intentions to seek information about their cancer from sources other than a physician, and to examine the relation between patient’s baseline intentions to seek information and their actual seeking behavior at follow-up. Within one year of their diagnosis with colon, breast, or prostate cancer, 1641 patients responded to a mailed questionnaire assessing intentions to seek cancer-related information from a source other than their doctor, as well as their attitudes, perceived normative pressure, and perceived behavioral control with respect to this behavior. In addition, the survey assessed their cancer-related information seeking. One year later, 1049 of these patients responded to a follow-up survey assessing cancer-related information seeking during the previous year. Attitudes, perceived normative pressure, and perceived behavioral control were predictive of information seeking intentions, though attitudes emerged as the primary predictor. Intentions to seek information, perceived normative pressure regarding information seeking, baseline information seeking behavior, and being diagnosed with stage 4 cancer were predictive of actual information seeking behavior at follow-up. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:21207310

  14. African Americans’ and Hispanics’ Information Needs About Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations’ informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N=45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation. PMID:25189798

  15. African Americans' and Hispanics' information needs about cancer care.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation.

  16. Big data for population-based cancer research: the integrated cancer information and surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary 'team science' approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health.

  17. Spanish-Language Consumer Health Information Technology Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chaet, Alexis V; Morshedi, Bijan; Wells, Kristen J; Barnes, Laura E; Valdez, Rupa

    2016-08-10

    As consumer health information technology (IT) becomes more thoroughly integrated into patient care, it is critical that these tools are appropriate for the diverse patient populations whom they are intended to serve. Cultural differences associated with ethnicity are one aspect of diversity that may play a role in user-technology interactions. Our aim was to evaluate the current scope of consumer health IT interventions targeted to the US Spanish-speaking Latino population and to characterize these interventions in terms of technological attributes, health domains, cultural tailoring, and evaluation metrics. A narrative synthesis was conducted of existing Spanish-language consumer health IT interventions indexed within health and computer science databases. Database searches were limited to English-language articles published between January 1990 and September 2015. Studies were included if they detailed an assessment of a patient-centered electronic technology intervention targeting health within the US Spanish-speaking Latino population. Included studies were required to have a majority Latino population sample. The following were extracted from articles: first author's last name, publication year, population characteristics, journal domain, health domain, technology platform and functionality, available languages of intervention, US region, cultural tailoring, intervention delivery location, study design, and evaluation metrics. We included 42 studies in the review. Most of the studies were published between 2009 and 2015 and had a majority percentage of female study participants. The mean age of participants ranged from 15 to 68. Interventions most commonly focused on urban population centers and within the western region of the United States. Of articles specifying a technology domain, computer was found to be most common; however, a fairly even distribution across all technologies was noted. Cancer, diabetes, and child, infant, or maternal health were the

  18. Spanish-Language Consumer Health Information Technology Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaet, Alexis V; Morshedi, Bijan; Wells, Kristen J; Barnes, Laura E

    2016-01-01

    Background As consumer health information technology (IT) becomes more thoroughly integrated into patient care, it is critical that these tools are appropriate for the diverse patient populations whom they are intended to serve. Cultural differences associated with ethnicity are one aspect of diversity that may play a role in user-technology interactions. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the current scope of consumer health IT interventions targeted to the US Spanish-speaking Latino population and to characterize these interventions in terms of technological attributes, health domains, cultural tailoring, and evaluation metrics. Methods A narrative synthesis was conducted of existing Spanish-language consumer health IT interventions indexed within health and computer science databases. Database searches were limited to English-language articles published between January 1990 and September 2015. Studies were included if they detailed an assessment of a patient-centered electronic technology intervention targeting health within the US Spanish-speaking Latino population. Included studies were required to have a majority Latino population sample. The following were extracted from articles: first author’s last name, publication year, population characteristics, journal domain, health domain, technology platform and functionality, available languages of intervention, US region, cultural tailoring, intervention delivery location, study design, and evaluation metrics. Results We included 42 studies in the review. Most of the studies were published between 2009 and 2015 and had a majority percentage of female study participants. The mean age of participants ranged from 15 to 68. Interventions most commonly focused on urban population centers and within the western region of the United States. Of articles specifying a technology domain, computer was found to be most common; however, a fairly even distribution across all technologies was noted. Cancer, diabetes, and child

  19. Supporting cancer patients' unanchored health information management with mobile technology.

    PubMed

    Klasnja, Predrag; Hartzler, Andrea; Powell, Christopher; Pratt, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from home, when they are experiencing pain or treatment side effects, or when their abilities to deal with information effectively are otherwise impaired. In this paper, we describe the results from a four-week evaluation of HealthWeaver Mobile, a mobile phone application that we developed to support such "unanchored" patient information activities. Based on experiences from nine cancer patients, our results indicate that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture information whenever a need arises, and to share information with clinicians during clinic visits. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more confident in their ability to stay in control of their information and their health.

  20. Supporting cancer patients’ unanchored health information management with mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Klasnja, Predrag; Hartzler, Andrea; Powell, Christopher; Pratt, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from home, when they are experiencing pain or treatment side effects, or when their abilities to deal with information effectively are otherwise impaired. In this paper, we describe the results from a four-week evaluation of HealthWeaver Mobile, a mobile phone application that we developed to support such “unanchored” patient information activities. Based on experiences from nine cancer patients, our results indicate that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture information whenever a need arises, and to share information with clinicians during clinic visits. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more confident in their ability to stay in control of their information and their health. PMID:22195130

  1. Cancer registration using case history database in hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Nose, Y; Akazawa, K; Watanabe, Y; Yokota, M; Okamura, S; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1988-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for hospital cancer registration, although being effective for combating the disease, need heavy manpower for complete implementation. A computer-based method for cancer registration is in use at Kyushu University Hospital as part of the integrated hospital information system. This method needs no manpower for data gathering, and the database includes almost all the core data and half of optional data recommended for cancer registration by the WHO. This database can, therefore, be regarded as a file for hospital cancer registration, and is used for two applications. The prepared form is automatically completed for the regional cancer register by a computer program without involving any physicians' time. In addition, a decision support system for the protocol used for a patient with a cancer was developed. Trendtables and graphs of clinical examination and medication are displayed, with suggestions and warning for physicians to help them make clinical decisions.

  2. Toxicological information on chemicals published in the Russian language: Contribution to REACH and 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kahru, Anne

    2009-07-28

    This review is reporting on the current situation of publicly available toxicological and ecotoxicological information on chemicals published in Russian language in various libraries, databases as well as in the Internet. This information can be beneficial for the new EU chemical policy REACH and for the development of intelligent testing strategies (involving also QSAR and QAAR) that enable a significant increase in the use of non-testing information for regulatory decision making, thus minimizing the need for animal testing according to the 3R's strategy. Currently, the access to this information is limited due to the language barrier and low level of digitalization of respective journals and books. Fortunately, on-line translation services are overcoming language barriers already now.

  3. Balancing Effort and Information Transmission During Language Acquisition: Evidence From Word Order and Case Marking.

    PubMed

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Newport, Elissa L; Jaeger, T Florian

    2017-03-01

    Across languages of the world, some grammatical patterns have been argued to be more common than expected by chance. These are sometimes referred to as (statistical) language universals. One such universal is the correlation between constituent order freedom and the presence of a case system in a language. Here, we explore whether this correlation can be explained by a bias to balance production effort and informativity of cues to grammatical function. Two groups of learners were presented with miniature artificial languages containing optional case marking and either flexible or fixed constituent order. Learners of the flexible order language used case marking significantly more often. This result parallels the typological correlation between constituent order flexibility and the presence of case marking in a language and provides a possible explanation for the historical development of Old English to Modern English, from flexible constituent order with case marking to relatively fixed order without case marking. In addition, learners of the flexible order language conditioned case marking on constituent order, using more case marking with the cross-linguistically less frequent order, again mirroring typological data. These results suggest that some cross-linguistic generalizations originate in functionally motivated biases operating during language learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Integrating Programming Language and Operating System Information Security Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-31

    architecture to reason about information security. ACM...least 6 by PI Chong) on Shill and related research, including at Cornell University, NII Shonan ( Japan ), and Brown University. o Postdoctoral Fellow...of application architecture to enforce high-level application-specific information security guarantees (Chong and van der Meyden, 2015), the use

  5. Interaction between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…

  6. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  7. Interaction between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…

  8. Readability Statistics of Patient Information Leaflets in a Speech and Language Therapy Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothier, Louise; Day, Rachael; Harris, Catherine; Pothier, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Information leaflets are commonly used in Speech and Language Therapy Departments. Despite widespread use, they can be of variable quality. Aims: To revise current departmental leaflets using the National Health Service (NHS) Toolkit for Producing Patient Information and to test the effect that this has on the readability scores of the…

  9. Readability Statistics of Patient Information Leaflets in a Speech and Language Therapy Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothier, Louise; Day, Rachael; Harris, Catherine; Pothier, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Information leaflets are commonly used in Speech and Language Therapy Departments. Despite widespread use, they can be of variable quality. Aims: To revise current departmental leaflets using the National Health Service (NHS) Toolkit for Producing Patient Information and to test the effect that this has on the readability scores of the…

  10. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  11. The Information Seeking and Use of English Language Learners in a High School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Un

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the information seeking and use behaviors of English language learners (ELLs) while performing a research task, using Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and Kuhlthau's Information Search Process as theoretical frameworks. The research tasks implemented in this study were curriculum based units where students engaged a…

  12. Facilitating informed decision making about breast cancer risk and genetic counseling among women calling the NCI's Cancer Information Service.

    PubMed

    Miller, Suzanne M; Fleisher, Linda; Roussi, Pagona; Buzaglo, Joanne S; Schnoll, Robert; Slater, Elyse; Raysor, Susan; Popa-Mabe, Melania

    2005-01-01

    Despite increased interest among the public in breast cancer genetic risk and genetic testing, there are limited services to help women make informed decisions about genetic testing. This study, conducted with female callers (N = 279) to the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Atlantic Region Cancer Information Service (CIS), developed and evaluated a theory-based, educational intervention designed to increase callers' understanding of the following: (a) the kinds of information required to determine inherited risk; (b) their own personal family history of cancer; and (c) the benefits and limitations of genetic testing. Callers requesting information about breast/ovarian cancer risk, risk assessment services, and genetic testing were randomized to either: (1) standard care or (2) an educational intervention. Results show that the educational intervention reduced intention to obtain genetic testing among women at average risk and increased intention among high-risk women at 6 months. In addition, high monitors, who typically attend to and seek information, demonstrated greater increases in knowledge and perceived risk over the 6-month interval than low monitors, who typically are distracted from information. These findings suggest that theoretically designed interventions can be effective in helping women understand their cancer risk and appropriate risk assessment options and can be implemented successfully within a service program like the CIS.

  13. The Information Needs of South African Parents of Children With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Maree, Johanna E; Parker, Sarah; Kaplan, Lara; Oosthuizen, Juanita

    2016-01-01

    Information is an important need in order for parents to be empowered to face their child's cancer condition. To explore the information needs of parents of children with cancer treated at an academic hospital in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, a descriptive phenomenological design was selected. The study setting was an academic hospital in Johannesburg and purposive sampling included 13 parents who spoke English and were willing to participate in the study. Qualitative interviews were conducted and thematic analyses were used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the data: the shock of the diagnosis, information needs about the disease and investigations, living with the treatment, and communication of the information. There was no consensus on which information was needed at specific points in time and parents had different opinions on how information should be made available to them. Continuous assessment allowing individualized information, according to the preference of the parents in the language of choice, could possibly meet their information needs.

  14. Cancer Fatalism, Literacy, and Cancer Information Seeking in the American Public.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Smith, Samuel G

    2016-08-01

    Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer fatalism can be described as deterministic thoughts about the external causes of the disease, the inability to prevent it, and the inevitability of death at diagnosis. This study aimed to examine the associations between these constructs and sociodemographic factors, and test a mediation model using the American population-representative Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS 4), Cycle 3 (n = 2,657). Approximately one third (34%) of the population failed to answer 2/4 health literacy items correctly (limited health literacy). Many participants agreed with the fatalistic beliefs that it seems like everything causes cancer (66%), that one cannot do much to lower his or her chances of getting cancer (29%), and that thinking about cancer makes one automatically think about death (58%). More than half of the population had "ever" sought information about cancer (53%). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and family cancer history, people with limited health literacy were less likely to have ever sought cancer information (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 0.42-0.95) and more frequently endorsed the belief that "there's not much you can do . . ." (OR = 1.61; 1.05-2.47). This fatalistic belief partially explained the relationship between health literacy and information seeking in the mediation model (14% mediation). Interventions are needed to address low health literacy and cancer fatalism to increase public interest in cancer-related information. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Protocol Information Office (PIO) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    PIO Instructions and Tools Find instructions, forms, and templates for the management of all types of Division of Cancer Prevention clinical trials.Read more about PIO Instructions and Tools Clinical Trials Reference Materials Model clinical agreements, human subject protection and informed consent models, gender and minority inclusion information, and monitoring policy and guidelines.Read more about ClinicalTrials Reference Materials |

  16. Bilingual Cancer Information: Access Is the First Line of Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreault, Patrick; Palmer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Information about cancer, the disease that kills more Americans than any other except heart disease, is essential. In some ways, information is our first line of defense. It allows us to identify individual risk factors, to note when a problem means we should see a professional, and to avoid activities that might put us at risk. However,…

  17. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  18. Side effects of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients : The Internet as an information source.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Käsmann, L; Fahlbusch, F B; Rades, D; Vordermark, D

    2017-08-30

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women necessitating adjuvant radiotherapy. As the Internet has become a major source of information for cancer patients, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of websites giving information on side effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. A patients' search for the English terms "breast cancer - radiotherapy - side effects" and the corresponding German terms "Brustkrebs - Strahlentherapie - Nebenwirkungen" was carried out twice (5 months apart) using the search engine Google. The first 30 search results each were evaluated using the validated 16-question DISCERN Plus instrument, the Health on the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria. The overall quality (DISCERN score) of the retrieved websites was further compared to queries via Bing and Yahoo search engines. The DISCERN score showed a great range, with the majority of websites ranking fair to poor. Significantly superior results were found for English websites, particularly for webpages run by hospitals/universities and nongovernmental organizations (NGO), when compared to the respective German categories. In general, only a minority of websites met all JAMA benchmarks and was HONcode certified (both languages). We did not determine a relevant temporal change in website ranking among the top ten search hits, while significant variation occurred thereafter. Mean overall DISCERN score was similar between the various search engines. The Internet can give breast cancer patients seeking information on side effects of radiotherapy an overview. However, based on the currently low overall quality of websites and the lack of transparency for the average layperson, we emphasize the value of personal contact with the treating radio-oncologist in order to integrate and interpret the information found online.

  19. Effect of Tribal Language Use on Colorectal Cancer Screening among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Angela A.; Garroutte, Eva; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-01-01

    American Indians have one of the lowest colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates for any racial/ethnic group in the U.S., yet reasons for their low screening participation are poorly understood. Limited English language use may create barriers to cancer screening in Hispanic and other ethnic minority immigrant populations; the extent to which this hypothesis is generalizable to American Indians is unknown. We examine whether tribal (indigenous) language use is associated with knowledge and use of CRC screening in a community-based sample of American Indians. Using logistic regression to estimate the association between tribal language use and CRC test knowledge and receipt we found participants speaking primarily English were no more aware of CRC screening tests than those speaking primarily a tribal language (OR=1.16 [0.29, 4.63]). Participants who spoke only a tribal language at home (OR=1.09 [0.30, 4.00]) and those who spoke both a tribal language and English (OR=1.74 [0.62, 4.88]) also showed comparable rates of knowledge and receipt of CRC screening. Study findings failed to support the concept that primary use of a tribal language is a barrier to CRC screening among American Indians. PMID:22402926

  20. Literature Review on Diabetes Internet-based Spanish-Language Information.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Judith; Tejada, Karen; Acosta-Melo, Mariel

    2017-03-15

    Diabetes is a growing epidemic that is affecting Hispanics in high rates. Although Hispanics use the internet for health-related informational and educational purposes, there is a lack of information available in the Spanish-language. A review was conducted to examine the literature on internet-based, Spanish-language, diabetes focused information. One search was conducted, using three different databases (i.e. CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed). The search used the keywords diabetes, internet, and Spanish, and was based on published articles from January 1, 2005 to June 30, 2016. Of the 46 articles reviewed, one was a duplicate, and 41 were eliminated. These findings show a lack of data and research on Spanish-language, internet-based diabetes informational and educational sites. Qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to develop and examine Spanish-language diabetes internet sites and the health-related impact they have on Hispanics who prefer Spanish-language sites. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Selecting the Best Mobile Information Service with Natural Language User Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qiangze; Qi, Hongwei; Fukushima, Toshikazu

    Information services accessed via mobile phones provide information directly relevant to subscribers’ daily lives and are an area of dynamic market growth worldwide. Although many information services are currently offered by mobile operators, many of the existing solutions require a unique gateway for each service, and it is inconvenient for users to have to remember a large number of such gateways. Furthermore, the Short Message Service (SMS) is very popular in China and Chinese users would prefer to access these services in natural language via SMS. This chapter describes a Natural Language Based Service Selection System (NL3S) for use with a large number of mobile information services. The system can accept user queries in natural language and navigate it to the required service. Since it is difficult for existing methods to achieve high accuracy and high coverage and anticipate which other services a user might want to query, the NL3S is developed based on a Multi-service Ontology (MO) and Multi-service Query Language (MQL). The MO and MQL provide semantic and linguistic knowledge, respectively, to facilitate service selection for a user query and to provide adaptive service recommendations. Experiments show that the NL3S can achieve 75-95% accuracies and 85-95% satisfactions for processing various styles of natural language queries. A trial involving navigation of 30 different mobile services shows that the NL3S can provide a viable commercial solution for mobile operators.

  2. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic predictors of cancer-related information sources used by cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    With 14 million cancer survivors in the United States, identifying and categorizing their use of sources of cancer-related information is vital for targeting effective communications to this growing population. In addition, recognizing socioeconomic and sociodemographic differences in the use of cancer-related information sources is a potential mechanism for reducing health disparities in survivorship. Fourteen sources of information survivors (N = 519) used for cancer-related information were factor-analyzed to create a taxonomy of source use. The association between social determinants and use of these source types was analyzed in regression models. Factor analysis revealed 5 categories of information source use (mass media; Internet and print; support organizations; family and friends; health care providers), and use varied based on sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Higher education predicted increased use of all source categories except mass media. African American cancer survivors turned to health care providers as a source for cancer-related information less often than did White survivors. Social determinants predicted differences in the type of cancer-related information sources used. Providers and health communicators should target communication platforms based on the demographic profile of specific survivor audiences.

  3. [Quality of diagnosis information given to terminal cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Font-Ritort, Sergi; Martos-Gutiérrez, José Antonio; Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Mundet-Pons, Lluís

    To determine the information that terminal cancer patients have about their diagnosis, identifying key words used, and quantifying the conspiracy of silence. A cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted by reviewing the hospice support team data base which contains the medical history and a semi-structured interview with terminal cancer patients in the first visit to the hospice. Demographic and socioeconomic data was collected, as well as relevant clinical information (diagnosis, prevalent symptoms, number of symptoms, patient functionality, QoL, information given, and words used). Out of total of sample of 723 records, 77.87% (95% CI: 74.70-80.74) of the patients were properly informed about their diagnosis. The most used words were cancer in 26% of the patients, tumour in 51.59%, and for the remaining 10.65%, the word inflammation was used. Statistically significant differences of information were found between sexes, age, types of cancer, and hospital ward. Terminal cancer patients have knowledge on their diagnosis, suggesting that the conspiracy of silence is present to a lesser extent. This knowledge is transmitted using different words and with euphemisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Satisfaction with information and unmet information needs in men and women with cancer.

    PubMed

    Faller, Hermann; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Szalai, Carina; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    Information needs in cancer patients are high but often not fulfilled. This study aimed to examine the level of perceived information, information satisfaction, and unmet needs in a large sample of cancer patients. Further, we explored associations with emotional distress and quality of life accounting for gender. In a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Germany, 4020 cancer patients (mean age 58 years, 51 % women) were evaluated. We obtained self-reports of information level, information satisfaction, and unmet needs, measured depressive symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), symptoms of anxiety with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and health-related quality of life with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Seventy-two to 88 % of participants reported to be well informed regarding various aspects of their disease, except of psychological support (38 %). However, unmet information needs were also prevalent in 36 to 48 %. Gender differences found were generally small. Although men felt less informed about psychological support, they expressed fewer needs for further information regarding this topic. Irrespective of gender, patients who were less satisfied with information received and had more unmet needs reported more anxiety, depression, and lower quality of life. Up to three quarters of those classified as most severely distressed reported unmet needs for information about psychological support. In this largest study to date, we found high levels of both information received and satisfaction with information, but also considerable amounts of unmet needs, particularly regarding psychological support. Provision of information about psychosocial support seems important to increase utilization of support offers among distressed cancer survivors.

  5. Survivorship Care Plan Information Needs: Perspectives of Safety-Net Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Napoles, Tessa M.; Banks, Priscilla J.; Orenstein, Fern S.; Luce, Judith A.; Joseph, Galen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) 2005 recommendation, few care organizations have instituted standard survivorship care plans (SCPs). Low health literacy and low English proficiency are important factors to consider in SCP development. Our study aimed to identify information needs and survivorship care plan preferences of low literacy, multi-lingual patients to support the transition from oncology to primary care and ongoing learning in survivorship. Methods We conducted focus groups in five languages with African American, Latina, Russian, Filipina, White, and Chinese medically underserved breast cancer patients. Topics explored included the transition to primary care, access to information, knowledge of treatment history, and perspectives on SCPs. Results Analysis of focus group data identified three themes: 1) the need for information and education on the transition between “active treatment” and “survivorship”; 2) information needed (and often not obtained) from providers; and 3) perspectives on SCP content and delivery. Conclusions Our data point to the need to develop a process as well as written information for medically underserved breast cancer patients. An SCP document will not replace direct communication with providers about treatment, symptom management and transition, a communication that is missing in participating safety-net patients’ experiences of cancer care. Women turned to peer support and community-based organizations in the absence of information from providers. Implications for Cancer Survivors “Clear and effective” communication of survivorship care for safety-net patients requires dedicated staff trained to address wide-ranging information needs and uncertainties. PMID:27992491

  6. Integrating Linguistic, Motor, and Perceptual Information in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Austin F.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers show remarkable adaptability in updating and correcting their utterances in response to changes in the environment. When an interlocutor raises an eyebrow or the AC kicks on and introduces ambient noise, it seems that speakers are able to quickly integrate this information into their speech plans and adapt appropriately. This ability to…

  7. A Study of Contextualised Mobile Information Delivery for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Tim; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices offer unique opportunities to deliver learning content in authentic learning situations. Apart from being able to play various kinds of rich multimedia content, they offer new ways of tailoring information to the learner's situation or context. This paper presents the results of a study of mobile media delivery for language…

  8. Integrating Linguistic, Motor, and Perceptual Information in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Austin F.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers show remarkable adaptability in updating and correcting their utterances in response to changes in the environment. When an interlocutor raises an eyebrow or the AC kicks on and introduces ambient noise, it seems that speakers are able to quickly integrate this information into their speech plans and adapt appropriately. This ability to…

  9. Information Retrieval for Education: Making Search Engines Language Aware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Niels; Meurers, Detmar

    2010-01-01

    Search engines have been a major factor in making the web the successful and widely used information source it is today. Generally speaking, they make it possible to retrieve web pages on a topic specified by the keywords entered by the user. Yet web searching currently does not take into account which of the search results are comprehensible for…

  10. A Study of Contextualised Mobile Information Delivery for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Tim; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices offer unique opportunities to deliver learning content in authentic learning situations. Apart from being able to play various kinds of rich multimedia content, they offer new ways of tailoring information to the learner's situation or context. This paper presents the results of a study of mobile media delivery for language…

  11. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  12. Screening for prostate cancer. How can patients give informed consent?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Many urologists in North America are increasingly enthusiastic about prostatic cancer screening. Annual digital rectal examination is almost universally endorsed, and prostate-specific antigen testing is favored by most. But doctors really should not screen by either method without patients' informed consent. However, the information required for informed consent is complex and contradictory, difficult for physicians to give and for patients to absorb. PMID:7505673

  13. Bilingual children in language units: does having 'well-informed' parents make a difference?

    PubMed

    Crutchley, A

    2000-01-01

    Findings from a large-cohort study of children with speech and language impairments in language units attached to primary schools across England have suggested that in 11% of the cohort who were bilingual form a subgroup with distinct characteristics. In particular, bilingual children's language difficulties seemed to be more complex and possibly more severe than those of their monolingual peers. It was suggested that these findings might reflect differences in the way that the bilingual children were identified and assessed for speech and language difficulties. Parents of the bilingual children in the original study were interviewed to explore the kind of experiences they had with the identification and assessment process. Differences were found between the bilingual parents and a group of monolingual parents who were also interviewed. Moreover, differences were found between two subgroups of the bilingual parents: those who were 'more informed' and 'less informed' about the process. These differences were found to be related to several other factors, including attitudes to language use within the family and the nature of the parents' relationship with the language unit.

  14. Jordanian cancer patients' information needs and information-seeking behaviour: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Al Qadire, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    Cancer diagnosis can leave patients with uncertainty and anxiety that can be reduced by providing timely information and effective communication. Despite information provision being highly important in improving the quality of provided care, no study had been conducted to assess the information needs of Jordanian cancer patients. To investigate the information needs of Jordanian cancer patients. A quantitative research method and a descriptive cross-sectional survey design were used. The sample consisted of 182 Jordanian cancer patients. Participants were recruited from two hospitals; one of them was a university hospital and the second was governmental hospital. The mean age was 46.5 (SD 15.8 years); 52% of the sample were males. In addition, 38% of the patients had haematological tumours and 20% had gastro-intestinal tumours. The majority (157) wanted information about cancer. The results showed that patients would like to know everything about their disease (mean = 3.1, SD 0.9) and medical tests (mean = 3.0, SD 1.0). The results also revealed that younger patients, those who were working, and those with a high income had high information needs. However, patients who had reached the stage of palliative care seemed to require a lesser amount of information than those in the early stage of treatment. Many factors may cause variations in patients' information-seeking behaviour. Therefore, a notational policy for information provision is needed to satisfy different patients' information needs. Healthcare providers should be aware that cancer patients' will continue to need information at all stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Verbal Working Memory and Language Production: Common Approaches to the Serial Ordering of Verbal Information

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by the language production architecture, in which positional, lexical, and phonological similarity constraints are highly similar to those identified in the WM literature. These behavioral similarities are paralleled in computational modeling of serial ordering in both fields. The role of long-term learning in serial ordering performance is emphasized, in contrast to some models of verbal WM. Classic WM findings are discussed in terms of the language production architecture. The integration of principles from both fields illuminates the maintenance and ordering mechanisms for verbal information. PMID:19210053

  16. Top Languages Spoken by English Language Learners Nationally and by State. ELL Information Center Fact Sheet Series. No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batalova, Jeanne; McHugh, Margie

    2010-01-01

    While English Language Learner (ELL) students in the United States speak more than 150 languages, Spanish is by far the most common home or first language, but is not the top language spoken by ELLs in every state. This fact sheet, based on analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey, documents the top languages spoken…

  17. Cinderella's Coach or Just Another Pumpkin? Information Communication Technologies and the Continuing Marginalisation of Languages in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lindy; Coutas, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    The rhetoric around global connectedness and advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) suggests that: Professional life for the marginalised and isolated language teacher should be easier; the experience of language learners in Australian schools should be more meaningful and bring them closer to the languages and communities that…

  18. Cinderella's Coach or Just Another Pumpkin? Information Communication Technologies and the Continuing Marginalisation of Languages in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lindy; Coutas, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    The rhetoric around global connectedness and advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) suggests that: Professional life for the marginalised and isolated language teacher should be easier; the experience of language learners in Australian schools should be more meaningful and bring them closer to the languages and communities that…

  19. Seeking Information on Behalf of Others: An Analysis of Calls to a Spanish-Language Radio Health Program.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A Susana; Leyva, Bryan; Graff, Kaitlin; Nelson, David E; Huerta, Elmer

    2015-07-01

    Spanish-monolingual Latinos account for 13% of U.S. residents and experience multiple barriers to effective health communication. Information intermediaries/proxies mediate between the linguistically isolated and health care providers. This study characterizes the information needs of surrogate callers and their subjects to a U.S.-based Spanish-language radio health program. Content analysis of calls placed (N = 281 calls). Women made 70% of calls; 39.1% of calls were on behalf of children, 11.0% on behalf of parents/older adults, and 18.5% on behalf of spouses/siblings/contemporary adults. Most common topics were disease symptoms/conditions (19.6%), cancer (13.9%), and reproduction/sexuality (12.9%). Calls for children were more likely than those for parents/other adults to pertain to current illness symptoms or conditions; calls for parents were more likely to be about cancer/chronic conditions. Half of all calls sought clarification about a previous medical encounter. Information-seeking surrogates may represent a useful strategy for linguistic minorities to overcome structural and individual barriers to health information access. Results suggest that Latinos are willing to seek information on behalf of friends and family and highlight the need for improved, culturally and linguistically appropriate health communication sources. Leveraging Latinos' natural familial social networks/willingness to share information may improve dissemination of culturally and linguistically appropriate health information. Further implications for patient activation and doctor-patient communication are discussed. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  1. Anonymity versus privacy: selective information sharing in online cancer communities.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jeana; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-05-14

    Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients' prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F1,114=135.59, P=.001, η(2)=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Respondents' information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity information. The results suggest the need to focus on

  2. Assessing information needs on bone health in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    des Bordes, Jude K A; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Suarez-Almazor, Maria; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Bone health education and implementation of preventive measures are key to effective management of osteoporosis. We assessed areas of knowledge deficits with respect to bone health in breast and prostate cancer survivors and the preferred source of health information We used a mixed methods approach. We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews in breast or prostate cancer survivors receiving hormonal therapy. Responses were independently coded by 2 researchers and explored under 3 content areas: osteoporosis knowledge, behaviors for self-management, and preferred learning tools. Another 20 participants responded to a structured questionnaire that comprised modified versions of the Osteoporosis Knowledge Questionnaire (OPQ) and Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT). The OPQ and OKAT were analyzed as summary scores, and areas of knowledge deficits (i.e., where ≥60 % of participants failed to give the right response) were identified. Median age of participants was 67 (range 48-92) and 78 % were White. Awareness of osteoporosis was high, but detailed knowledge was low. Bone healthy behaviors perceived by participants as most important include good nutrition, exercising, calcium and vitamin D supplementation and avoidance of falls. The Internet was the most preferred source of information. Areas of knowledge deficit revealed by the OPQ and OKAT included general information, risk factors, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. There is a desire for information on osteoporosis, specifically tailored for cancer survivors. Good nutrition, supplement intake, exercise, and avoidance of falls were perceived as key behaviors for self-management. The Internet was an important source of information for breast and prostate cancer patients. Implication for Cancer Survivors An educational website addressing the bone health information needs of cancer survivors could effectively improve behaviors for self-management.

  3. Evaluation of the Quality of Online Information for Patients with Rare Cancers: Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, Ulrike; Monga Sindeu, Tabea; Schroth, Sarah; Huebner, Jutta; Herth, Natalie

    2017-01-24

    The Internet offers an easy and quick access to a vast amount of patient information. However, several studies point to the poor quality of many websites and the resulting hazards of false information. The aim of this study was to assess quality of information on thyroid cancer. A patients' search for information about thyroid cancer on German websites was simulated using the search engine Google and the patient portal "Patienten-Information.de". The websites were assessed using a standardized instrument with formal and content aspects from the German Cancer Society. Supporting the results of prior studies that analysed patient information on the Internet, the data showed that the quality of patient information on thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous depending on the website providers. The majority of website providers are represented by media and health providers other than health insurances, practices and professionals offering patient information of relatively poor quality. Moreover, most websites offer patient information of low-quality content. Only a few trustworthy, high-quality websites exist. Especially Google, a common search engine, focuses more on the dissemination of information than on quality aspects. In order to improve the patient information from the Internet, the visibility of high-quality websites must be improved. For that, education programs to improve patients' eHealth literacy are needed. A quick and easy evaluation tool for online information suited for patients should be implemented, and patients should be taught to integrate such a tool into their research process.

  4. Information System Constraint Language (ISyCL) Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Mayer 871, and IDEFIx [DACOM 85], since there is no need to repeat here the information in those excellent texts. ISyCL Technical Report 5 Final...structures used to dc.sciihc ,owntraints on an IDEF3 process description would he different than tthose used to add con-sLraints to an IDEFIx data model...probably using tags and other user-supplied aids. For example, an IDEFI entity class might map to an IDEFIx entity, but the modeler would have to

  5. Illustrations enhance older colorectal cancer patients' website satisfaction and recall of online cancer information.

    PubMed

    Bol, N; Smets, E M A; Eddes, E H; de Haes, J C J M; Loos, E F; van Weert, J C M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of illustrations in online cancer information on older cancer patients' website satisfaction (i.e. satisfaction with the attractiveness, comprehensibility and emotional support from the website) and recall of information. In an online experiment, 174 younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) colorectal cancer patients were randomly exposed to a webpage about transanal endoscopic microsurgery consisting of either text-only information, text with two cognitive illustrations or text with two affective illustrations. In general, adding cognitive illustrations compared with text-only information improved the satisfaction with the attractiveness of the website in both younger and older patients. For older patients in particular, cognitive illustrations facilitated recall of cancer information: whereas older patients recalled less information overall compared with younger patients (39% vs. 50%), no statistically significant differences in age on recall were observed when cognitive illustrations were added to text. Furthermore, older patients were more satisfied with the emotional support from the website than younger patients, especially when affective illustrations were present. Our results suggest that effective online cancer communication for ageing populations involves considering both cognitive and affective illustrations to enhance website satisfaction and recall of cancer information. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Extracting information from S-curves of language change

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Gerlach, Martin; Miotto, José M.; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2014-01-01

    It is well accepted that adoption of innovations are described by S-curves (slow start, accelerating period and slow end). In this paper, we analyse how much information on the dynamics of innovation spreading can be obtained from a quantitative description of S-curves. We focus on the adoption of linguistic innovations for which detailed databases of written texts from the last 200 years allow for an unprecedented statistical precision. Combining data analysis with simulations of simple models (e.g. the Bass dynamics on complex networks), we identify signatures of endogenous and exogenous factors in the S-curves of adoption. We propose a measure to quantify the strength of these factors and three different methods to estimate it from S-curves. We obtain cases in which the exogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of German orthographic reforms and of one irregular verb) and cases in which endogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of conventions for romanization of Russian names and in the regularization of most studied verbs). These results show that the shape of S-curve is not universal and contains information on the adoption mechanism. PMID:25339692

  7. Extracting information from S-curves of language change.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Gerlach, Martin; Miotto, José M; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2014-12-06

    It is well accepted that adoption of innovations are described by S-curves (slow start, accelerating period and slow end). In this paper, we analyse how much information on the dynamics of innovation spreading can be obtained from a quantitative description of S-curves. We focus on the adoption of linguistic innovations for which detailed databases of written texts from the last 200 years allow for an unprecedented statistical precision. Combining data analysis with simulations of simple models (e.g. the Bass dynamics on complex networks), we identify signatures of endogenous and exogenous factors in the S-curves of adoption. We propose a measure to quantify the strength of these factors and three different methods to estimate it from S-curves. We obtain cases in which the exogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of German orthographic reforms and of one irregular verb) and cases in which endogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of conventions for romanization of Russian names and in the regularization of most studied verbs). These results show that the shape of S-curve is not universal and contains information on the adoption mechanism.

  8. ACCISS study rationale and design: activating collaborative cancer information service support for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Randhawa, Veenu; McFadden, H Gene; Fought, Angela; Bullard, Emily; Spring, Bonnie

    2009-12-02

    High-quality cancer information resources are available but underutilized by the public. Despite greater awareness of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service among low-income African Americans and Hispanics compared with Caucasians, actual Cancer Information Service usage is lower than expected, paralleling excess cancer-related morbidity and mortality for these subgroups. The proposed research examines how to connect the Cancer Information Service to low-income African-American and Hispanic women and their health care providers. The study will examine whether targeted physician mailing to women scheduled for colposcopy to follow up an abnormal Pap test can increase calls to the Cancer Information Service, enhance appropriate medical follow-up, and improve satisfaction with provider-patient communication. The study will be conducted in two clinics in ethnically diverse low-income communities in Chicago. During the formative phase, patients and providers will provide input regarding materials planned for use in the experimental phase of the study. The experimental phase will use a two-group prospective randomized controlled trial design. African American and Hispanic women with an abnormal Pap test will be randomized to Usual Care (routine colposcopy reminder letter) or Intervention (reminder plus provider recommendation to call the Cancer Information Service and sample questions to ask). Primary outcomes will be: 1) calls to the Cancer Information Service; 2) timely medical follow-up, operationalized by whether the patient keeps her colposcopy appointment within six months of the abnormal Pap; and 3) patient satisfaction with provider-patient communication at follow-up. The study examines the effectiveness of a feasible, sustainable, and culturally sensitive strategy to increase awareness and use of the Cancer Information Service among an underserved population. The goal of linking a public service (the Cancer Information Service) with real

  9. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors: Enhancing a Theory-Informed Training Program for Informed Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Vines, Anissa I; Hunter, Jaimie C; Carlisle, Veronica A; Richmond, Alan N

    2015-12-02

    Despite the high burden of prostate cancer in African American communities, there is a paucity of knowledge about prostate health. This paper describes the enhancement of a curriculum for training lay health advisors, called prostate cancer ambassadors, on informed decision-making for prostate cancer screening. Adult learning theory informed the structuring of the training sessions to be interactive, self-directed, and engaging. Trainings were developed in a manner that made the material relevant to the learners and encouraged co-learning. The research team developed strategies, such as using discussions and interactive activities, to help community members weigh the pros and cons of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and to make an informed decision about screening. Furthermore, activities were developed to bolster four social cognitive theory constructs: observational learning, self-efficacy for presenting information to the community and for making an informed decision themselves, collective efficacy for presenting information to the community, and outcome expectations from those presentations. Games, discussions, and debates were included to make learning fun and encourage discovery. Practice sessions and team-building activities were designed to build self-efficacy for sharing information about informed decision-making. Topics added to the original curriculum included updates on prostate cancer screening, informed decision-making for screening, skills for being a lay health advisor, and ethics. This dynamic model and approach to lay health advisor (ambassador) training is flexible: while it was tailored for use with prostate cancer education, it can be adjusted for use with other types of cancer and even other diseases.

  10. Risk adjusting survival outcomes of hospitals that treat cancer patients without information on cancer stage

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, David G.; Rubin, David M.; Elkin, Elena B.; Neill, Ushma S.; Duck, Elaine; Radzyner, Mark; Bach, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Instituting widespread measurement of outcomes for cancer hospitals using administrative data is difficult due to the lack of cancer specific information such as disease stage. Objective To evaluate the performance of hospitals that treat cancer patients using Medicare data for outcome ascertainment and risk adjustment, and to assess whether hospital rankings based on these measures are influenced by the addition of cancer-specific information. Design Risk adjusted cumulative mortality of patients with cancer captured in Medicare claims from 2005–2009 nationally were assessed at the hospital level. Similar analyses were conducted in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER)-Medicare data for the subset of the US covered by the SEER program to determine whether the exclusion of cancer specific information (only available in cancer registries) from risk adjustment altered measured hospital performance. Setting Administrative claims data and SEER cancer registry data Participants Sample of 729,279 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries treated for cancer in 2006 at hospitals treating 10+ patients with each of the following cancers, according to Medicare claims: lung, prostate, breast, colon. An additional sample of 18,677 similar patients in SEER-Medicare administrative data. Main Outcomes and Measures Risk-adjusted mortality overall and by cancer type, stratified by type of hospital; measures of correlation and agreement between hospital-level outcomes risk adjusted using Medicare data alone and Medicare data with SEER data. Results There were large outcome differences between different types of hospitals that treat Medicare patients with cancer. At one year, cumulative mortality for Medicare-prospective-payment-system exempt hospitals was 10% lower than at community hospitals (18% versus 28%) across all cancers, the pattern persisted through five years of follow-up and within specific cancer types. Performance ranking of hospitals was

  11. Health information needs of childhood cancer survivors and their family.

    PubMed

    Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Kremer, Leontien C; van den Bos, Cor; Braam, Katja I; Jaspers, Monique W M

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about past disease, treatment, and possible late effects has previously been shown to be low in survivors of childhood cancer and their relatives. This study investigated the information needs of childhood cancer survivors and their parents and explored possible determinants for differences in information need and health-related Internet use. Childhood cancer survivors or their parents were contacted to complete a questionnaire about their characteristics, Internet use and requirements/expectations of a website on late effects (N = 160). One-hundred forty-five questionnaires (90.6%) were returned. Of the 69 respondents (49.3%) who had visited a late effects outpatient clinic prior to the survey, 20 (29.0%) had questions left after the consult. The large majority of the population had home access to Internet and 71 respondents (49.3%) used Internet for medical questions. Only 15 respondents (10.5%) used Internet to look for information on late effects of childhood cancer and only 4 survivors found what they were looking for. Main information items requested were information about recognizing late effects, personalized information on late effects treatment and information on self-care. Only six respondents (4.2%) stated they would not visit a late effects website if it would be available. The need for late effects information showed to be of high priority by the majority of respondents, as was their interest in visiting a late effects website. In the development of a late effects website, attention should be given to patient information tailored to the personal situation of the website's users. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, AND MINOR REMODELING FOR MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES (REVISED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield.

    THE INFORMATION INCLUDED IN THIS VERY DETAILED DOCUMENT IS INTENDED FOR TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION. THE SPECIFICATIONS PRESENTED ARE MINIMUM, BUT THEY MEET THE REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF TITLE III, NDEA. THE FIRST PART OUTLINES PROCEDURES FOR THE SELECTION AND…

  13. An Exploration of Elementary Teachers' Views of Informal Reading Inventories in Dual Language Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how elementary teachers (grades three through five) in dual-language, bilingual programs (Spanish/English) view informal reading inventories (IRIs) to support their students' reading growth. The research, conducted in an urban district in the Northeastern United States, draws on interviews with 20 teachers in these programs.…

  14. Speaker Evaluation Measures of Language Attitudes: Evidence of Information-Processing Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargile, Aaron Castelan

    2002-01-01

    To test the potential effect of information processing on speaker evaluations, an experiment was carried out in which learners evaluated speakers under a condition of time constraint, and again under a condition representative of a typical language attitudes study. Results indicated that evaluations of a female African-American vernacular English…

  15. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  16. Connecting the Dots: Limited English Proficiency, Second Language Learning Theories, and Information Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conteh-Morgan, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of barriers to effective learning when librarians teach students with limited English proficiency focuses on second language acquisition theories and teaching practices derived from them which can significantly impact outcomes of information literacy instruction. Includes a checklist for course preparation and instruction. (Author/LRW)

  17. For the People...Citizenship Education and Naturalization Information. An English as a Second Language Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; And Others

    A textbook for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students presents lessons on U.S. citizenship education and naturalization information. The nine lessons cover the following topics: the U.S. system of government; the Bill of Rights; responsibilities and rights of citizens; voting; requirements for naturalization; the application process; the…

  18. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  19. Made in America: An Informal History of the English Language in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Bill

    Claiming that understanding the social context in which words are formed is necessary to appreciate the richness and vitality of language, this book presents an informal, discursive examination of how and why American speech came to be the way it is, and in particular where the words came from. The book follows a roughly chronological format from…

  20. Language Resource Information for Teachers of the Culturally Disadvantaged. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, A.L.; And Others

    This document attempts to make necessary information on linguistics available to teachers of disadvantaged children. Its first section discusses the three dimensions of language differences--historical, regional, and social--that account for usages frequently condemned without being understood. The second aims at providing a deeper understanding…

  1. Literacy for Sustainable Development in the Age of Information. Language and Education Library 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz

    This book examines literacy for sustainable development in the age of information. It begins by discussing the relationship between literacy and hegemony, social policy, national language policy, colonial relations, and postcolonial realities. Also discussed in the introduction are views and definitions of literacy and considerations in mapping a…

  2. Overcoming the Language Barrier. Third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The papers presented here have a double objective: to give those responsible for the Action plan for the improvement of information transfer between European languages a good view of existing and developing systems and to make future users of EURONET acquainted with methods and tools that will soon be available. The papers are arranged under six…

  3. Literacy for Sustainable Development in the Age of Information. Language and Education Library 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz

    This book examines literacy for sustainable development in the age of information. It begins by discussing the relationship between literacy and hegemony, social policy, national language policy, colonial relations, and postcolonial realities. Also discussed in the introduction are views and definitions of literacy and considerations in mapping a…

  4. An Evaluation of Help Mechanisms in Natural Language Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreymer, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the current state of natural language processing information retrieval systems from the user's point of view, focusing on the structure and components of the systems' help mechanisms. Topics include user/system interaction; semantic parsing; syntactic parsing; semantic mapping; and concept matching. (Author/LRW)

  5. An Exploration of Elementary Teachers' Views of Informal Reading Inventories in Dual Language Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how elementary teachers (grades three through five) in dual-language, bilingual programs (Spanish/English) view informal reading inventories (IRIs) to support their students' reading growth. The research, conducted in an urban district in the Northeastern United States, draws on interviews with 20 teachers in these programs.…

  6. Overcoming the Language Barrier. Third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The papers presented here have a double objective: to give those responsible for the Action plan for the improvement of information transfer between European languages a good view of existing and developing systems and to make future users of EURONET acquainted with methods and tools that will soon be available. The papers are arranged under six…

  7. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  8. Made in America: An Informal History of the English Language in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Bill

    Claiming that understanding the social context in which words are formed is necessary to appreciate the richness and vitality of language, this book presents an informal, discursive examination of how and why American speech came to be the way it is, and in particular where the words came from. The book follows a roughly chronological format from…

  9. Cycles of Innovation in the Adoption of Information Technology: A View for Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    2004-01-01

    A framework for viewing developments in information technology [IT] is presented as an elaborated model of the adoption of innovations, with implications for language teaching. The model is loosely based on that of Rogers (1995), but involves three successive phases of "innovation-adoption". The model provides a context for a discussion of CALL…

  10. Cross-Language Information Access to Multilingual Collections on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bian, Guo-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Hsi

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of language barriers when using multilingual digital library collections on the Internet focuses on query translation and document translation in a Chinese-English information retrieval system called MTIR. Highlights include a bilingual dictionary; machine transliteration algorithm; design issues for document translation; HTML tags; and…

  11. Conquering the Babel: Cross-Language Information Retrieval on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts of a session that discussed cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) on the World Wide Web. Topics include CLIR research in Chinese-English, German-English, and Japanese-English involving machine translation, semantic indexing, domain concepts, integrating new technologies, large-scale multilingual lexicons, and international…

  12. Using the Computer as a Specific Information Resource in Computer-Aided Language Learning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witton, Niclas

    1984-01-01

    Classifies several kinds of readily available foreign language computer programs. Most of the programs fall into either game/activity or testing categories. In all the programs, feedback to the student who has made an error is limited. Sees the computer as a specific information resource in self-directed learning programs. (SED)

  13. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  14. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy SL; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients’ engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at one-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical to clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease. PMID:24359259

  15. The sound of motion in spoken language: visual information conveyed by acoustic properties of speech.

    PubMed

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2007-12-01

    Language is generally viewed as conveying information through symbols whose form is arbitrarily related to their meaning. This arbitrary relation is often assumed to also characterize the mental representations underlying language comprehension. We explore the idea that visuo-spatial information can be analogically conveyed through acoustic properties of speech and that such information is integrated into an analog perceptual representation as a natural part of comprehension. Listeners heard sentences describing objects, spoken at varying speaking rates. After each sentence, participants saw a picture of an object and judged whether it had been mentioned in the sentence. Participants were faster to recognize the object when motion implied by speaking rate matched the motion implied by the picture. Results suggest that visuo-spatial referential information can be analogically conveyed and represented.

  16. Risk Adjusting Survival Outcomes in Hospitals That Treat Patients With Cancer Without Information on Cancer Stage.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David G; Rubin, David M; Elkin, Elena B; Neill, Ushma S; Duck, Elaine; Radzyner, Mark; Bach, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Instituting widespread measurement of outcomes for cancer hospitals using administrative data is difficult owing to lack of cancer-specific information such as disease stage. To evaluate the performance of hospitals that treat patients with cancer using Medicare data for outcome ascertainment and risk adjustment and to assess whether hospital rankings based on these measures are altered by the addition of cancer-specific information. Risk-adjusted cumulative mortality rates of patients with cancer were captured in Medicare claims data from 2005 through 2009 nationally and assessed at the hospital level. Similar analyses were conducted using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data for the subset of the United States covered by the SEER program to determine whether the inclusion of cancer-specific information (only available in cancer registries) in risk adjustment altered measured hospital performance. Data were from 729 279 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries treated for cancer in 2006 at hospitals treating 10 or more patients with each of the following cancers, according to Medicare claims: lung, prostate, breast, colon, and other. An additional sample of 18 677 similar patients were included from the SEER-Medicare administrative data. Risk-adjusted mortality overall and by cancer category, stratified by type of hospital; measures of correlation and agreement between hospital-level outcomes risk adjusted using Medicare data alone and Medicare data with SEER data. There were large survival differences between different types of hospitals that treat Medicare patients with cancer. At 1 year, mortality for patients treated by hospitals exempt from the Medicare prospective payment system was 10% lower than at community hospitals (18% vs 28%) across all cancers, and the pattern persisted through 5 years of follow-up and within specific cancer categories. Performance ranking of hospitals was consistent with or without SEER-Medicare disease

  17. African American men, prostate cancer screening and informed decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Denethia B.; Ross, Louie E.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men. African Americans are at increased risk over other groups and have higher mortality. Since prostate cancer is highly variable among men, medical organizations are not in agreement whether men should be screened or the appropriate ages to screen. Many of these organizations recommend discussion with patients about the benefits and limitations of screening. Some of these groups support informed decision-making (IDM). Through IDM, the patient obtains all of the information about prostate cancer including risk, to make an informed choice regarding screening. Due to several factors including lowered engagement of African American men in the healthcare system, disparities in treatment, increased risk in developing and dying from the disease, as well as other cultural and structural constraints, IDM is examined and proposed as an appropriate tool for African American men. The use of IDM is discussed, along with several challenges and cautions. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions to the provider and patient to facilitate discussions regarding prostate cancer. PMID:12911259

  18. An assessment of the information-seeking abilities and needs of practicing speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the information-seeking practices and needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Improved understanding of these needs can inform librarians and educators to better prepare students in principles and methods of evidence-based practice (EBP) and, through continuing education (CE), promote the integration of EBP into clinical practice of SLPs. A 16-question survey was mailed to 1,000 certified speech-language pathologists in the United States. Two hundred and eight usable surveys were returned for a response rate of 21%. For clinical questions, SLPs most often consulted with a colleague, participated in CE activities, and searched the open Internet. Few respondents relied on scholarly journal articles for assistance with clinical cases. The most prominent barriers to finding appropriate information were time and knowledge of where and how to find relevant information. Few reported having information literacy instruction by a librarian. If EBP is to become a viable practice in clinical decision making, there appears to be a tremendous need for information literacy instruction in the university curriculum, as well as through CE activities for currently practicing SLPs. Given respondents' reported lack of time and limited access to full-text journals containing evidence relevant to clinical practice, the field of speech-language pathology will need to generate readily accessible clinical summaries of research evidence through meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines.

  19. Randomised trial of personalised computer based information for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ray; Pearson, Janne; McGregor, Sandra; Cawsey, Alison J; Barrett, Ann; Craig, Neil; Atkinson, Jacqueline M; Gilmour, W Harper; McEwen, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the use and effect of a computer based information system for cancer patients that is personalised using each patient's medical record with a system providing only general information and with information provided in booklets. Design Randomised trial with three groups. Data collected at start of radiotherapy, one week later (when information provided), three weeks later, and three months later. Participants 525 patients started radical radiotherapy; 438 completed follow up. Interventions Two groups were offered information via computer (personalised or general information, or both) with open access to computer thereafter; the third group was offered a selection of information booklets. Outcomes Patients' views and preferences, use of computer and information, and psychological status; doctors' perceptions; cost of interventions. Results More patients offered the personalised information said that they had learnt something new, thought the information was relevant, used the computer again, and showed their computer printouts to others. There were no major differences in doctors' perceptions of patients. More of the general computer group were anxious at three months. With an electronic patient record system, in the long run the personalised information system would cost no more than the general system. Full access to booklets cost twice as much as the general system. Conclusions Patients preferred computer systems that provided information from their medical records to systems that just provided general information. This has implications for the design and implementation of electronic patient record systems and reliance on general sources of patient information. PMID:10550090

  20. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  1. TRICHLOROETHYLENE: USING NEW INFORMATION TO IMPROVE THE CANCER CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of TCE's potential to cause cancer in humans have had to address issues concerning the strengths of the human evidence and the relevance of the animal tumors to humans. The epidemiological database now includes analyses of multiple studies and molecular information. ...

  2. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  3. TRICHLOROETHYLENE: USING NEW INFORMATION TO IMPROVE THE CANCER CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of TCE's potential to cause cancer in humans have had to address issues concerning the strengths of the human evidence and the relevance of the animal tumors to humans. The epidemiological database now includes analyses of multiple studies and molecular information. ...

  4. Information at the Point of Care: An Informational Application for Cancer Resources.

    PubMed

    Walker, Deborah Kirk; Hardeman, Amber; Owen, Larry; Frank, Jennifer Sandson

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to design, develop, and modify a cancer resource application (app) that providers, patients, and caregivers could use to locate local and national cancer resources. The project design used a modified version of the Questionnaire for User Interaction Survey 7.0 to gather information from a convenience sample of nurses and community participants regarding their perception of the app. These data helped to identify gaps in resources and modifications needed to make the app more user-friendly. The current cancer care system is complex, and patients often complain of uncoordinated care, lack of information, and insufficient psychosocial support. Cancer centers are working to meet the American College of Surgeons 2015 recommendation of psychosocial assessment and referrals; the Cancer Resource APP described here provides the resources to meet this need. Prototypes of the app were tested in practice and community settings, then solicited feedback guided needed technology modifications. The resulting Cancer Resource APP provides the healthcare community with information to make timely and consistent referrals for patients and caregivers.

  5. Sprachbezogene und mitteilungsbezogene Kommunikation im Englischunterricht (Language-Related and Information-Related Communication in Teaching English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Colin; Butzkamm, Wolfgang

    1977-01-01

    "Language-related" refers mainly to teacher-guided communication, aimed at revealing the progress of language learning. "Information-related" communication, a two-way process, refers to all other speech intentions. Suggestions are given for stimulating spontaneous use of information-related materials. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  6. Information in the Language Sciences: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Warrenton, Virginia, March 4-6, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Robert R., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 22 papers from the Conference on Information in the Language Sciences held in Warrenton, Va., in 1966, sponsored by the Center for Applied Linguistics, stresses three themes: general trends, information needs of the languages sciences, and system design. Discussions attempt to formulate modern rational approaches to the complex…

  7. Information in the Language Sciences: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Warrenton, Virginia, March 4-6, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Robert R., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 22 papers from the Conference on Information in the Language Sciences held in Warrenton, Va., in 1966, sponsored by the Center for Applied Linguistics, stresses three themes: general trends, information needs of the languages sciences, and system design. Discussions attempt to formulate modern rational approaches to the complex…

  8. The impact of language barriers and immigration status on the care experience for Spanish-speaking caregivers of patients with pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Eduardo R; Kaul, Sapna; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Gwilliam, Vannina; Jimenez, Ornella A; Morreall, Deborah K; Montenegro, Roberto E; Kinney, Anita Y; Fluchel, Mark N

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of pediatric cancer patients in the United States are Latino and many have Spanish-speaking immigrant parents with limited English proficiency (LEP). Little is known about how language or undocumented immigration status impacts their care experience. A cross-sectional survey was administered to English (N = 310) and Spanish-speaking LEP (N = 56) caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. To assess differences in healthcare experiences between the language groups, t-tests and chi-square statistics were used. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated associations between primary language and knowledge of clinical trial status. Spanish-speaking caregivers were more likely to report higher rates of quitting or changing jobs as a direct result of their child's cancer, and their children were more likely to experience a delay in education. Although Spanish-speaking caregivers reported higher satisfaction with care, 32% reported feeling that their child would have received better care if English was their primary language. Spanish-speaking caregivers were more likely to incorrectly identify whether their child was on a clinical trial compared with English-speaking caregivers. The majority of Spanish-speaking caregivers reported at least one undocumented caregiver in the household and 11% of them avoided or delayed medical care for their child due to concerns over their undocumented immigration status. Language barriers and undocumented immigration status may negatively impact the quality of informed decision-making and the care experience for Spanish-speaking LEP caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. These families may benefit from culturally appropriate Spanish language resources to improve communication and open a dialogue regarding undocumented immigration status. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Utilization of Cancer Information System for Breast Cancer Control in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Salako, Omolola; Robert, Alero Ann; Okunade, Kehinde Sharafadeen; Olatunji, Adeola; Fakolade, Adeola; Isibor, Victor; Falode, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a substantial increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria usually with the late stage presentations and subsequent poor rates of survival attributed mainly to a low level of cancer awareness and ignorance amongst patients. Cancer information system (CIS) is now assuming an emerging role in this respect. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out over a one year period using a health communications program comprising of 3 breast help lines. An initial period of public awareness was carried out over a 3 months period after which members of the public were encouraged to call the help lines. Breast cancer information was provided and the socio-demographic characteristics and other relevant data of the callers were recorded by the information specialists. Results A total of 294 people were reached during the study period. Majority of the callers (82%) sought information for themselves while the remaining 18% called on behalf of a loved one or friend. Majority [248 (84.3%)] of callers had no breast abnormality, 38 (13%) called to report breast abnormalities and required information on what to do and 8 (2.7%) were breast cancer patients who required information on how to live and cope as breast cancer survivors. Conclusion The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the Nigeria has presented a unique opportunity and promise to improve cancer care. There is evidence to suggest that mHealth can be used to deliver increased health care services to the increasing population of cancer patients in Nigeria. PMID:28154678

  10. Machine translation-supported cross-language information retrieval for a consumer health resource.

    PubMed

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Gemoets, Darren; Browne, Allen C; Tse, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health, through its National Library of Medicine, developed ClinicalTrials.gov to provide the public with easy access to information on clinical trials on a wide range of conditions or diseases. Only English language information retrieval is currently supported. Given the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and their increasing use of the Web, we anticipate a significant increase in Spanish-speaking users. This study compares the effectiveness of two common cross-language information retrieval methods using machine translation, query translation versus document translation, using a subset of genuine user queries from ClinicalTrials.gov. Preliminary results conducted with the ClinicalTrials.gov search engine show that in our environment, query translation is statistically significantly better than document translation. We discuss possible reasons for this result and we conclude with suggestions for future work.

  11. [Are deaf patients in Germany informed about their legal rights for a sign language interpreter?].

    PubMed

    Höcker, J T; Letzel, S; Münster, E

    2012-12-01

    Deaf citizens are confronted with barriers in a health-care system shaped by hearing people. Therefore the German legislature provides a supply with sign language interpreters at the expense of the health insurances. The present study initially examines in how far the deaf are informed about this and use said interpreters. Traditional surveys are based on spoken and written language and therefore are unsuitable for the target audience. Because of this, a cross-sectional online study was performed using sign language videos and visually oriented answers to allow a barrier-free participation. With a multivariate analysis, factors increasing deaf people's risks not to be informed of the supply with interpreters were identified: Of 841 deaf participants, 31.4% were not informed of their rights. 41.3% have experience with an interpreter at the doctor's and report a mainly trouble-free reimbursement of costs. Young and modestly educated deaf have a higher risk of not being informed of the interpreter supply. Further information is necessary to provide equality of opportunities to deaf patients utilising medical benefits.

  12. Information seeking regarding tobacco and lung cancer: effects of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducted one of the first comprehensive international Internet analyses of seasonal patterns in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer. Search query data for the terms "tobacco" and "lung cancer" from January 2004 to January 2014 was collected from Google Trends. The relevant countries included the USA, Canada, the UK, Australia, and China. Two statistical approaches including periodogram and cross-correlation were applied to analyze seasonal patterns in the collected search trends and their associations. For these countries except China, four out of six cross-correlations of seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco were above 0.600. For these English-speaking countries, similar patterns existed in the data concerning lung cancer, and all cross-correlations between seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco and that regarding lung cancer were also above 0.700. Seasonal patterns widely exist in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer on an international scale. The findings provide a piece of novel Internet-based evidence for the seasonality and health effects of tobacco use.

  13. Using personality characteristics to individualize information to cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Kallergis, G

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure of information to cancer patients is an issue of continuous and great interest. There is a wide-scale debate underway about the questions "do we disclose diagnosis or not", "what should we tell", "how much information should we reveal". Usually, the answers to those questions are general rules of approaching the patient, instructions and general communication skills. What we are missing here is individualization, tailoring information and communication to each patient according to their own personality characteristics. The purpose of this paper was to provide a guide that will make individualization possible, taking into account personality characteristics. We provide a description of the main personality types and of how we can use character traits to inform a patient or otherwise, how do we tailor information to a patient's personality characteristics. Thus, we address the questions of how much do we inform, what words should we use, what do we say, when do we say it and how can information be in line with the therapeutic relationship and patient follow up. On the whole, there is the view that information within the context of doctor-patient communication should be a subject of training. We agree with this view and that is one of the reasons why training workshops are being held at the Metaxa Cancer Hospital.

  14. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  15. Cancer education and effective dissemination: information access is not enough.

    PubMed

    Ousley, Anita L; Swarz, Jeffrey A; Milliken, Erin L; Ellis, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Education is the main avenue for disseminating new research findings into clinical practice. Understanding factors that affect translation of research into practice may help cancer educators design programs that facilitate the time it takes for research-indicated practices to become standard care. To understand various factors, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Office of Education and Special Initiatives (OESI)(1) with individual cooperation from Oncology Nursing Society (ONS), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and Association of Oncology Social Work (AOSW) administered a Practitioner Information Needs survey to five different types of practitioners involved in cancer care. While most of the 2,864 practitioners (83%) agreed they had access to current practice information, practitioners in large practice settings were more likely to report having access to research than those small practice settings. However, only 33% indicated that they had adequate time to access the information. Colleagues or experts within the organization were cited as the most frequently relied on information resource (60%), and peer-reviewed journals were cited as second (57%). Overall, 66% strongly or somewhat agreed that their organizations exhibit effective change management practices. A majority (69%) agreed that implementation of new practices is hindered by the lack of available staff time. Financial factors and the characteristics of the information presented were also believed to be factors contributing to research implementation. Group differences were observed among practitioner groups and practice settings for some factors.

  16. Cancer information and anxiety: applying the extended parallel process model.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ruth Ec; Beeken, Rebecca J; Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane

    2012-05-01

    There is concern that public education about testicular cancer (TC) may cause unnecessary anxiety. Psychological theory suggests that if threat (eg, TC) information is accompanied with threat control strategies (eg, testicular self-examination; TSE) anxiety is less likely. Male students (N=443) were randomized to either a TC or TC +TSE information group or a no information control group, and assessed at three time points. Anxiety levels did not differ between the groups and exposure to TC+TSE resulted in greater perceived message benefit, increased intention to self-examine and lower message denigration. This suggests TC information is not anxiogenic, but inclusion of TSE information may improve acceptance of disease awareness information.

  17. Impact of Spanish-language information sessions on Spanish-speaking patients seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Martin, Allison N; Marino, Miguel; Killerby, Marie; Rosselli-Risal, Liliana; Isom, Kellene A; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2017-06-01

    Bariatric centers frequently provide preoperative educational programs to inform patients about the risks and benefits of weight loss surgery. However, most programs are conducted in English, which may create barriers to effective treatment and access to care for non-English speaking populations. To address this concern, we instituted a comprehensive Spanish-language education program consisting of preoperative information and group nutrition classes conducted entirely in, and supported with Spanish-language materials. The primary aim was to examine the effect of this intervention on Spanish-speaking patients' decision to undergo surgery in a pilot study. University Hospital/Community Health Center, United States. Three cohorts of patients seeking bariatric surgery between January 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012 were identified: 1) primary English speakers attending English-language programs ("English-English"); 2) primary Spanish speakers attending Spanish-language programs ("Spanish-Spanish"); and 3) primary Spanish speakers attending English-speaking programs with the assistance of a Spanish-to-English translator ("Spanish-English"). 26% of the English-English cohort ultimately underwent surgery compared with only 12% of the Spanish-Spanish cohort (P = .009). Compared with the English-English group, time to surgery was 35 days longer for the Spanish-Spanish and 185 days longer for the Spanish-English group (both P< .001). Spanish-speaking patients were less likely to undergo bariatric surgery regardless of the language in which educational sessions are provided. For those choosing surgery, providing Spanish-language sessions can shorten time to surgery. A barrier to effective obesity treatment may exist for Spanish speakers, which may be only partially overcome by providing support in Spanish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evidence-based patient choice: a prostate cancer decision aid in plain language.

    PubMed

    Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Stableford, Sue; Fagerlin, Angela; Wei, John T; Dunn, Rodney L; Ohene-Frempong, Janet; Kelly-Blake, Karen; Rovner, David R

    2005-06-20

    Decision aids (DA) to assist patients in evaluating treatment options and sharing in decision making have proliferated in recent years. Most require high literacy and do not use plain language principles. We describe one of the first attempts to design a decision aid using principles from reading research and document design. The plain language DA prototype addressed treatment decisions for localized prostate cancer. Evaluation assessed impact on knowledge, decisions, and discussions with doctors in men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Document development steps included preparing an evidence-based DA in standard medical parlance, iteratively translating it to emphasize shared decision making and plain language in three formats (booklet, Internet, and audio-tape). Scientific review of medical content was integrated with expert health literacy review of document structure and design. Formative evaluation methods included focus groups (n = 4) and survey of a new sample of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer (n = 60), compared with historical controls (n = 184). A transparent description of the development process and design elements is reported. Formative evaluation among newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients found the DA to be clear and useful in reaching a decision. Newly diagnosed patients reported more discussions with doctors about treatment options, and showed increases in knowledge of side effects of radiation therapy. The plain language DA presenting medical evidence in text and numerical formats appears acceptable and useful in decision-making about localized prostate cancer treatment. Further testing should evaluate the impact of all three media on decisions made and quality of life in the survivorship period, especially among very low literacy men.

  19. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  20. Terminal Versus Advanced Cancer: Do the General Population and Health Care Professionals Share a Common Language?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Shin, Dong Wook; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung Kook; Nam, Eunjoo; Jho, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Eunmi; Cho, Be Long; Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many end-of-life care studies are based on the assumption that there is a shared definition of language concerning the stage of cancer. However, studies suggest that patients and their families often misperceive patients’ cancer stages and prognoses. Discrimination between advanced cancer and terminal cancer is important because the treatment goals are different. In this study, we evaluated the understanding of the definition of advanced versus terminal cancer of the general population and determined associated socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 2,000 persons from the general population were systematically recruited. We used a clinical vignette of a hypothetical advanced breast cancer patient, but whose cancer was not considered terminal. After presenting the brief history of the case, we asked respondents to choose the correct cancer stage from a choice of early, advanced, terminal stage, and don’t know. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to determine sociodemographic factors associated with the correct response, as defined in terms of medical context. Results Only 411 respondents (20.6%) chose “advanced,” while most respondents (74.5%) chose “terminal stage” as the stage of the hypothetical patient, and a small proportion of respondents chose “early stage” (0.7%) or “don’t know” (4.4%). Multinomial logistic regression analysis found no consistent or strong predictor. Conclusion A large proportion of the general population could not differentiate advanced cancer from terminal cancer. Continuous effort is required in order to establish common and shared definitions of the different cancer stages and to increase understanding of cancer staging for the general population. PMID:26323640

  1. Information dynamics in living systems: prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Frieden, B Roy; Gatenby, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Living systems use information and energy to maintain stable entropy while far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The underlying first principles have not been established. We propose that stable entropy in living systems, in the absence of thermodynamic equilibrium, requires an information extremum (maximum or minimum), which is invariant to first order perturbations. Proliferation and death represent key feedback mechanisms that promote stability even in a non-equilibrium state. A system moves to low or high information depending on its energy status, as the benefit of information in maintaining and increasing order is balanced against its energy cost. Prokaryotes, which lack specialized energy-producing organelles (mitochondria), are energy-limited and constrained to an information minimum. Acquisition of mitochondria is viewed as a critical evolutionary step that, by allowing eukaryotes to achieve a sufficiently high energy state, permitted a phase transition to an information maximum. This state, in contrast to the prokaryote minima, allowed evolution of complex, multicellular organisms. A special case is a malignant cell, which is modeled as a phase transition from a maximum to minimum information state. The minimum leads to a predicted power-law governing the in situ growth that is confirmed by studies measuring growth of small breast cancers. We find living systems achieve a stable entropic state by maintaining an extreme level of information. The evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes resulted from acquisition of specialized energy organelles that allowed transition from information minima to maxima, respectively. Carcinogenesis represents a reverse transition: of an information maximum to minimum. The progressive information loss is evident in accumulating mutations, disordered morphology, and functional decline characteristics of human cancers. The findings suggest energy restriction is a critical first step that triggers the genetic

  2. Information Dynamics in Living Systems: Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Living systems use information and energy to maintain stable entropy while far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The underlying first principles have not been established. Findings We propose that stable entropy in living systems, in the absence of thermodynamic equilibrium, requires an information extremum (maximum or minimum), which is invariant to first order perturbations. Proliferation and death represent key feedback mechanisms that promote stability even in a non-equilibrium state. A system moves to low or high information depending on its energy status, as the benefit of information in maintaining and increasing order is balanced against its energy cost. Prokaryotes, which lack specialized energy-producing organelles (mitochondria), are energy-limited and constrained to an information minimum. Acquisition of mitochondria is viewed as a critical evolutionary step that, by allowing eukaryotes to achieve a sufficiently high energy state, permitted a phase transition to an information maximum. This state, in contrast to the prokaryote minima, allowed evolution of complex, multicellular organisms. A special case is a malignant cell, which is modeled as a phase transition from a maximum to minimum information state. The minimum leads to a predicted power-law governing the in situ growth that is confirmed by studies measuring growth of small breast cancers. Conclusions We find living systems achieve a stable entropic state by maintaining an extreme level of information. The evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes resulted from acquisition of specialized energy organelles that allowed transition from information minima to maxima, respectively. Carcinogenesis represents a reverse transition: of an information maximum to minimum. The progressive information loss is evident in accumulating mutations, disordered morphology, and functional decline characteristics of human cancers. The findings suggest energy restriction is a critical first step

  3. Portrayal of childhood cancer in English language magazines in North America: 1970-2001.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne

    2005-01-01

    This article is a content and discourse analysis of the portrayal of childhood cancer in English language magazines in North America. In a unique specification of published research on the media portrayal of disease, magazines were divided into three market or audience groupings called (1) science, (2) news/special interest, and (3) other (women/teen/parenting/health). The predominate frames or discoursesin these three groups were compared and differences were found amongst them and discussed in the article. Considerable evidence suggests that people with cancer are stigmatized. In the analyzed media focused on children, those with cancer are highly idealized and stereotyped. On the one hand, this can be thought of as a very positive portrayal of children in this situation. Children are described as if they possess heroic and idealized character traits, appearances, social characteristics, and personalities. Possible links between this idealized, polarized, and biased portrayal of children with cancer and their documented experiences of stigma are discussed.

  4. Stigma and On-line Health Information Seeking of U.S. South Asian Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba M; Kagawa Singer, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    The internet has replaced physicians as primary health information source for cancer-survivors.It is important to uncover barriers/facilitators to cancer information seeking, particularly on-line.Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S racial/ethnic minority, 2) cancer is the leading cause of r death and 3) cancer knowledge is low among them and little research is done on their cancer information seeking strategies. This study aims to examine qualitatively cancer information-seeking patterns of the Asian American group, South Asians, using in-depth interview methods. Family members and social networks are highly engaged in providing informational support to South Asian cancer survivors. such collaborative information seeking is limited by stigma related to cancer and must be taken into consideration when developing culturally appropriate cancer health information seeking interventions in such communities.

  5. The Source and Credibility of Colorectal Cancer Information on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Park, SoHyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Park, Gibeom; Suh, Bongwon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the rapid penetration of social media in modern life, there has been limited research conducted on whether social media serves as a credible source of health information. In this study, we propose to identify colorectal cancer information on Twitter and assess its informational credibility. We collected Twitter messages containing colorectal cancer-related keywords, over a 3-month period. A review of sample tweets yielded content and user categorization schemes. The results of the sample analysis were applied to classify all collected tweets and users, using a machine learning technique. The credibility of the information in the sampled tweets was evaluated. A total of 76,119 tweets were analyzed. Individual users authored the majority of tweets (n = 68,982, 90.6%). They mostly tweeted about news articles/research (n = 16,761, 22.0%) and risk/prevention (n = 14,767, 19.4%). Medical professional users generated only 2.0% of total tweets (n = 1509), and medical institutions rarely tweeted (n = 417, 0.6%). Organizations tended to tweet more about information than did individuals (85.2% vs 63.1%; P < 0.001). Credibility analysis of medically relevant sample tweets revealed that most were medically correct (n = 1763, 84.5%). Among those, more frequently retweeted tweets contained more medically correct information than randomly selected tweets (90.7% vs 83.2%; P < 0.01). Our results demonstrate an interest in and an engagement with colorectal cancer information from a large number and variety of users. Coupled with the Internet's potential to increase social support, Twitter may contribute to enhancing public health and empowering users, when used with proper caution. PMID:26886625

  6. The Source and Credibility of Colorectal Cancer Information on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Park, SoHyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Park, Gibeom; Suh, Bongwon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-02-01

    Despite the rapid penetration of social media in modern life, there has been limited research conducted on whether social media serves as a credible source of health information. In this study, we propose to identify colorectal cancer information on Twitter and assess its informational credibility. We collected Twitter messages containing colorectal cancer-related keywords, over a 3-month period. A review of sample tweets yielded content and user categorization schemes. The results of the sample analysis were applied to classify all collected tweets and users, using a machine learning technique. The credibility of the information in the sampled tweets was evaluated. A total of 76,119 tweets were analyzed. Individual users authored the majority of tweets (n = 68,982, 90.6%). They mostly tweeted about news articles/research (n = 16,761, 22.0%) and risk/prevention (n = 14,767, 19.4%). Medical professional users generated only 2.0% of total tweets (n = 1509), and medical institutions rarely tweeted (n = 417, 0.6%). Organizations tended to tweet more about information than did individuals (85.2% vs 63.1%; P < 0.001). Credibility analysis of medically relevant sample tweets revealed that most were medically correct (n = 1763, 84.5%). Among those, more frequently retweeted tweets contained more medically correct information than randomly selected tweets (90.7% vs 83.2%; P < 0.01). Our results demonstrate an interest in and an engagement with colorectal cancer information from a large number and variety of users. Coupled with the Internet's potential to increase social support, Twitter may contribute to enhancing public health and empowering users, when used with proper caution.

  7. Gesture is more effective than spatial language in encoding spatial information.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Chee; Shum, Priscilla Lok-Chee; Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates whether producing gestures with and without speech facilitates route learning at different levels of route complexity and in learners with different levels of spatial skills. It also examines whether the facilitation effect of gesture is stronger than that of spatial language. Adults studied routes with 10, 13, and 16 steps and reconstructed them with sticks, either without rehearsal or after rehearsal by producing gestures with speech, gestures alone, or speech only. For all levels of route complexity and spatial skills, participants who were encouraged to gesture (with or without speech) during rehearsal had the best recall. Additionally, we found that number of steps rehearsed in gesture, but not that rehearsed in speech, predicted the recall accuracy. Thus, gesture is more effective than spatial language in encoding spatial information, and thereby enhancing spatial recall. These results further corroborate the beneficial nature of gesture in processing spatial information.

  8. Information Seeking Regarding Tobacco and Lung Cancer: Effects of Seasonality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducted one of the first comprehensive international Internet analyses of seasonal patterns in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer. Search query data for the terms “tobacco” and “lung cancer” from January 2004 to January 2014 was collected from Google Trends. The relevant countries included the USA, Canada, the UK, Australia, and China. Two statistical approaches including periodogram and cross-correlation were applied to analyze seasonal patterns in the collected search trends and their associations. For these countries except China, four out of six cross-correlations of seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco were above 0.600. For these English-speaking countries, similar patterns existed in the data concerning lung cancer, and all cross-correlations between seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco and that regarding lung cancer were also above 0.700. Seasonal patterns widely exist in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer on an international scale. The findings provide a piece of novel Internet-based evidence for the seasonality and health effects of tobacco use. PMID:25781020

  9. Language Abilities in Children with Autism and Language Impairment: Using Narrative as a Additional Source of Clinical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolitsi, Maria; Botting, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI) are disorders of communication that are sometimes thought to show similar structural language difficulties. Recent research has even suggested that they might be aetiologically related. However, it may be that standardized language tasks are not sensitive enough to detect…

  10. Cancer and Fertility Program Improves Patient Satisfaction With Information Received

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Bridgette; Benedict, Catherine; Carter, Jeanne; Corcoran, Stacie; Dickler, Maura N.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Margolies, Allison; Matasar, Matthew J.; Noy, Ariela; Goldfarb, Shari B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A cancer and fertility program was established at a large cancer center to support clinicians in discussing treatment-related fertility risks and fertility preservation (FP) options with patients and in referring patients to reproductive specialists. The program provides resources, clinician education, and fertility clinical nurse specialist consultation. This study evaluated the program’s impact on patient satisfaction with information received. Patients and Methods Retrospective cross-sectional surveys assessed satisfaction before (cohort 1 [C1]) and after (cohort 2 [C2]) program initiation. Questionnaires were investigator-designed, gender-specific, and anonymous. Results Most C1 (150 males, 271 females) and C2 (120 males, 320 females) respondents were 2 years postdiagnosis; the most frequently reported cancers were testicular, breast, and lymphoma. A significant difference in satisfaction with the amount of information received was seen between C1 and C2. For males, satisfaction with information on fertility risks was high in both cohorts but significantly greater in C2 for information on sperm banking (χ2 = 9.3, P = .01) and finding a sperm bank (χ2 = 13.3, P = .001). For females, satisfaction with information was significantly greater in C2 for information on fertility risks (χ2 = 62.1, P < .001), FP options (χ2 = 71.9, P < .001), help with decision making (χ2 = 80.2, P < .001), and finding a reproductive endocrinologist (χ2 = 60.5, P < .001). Among patients who received and read information materials, 96% of males and 99% of females found them helpful. Among C2 females, fertility clinical nurse specialist consultation was associated with significantly greater satisfaction with information on FP options (χ2 = 11.2, P = .004), help with decision making (χ2 = 10.4, P = .006), and finding a reproductive endocrinologist (χ2 = 22.6, P < .001), with 10% reporting lack of knowledge as a reason for not pursuing FP. Conclusion Improvements in

  11. Speech-language pathologists' informal learning in healthcare settings: behaviours and motivations.

    PubMed

    Walden, Patrick R; Bryan, Valerie C

    2011-08-01

    The current research sought to identify the types of informal learning behaviours speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in healthcare settings engage in as well as SLPs' motivations for engaging in informal learning. Twenty-four American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)-certified SLPs participated in this qualitative study. Data collection consisted of computer-mediated interviews, online journaling, and a virtual focus group. These textual data were coded and collapsed into themes. All participant SLPs reported that they learned through collaboration (inter- and intra-disciplinary), worked with patients to learn through trial-and-error, and consulted non-peer-reviewed material on the internet as well as peer-reviewed research in order to learn informally in the workplace. Eighteen of the 24 participants reported being motivated to learn at work to meet a patient's need to meet therapy goals. Five of the 24 participants reported meeting their own personal learning needs was a motivating factor and 10 of the 24 participants reported learning informally to meet the needs of the healthcare organization/SLP profession. Results were compared to past research on SLPs' information retrieval behaviours. It was concluded that SLPs acknowledge their personal work-related gaps in knowledge and skills and actively seek to develop their knowledge and skill base through informal means.

  12. Chemotherapy as language: sound symbolism in cancer medication names.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gregory A; Glinert, Lewis H

    2008-04-01

    The concept of sound symbolism proposes that even the tiniest sounds comprising a word may suggest the qualities of the object which that word represents. Cancer-related medication names, which are likely to be charged with emotional meaning for patients, might be expected to contain such sound-symbolic associations. We analyzed the sounds in the names of 60 frequently-used cancer-related medications, focusing on the medications' trade names as well as the names (trade or generic) commonly used in the clinic. We assessed the frequency of common voiced consonants (/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/; thought to be associated with slowness and heaviness) and voiceless consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/; thought to be associated with fastness and lightness), and compared them to what would be expected in standard American English using a reference dataset. A Fisher's exact test for independence showed the chemotherapy consonantal frequencies to be significantly different from standard English (p=0.009 for trade; p<0.001 for "common usage"). For the trade names, the majority of the voiceless consonants were significantly increased compared to standard English; this effect was more pronounced with the "common usage" names (for the group, O/E=1.62; 95% CI [1.37, 1.89]). Hormonal and targeted therapy trade names showed the greatest frequency of voiceless consonants (for the group, O/E=1.76; 95% CI [1.20, 2.49]). Our results suggest that taken together, the names of chemotherapy medications contain an increased frequency of certain sounds associated with lightness, smallness and fastness. This finding raises important questions about the possible role of the names of medications in the experiences of cancer patients and providers.

  13. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colorectal Cancer” Infographic Screening for Colorectal Cancer: Optimizing Quality (CME) Partners Related Links Glossary Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  14. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ...

  15. Smartphone apps as a source of cancer information: changing trends in health information-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ambarish; Hasan, Sayeedul; Dubey, Divyanshu; Sarangi, Sasmit

    2013-03-01

    There is an increased interest in smartphone applications as a tool for delivery of health-care information. There have been no studies which evaluated the availability and content of cancer-related smartphone applications. This study aims to identify and analyze cancer-related applications available on the Apple iTunes platform. The Apple iTunes store was searched for cancer-related smartphone applications on July 29, 2011. The content of the applications was analyzed for cost, type of information, validity, and involvement of health-care agencies. A total of 77 relevant applications were identified. There were 24.6 % apps uploaded by health-care agencies, and 36 % of the apps were aimed at health-care workers. Among the apps, 55.8 % provided scientifically validated data. The difference in scientific validity between the apps aimed at general population versus health-care professionals was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Seventy-nine percent of the apps uploaded by health-care agencies were found to be backed by scientific data. There is lack of cancer-related applications with scientifically backed data. There is a need to improve the accountability and reliability of cancer-related smartphone applications and encourage participation by health-care agencies to ensure patient safety.

  16. Cancer-related internet information communication between oncologists and patients with breast cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Dyson, Robert C.; D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Dickler, Maura N.; Heerdt, Alexandra S.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many patients with cancer search out information about their cancer on the internet, thus affecting their relationship with their oncologists. An in-depth analysis of patient–physician communication about information obtained from the internet is currently lacking. Methods We audio-recorded visits of patients with breast cancer and their oncologists where internet information was expected to be discussed. Inductive thematic text analysis was used to identify qualitative themes from these conversations. Results Twenty-one patients self-reported discussing cancer-related internet information (CRII) with their oncologists; 16 audio recordings contained detectable discussions of CRII and were analyzed. Results indicated that oncologists and patients initiated CRII discussions implicitly and explicitly. Oncologists responded positively to patient-initiated CRII discussions by (1) acknowledging their limited expertise/knowledge, (2) encouraging/approving using the internet as an information resource, (3) providing information/guidance on the proper use of internet searches, (4) discussing the pros and cons of relevant treatment options, or (5) giving information. Finally, patients reacted to the CRII discussions by (1) indicating that they only used reputable sources/websites, (2) asking for further explanation of information, (3) expressing continued concern, or (4) asking for the oncologist’s opinion or recommendation. Conclusions These results indicate that the majority of patients introduce internet information implicitly, in order to guard against any threat to their self-esteem. Physicians, in turn, seem to respond in a supportive fashion to reduce any threat experienced. Future interventions may consider providing prescription-based guidance on how to navigate the internet as a health information resource and to encourage patients to bring these topics up with their oncologist. PMID:25631285

  17. Cancer-related internet information communication between oncologists and patients with breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Dyson, Robert C; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Dickler, Maura N; Heerdt, Alexandra S; Bylund, Carma L

    2015-11-01

    Many patients with cancer search out information about their cancer on the internet, thus affecting their relationship with their oncologists. An in-depth analysis of patient-physician communication about information obtained from the internet is currently lacking. We audio-recorded visits of patients with breast cancer and their oncologists where internet information was expected to be discussed. Inductive thematic text analysis was used to identify qualitative themes from these conversations. Twenty-one patients self-reported discussing cancer-related internet information (CRII) with their oncologists; 16 audio recordings contained detectable discussions of CRII and were analyzed. Results indicated that oncologists and patients initiated CRII discussions implicitly and explicitly. Oncologists responded positively to patient-initiated CRII discussions by (1) acknowledging their limited expertise/knowledge, (2) encouraging/approving using the internet as an information resource, (3) providing information/guidance on the proper use of internet searches, (4) discussing the pros and cons of relevant treatment options, or (5) giving information. Finally, patients reacted to the CRII discussions by (1) indicating that they only used reputable sources/websites, (2) asking for further explanation of information, (3) expressing continued concern, or (4) asking for the oncologist's opinion or recommendation. These results indicate that the majority of patients introduce internet information implicitly, in order to guard against any threat to their self-esteem. Physicians, in turn, seem to respond in a supportive fashion to reduce any threat experienced. Future interventions may consider providing prescription-based guidance on how to navigate the internet as a health information resource and to encourage patients to bring these topics up with their oncologist. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Bilingual approach to online cancer genetics education for Deaf American Sign Language users produces greater knowledge and confidence than English text only: A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Berman, Barbara A; Wolfson, Alicia; Duarte, Lionel; Venne, Vickie L; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2017-01-01

    Deaf American Sign Language-users (ASL) have limited access to cancer genetics information they can readily understand, increasing risk for health disparities. We compared effectiveness of online cancer genetics information presented using a bilingual approach (ASL with English closed captioning) and a monolingual approach (English text). Bilingual modality would increase cancer genetics knowledge and confidence to create a family tree; education would interact with modality. We used a parallel 2:1 randomized pre-post study design stratified on education. 150 Deaf ASL-users ≥18 years old with computer and internet access participated online; 100 (70 high, 30 low education) and 50 (35 high, 15 low education) were randomized to the bilingual and monolingual modalities. Modalities provide virtually identical content on creating a family tree, using the family tree to identify inherited cancer risk factors, understanding how cancer predisposition can be inherited, and the role of genetic counseling and testing for prevention or treatment. 25 true/false items assessed knowledge; a Likert scale item assessed confidence. Data were collected within 2 weeks before and after viewing the information. Significant interaction of language modality, education, and change in knowledge scores was observed (p = .01). High education group increased knowledge regardless of modality (Bilingual: p < .001; d = .56; Monolingual: p < .001; d = 1.08). Low education group increased knowledge with bilingual (p < .001; d = .85), but not monolingual (p = .79; d = .08) modality. Bilingual modality yielded greater confidence creating a family tree (p = .03). Bilingual approach provides a better opportunity for lower educated Deaf ASL-users to access cancer genetics information than a monolingual approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning To Communicate About Science In Everyday Language Through Informal Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Laurel M.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-11-01

    The University of Colorado's Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) program, in which university students participate in classroom and after school science activities with local precollege children, seeks to develop children's interest, identity and abilities in science, while simultaneously developing university participant's interest and understanding in education and their abilities to communicate about science. The Communication in Everyday Language Assessment (CELA) component of our assessment suite has been used to evaluate university student teaching in these informal educational settings. We find significant positive gains a result of participating in the PISEC program.

  20. Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: an American Cancer Society guide for informed choices.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Colleen; Kushi, Lawrence H; Byers, Tim; Courneya, Kerry S; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Grant, Barbara; McTiernan, Anne; Rock, Cheryl L; Thompson, Cyndi; Gansler, Ted; Andrews, Kimberly S

    2006-01-01

    Cancer survivors are often highly motivated to seek information about food choices, physical activity, and dietary supplement use to improve their treatment outcomes, quality of life, and survival. To address these concerns, the American Cancer Society (ACS) convened a group of experts in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer to evaluate the scientific evidence and best clinical practices related to optimal nutrition and physical activity after the diagnosis of cancer. This report summarizes their findings and is intended to present health care providers with the best possible information from which to help cancer survivors and their families make informed choices related to nutrition and physical activity. The report discusses nutrition and physical activity issues during the phases of cancer treatment and recovery, living after recovery from treatment, and living with advanced cancer; select nutrition and physical activity issues such as body weight, food choices, and food safety; issues related to select cancer sites; and common questions about diet, physical activity, and cancer survivorship.

  1. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  2. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  3. Natural language processing systems for capturing and standardizing unstructured clinical information: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Kory; Foster, Matthew; Pandey, Abhishek; Arya, Nina; Halford, Gwendolyn; Jones, Sandra F; Forshee, Richard; Walderhaug, Mark; Botsis, Taxiarchis

    2017-09-01

    We followed a systematic approach based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to identify existing clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that generate structured information from unstructured free text. Seven literature databases were searched with a query combining the concepts of natural language processing and structured data capture. Two reviewers screened all records for relevance during two screening phases, and information about clinical NLP systems was collected from the final set of papers. A total of 7149 records (after removing duplicates) were retrieved and screened, and 86 were determined to fit the review criteria. These papers contained information about 71 different clinical NLP systems, which were then analyzed. The NLP systems address a wide variety of important clinical and research tasks. Certain tasks are well addressed by the existing systems, while others remain as open challenges that only a small number of systems attempt, such as extraction of temporal information or normalization of concepts to standard terminologies. This review has identified many NLP systems capable of processing clinical free text and generating structured output, and the information collected and evaluated here will be important for prioritizing development of new approaches for clinical NLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  5. Transparent ICD and DRG Coding Using Information Technology: Linking and Associating Information Sources with the eXtensible Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K.; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or “semantically associated” parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach. PMID:12807813

  6. How patients with gynecological cancer experience the information process.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M E; Strang, P M

    1998-12-01

    This qualitative study was designed to explore the kind of experiences women with a diagnosis of gynecological cancer have with regard to information given during their illness and how it could be improved. Data were collected through a semistructured interview which focused on the 24 women's experiences of the information given. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim for each participant, and analysed using a content analysis. Two main themes were revealed: to actively address questions, and the right to receive honest information. The results also include a short description on how information was offered, the patients' opinion of it and how the patients had sought information for themselves. When patients address questions they want honest answers. Some effort should also be made to identify patients who do not want information. If it is in accordance with the patient's and next-of-kin's wishes, efforts should be made to provide information at times when both can participate. Information given jointly to the patient and her family lessens the burden for the patient. In Sweden today, as a result of recent political decisions, caregivers must also consider the need to discuss economic issues.

  7. Using Information and Communication Technologies to Motivate Young Learners to Practice English as a Foreign Language in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are continuously evolving and when integrated appropriately these can facilitate foreign language learning classes. Connecting the curriculum to real world tasks in this way prepares "learners for the challenge of coping with the language they hear and read in the real world outside the…

  8. 29 CFR 37.35 - What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reasonable efforts to meet the particularized language needs of limited-English-speaking individuals who seek... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... other than English? (a) A significant number or proportion of the population eligible to be served,...

  9. 29 CFR 37.35 - What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reasonable efforts to meet the particularized language needs of limited-English-speaking individuals who seek... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... other than English? (a) A significant number or proportion of the population eligible to be served,...

  10. 29 CFR 37.35 - What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reasonable efforts to meet the particularized language needs of limited-English-speaking individuals who seek... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... other than English? (a) A significant number or proportion of the population eligible to be served,...

  11. 29 CFR 37.35 - What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reasonable efforts to meet the particularized language needs of limited-English-speaking individuals who seek... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... other than English? (a) A significant number or proportion of the population eligible to be served,...

  12. Integrating Information and Communication Technology in English Language Teaching: A Case Study of Selected Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mafuraga, Mbizo; Moremi, Mbiganyi

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) could be integrated in the teaching of English Language in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools. It does so by exploring opportunities and challenges faced by teachers of English Language and the students they teach. Fifty five (55) teachers in eleven (11) Junior Secondary Schools…

  13. Succeeding with English Language Learners: Lessons from the Great City Schools. A Report Summary. The Informed Educator Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In its recent 68-page report, "Succeeding With English Language Learners-Lessons From the Great City Schools," the Council of Great City Schools discusses findings from a study designed to identify district-level policies and strategies associated with improvements in English Language Learner (ELL) student achievement. This "Informed Educator"…

  14. Information literacy for speech-language pathologists: a key to evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara J; Ratner, Nan Bernstein

    2006-07-01

    In this tutorial, we review the tenets of information literacy (IL) that parallel and intersect with new American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) certification standards requiring clinicians to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP). A review of the literature on EBP in medical and allied health areas was conducted through an online database search. The Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (American Library Association, 2004) are used as a framework for outlining IL practices that will aid in EBP. Current strategies are contrasted with more desirable strategies. Potential barriers to the utilization of information-literate procedures in locating sources of reliable clinical evidence are discussed together with potential solutions. Suggestions for more efficient information searches by clinicians, as well as a proposed discipline-wide agenda for increasing clinicians' IL skills during and after entry-level graduate training, are provided.

  15. Using Natural Language Processing to Improve Efficiency of Manual Chart Abstraction in Research: The Case of Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, David S.; Halgrim, Scott; Tran, Diem-Thy; Buist, Diana S. M.; Chubak, Jessica; Chapman, Wendy W.; Savova, Guergana

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) creates opportunities for automated extraction of information from clinical text. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) could substantially reduce the burden of manual abstraction in studies examining outcomes, like cancer recurrence, that are documented in unstructured clinical text, such as progress notes, radiology reports, and pathology reports. We developed an NLP-based system using open-source software to process electronic clinical notes from 1995 to 2012 for women with early-stage incident breast cancers to identify whether and when recurrences were diagnosed. We developed and evaluated the system using clinical notes from 1,472 patients receiving EHR-documented care in an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A separate study provided the patient-level reference standard for recurrence status and date. The NLP-based system correctly identified 92% of recurrences and estimated diagnosis dates within 30 days for 88% of these. Specificity was 96%. The NLP-based system overlooked 5 of 65 recurrences, 4 because electronic documents were unavailable. The NLP-based system identified 5 other recurrences incorrectly classified as nonrecurrent in the reference standard. If used in similar cohorts, NLP could reduce by 90% the number of EHR charts abstracted to identify confirmed breast cancer recurrence cases at a rate comparable to traditional abstraction. PMID:24488511

  16. Using natural language processing to improve efficiency of manual chart abstraction in research: the case of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Carrell, David S; Halgrim, Scott; Tran, Diem-Thy; Buist, Diana S M; Chubak, Jessica; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana

    2014-03-15

    The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) creates opportunities for automated extraction of information from clinical text. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) could substantially reduce the burden of manual abstraction in studies examining outcomes, like cancer recurrence, that are documented in unstructured clinical text, such as progress notes, radiology reports, and pathology reports. We developed an NLP-based system using open-source software to process electronic clinical notes from 1995 to 2012 for women with early-stage incident breast cancers to identify whether and when recurrences were diagnosed. We developed and evaluated the system using clinical notes from 1,472 patients receiving EHR-documented care in an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A separate study provided the patient-level reference standard for recurrence status and date. The NLP-based system correctly identified 92% of recurrences and estimated diagnosis dates within 30 days for 88% of these. Specificity was 96%. The NLP-based system overlooked 5 of 65 recurrences, 4 because electronic documents were unavailable. The NLP-based system identified 5 other recurrences incorrectly classified as nonrecurrent in the reference standard. If used in similar cohorts, NLP could reduce by 90% the number of EHR charts abstracted to identify confirmed breast cancer recurrence cases at a rate comparable to traditional abstraction.

  17. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  18. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  19. Puzzles in modern biology. II. Language, cancer and the recursive processes of evolutionary innovation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Human language emerged abruptly. Diverse body forms evolved suddenly. Seed-bearing plants spread rapidly. How do complex evolutionary innovations arise so quickly? Resolving alternative claims remains difficult. The great events of the past happened a long time ago. Cancer provides a model to study evolutionary innovation. A tumor must evolve many novel traits to become an aggressive cancer. I use what we know or could study about cancer to describe the key processes of innovation. In general, evolutionary systems form a hierarchy of recursive processes. Those recursive processes determine the rates at which innovations are generated, spread and transmitted. I relate the recursive processes to abrupt evolutionary innovation. PMID:28184282

  20. Puzzles in modern biology. II. Language, cancer and the recursive processes of evolutionary innovation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Human language emerged abruptly. Diverse body forms evolved suddenly. Seed-bearing plants spread rapidly. How do complex evolutionary innovations arise so quickly? Resolving alternative claims remains difficult. The great events of the past happened a long time ago. Cancer provides a model to study evolutionary innovation. A tumor must evolve many novel traits to become an aggressive cancer. I use what we know or could study about cancer to describe the key processes of innovation. In general, evolutionary systems form a hierarchy of recursive processes. Those recursive processes determine the rates at which innovations are generated, spread and transmitted. I relate the recursive processes to abrupt evolutionary innovation.

  1. A distributed intelligent information system with natural language input for ad hoc knowledge discovery in databases

    SciTech Connect

    Fass, D.; Hall, G.; Laurens, O.; McFetridge, P.; Popowich, F.; Rueden, M. von

    1996-11-01

    A distributed information system is described which features a graphic user interface incorporating natural language input and which provides ad hoc knowledge discovery in relational databases. The system is comprised of multiple processes which communicate with each other over a network. The knowledge discovery process involves extracting generalizations from data using background knowledge in the form of concept hierarchies and a learning procedure based upon an attribute-oriented induction technique. The natural language understanding process is a parser based on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), a modern lexicon-based grammar formalism better equipped than older rule-based approaches for handling the often idiosyncratic behavior of words. To generate semantic interpretations, the parser makes use of a process which orders logical access paths in unnormalized databases based on the strength of their dependency structures and on their efficiency of execution.

  2. A Cross-sectional Investigation of Cancer-Screening Intentions, Sources of Information, and Understanding of Cancer in Japanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Koshu; Ueda, Seiji; Ueji, Masaru; Monobe, Hirofumi; Yako-Suketomo, Hiroko; Eto, Takashi; Watanabe, Masaki; Mori, Ryoichi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the cancer-screening intention, sources of cancer information, and cancer understanding among Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional nationwide survey involving a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Response rates of the target schools were 46.4 % (n = 103) for junior high schools and 55.8 % (n = 116) for high schools. From these, we analyzed the data of 2960 junior high school students (1520 males, 1440 females) and 3703 high school students (1546 males, 2157 females) to examine the association between cancer-screening intention and sources of cancer-related information and understanding. A significant association between cancer-screening intention and sources of cancer information and cancer understanding was observed. The screening intention group identified more sources of cancer information than the no-screening intention group did. Understanding about cancer was reported by a higher proportion of students in the screening intention group compared with the no-screening intention group. Recognition that healthy people must take part in cancer screening was significantly associated with screening intention in both junior high (odds ratio (OR), 1.859; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.582-2.185; P < 0.001) and high school (OR, 2.485; 95 % CI, 2.139-2.887; P < 0.001) students. Health education at school was indicated by a high proportion of students as a source of cancer-related information, although the association was not significant. The present survey indicated that those in of our sample who intended to undergo future cancer screening (67.8 %) had more sources of information and understanding regarding cancer. Thus, schools should enrich health education curricula with more information and understanding about cancer to promote cancer-screening intention among Japanese adolescents.

  3. Informational Needs of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Papadakos, Janet; McQuestion, Maurene; Gokhale, Anandita; Damji, Ali; Trang, Aileen; Abdelmutti, Nazek; Ringash, Jolie

    2017-02-02

    The patient journey with head and neck cancer (HNC) is particularly challenging given the physical and functional impact of the cancer and treatment. The ability to perform activities of daily living can be severely compromised and have a profound impact on psychosocial well-being. These complex and long-lasting effects can affect patient quality of life for months to years and the literature shows that information for HNC patients is often insufficient. This observational cross-sectional study utilized survey methodology to investigate the informational needs of HNC patients and the preferred modalities for delivery. This was done to inform the development of resources for HNC patients. Four hundred fifty surveys were analyzed. The median age was 61 years and 58% of the cohort was born in Canada. Most were Caucasian (72%), Chinese being the next largest ethnicity (12%). A third had less than high school education and most had cancer of the oral cavity (28%) and were in long-term follow-up (41%). Comparison of the percentage of items to which a patient responded "very important" across the six domains shows variation of importance by domain (overall mixed effects regression model p < 0.0001). Additionally, each domain was compared to the medical domain and all had significantly lower mean scores (all p < 0.0001) with the medical domain scoring highest (mean score 64.6). The top preferred education modalities were teaching with a healthcare professional and pamphlets. This study highlights the type of information that HNC patients want and the format they wish to receive it in. The design provides a comprehensive way to consult with patients toward building education that responds to their specific needs.

  4. Results of an assessment of information needs among speech-language pathologists and audiologists in Idaho*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruiling; Bain, Barbara A.; Willer, Janene

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The research assesses the information needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists in Idaho and identifies specific needs for training in evidence-based practice (EBP) principles and searching EBP resources. Methods: A survey was developed to assess knowledge and skills in accessing information. Questionnaires were distributed to 217 members of the Idaho Speech-Language-Hearing Association, who were given multiple options to return the assessment survey (web, email, mail). Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically. Results: The total response rate was 38.7% (84/217). Of the respondents, 87.0% (73/84) indicated insufficient knowledge and skills to search PubMed. Further, 47.6% (40/84) indicated limited knowledge of EBP. Of professionals responding, 52.4% (44/84) reported interest in learning more about EBP and 47.6% (40/84) reported interest in learning to search PubMed. SLPs and audiologists who graduated within the last 10 years were more likely to respond online, while those graduating prior to that time preferred to respond via hard copy. Discussions/Conclusion: More effort should be made to ensure that SLPs and audiologists develop skills in locating information to support their practice. Results from this information needs assessment were used to design a training and outreach program on EBP and EBP database searching for SLPs and audiologists in Idaho. PMID:18379669

  5. Results of an assessment of information needs among speech-language pathologists and audiologists in Idaho.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruiling; Bain, Barbara A; Willer, Janene

    2008-04-01

    The research assesses the information needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists in Idaho and identifies specific needs for training in evidence-based practice (EBP) principles and searching EBP resources. A survey was developed to assess knowledge and skills in accessing information. Questionnaires were distributed to 217 members of the Idaho Speech-Language-Hearing Association, who were given multiple options to return the assessment survey (web, email, mail). Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically. The total response rate was 38.7% (84/217). Of the respondents, 87.0% (73/84) indicated insufficient knowledge and skills to search PubMed. Further, 47.6% (40/84) indicated limited knowledge of EBP. Of professionals responding, 52.4% (44/84) reported interest in learning more about EBP and 47.6% (40/84) reported interest in learning to search PubMed. SLPs and audiologists who graduated within the last 10 years were more likely to respond online, while those graduating prior to that time preferred to respond via hard copy. DISCUSSIONS/CONCLUSION: More effort should be made to ensure that SLPs and audiologists develop skills in locating information to support their practice. Results from this information needs assessment were used to design a training and outreach program on EBP and EBP database searching for SLPs and audiologists in Idaho.

  6. Simple genetics language as source of miscommunication between genetics researchers and potential research participants in informed consent documents.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Justin; Hegele, Robert A; Nisker, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Informed consent is based on communication, requiring language to convey meanings and ensure understandings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of language in informed consent documents used in the genetics research funded by Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Genome Canada. Consent documents were requested from the principal investigators in a recent round of funding. A qualitative content analysis was performed, supported by NVivo7™. Potential barriers to informed consent were identified, including language that was vague and variable, words with both technical and common meanings, novel phrases without clear meaning, a lack of definitions, and common concepts that assume new definitions in genetics research. However, we noted that difficulties in comprehension were often obscured because the words used were generally simple and familiar. We conclude that language gaps between researcher and potential research participants may unintentionally impair comprehension and ultimately impair informed consent in genomics research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. In their own words? A terminological analysis of e-mail to a cancer information service.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine Arnott; Stavri, P. Zoë; Chapman, Wendy Webber

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To better understand the terms used by consumers to describe their health information needs and determine if this "consumer terminology"differs from those used by health care professionals. METHODS: Features and findings identified in 139 e-mail messages to the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute's Cancer Information and Referral Service were coded and matched against the 2001 Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus. RESULTS:504 unique terms were identified. 185 (36%) were exact matches to concepts in the 2001 UMLS Metathesaurus (MTH). 179 (35%) were partial string matches; 119 (24%) were known synonyms for MTH concepts; and 2 (<1%) were lexical variants. Only 19,or 4% of the total terms, were not found to be present in the 2001 MT1H. CONCLUSION: 96% of the clinical findings and features mentioned in e-mail by correspondents who did not self-identify as healthcare professionals were described using terms from controlled healthcare terminologies. The notion of a paradigmatic "consumer" who uses a particular vocabulary specific to her "consumer" status may be ill-founded. PMID:12463914

  8. Personal cancer knowledge and information seeking through PRISM: the planned risk information seeking model.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Kahlor, Leeann; Liang, Ming-Ching

    2014-04-01

    This study retested PRISM, a model of risk information seeking, and found that it is applicable to the context of cancer risk communication. The study, which used an online sample of 928 U.S. adults, also tested the effect of additional variables on that model and found that the original model better fit the data. Among the strongest predictors of cancer information seeking were seeking-related subjective norms, attitude toward seeking, perceived knowledge insufficiency, and affective risk response. Furthermore, risk perception was a strong predictor of an affective risk response. The authors suggest that, given the robustness across studies, the path between seeking-related subjective norms and seeking intention is ready to be implemented in communication practice.

  9. Ecological View of the Learner-Context Interface for Online Language Learning: A Phenomenological Case Study of Informal Learners of Macedonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belamaric Wilsey, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of informal language learning and self-instruction with online materials have recently come into prominence. However, those studies are predominantly focused on more commonly taught languages and there is a gap in the literature on less commonly taught languages (LCTL), precisely the languages that are often studied outside of formal…

  10. Ecological View of the Learner-Context Interface for Online Language Learning: A Phenomenological Case Study of Informal Learners of Macedonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belamaric Wilsey, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of informal language learning and self-instruction with online materials have recently come into prominence. However, those studies are predominantly focused on more commonly taught languages and there is a gap in the literature on less commonly taught languages (LCTL), precisely the languages that are often studied outside of formal…

  11. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Wim G; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester SA; Wouters, Michel WJM; Aaronson, Neil K

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute to empowerment of cancer survivors. Objective We aim to define the conceptual components of patient empowerment of chronic disease patients, especially cancer survivors, and to explore the contribution of existing and new IT services to promote empowerment. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify theoretical and empirical articles regarding empowerment. We extracted and synthesized conceptual components of patient empowerment (ie, attributes, antecedents, and consequences) according to the integrated review methodology. We identified recent IT services for cancer survivors by examining systematic reviews and a proposed inventory of new services, and we related their features and effects to the identified components of empowerment. Results Based on 26 articles, we identified five main attributes of patient empowerment: (1) being autonomous and respected, (2) having knowledge, (3) having psychosocial and behavioral skills, (4) perceiving support from community, family, and friends, and (5) perceiving oneself to be useful. The latter two were specific for the cancer setting. Systematic reviews of IT services and our additional inventory helped us identify five main categories: (1) educational services, including electronic survivorship care plan services, (2) patient-to-patient services, (3) electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) services, (4) multicomponent services, and (5) portal services. Potential impact on empowerment included knowledge enhancement and, to a lesser extent, enhancing autonomy and skills. Newly developed services offer promising and exciting opportunities to empower cancer survivors, for instance, by providing tailored advice for

  12. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Groen, Wim G; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester Sa; Wouters, Michel Wjm; Aaronson, Neil K; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-11-27

    Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute to empowerment of cancer survivors. We aim to define the conceptual components of patient empowerment of chronic disease patients, especially cancer survivors, and to explore the contribution of existing and new IT services to promote empowerment. Electronic databases were searched to identify theoretical and empirical articles regarding empowerment. We extracted and synthesized conceptual components of patient empowerment (ie, attributes, antecedents, and consequences) according to the integrated review methodology. We identified recent IT services for cancer survivors by examining systematic reviews and a proposed inventory of new services, and we related their features and effects to the identified components of empowerment. Based on 26 articles, we identified five main attributes of patient empowerment: (1) being autonomous and respected, (2) having knowledge, (3) having psychosocial and behavioral skills, (4) perceiving support from community, family, and friends, and (5) perceiving oneself to be useful. The latter two were specific for the cancer setting. Systematic reviews of IT services and our additional inventory helped us identify five main categories: (1) educational services, including electronic survivorship care plan services, (2) patient-to-patient services, (3) electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) services, (4) multicomponent services, and (5) portal services. Potential impact on empowerment included knowledge enhancement and, to a lesser extent, enhancing autonomy and skills. Newly developed services offer promising and exciting opportunities to empower cancer survivors, for instance, by providing tailored advice for supportive or follow-up care based on

  13. Web site construction for information and treatment on liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Sotiris; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Bizopoulou, Zoi; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer requires a considerable attention of health care scientists worldwide. A holistic treatment includes patient information about risk factors, education on pragmatic evaluation of the symptoms, as well as presentation of best and individualized treatment methods. In this direction, Internet seems to be a powerful tool that has an essential role. The aim of this study is the development of a web site in order to inform and present treatment options on liver cancer, it consists of four parts. In the first part, the presentation of the disease's knowledge base is attempted, whereas in the second part this knowledge base is organized in two conceptual entities: (a) information and (b) treatment. In the third part the importance of internet in the health care sector is highlighted. In the fourth and last part the web site is presented and a brief illustration of several relevant theories and specific implementation tools. The critical success factor of the implementation phase is considered to be the selection of the appropriate methods and development tools. Finally, the constant need for ongoing site maintenance is discussed and thus, is proposed to formulate one of the main aspects for further research, along with several issues concerning site usability.

  14. Some General Ideas Informing Second Language Teaching Globally: Obstacles to Their Utilisation in Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushi, Selina L. P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the teaching of English in Tanzania under four headings: (1) the changing view of language and language syllabus design; (2) the role of sociolinguistic environments in second language learning; (3) the role of objectives in second language teaching; and (4) the emerging trend of documenting second language teachers' classroom practices.…

  15. Formative Information Using Student Growth Percentiles for the Quantification of English Language Learners' Progress in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taherbhai, Husein; Seo, Daeryong; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing subgroup in American schools. These students, by a provision in the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, are to be supported in their quest for language proficiency through the creation of systems that more effectively measure ELLs' progress across years. In…

  16. Formative Information Using Student Growth Percentiles for the Quantification of English Language Learners' Progress in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taherbhai, Husein; Seo, Daeryong; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing subgroup in American schools. These students, by a provision in the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, are to be supported in their quest for language proficiency through the creation of systems that more effectively measure ELLs' progress across years. In…

  17. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  19. MIToS.jl: mutual information tools for protein sequence analysis in the Julia language.

    PubMed

    Zea, Diego J; Anfossi, Diego; Nielsen, Morten; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2017-02-15

    MIToS is an environment for mutual information analysis and a framework for protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and protein structures (PDB) management in Julia language. It integrates sequence and structural information through SIFTS, making Pfam MSAs analysis straightforward. MIToS streamlines the implementation of any measure calculated from residue contingency tables and its optimization and testing in terms of protein contact prediction. As an example, we implemented and tested a BLOSUM62-based pseudo-count strategy in mutual information analysis. The software is totally implemented in Julia and supported for Linux, OS X and Windows. It's freely available on GitHub under MIT license: http://mitos.leloir.org.ar . diegozea@gmail.com or cmb@leloir.org.ar. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

    Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

  1. Cancer Information-Seeking Practices Among the Hispanic Population: Data From the Health Information National Trends Survey 2007.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Luz; Leafman, Joan; Citrin, Deborah; Wallace, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic people are less likely to seek cancer information and experience more health care barriers than non-Hispanic people. The purpose of this work was to identify cancer information-seeking practices among U. S. Hispanic adults and identify demographic characteristics associated with information selected. Data from 622 Hispanic participants in the Health Information National Trends Survey 2007 were analyzed. Results of this study indicated that the leading sources of cancer information came from the Internet (47%, n = 105), followed by health care providers (26%, n = 60). As educational level increased, Internet use for cancer information-seeking increased from 20.7% (n = 6) to 60.6% (n = 40). These data indicate a necessity to improve information delivery strategies tailored to this group.

  2. Development of a laboratory information system for cancer collaboration projects.

    PubMed

    Quo, C F; Wu, B; Wang, M D

    2005-01-01

    Technological advances increase the rate and quality of biomedical data collection. To exploit these advances to the fullest, laboratory information management systems (LIMS) have been developed to integrate laboratory equipment with software controls so as to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. Ultimately, researchers and clinicians must collaborate closely to achieve a comprehensive interpretation of heterogeneous biomedical data, especially with respect to clinical diagnosis and treatment. We present eOncoLIMS, a modular data and process management system designed to provide the infrastructure and environment for a collaborative cancer research project. This system can be further extended to other collaboration projects to achieve a complete solution to research and clinical problems.

  3. [Information quality and health risks in Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Benito-Martínez, Selma; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier

    2017-03-16

    The growing use of purchase online via Internet retailers favours the access to potentially toxic natural products. It also contributes to the quick dissemination of the claims made by the retailers on efficacy and safety, these claims being not always based upon reliable information. Here, we have conducted an online search to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and we have analysed them for the quality of product information and the potential health risks. i) Online search in Google España to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine in which we analysed both the claims regarding possible health benefits and adequate safe use indications ii) Identification of potentially toxic herbs in the websites iii) Quantification of Chinese herbal medicines withdrawn by the Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS). 1) Only one third of the 30 Spanish-language retail websites found which sell Chinese herbal medicine observe the law, given that the other websites include illegal Western disease claims as marketing tools, 2) Five websites provide some safety information, 3) Two websites offer potentially toxic herbs and 4) Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with sibutramine, silfenafil or their analogues make a considerable percentage of the total products withdrawn by the AEMPS. Online health seekers should be warned about misinformation on retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and directed to a Spanish government Web site for guidance in safely navigating the Internet for buying Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method An information processing battery with manipulations in interference was administered to 66 children (SLI, age-matched peers, and language-matched controls). In Experiment 1, previously relevant targets were used as distractors to create conflict. Experiment 2 used item repetitions to examine how practice strengthens word representations and how the strength of a response impacts performance on the following item. Results Children with SLI performed similarly to their peers in the baseline condition but were more susceptible to proactive interference than the controls in both experimental conditions. Children with SLI demonstrated difficulty suppressing irrelevant information, made significantly more interference errors than their peers, and showed a slower rate of implicit learning. Conclusion Children with SLI show weaker resistance to proactive interference than their peers, and this deficit impacts their information processing abilities. The coordination of activation and inhibition is less efficient in these children, but future research is needed to further examine the interaction between these two processes. PMID:23900030

  5. Quality and readability of English-language internet information for aphasia.

    PubMed

    Azios, Jamie H; Bellon-Harn, Monica; Dockens, Ashley L; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2017-08-14

    Little is known about the quality and readability of treatment information in specific neurogenic disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this study was to assess quality and readability of English-language Internet information available for aphasia treatment. Forty-three aphasia treatment websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analysed using quality and readability assessments. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Websites exhibited low quality with few websites obtaining Health On the Net (HON) certification or clear, thorough information as measured by the DISCERN. Regardless of website origin, readability scores were also poor. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on aphasia treatment websites ranged from 13 to 16 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of non-profit organisations. Current aphasia treatment websites were found to exhibit low levels of quality and readability, creating potential accessibility problems for people with aphasia and significant others. Websites including treatment information for aphasia must be improved in order to increase greater information accessibility.

  6. NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) cancer information summaries: history, editorial processes, influence, and reach.

    PubMed

    Manrow, Richard E; Beckwith, Margaret; Johnson, Lenora E

    2014-03-01

    In the National Cancer Act of 1971, the Director of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) was given a mandate to "Collect, analyze, and disseminate all data useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer, including the establishment of an International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) to collect, catalog, store, and disseminate insofar as feasible the results of cancer research undertaken in any country for the use of any person involved in cancer research in any country" (National Cancer Act of 1971, S 1828, 92nd Congress, 1st Sess (1971)). In subsequent legislation, the audience for NCI's information dissemination activities was expanded to include physicians and other healthcare professionals, patients and their families, and the general public, in addition to cancer researchers. The Institute's response to these legislative requirements was to create what is now known as the Physician Data Query (PDQ®) cancer information database. From its beginnings in 1977 as a database of NCI-sponsored cancer clinical trials, PDQ has grown to include extensive information about cancer treatment, screening, prevention, supportive and palliative care, genetics, drugs, and more. Herein, we describe the history, editorial processes, influence, and global reach of one component of the PDQ database, namely its evidence-based cancer information summaries for health professionals. These summaries are widely recognized as important cancer information and education resources, and they further serve as foundational documents for the development of other cancer information products by NCI and other organizations.

  7. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jutta L.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient. PMID:25400602

  8. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jutta L; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

  9. Language interpreting as social justice work: perspectives of formal and informal healthcare interpreters.

    PubMed

    Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; McDowell, Liz; Estrada, Robin Dawson

    2009-01-01

    The assurance that limited-English-proficient individuals have access to quality healthcare depends on the availability of competent healthcare interpreters. To further understand the complex work of interpreting, we conducted in-depth interviews with 27 formal and informal healthcare interpreters. Participants identified the technical conduit role as the professional standard. Yet they experienced considerable role dissonance and blurring. From their position "in the middle," they witnessed discrimination and bias. Having a social justice perspective encouraged expanding their role to include advocacy and cultural brokering. Implications for nursing include a shared commitment to language access and social justice.

  10. Health and cancer information seeking practices and preferences in Puerto Rico: creating an evidence base for cancer communication efforts.

    PubMed

    Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Hesse, Bradford W; Davis, Terisa; Kornfeld, Julie; Sanchez, Marta; Moser, Richard P; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Serrano-Rodriguez, Ruby A; Davis, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Effective communication around cancer control requires understanding of population information seeking practices and their cancer-relevant risk behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge. The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) developed by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) provides surveillance of the nation's investment in cancer communication tracking the effects of the changing communication environment on cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The University of Puerto Rico Comprehensive Cancer Center (UPRCCC), the Puerto Rico Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (PRBRFSS), and the NCI implemented HINTS in Puerto Rico in 2009. In this article we describe the health and cancer information seeking behaviors, sources of information, trust in information sources, and experiences seeking information among the population of Puerto Rico. A total of 639 (603 complete and 36 partially complete) interviews were conducted. Nearly one-third of respondents had ever looked for information about health (32.9%) or about cancer (28.1%). The Internet was the most frequently reported source of information. College educated (odds ratio [OR] = 7.6) and females (OR = 2.8) were more likely to seek health information. Similarly, college educated (OR = 5.4) and females (OR = 2.0) were more likely to seek cancer information. Only 32.7% of respondents had ever accessed the Internet, and college educated were more likely to use it (OR = 12.2). Results provide insights into the health and cancer information seeking behaviors and experiences of the population in Puerto Rico and contribute to the evidence base for cancer control planning on the island.

  11. Cancer perceptions: implications from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowski, Marc A; Hart, Stacey L; Du, Xianglin L; Baraniuk, Sarah; Latini, David M

    2012-09-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between sociodemographic characteristics and illness perceptions; however, the impact of cancer exposure through personal or family diagnoses is not well-studied. The purposes of this study were to examine different cancer beliefs and disparities in cancer beliefs across groups of individuals with distinct cancer histories and to identify whether cancer history predicts a set of cancer beliefs. Using Leventhal's Common Sense Model and data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 7,172), we constructed multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the effect of different stimuli, including cancer experience on cancer perceptions (e.g., prevention, causation, outcome, worry). Findings indicated significant associations between cancer history and cancer perceptions. Individuals with family and personal cancer histories were more likely than individuals without any cancer history to worry about getting cancer (OR = 3.55, 95 %CI = 2.53-4.99), agree they will develop cancer in the future (OR = 8.81, 95 %CI = 6.12-12.67) and disagree that cancer is most often caused by a person's behavior or lifestyle (OR = 1.24, 95 %CI = 1.01-1.52). Cancer history affects perceptions throughout the cancer continuum. Additionally, cancer history may influence coping behaviors and outcomes. Cancer education and survivorship programs should assess important variables such as cancer history to more effectively tailor services and monitor evolving needs throughout cancer care. Integrating cancer history information into patient education programs tailored to an individual's needs may better empower survivors and their family members to effectively promote informed decision-making about screening and preventive health behaviors, manage cancer worry, and enhance quality of life.

  12. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlhaus, Martin W.; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Karen A.; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M.; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  13. Unmet information needs and limited health literacy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Sarah Maria; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Pfaff, Holger; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Wesselmann, Simone; Enders, Anna

    2016-09-01

    To investigate unmet information needs in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment and its association with health literacy. We present results from a prospective, multicenter cohort study (PIAT). Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (N=1060) were surveyed directly after breast cancer surgery, 10 and 40 weeks later. Pooled linear regression modeling was employed analyzing changes in unmet information needs over time and its association with health literacy. Unmet information needs on side effects and medication and medical examination results and treatment options were high and increased during the first 10 weeks after breast cancer surgery. Considering health promotion and social issues, unmet information needs started high and decreased during post-treatment. Patients with limited health literacy had higher unmet information needs. Our results indicate a mismatch in information provision and breast cancer patients' information needs. Patients with limited health literacy may be at a distinct disadvantage in having their information needs met over the course of breast cancer treatment. Strategies are needed to reduce unmet information needs in breast cancer patients considering treatment-phase and health literacy and thereby enable them to better cope with their diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of integrative information system improves the quality and effectiveness of cancer case management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Yi; Chang, Tsue-Rung

    2015-01-01

    Cancer case management provides consecutive care during the entire process through diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. We established an integrative information system with integration of the health information system. This integrative information system shortened the time spent on case screening, follow-up data management, and monthly data summarization of case managers. It also promoted the case follow-up rate. This integrative information system may improve the quality and effectiveness for cancer case management, one important part of cancer nursing.

  15. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  16. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design.

  17. The perceived information in obtained from the informed consent in Iranian patients with cancer in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Ghiyasvandian, Sharzad; Bolourchifard, Fariba; Parsa Yekta, Zohreh

    2014-10-29

    One of the basic issues in clinical studies is to receive the informed consent; that is to say, all the activities applied in patient's involvement in the information, decision-making, ability and volunteering in diagnosis, cure and care. In as much as most cancer patients require information about their individual needs, the present study is conducted to determine the perceived information from the informed consent of clinical studies in cancer patients. This is a descriptive study. Fifty cancer patients hospitalized for participating in the clinical study was chosen according to the convenience sampling. Tools used in this research included the questionnaire (individual and social features) and the check list about patient's right and cancer patient's information before and after receiving informed consent in clinical studies (10 items on a Likert rating scale). To validate the study, content and formal validation was used. Data in this research were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and the software of SPSS 16. In general, the mean of the scores obtained from cancer patients' perceived information before completing the informed consent of the clinical studies was 14 ± 3.5 and after consent of the clinical studies was 16 ± 2.4. The cancer patients' perceived information before and after consent of the clinical studies was weak. Based on the findings of the present study, the rate of the information the cancer patients received, before completing the informed consent form, was low, but after completing the informed consent form this rate was again low. Therefore, conducting similar and wider studies is recommended to unveil the factors affecting perceiving information and how to promote the quality of the informed consent in other hospitals in Iran.

  18. Cancer cell redirection biomarker discovery using a mutual information approach.

    PubMed

    Roche, Kimberly; Feltus, F Alex; Park, Jang Pyo; Coissieux, Marie-May; Chang, Chenyan; Chan, Vera B S; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Booth, Brian W

    2017-01-01

    Introducing tumor-derived cells into normal mammary stem cell niches at a sufficiently high ratio of normal to tumorous cells causes those tumor cells to undergo a change to normal mammary phenotype and yield normal mammary progeny. This phenomenon has been termed cancer cell redirection. We have developed an in vitro model that mimics in vivo redirection of cancer cells by the normal mammary microenvironment. Using the RNA profiling data from this cellular model, we examined high-level characteristics of the normal, redirected, and tumor transcriptomes and found the global expression profiles clearly distinguish the three expression states. To identify potential redirection biomarkers that cause the redirected state to shift toward the normal expression pattern, we used mutual information relationships between normal, redirected, and tumor cell groups. Mutual information relationship analysis reduced a dataset of over 35,000 gene expression measurements spread over 13,000 curated gene sets to a set of 20 significant molecular signatures totaling 906 unique loci. Several of these molecular signatures are hallmark drivers of the tumor state. Using differential expression as a guide, we further refined the gene set to 120 core redirection biomarker genes. The expression levels of these core biomarkers are sufficient to make the normal and redirected gene expression states indistinguishable from each other but radically different from the tumor state.

  19. A Decision Support Framework for Genomically Informed Investigational Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amber; Holla, Vijaykumar; Bailey, Ann Marie; Brusco, Lauren; Chen, Ken; Routbort, Mark; Patel, Keyur P.; Zeng, Jia; Kopetz, Scott; Davies, Michael A.; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Hong, David S.; Eterovic, Agda Karina; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Broaddus, Russell; Bernstam, Elmer V.; Shaw, Kenna R.; Mendelsohn, John; Mills, Gordon B.

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly improving understanding of molecular oncology, emerging novel therapeutics, and increasingly available and affordable next-generation sequencing have created an opportunity for delivering genomically informed personalized cancer therapy. However, to implement genomically informed therapy requires that a clinician interpret the patient’s molecular profile, including molecular characterization of the tumor and the patient’s germline DNA. In this Commentary, we review existing data and tools for precision oncology and present a framework for reviewing the available biomedical literature on therapeutic implications of genomic alterations. Genomic alterations, including mutations, insertions/deletions, fusions, and copy number changes, need to be curated in terms of the likelihood that they alter the function of a “cancer gene” at the level of a specific variant in order to discriminate so-called “drivers” from “passengers.” Alterations that are targetable either directly or indirectly with approved or investigational therapies are potentially “actionable.” At this time, evidence linking predictive biomarkers to therapies is strong for only a few genomic markers in the context of specific cancer types. For these genomic alterations in other diseases and for other genomic alterations, the clinical data are either absent or insufficient to support routine clinical implementation of biomarker-based therapy. However, there is great interest in optimally matching patients to early-phase clinical trials. Thus, we need accessible, comprehensive, and frequently updated knowledge bases that describe genomic changes and their clinical implications, as well as continued education of clinicians and patients. PMID:25863335

  20. Counsellee's experience of cancer genetic counselling with pedigrees that automatically incorporate genealogical and cancer database information.

    PubMed

    Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Skirton, Heather; Jonsson, Jon J

    2016-07-01

    While pedigree drawing software is often utilised in genetic services, the use of genealogical databases in genetic counselling is unusual. This is mainly because of the unavailability of such databases in most countries. Electronically generated pedigrees used for cancer genetic counselling in Iceland create pedigrees that automatically incorporate information from a large, comprehensive genealogy database and nation-wide cancer registry. The aim of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore counsellees' experiences of genetic services, including family history taking, using these electronically generated pedigrees. Four online focus groups with 19 participants were formed, using an asynchronous posting method. Participants were encouraged to discuss their responses to questions posted on the website by the researcher. The main themes arising were motivation, information and trust, impact of testing and emotional responses. Most of the participants expressed trust in the method of using electronically generated pedigrees, although some voiced worries about information safety. Many experienced worry and anxiety while waiting for results of genetic testing, but limited survival guilt was noted. Family communication was either unchanged or improved following genetic counselling. The use of electronically generated pedigrees was well received by participants, and they trusted the information obtained via the databases. Age did not seem to influence responses. These results may be indicative of the particular culture in Iceland, where genealogical information is well known and freely shared. Further studies are needed to determine whether use of similar approaches to genealogical information gathering may be acceptable elsewhere.

  1. Microbiological Common Language (MCL): a standard for electronic information exchange in the Microbial Commons.

    PubMed

    Verslyppe, Bert; Kottmann, Renzo; De Smet, Wim; De Baets, Bernard; De Vos, Paul; Dawyndt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although Biological Resource Centers (BRCs) traditionally have open catalogs of their holdings, it is quite cumbersome to access meta-information about microorganisms electronically due to the variety of access methods used by those catalogs. Therefore, we propose Microbiological Common Language (MCL), aimed at standardizing the electronic exchange of meta-information about microorganisms. Its application ranges from representing the online catalog of a single collection to accessing the results of StrainInfo integration and ad hoc use in other contexts. The abstract model of the standard precisely defines the elements of the standard, which enables implementation using a variety of representation technologies. Currently, XML and RDF/XML implementations are readily available. MCL is an open standard, and therefore greatly encourages input from the microbiological community.

  2. Searching information with a natural language dialogue system: a comparison of spoken vs. written modalities.

    PubMed

    Le Bigot, Ludovic; Jamet, Eric; Rouet, Jean-François

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines the effects of spoken vs. written dialogue modalities on the effectiveness of information search with a computerized retrieval system. Forty-eight adults familiar with the use of computers were asked to carry out six information retrieval tasks, engaging with the system using either spoken or written communication. The written modality was more efficient with regard to the number of dialogue turns, length of interaction with the system and mental workload. Even though the turns lasted longer in the written mode, they appeared to yield less mental workload. Moreover, spoken and written dialogues did not differ as regards the use of pronouns and articles. The implications for the development of natural-language dialogue systems are discussed.

  3. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  4. General Information about Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a team of doctors with expertise in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer ...

  5. On genetic information uncertainty and the mutator phenotype in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the existence of a mutator phenotype in cancer cells, although the mechanistic basis remains unknown. In this paper, it is shown that this enhanced genetic instability is generated by an amplified measurement uncertainty on genetic information during DNA replication. At baseline, an inherent measurement uncertainty implies an imprecision of the recognition, replication and transfer genetic information, and forms the basis for an intrinsic genetic instability in all biological cells. Genetic information is contained in the sequence of DNA bases, each existing due to proton tunnelling, as a coherent superposition of quantum states composed of both the canonical and rare tautomeric forms until decoherence by interaction with DNA polymerase. The result of such a quantum measurement process may be interpreted classically as akin to a Bernoulli trial, whose outcome X is random and can be either of two possibilities, depending on whether the proton is tunnelled (X=1) or not (X=0). This inherent quantum uncertainty is represented by a binary entropy function and quantified in terms of Shannon information entropy H(X)=-P(X=1)log(2)P(X=1)-P(X=0)log(2)P(X=0). Enhanced genetic instability may either be directly derived from amplified uncertainty induced by increases in quantum and thermodynamic fluctuation, or indirectly arise from the loss of natural uncertainty reduction mechanisms.

  6. Cognition and native-language grammar: the organizational role of adjective--noun word order in information representation.

    PubMed

    Percy, Elise J; Sherman, Steven J; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Mata, André; Garcia-Marques, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    In the present research, we investigated the influence of native-language adjective-noun word order on category accessibility for nouns and adjectives by comparing Portuguese speakers (in whose language nouns precede adjectives) with English speakers (in whose language adjectives precede nouns). In two studies, we presented participants with different numbers of verbal or pictorial stimuli, and subsequently they answered questions about noun- and adjective-conditioned frequencies. The results demonstrated a primacy effect of native-language word order. Specifically, although both populations showed a speed advantage for noun-conditioned questions, this tendency was significantly stronger for Portuguese than for American participants. We discuss the important role of native-language syntax rules for the categorization and representation of information.

  7. Harnessing Information Technology to Inform Patients Facing Routine Decisions: Cancer Screening as a Test Case.

    PubMed

    Krist, Alex H; Woolf, Steven H; Hochheimer, Camille; Sabo, Roy T; Kashiri, Paulette; Jones, Resa M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Etz, Rebecca S; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Technology could transform routine decision making by anticipating patients' information needs, assessing where patients are with decisions and preferences, personalizing educational experiences, facilitating patient-clinician information exchange, and supporting follow-up. This study evaluated whether patients and clinicians will use such a decision module and its impact on care, using 3 cancer screening decisions as test cases. Twelve practices with 55,453 patients using a patient portal participated in this prospective observational cohort study. Participation was open to patients who might face a cancer screening decision: women aged 40 to 49 who had not had a mammogram in 2 years, men aged 55 to 69 who had not had a prostate-specific antigen test in 2 years, and adults aged 50 to 74 overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Data sources included module responses, electronic health record data, and a postencounter survey. In 1 year, one-fifth of the portal users (11,458 patients) faced a potential cancer screening decision. Among these patients, 20.6% started and 7.9% completed the decision module. Fully 47.2% of module completers shared responses with their clinician. After their next office visit, 57.8% of those surveyed thought their clinician had seen their responses, and many reported the module made their appointment more productive (40.7%), helped engage them in the decision (47.7%), broadened their knowledge (48.1%), and improved communication (37.5%). Many patients face decisions that can be anticipated and proactively facilitated through technology. Although use of technology has the potential to make visits more efficient and effective, cultural, workflow, and technical changes are needed before it could be widely disseminated. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. Literacy, cognitive ability, and the retention of health-related information about colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S; Curtis, Laura M; Clayman, Marla L; Cameron, Kenzie A; Eigen, Keith Vom; Makoul, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Interventions to mitigate the impact of low literacy on patients' recall of information by simplifying language have had limited success. The current study examines the extent to which cognition explains the relationship between literacy and retention of health information. Primary care patients aged 40 to 85 years watched a video about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and then answered knowledge-based questions about the video's content as well as a literacy assessment and cognitive assessments measuring processing speed, working memory, and-long term memory. A week later, available participants completed the knowledge assessment a second time. In regression models for immediate knowledge, literacy significantly predicted knowledge. However, once cognition (i.e., processing speed, working memory, and long-term memory) was added to the model, it explained 70.7% of the relationship between literacy and performance. A week later, literacy again significantly predicted knowledge, but entering cognition into the model explained 45.9% of the relationship between literacy and performance. These results suggest that cognition explains much of the association between literacy and both immediate and delayed recall of health information. Design and intervention strategies for educational tools should consider cognitive factors such as working memory demands in addition to focusing on the readability of materials.

  9. Reporting clinical trial information: colorectal cancer trials at Sydney Cancer Centre.

    PubMed

    Chua, W; Horvath, L; Beale, P; Clarke, S J

    2012-04-01

    Clinical trial units are integral to the functioning of a medical oncology department with patient access to clinical trials an important component in patient care. There has been a paucity of potential key performance indicators in medical oncology and clinical trial information may be utilised for this purpose. The aim of this study was to record retrospectively and collate prospectively collected information regarding basic demographics, response rate, progression and survival plus grade 3 or 4 toxicity in patients enrolled in clinical trials for metastatic colorectal cancer at the Sydney Cancer Centre between 1999 and 2007. Baseline patient demographics, clinical response, progression dates, grade 3 or 4 toxicities plus treatment-related fatalities were collected from individual clinical trials. Outcome measures were clinical response, progression-free survival and overall survival. There was a total of 14 trials undertaken during the defined period for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. There was available information for 243 patient trials with sufficient information regarding response rates, toxicity, progression and survival. Tumour response rates ranged from 27% to 66% for first line chemotherapy trials and 0% to 20% for non-first line chemotherapy trials. The overall progression-free survival was 6.4 months and overall survival 14.0 months for all trials. There was one treatment-related fatality on clinical trial during this period. Results of our clinical database have been used here to illustrate the concept and value of reporting clinical trial information in medical oncology. Public reporting of such information may allow for comparisons between units and for quality improvement. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. The Use of Descriptive Data from Bilingual Children to Inform Theories of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In her Keynote Article, Paradis reviews evidence from bilingual language development to assess the claims of two opposing theoretical views of language disorders. Specifically, she examines the evidence for similarities in language profiles of typically developing (TD) sequential bilingual (second language [L2]) children and monolingual children…

  11. The Use of Descriptive Data from Bilingual Children to Inform Theories of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In her Keynote Article, Paradis reviews evidence from bilingual language development to assess the claims of two opposing theoretical views of language disorders. Specifically, she examines the evidence for similarities in language profiles of typically developing (TD) sequential bilingual (second language [L2]) children and monolingual children…

  12. Patient information exchange guideline MERIT-9 using medical markup language MML.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Ohe, K; Yoshihara, H; Ando, Y; Kawamata, F; Hishiki, T; Ohashi, K; Sakusabe, T; Tani, S; Akiyama, M

    1998-01-01

    To realize clinical data exchange between healthcare providers, there must be many standards in many layers. Terms and codes should be standardized, syntax to wrap the data must be mutually parsable, then transfer protocol or exchange media should be agreed. Among many standards for the syntax, HL7 and DICOM are most successful. However, everything could not be handled by HL7 solely. DICOM is good for radiology images, but, other clinical images are already handled by other "lighter" data formats like JPEG, TIFF. So, it is not realistic to use only one standard for every area of clinical information. For description of medical records, especially for narrative information, we created SGML DTD for medical information, called MML (Medical Markup Language). It is already implemented in more than 10 healthcare providers in Japan. As it is a hierarchical description of information, it is easily used as a basis of object request brokering. It is again not realistic to use MML solely for clinical information in various level of detail. Therefore, we proposed a guide-line for use of available medical standards to facilitate clinical information exchange between healthcare providers. It is called MERIT-9 (MEdical Records, Images, Texts,--Information eXchange). A typical use is HL7 files, DICOM files, referred from an MML file in a patient record, as external entities. Both MML and MERIT-9 are research projects of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the purpose is to facilitate clinical data exchanges. They are becoming to be used in technical specifications for new hospital information systems in Japan.

  13. SESy-Europe: a multi-language database dedicated to cancer screening monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mauri, D; Pazarlis, P; Mauri, J; Altinoz, H; Rivas Flores, F J; Karentzou, I; Proiskos, A; Lakiotis, V; Maragkaki, A; Terzoudi, E; Dambrosio, E M; Spiliopoulou, A; Varsami, A; Alexandropoulou, P; Tolis, C; Pavlidis, N; Vittoraki, A

    2004-09-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death in developed countries. Many efforts to educate the public to more tumor free life-style and screening practice have been therefore adopted. Considering the high costs of diagnostic procedures and educational programs a cancer prevention/screening practice monitoring system is required to reduce costs, to assist health making policy decisions, and to tailor more targeted interventions whenever indicated. We, therefore, realized a computerized data-base able to assist medical personnel in health intervention monitoring and making policy at community level with a focus on the European region. An international medical board provided the translation of medical-related contents in English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Rumanian, Spanish and Turkish. The electronic system recognizes and finds relationships between screening events or secondary prevention tests and various causes of medical examinations (symptoms, diseases, professions, presence and type of health insurance, sex, age, medical history, family history, educational level, knowledge about cancer screening and prevention, patient location, type of community, region of provenance, etc). Due to its multi-language standardized characteristics its application may bridge European countries in cancer screening monitoring policy.

  14. Caring for caregivers and patients: Research and clinical priorities for informal cancer caregiving.

    PubMed

    Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H; Northouse, Laurel; Litzelman, Kristin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Timura, Catherine; O'Mara, Ann; Huss, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Informal/family caregivers are a fundamental source of care for cancer patients in the United States, yet the population of caregivers and their tasks, psychosocial needs, and health outcomes are not well understood. Changes in the nature of cancer care and its delivery, along with the growing population of survivors and their caregivers, warrant increased attention to the roles and demands of caregiving. This article reviews current evidence presented at a 2-day meeting examining the state of the science of informal cancer caregiving that was convened by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Nursing Research. The meeting sought to define who is an informal cancer caregiver, summarize the state of the science in informal cancer caregiving, and describe both the kinds of interventions developed to address caregiving challenges and the various outcomes used to evaluate their impact. This article offers recommendations for moving science forward in 4 areas: 1) improving the estimation of the prevalence and burden of informal cancer caregiving; 2) advancing the development of interventions designed to improve outcomes for cancer patients, caregivers, and patient-caregiver dyads; 3) generating and testing strategies for integrating caregivers into formal health care settings; and 4) promoting the use of technology to support informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:1987-95. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  15. Information needs of cancer patients: Validation of the Greek Cassileth's Information Styles Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Alamanou, G Despoina; Balokas, A Sotirios; Fotos, V Nikolaos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Brokalaki, Hero

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the translated in Greek Cassileth's Information Styles Questionnaire (ISQ). It was a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of one hundred and nine adult patients diagnosed with cancer, attending the oncology outpatient department (outpatients) or being hospitalized (inpatients), from January 2013 to September 2013, in one general hospital in Athens. Two instruments were used: The Control Preference Scale (CPS), an assessment tool to measure decision-making preferences of cancer patients and ISQ to assess the information needs of patients. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to evaluate construct validity of the ISQ. The internal consistency of subscales was analyzed with Cronbach's alpha and the association of demographics and clinical variables with the ISQ was explored using linear regression analysis. Sixty one (56%) patients were males. The mean age was 65.5 (SD = 11.9) years. Two dimensions of the ISQ were revealed. Cronbach's alpha was 0.92 for "Disease and treatment" dimension (12 of 17 items of the questionnaire) and 0.89 for "Psychological" dimension (5 of 17 items of the questionnaire). Statistical analysis showed that the patients' preferred decision making roles were associated with the ISQ dimensions. Also, age, sex, diagnosis, educational level and the existence of metastasis were associated with the score of "Disease and treatment" dimension. All the scales of ISQ, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70. The results showed that the Greek ISQ is a reliable and valid tool for identifying the information needs of cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. From the Mouths of Canadian University Students: Web-Based Information-Seeking Activities for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Martine; Weinberg, Alysse; Sarma, Nandini; Frankoff, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This article presents student perceptions about different types of web-based activities used to seek information for French language learning. Group interviews were conducted with 71 students in five Canadian universities to elicit data on their use of the Internet for information-seeking activities. These students use the Web for three main…

  17. From the Mouths of Canadian University Students: Web-Based Information-Seeking Activities for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Martine; Weinberg, Alysse; Sarma, Nandini; Frankoff, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This article presents student perceptions about different types of web-based activities used to seek information for French language learning. Group interviews were conducted with 71 students in five Canadian universities to elicit data on their use of the Internet for information-seeking activities. These students use the Web for three main…

  18. Towards developing a bilingual treatment summary and survivorship care plan responsive to Spanish language preferred breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Ashing, Kimlin; Serrano, Mayra; Weitzel, Jeffery; Lai, Lily; Paz, Benjamin; Vargas, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Treatment summary and survivorship care plan studies are at the forefront of research priorities with precedence for ethnic minority inclusion. This preliminary study joined the advocacy, scientific, and medical communities to inform the development and evaluation of the Treatment Summary and Survivorship Care Plan (TSSCP-S) template targeted for Latino breast cancer patients (LCA). The development of the TSSCP-S began as modifications to the American Society of Cancer Oncology (ASCO) (TSSCP-ASCO) template via a transcreation process informed by 12 LCA survivors/advocates, and evaluated by 10 survivor/advocates and health professionals. The TSSCP-S template development was guided by the Shared Care, Psychooncology Models, and Contextual Model of Health Related Quality of Life. The bilingual TSSCP-S was independently evaluated by bilingual, survivor/advocates, and health professionals (n = 10). Preliminary analyses indicate that the TSSCP-S template was rated more favorably than the TSSCP-ASCO on the following domains: content (p = 0.02), clarity (p = 0.02), utility (p = 0.04), cultural and linguistic responsiveness (p = 0.03), and socioecological responsiveness (p = 0.01). Evaluators noted that the TSSCP-S template was more patient-centered, and endorsed the acceptability as well as the potential utility and applicability of the bilingual TSSCP-S template to appropriately guide surveillance and follow-up care. Our findings indicate that the TSSCP-S achieved clinical, cultural, and linguistic responsiveness relevant to Latinos. Patient-centered TSSCP that are presented in a bilingual format are necessary to achieve the intended goals of TSSCP including appropriate patient information, education, and resources pertaining to their treatment, potential side effects, and recommended surveillance and follow-up care for English language limited patients. Additionally, our culturally responsive TSSCP-S development framework offers a model for TSSCP

  19. Cancer Information Scanning and Seeking in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Bridget; Hornik, Robert; Romantan, Anca; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Armstrong, Katrina; DeMichele, Angela; Fishbein, Martin; Gray, Stacy; Hull, Shawnika; Kim, Annice; Nagler, Rebekah; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Ramírez, PhD, A. Susana; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Wong, Norman

    2013-01-01

    The amount of cancer-related information available in the media and other sources continues to increase each year. We wondered how people make use of such content in making specific health decisions. We studied both the information they actively seek (“seeking”) and that which they encounter in a less purposive way (“scanning”) through a nationally representative survey of adults aged 40–70 years (n=2,489) focused on information use around three prevention behaviors (dieting, fruit and vegetable consumption and exercising) and three screening test behaviors (prostate-specific antigen, colonoscopy, mammogram). Overall, respondents reported a great deal of scanning and somewhat less seeking (on average 62% versus 28% for each behavior), and used a range of sources including mass media, interpersonal conversations and the Internet, alongside physicians. Seeking was predicted by female gender; age of 55–64 vs. 40–44; higher education; Black race and Hispanic ethnicity and being married. Scanning was predicted by older age, female gender and education. Respondents were fairly consistent in their place on a typology of scanning and seeking across behaviors. Seeking was associated with all six behaviors and scanning was associated with three of six behaviors. PMID:21104503

  20. Health information needs and preferences in relation to survivorship care plans of long-term cancer survivors in the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-I

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; McCorkle, Ruth; Stein, Kevin D.; Cannady, Rachel; Sanft, Tara; Cartmel, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivorship care plans (SCPs) provide cancer patients and health care providers with a treatment summary and outline of recommended medical follow-up. Few studies have investigated the information needs and preferred sources among long-term cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors of the ten most common cancers enrolled in the longitudinal Study of Cancer Survivors-I (SCS-I) completed a survey 9 years post-diagnosis (n = 3138); at time of diagnosis of the SCS-I cohort, SCPs were not considered usual care. We assessed participants' current desire and preferred sources for information across ten SCP items and evaluated factors associated with information need 9 years after diagnosis. Results The proportion of long-term cancer survivors endorsing a need for cancer and health information 9 years post-diagnosis ranged from 43 % (cancer screening) to 9 % (consequences of cancer on ability to work). Print media and personalized reading materials were the most preferred information sources. Younger age, higher education, race other than non-Hispanic white, later cancer stage, having breast cancer, having ≥2 comorbidities, and self-reporting poor health were associated with greater informational need (p < 0.05). Conclusions/Implications for Cancer Survivors Long-term cancer survivors continue to report health information needs for most SCP items and would prefer a print format; however, level of need differs by socio-demographic and cancer characteristics. Cancer survivors who did not previously receive a SCP may still benefit from receiving SCP content, and strategies for enabling dissemination to long-term survivors warrant further investigation. PMID:26744339

  1. Evaluating true BCI communication rate through mutual information and language models.

    PubMed

    Speier, William; Arnold, Corey; Pouratian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are a promising means for restoring communication to patients suffering from "locked-in" syndrome. Research to improve system performance primarily focuses on means to overcome the low signal to noise ratio of electroencephalogric (EEG) recordings. However, the literature and methods are difficult to compare due to the array of evaluation metrics and assumptions underlying them, including that: 1) all characters are equally probable, 2) character selection is memoryless, and 3) errors occur completely at random. The standardization of evaluation metrics that more accurately reflect the amount of information contained in BCI language output is critical to make progress. We present a mutual information-based metric that incorporates prior information and a model of systematic errors. The parameters of a system used in one study were re-optimized, showing that the metric used in optimization significantly affects the parameter values chosen and the resulting system performance. The results of 11 BCI communication studies were then evaluated using different metrics, including those previously used in BCI literature and the newly advocated metric. Six studies' results varied based on the metric used for evaluation and the proposed metric produced results that differed from those originally published in two of the studies. Standardizing metrics to accurately reflect the rate of information transmission is critical to properly evaluate and compare BCI communication systems and advance the field in an unbiased manner.

  2. A qualitative study of Canadian Aboriginal women's beliefs about "credible" cancer information on the internet.

    PubMed

    Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Friedman, Daniela B

    2007-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating the quality of cancer information on the Internet include source credibility and accuracy and currency of content. Cultural relevance of cancer resources is often overlooked in assessments of quality of Internet Web sites. Interviews with senior Aboriginal women (n = 25) were conducted in Ontario Canada to determine their beliefs about "high quality" and "credible" cancer prevention resources. Participants did not regard online cancer information from the medical community to be completely credible. They recommended that cancer resources include contact information for traditional healers in addition to local cancer agencies. Cultural appropriateness of cancer information should be assessed. Web resources considered credible according to published criteria may not be as relevant for Aboriginal populations.

  3. Profile of e-patients: analysis of their cancer information-seeking from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghye; Kwon, Nahyun

    2010-10-01

    Researchers have yet to fully understand how competent e-patients are in selecting and using health information sources, or, more importantly, who e-patients are. This study attempted to uncover how cancer e-patients differ from other cancer information seekers in terms of their sociodemographic background, social networks, information competence, and selection of cancer information sources. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, and a series of chi-square tests showed that factors that distinguished cancer e-patients from other cancer information seekers were age, gender, education, employment status, health insurance, and membership in online support groups. They were not different in the other factors measured by the survey. Our logistic regression analysis revealed that the e-patients were older and talked about their health issues with friends or family more frequently compared with online health information seekers without cancer. While preferring information from their doctors over the Internet, e-patients used the Internet as their primary source. In contrast to previous literature, we found little evidence that e-patients were savvy health information consumers who could make informed decisions on their own health. The findings of this study addressed a need for a better design and delivery of health information literacy programs for cancer e-patients.

  4. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. PMID:25383918

  5. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  6. Are Patients With Cancer Less Willing to Share Their Health Information? Privacy, Sensitivity, and Social Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Grande, David; Asch, David A.; Wan, Fei; Bradbury, Angela R.; Jagsi, Reshma; Mitra, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Growing use of electronic health information increases opportunities to build population cancer databases for research and care delivery. Understanding patient views on reuse of health information is essential to shape privacy policies and build trust in these initiatives. Methods: We randomly assigned nationally representative participants (N = 3,336) with and without prior cancer to six of 18 scenarios describing different uses of electronic health information. The scenarios varied the user, use, and sensitivity of the information. Participants rated each scenario on a scale of 1 to 10 assessing their willingness to share their electronic health information. We used conjoint analysis to measure the relative importance of each attribute (ie, use, user, and sensitivity). Results: Participants with and without a prior diagnosis of cancer had a similar willingness to share health information (0.27; P = .42). Both cancer and noncancer participants rated the purpose of information use as the most important factor (importance weights, 67.1% and 45.6%, respectively). For cancer participants, the sensitivity of the information was more important (importance weights, 29.8% v 1.2%). However, cancer participants were more willing to share their health information when the information included more sensitive genetic information (0.48; P = .015). Cancer and noncancer respondents rated uses and users similarly. Conclusion: The information sharing preferences of participants with and without a prior diagnosis of cancer were driven mainly by the purpose of information reuse. Although conventional thinking suggests patients with cancer might be less willing to share their health information, we found participants with cancer were more willing to share their inherited genetic information. PMID:26265174

  7. Avoiding the Target Language with the Help of Google: Managing Language Choices in Gathering Information for EFL Project Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musk, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of translation tools into the Google search engine has led to a huge increase in the visibility and accessibility of such tools, with potentially far-reaching implications for the English language classroom. Although these translation tools are the focus of this study, using them is in fact only one way in which English language…

  8. Avoiding the Target Language with the Help of Google: Managing Language Choices in Gathering Information for EFL Project Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musk, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of translation tools into the Google search engine has led to a huge increase in the visibility and accessibility of such tools, with potentially far-reaching implications for the English language classroom. Although these translation tools are the focus of this study, using them is in fact only one way in which English language…

  9. The informed consent: a study of the efficacy of informed consents and the associated role of language barriers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven; Mangram, Alicia; Ernest, Dunn; Lebron, Ricardo; Peralta, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent before performing invasive procedures and operations has become a standard practice at all medical institutions in the United States. All agree that patients should be both conscious of and in agreement with their medical care. Though patients routinely sign consent forms with numerous risks and complications detailed, there are only a limited amount of reports that study if these patients have a thorough understanding of those risks and complications. Confounding the issue of the efficacy of informed consents is the growing population of patients who do not speak English. To obtain objective data on the efficacy of informed consents and the role of language barriers we looked at how well patients who consented to have a laparoscopic cholecystectomy understood the complications associated with this procedure. We conducted a randomized prospective study of all patients seen in the General Surgery Resident Outpatient Clinic who presented for an elective cholecystectomy. Fifty patients agreed to participate in our study. Participants were split into two groups. In the first group (the control group) surgical benefits, risks and complications were explained in the usual fashion. In the second group, after hearing the standard explanation of surgical risks, complications and benefits, patients watched a PowerPoint presentation with illustrations on laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients from both groups then took a ten question assessment based on the presentations that they encountered. Spanish speaking patients were addressed with an interpreter and given a Spanish PowerPoint presentation with a Spanish assessment. The patients' age, education level, income, and birth country were also studied. Fifty-two percent of the patients in the study were born outside of the United States. All of the non-US born patients were Hispanic and their primary language was Spanish. The average age of the studied patients was 38. Sixty-eight percent of the

  10. The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

  11. Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.

    PubMed

    Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2007-10-11

    Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs.

  12. Use of Prosody and Information Structure in High Functioning Adults with Autism in Relation to Language Ability

    PubMed Central

    DePape, Anne-Marie R.; Chen, Aoju; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without ASD and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language functioning. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities. PMID:22470358

  13. A Typology of Cancer Information Seeking, Scanning and Avoiding: Results from an Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelissen, Sara; Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to (a) construct a typology of how individuals acquire cancer information, and (b) examine whether these types differ regarding socio-demographics and cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Method: A standardized, cross-sectional survey among cancer diagnosed and non-diagnosed individuals in Flanders,…

  14. 75 FR 10225 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Language Resource Centers Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... improving the Nation's capacity for teaching and learning foreign languages. Priorities: This notice...), Hindi, Igbo, Indonesian, Japanese, Javanese, Kannada, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Khmer (Cambodian), Kirghiz... and Foreign Language Program. Program Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1123. Applicable Regulations: (a) The...

  15. Cancer-related information seeking and scanning behavior of older Vietnamese immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang T; Shungu, Nicholas P; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barg, Frances K; Holmes, John H; Armstrong, Katrina; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Information seeking and scanning refers to active pursuit of information and passive exposure, respectively. Cancer is the leading cause of mortality for Asian Americans, yet little is known about their cancer information seeking/scanning behaviors (SSB). We aimed to evaluate cancer SSB among older limited English proficient (LEP) Vietnamese immigrants, compared with Whites/African Americans. One hundred four semistructured interviews about breast/prostate/colon cancer SSB (ages 50-70) were conducted in English and Vietnamese, transcribed, and coded for frequency of source use, active/passive nature, depth of recall, and relevance to decisions. Higher SSB was associated with cancer screening. In contrast to non-Vietnamese, SSB for Vietnamese was low. Median number of cancer screening sources was two (vs. eight to nine for non-Vietnamese). They also had less seeking, lower recall, and less decision-making relevance for information on colon cancer and all cancers combined. Overall, Vietnamese had lower use of electronic, print, and interpersonal sources for cancer SSB, but more research is needed to disentangle potential effects of ethnicity and education. This study brings to light striking potential differences between cancer SSB of older LEP Vietnamese compared with Whites/African Americans. Knowledge of SSB patterns among linguistically isolated communities is essential for efficient dissemination of cancer information to these at-risk communities.

  16. Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural-Language Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Daniel R.; Bex, Peter J.; Rose, Dylan J.; Woods, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a “wisdom of crowds” approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

  17. Measuring information acquisition from sensory input using automated scoring of natural-language descriptions.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel R; Bex, Peter J; Rose, Dylan J; Woods, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a "wisdom of crowds" approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85 y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66 y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled.

  18. [Epidemiological cancer data online: an overview of information service in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable data about cancer epidemiology on the World Wide Web is not an easy task. Information is often scattered, and sources are not always clear. This article gives a short overview of the most important websites that provide reliable data for Germany and Europe. Four internet sites are presented: The German Centre for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD), the Association of Population-Based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID), and two different websites created by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In combination, they provide comprehensive information about the distribution of cancer in Germany and Europe.

  19. Health-related information exchange experiences of Jordanian women at breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana F; Lally, Robin M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women's experiences of information exchange following diagnosis of early stage breast cancer. A purposive sample of 28 women who had surgery for early stage breast cancer within 6 months prior to the interview and had treatment at three hospitals in Central and Northern Jordan was recruited for the study. Data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews focused on women's communication experiences at diagnosis and during cancer treatment. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim in Arabic, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Three main themes associated with information exchange were revealed as follows: (1) knowledge about breast cancer and its treatment, (2) communication of cancer diagnosis and treatment, and (3) educating on treatment side effects. Misconceptions about breast cancer risk factors, consequences of breast cancer treatment, and breast cancer-related symptoms were common among participants. Women made important health-related decisions based on misconceptions. Physician's information giving, availability, and responses to women's questions varied by their level of education and the type and location of treatment facility. Informational exchange experiences vary among Jordanian women diagnosed with breast cancer and raise concern over opportunities offered these women to engage in informed decision making. Findings suggest a need for nurses to assess the information needs of Jordanian women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and provide education tailored to individual needs. There is also a need to develop Arabic educational materials and make these available for patients at treatment facilities in all regions of Jordan.

  20. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Sign Language Test Development: Results of an International Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…