Science.gov

Sample records for language disorders

  1. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  2. Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePlus

    If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  4. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anal Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/analdisorders.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bipolar Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bipolardisorder.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a book and turning pages Telling a story with a beginning, a middle, and an end Naming letters and numbers Learning the alphabet What if my child speaks more than one language? A child does not get a language disorder ...

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Autism Spectrum Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/autismspectrumdisorder.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Genes, Language Development, and Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shelley D.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic factors are important contributors to language and learning disorders, and discovery of the underlying genes can help delineate the basic neurological pathways that are involved. This information, in turn, can help define disorders and their perceptual and processing deficits. Initial molecular genetic studies of dyslexia, for example,…

  9. Linguistic Profiling of Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanth, Prathibha

    2010-01-01

    The history of the evolution of language assessments for children and adults with language disorders is described briefly. This is followed by a discussion on language assessment of the clinical population with an emphasis on linguistic profiling, illustrated through the Linguistic Profile Test. Discourse analysis, in particular, is highlighted…

  10. Social Implications of Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Laura G.

    1987-01-01

    Children with oral language disorders have difficulty in the areas of social behavior and family relationships as well as with academics and vocational achievement. Remediation should focus on specific language deficits, appropriate social interaction skills, and helping the individual to understand and take responsibility for effective…

  11. Language Disorders in Multilingual and Multicultural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Conner, Peggy S.

    2014-01-01

    We review the characteristics of developmental language disorders (primary language impairment, reading disorders, autism, Down syndrome) and acquired language disorders (aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury) among multilingual and multicultural individuals. We highlight the unique assessment and treatment considerations pertinent to this population, including, for example, concerns of language choice and availability of measures and of normative data in multiple languages. A summary of relevant, recent research studies is provided for each of the language disorders selected. PMID:26257455

  12. Language Disorders in Multilingual and Multicultural Populations.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-03-01

    We review the characteristics of developmental language disorders (primary language impairment, reading disorders, autism, Down syndrome) and acquired language disorders (aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury) among multilingual and multicultural individuals. We highlight the unique assessment and treatment considerations pertinent to this population, including, for example, concerns of language choice and availability of measures and of normative data in multiple languages. A summary of relevant, recent research studies is provided for each of the language disorders selected.

  13. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  14. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  15. Mental Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP3 Healthy Roads Media Mental Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades mentales: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine ...

  16. Facial Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Facial Injuries and Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Facial Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing ...

  17. Parathyroid Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parathyroid Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parathyroid Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  18. Dyslexia: a developmental language disorder.

    PubMed

    Simpson, S

    2000-09-01

    The acquisition of literacy in an alphabetic script such as English makes heavy demands on linguistic skills. The relation between spoken and written language however, is far from straightforward. This article reviews the research that suggests that phonological processing skills are crucial in the translation of symbols to sounds, and the development of rapid and automatic decoding skills. It examines research that indicates that children whose phonological processing skills are compromised in some way, are at-risk of experiencing difficulties in the acquisition of literacy; it supports the suggestion that dyslexia can be viewed as lying on the continuum of developmental language disorders. It goes on to relate theory to practice and discusses the responsibilities of health care professionals in relation to the early identification of dyslexia, and makes suggestions regarding intervention. In particular, it looks at the responsibilities of speech and language therapy services in the care and management of children with dyslexia.

  19. Assessing Grammar: The Languages of LARSP. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Martin; Crystal, David; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a resource book for those working with language disordered clients in a range of languages. It collects together versions of the well-known Language Assessment Remediation Screening Procedure (LARSP) prepared for different languages. Starting with the original version for English, the book then presents versions in more than a…

  20. Assessing Grammar: The Languages of LARSP. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Martin; Crystal, David; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a resource book for those working with language disordered clients in a range of languages. It collects together versions of the well-known Language Assessment Remediation Screening Procedure (LARSP) prepared for different languages. Starting with the original version for English, the book then presents versions in more than a…

  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Blood Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/blooddisorders.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Arm Injuries and Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/arminjuriesanddisorders.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  4. Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Ankle Injuries and Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ankleinjuriesanddisorders.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Post-stroke language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman; Mrkonjić, Zamir; Zukić, Sanela; Vidović, Mirjana; Imamović, Kata

    2011-03-01

    Post-stroke language disorders are frequent and include aphasia, alexia, agraphia and acalculia. There are different definitions of aphasias, but the most widely accepted neurologic and/or neuropsychological definition is that aphasia is a loss or impairment of verbal communication, which occurs as a consequence of brain dysfunction. It manifests as impairment of almost all verbal abilities, e.g., abnormal verbal expression, difficulties in understanding spoken or written language, repetition, naming, reading and writing. During the history, many classifications of aphasia syndromes were established. For practical use, classification of aphasias according to fluency, comprehension and abilities of naming it seems to be most suitable (nonfluent aphasias: Broca's, transcortical motor, global and mixed transcortical aphasia; fluent aphasias: anomic, conduction, Wernicke's, transcortical sensory, subcortical aphasia). Aphasia is a common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with a prevalence of one-third of all stroke patients in acute phase, although there are reports on even higher figures. Many speech impairments have a tendency of spontaneous recovery. Spontaneous recovery is most remarkable in the first three months after stroke onset. Recovery of aphasias caused by ischemic stroke occurs earlier and it is most intensive in the first two weeks. In aphasias caused by hemorrhagic stroke, spontaneous recovery is slower and occurs from the fourth to the eighth week after stroke. The course and outcome of aphasia depend greatly on the type of aphasia. Regardless of the fact that a significant number of aphasias spontaneously improve, it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible. The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias and agraphias) are more frequent than verified on routine examination, not only in less developed but also in large neurologic departments. Alexia is an acquired

  6. Language disorder: a functional linguistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, E

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issues involved in the linguistic characterisation of disordered discourse and the ways in which a Systemic Functional Linguistic framework addresses these issues. For many years, language disorders were described in terms of formal grammars, with "breakdown" discussed in terms of one or more of the traditional levels of language, i.e., phonology, syntax, and semantics. While it was acknowledged that an individual could have difficulty at one or more of these levels, each was viewed quite separately, with semantics viewed largely from a referential perspective. More recent approaches using functional grammar have broadened this view of language and have provided a model of language that re-conceptualizes the notion of meaning and embraces context as integral to its organisation. Such a model has introduced a different perspective on language into clinical fields, and has enabled researchers and clinicians to explore the skills of speakers with language disorders across a variety of situations and contextual variables, examining the linguistic resources still available to them. This paper introduces principles involved in a functional framework and provides an overview of how these principles have been applied to language disorders to date. In addition, the notion of "disorder" itself is discussed as it is situated in this alternative model.

  7. Progress in Understanding Adolescent Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Victoria L.; Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This prologue introduces a clinical forum on adolescent language disorders, a topic that has long been of interest to school-based speech-language pathologists/therapists. Method: A rationale for the clinical forum is provided, and the content is contrasted with a previous forum on the same topic that was published nearly 20 years ago.…

  8. Language-Learning Disorders and Youth Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares-Orama, N.

    2005-01-01

    Many speech-language pathologists are serving delinquent boys with language-learning disorders who are both current and former residents of correctional institutions. These youngsters demonstrate personal maladjustments that have a negative impact on school performance and socialization. Those boys within chaotic families are at risk of poverty,…

  9. Progress in Understanding Adolescent Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Victoria L.; Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This prologue introduces a clinical forum on adolescent language disorders, a topic that has long been of interest to school-based speech-language pathologists/therapists. Method: A rationale for the clinical forum is provided, and the content is contrasted with a previous forum on the same topic that was published nearly 20 years ago.…

  10. Lauretta Bender's Contribution to Understanding Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Archie A.

    1989-01-01

    Lauretta Bender's experiences as a bright child struggling with specific learning problems and her subsequent work in language disorders are described. Her recognition of the biological nature of a group of learning disorders for which there was no clinical evidence of structural damage to the central nervous system is emphasized. (JDD)

  11. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  12. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  13. Language Disorder: A Functional Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issues involved in the linguistic characterisation of disordered discourse and the ways in which a Systemic Functional Linguistic framework addresses these issues. For many years, language disorders were described in terms of formal grammars, with "breakdown" discussed in terms of one or more of the traditional levels of…

  14. Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting

    MedlinePlus

    ... speech-language disorders affect learning? Speech and language skills are essential to academic success and learning. Language is the basis of communication. Reading, writing, gesturing, listening, and speaking are all forms of language. Learning takes place ...

  15. Hemispheric Language Dominance of Language-Disordered, Articulation-Disordered, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, John M.; Helms, Suzanne B.

    1979-01-01

    The hemispheric dominance for language of three groups of six- to nine- year-olds (ten language-disordered, ten articulation-disordered, and ten normal children) was compared, and two dichotic listening tests (digits and animal names) were administered. (Author/CL)

  16. Mouth Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Mouth Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Hmong (Hmoob) ...

  17. Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Learning Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wire, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    The number of young people with a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) coming into mainstream foreign languages classes is increasing, and this is causing some concern to teachers. Based on her extensive professional experience, Vivienne Wire here considers the implications for teaching and learning of the "triad of impairments" found in…

  18. Is expressive language disorder an accurate diagnostic category?

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2009-05-01

    To propose that the diagnostic category of "expressive language disorder" as distinct from a disorder of both expressive and receptive language might not be accurate. Evidence that casts doubt on a pure form of this disorder is reviewed from several sources, including the literature on genetic findings, theories of language impairments, and the outcomes of late talkers with expressive language delays. Areas of language that are problematic in production but not readily amenable to comprehension testing are also discussed. The notion of expressive language disorder has been formalized in classification systems and is implicit if not explicit in the organization of many standardized tests. However, a close inspection of the evidence suggests that deficits in language expression are typically accompanied by limitations in language knowledge or difficulties processing language input. For this reason, the diagnostic category of expressive language disorder should be used with considerable caution. This view has implications for both research and clinical practice.

  19. Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  20. Throat Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Throat Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  1. Neuromuscular Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Neuromuscular Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  2. The Evolution of Neuroimaging Research and Developmental Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Angela B.; Foundas, Anne L.; Leonard, Christiana M.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews current neuroimaging literature, including computer tomography, positron emission tomography, single photon emission spectroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging, on individuals with developmental language disorders. The review suggests a complicated relationship between cortical morphometry and language development that is…

  3. The Evolution of Neuroimaging Research and Developmental Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Angela B.; Foundas, Anne L.; Leonard, Christiana M.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews current neuroimaging literature, including computer tomography, positron emission tomography, single photon emission spectroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging, on individuals with developmental language disorders. The review suggests a complicated relationship between cortical morphometry and language development that is…

  4. [Characterization of language disorders in children with lead poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gahyva, Dáphine Luciana Costa; Crenitte, Patrícia de Abreu Pinheiro; Caldana, Magali de Lourdes; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2008-01-01

    lead poisoning can have a negative impact on the neuropsychological functions, including language, due to the damage it causes to the development of the Central Nervous System. to verify the occurrence of language disorders in children who suffered from led poisoning and to verify the correlation between the lead concentration level in the blood and the language disorders presented by the children. language evaluation of 20 preschoolers, with lead concentration level in the blood above 10 microg/dl. 13 children presented language impairment involving only phonology or more than one language subsystem. The statistical analysis indicated that no correlation exists between the severity of the language impairment and the concentration levels of lead. the number of children with language impairment indicates lead poisoning as a risk factor for the present alterations, even though other risk factors for language disorders were found and the absence of correlation between the investigated variables.

  5. National Strategic Research Plan, 1994-1995: Language and Language Impairments, Balance and Balance Disorders, Voice and Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This report is the result of three expert panels (on language and language impairments, balance and balance disorders, and voice and voice disorders) which met in 1994 and 1995 and reported research accomplishments, federal program goals, and research opportunities to the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Board. For…

  6. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  7. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  8. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  9. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  10. Influence of additional language learning on first language learning in children with language disorders.

    PubMed

    To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  11. Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders.

    PubMed

    Keilmann, Annerose; Kluesener, Patrick; Freude, Christina; Schramm, Bianka

    2011-04-01

    Children with hearing impairment (HI) often suffer from speech and language disorders. We wondered if the manifestation of these disorders resembled the ones in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Using matched pairs, we compared the manifestation of a speech and language disorder in 5- and 6-year-old children with HI and SLI. We looked at receptive language skills using the Reynell scales, the lexicon, syntax and morphology, output phonology, and phonological short-term memory. Receptive language skills were more impaired in HI children. No significant differences were recorded for all other domains. We conclude that language deficits that are at least partially caused by the hearing impairment affect receptive language skills to a greater extent than expressive language skills.

  12. Expressive versus Receptive Language Skills in Specific Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovik, Vesna; Riddell, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Despite ample research into the language skills of children with specific reading disorder no studies so far have investigated whether there may be a difference between expressive and receptive language skills in this population. Yet, neuro-anatomical models would predict that children who have specific reading disorder which is not associated…

  13. Comorbidity of Auditory Processing, Language, and Reading Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Kelly, Andrea S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed comorbidity of auditory processing disorder (APD), language impairment (LI), and reading disorder (RD) in school-age children. Method: Children (N = 68) with suspected APD and nonverbal IQ standard scores of 80 or more were assessed using auditory, language, reading, attention, and memory measures. Auditory processing…

  14. Expressive versus Receptive Language Skills in Specific Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovik, Vesna; Riddell, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Despite ample research into the language skills of children with specific reading disorder no studies so far have investigated whether there may be a difference between expressive and receptive language skills in this population. Yet, neuro-anatomical models would predict that children who have specific reading disorder which is not associated…

  15. Genetic Influences on Learning Disabilities and Speech and Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensively reviews known examples of genetically influenced learning disabilities and speech and language disorders, including familial dyslexia, stuttering, and other speech and language disorders, as well as sex-chromosome anomalies, treated PKU, and minor auto-somal anomalies. (Author/RH)

  16. Aphasia rehabilitation: more than treating the language disorder.

    PubMed

    van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; van der Meulen, Ineke; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2012-01-01

    This supplement focuses on the neurorehabilitation of language disorders. It offers a broad survey of this field, with state-of-the-art contributions from various disciplines. In doing so, it aims to show that treating the devastating consequences of neurological language disorders requires a prolonged interdisciplinary effort.

  17. Immigration, Cultural-Linguistic Diversity, and Topics in Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…

  18. Thirty Years before Topics in Language Disorders: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Joel

    2010-01-01

    In the 1950s, the assessment and management of children with language impairments emphasized their auditory and visual processing deficits and relied heavily on classifications of adult language disorders. Many compelling theoretical insights were offered, but research in language acquisition was in its infancy. It was not until the 1960s and…

  19. A Multidimensional Review of Bilingual Aphasia as a Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Aphasia as a multifaceted language disorder associated with the complicated links between language and brain has been and is of interest and significance to the stream of research in different disciplines including neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive studies and language acquisition. Along with explorations into the manifestations of…

  20. Thirty Years before Topics in Language Disorders: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Joel

    2010-01-01

    In the 1950s, the assessment and management of children with language impairments emphasized their auditory and visual processing deficits and relied heavily on classifications of adult language disorders. Many compelling theoretical insights were offered, but research in language acquisition was in its infancy. It was not until the 1960s and…

  1. Language disorders in children with central nervous system injury

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Children with injury to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit a variety of language disorders that have been described by members of different disciplines, in different journals, using different descriptors and taxonomies. This paper is an overview of language deficits in children with CNS injury, whether congenital or acquired after a period of normal development. It first reviews the principal CNS conditions associated with language disorders in childhood. It then describes a functional taxonomy of language, with examples of the phenomenology and neurobiology of clinical deficits in children with CNS insults. Finally, it attempts to situate language in the broader realm of cognition and in current theoretical accounts of embodied cognition. PMID:20397297

  2. Brain Mechanisms of Affective Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0457 TITLE: Brain Mechanisms of Affective Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Brain Mechanisms of Affective Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Profound deficits in the domain of social communication are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorders

  3. Association between language and hearing disorders – risk identification

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Rondon-Melo, Silmara; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela Regina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify children at risk for hearing and/or language disorders and to investigate the association between these risks by conducting pre-validated hearing and language screenings. METHODS: The study was conducted during a polio vaccination campaign in August of 2013 in basic health units in western São Paulo. Parents of children between 2 and 5 years of age were asked to complete two screening tools: a hearing questionnaire (regarding hearing development) and a language production and comprehension scale (including the major language development milestones). The screening tools were administered by different researchers. We compared the risk of having language disorders among children at risk for hearing loss versus children not at risk, as well as the attributable risk and odds ratios. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: The study included 479 children with a mean age of three and one-half years, of whom 26.9% were identified as at risk for deficits in language production, 8.6% were at risk for deficits in language comprehension and 14% were at risk for hearing disorders. The children at risk for hearing disorders were twice as likely as those not at risk to exhibit language production and comprehension deficits. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the importance of establishing and adopting low-cost procedures such as screenings to identify children at risk of developing language and/or hearing disorders in early childhood. PMID:28492720

  4. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  5. Oral language disorders in preschool children with epilepsy: a speech-language screening.

    PubMed

    Melo, Patrícia Danielle Falcão; Melo, Aurea Nogueira de; Maia, Eulália Maria Chaves

    2010-01-01

    oral language disorder and epilepsy in childhood. to verify the occurrence of oral language disorders in epileptic preschoolers attended at the Child Neurology Section of a university hospital. a prospective study with 30 epileptic children who were submitted to an oral speech-language evaluation. explicit diagnosis of epilepsy according to the ILAE (2005); ages between 3 to 6 years; normal neurological standard and neuropsychomotor development. dubious diagnosis of epilepsy; altered neurological standard and neuropsychomotor development; children with associated pediatric disorders. Analyzed variables were: gender, age of first seizure, types of seizure and treatment regime. OR (odds ration) was determined, with a significance level of < 0.05. 18 (60%) children with epilepsy presented oral language disorders and 12 (40%) presented normal language development. Regarding the observed disorders, 12 (67%) presented language disorder and 6 (33%) presented phonological disorder. Male children (OR = 2.03) and those with partial seizure (OR = 2.41) demonstrated to have a higher risk for oral language disorders. the results indicate that preschoolers with epilepsy present a predominance of oral language development delay, and that the male gender and partial seizure are risk factors for this age group.

  6. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  7. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  8. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  9. Early Speech and Language Indicators for Later Learning Problems: Recognizing a Language Organization Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Sharon L.

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the continuity from early speech-language delays to later learning problems in school and recommends use of "language organization disorder" to describe the delay. Chronologies of the difficulties and methods for early detection are provided. A table summarizes 11 research studies on early language delays and later reading…

  10. [Intervention in children with pragmatic language and communication disorders].

    PubMed

    Monfort, M

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we analyse the educational and therapeutic needs of children who present pragmatic disorders in language and communication. Pragmatic disorders in language and communication stand apart from the other disorders affecting the remaining aspects of language development. Their less specific nature goes beyond the purely linguistic domain and involves wide areas of the patient's affective and social development. Not only is it necessary to adapt the general model of speech therapy intervention, but also to include it within a set of pedagogical (based on the framework of school itself) and psychological measures (in early care and family guidance services).

  11. Language Disorders: A 10-Year Research Update Review

    PubMed Central

    TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.; SHAPIRO, THEODORE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the past 10 years of research in child language or communication disorders, which are highly prevalent in the general population and comorbid with childhood psychiatric disorders. Method A literature search of 3 major databases was conducted. The child language literature, describing the domains of language development—phonology, grammar, semantics, and pragmatics—is reviewed. Results Disorders of grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, but not phonology, overlap significantly with childhood psychiatric disorders. Receptive language disorders have emerged as high-risk indicators, often undiagnosed. Language disorders and delays are psychiatric risk factors and have implications for evaluation, therapy, and research. However, they are often undiagnosed in child mental health and community settings. The research has focused mostly on monolingual English-speaking children. Conclusion Awareness of basic child language development, delay, and deviance is crucial for the practicing child and adolescent psychiatrist, who must diagnose and refer relevant cases for treatment and remediation. Future research needs to address the growing language diversity of our clinical populations. PMID:10673823

  12. Language Disorders in Adolescents: Current Needs and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Nippold, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents with developmental language disorders often do not receive the type of intervention that would improve their ability to speak, listen, read, and write effectively. Part of the problem is that many of these young people show no obvious symptoms of a language disorder, yet they struggle on a daily basis to succeed at school-related tasks that require a sophisticated level of language development. This article discusses some of the challenges these students face and makes suggestions for what could be done to address the issues. These suggestions include continuing the effort to advocate strongly for the rights of adolescents, increasing collaboration between speech-language pathologists and other professionals in the schools, and making changes to training programs in communication sciences and disorders to better prepare future speech-language pathologists to work with adolescents. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Grammatical Language Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Language Phenotypes Beyond Standardized Testing.

    PubMed

    Wittke, Kacie; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Ozonoff, Sally; Rogers, Sally J; Naigles, Letitia R

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and cognitive abilities manifest huge heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some children present with commensurate language and cognitive abilities, while others show more variable patterns of development. Using spontaneous language samples, we investigate the presence and extent of grammatical language impairment in a heterogeneous sample of children with ASD. Findings from our sample suggest that children with ASD can be categorized into three meaningful subgroups: those with normal language, those with marked difficulty in grammatical production but relatively intact vocabulary, and those with more globally low language abilities. These findings support the use of sensitive assessment measures to evaluate language in autism, as well as the utility of within-disorder comparisons, in order to comprehensively define the various cognitive and linguistic phenotypes in this heterogeneous disorder.

  14. Grammatical Language Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Language Phenotypes Beyond Standardized Testing

    PubMed Central

    Wittke, Kacie; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Ozonoff, Sally; Rogers, Sally J.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and cognitive abilities manifest huge heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some children present with commensurate language and cognitive abilities, while others show more variable patterns of development. Using spontaneous language samples, we investigate the presence and extent of grammatical language impairment in a heterogeneous sample of children with ASD. Findings from our sample suggest that children with ASD can be categorized into three meaningful subgroups: those with normal language, those with marked difficulty in grammatical production but relatively intact vocabulary, and those with more globally low language abilities. These findings support the use of sensitive assessment measures to evaluate language in autism, as well as the utility of within-disorder comparisons, in order to comprehensively define the various cognitive and linguistic phenotypes in this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:28458643

  15. [Multilingualism and child psychiatry: on differential diagnoses of language disorder, specific learning disorder, and selective mutism].

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person.

  16. Developmental Disorders of Language and Literacy: Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloe R.; Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila

    2010-01-01

    Language and literacy are cognitive skills of exceptional complexity. It is therefore not surprising that they are at risk of impairment either during development or as a result of damage (e.g. stroke) later in life. Impaired language and literacy can arise from a general learning impairment. However, two developmental disorders, specific language…

  17. Bilingual Language Development and Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing number of Spanish-English bilingual children in the U.S., both SLPs and researchers must understand speech and language developments in these children--and SLPs also need reliable assessment and intervention approaches for serving bilingual children with language disorders. This comprehensive text is one of the few to offer…

  18. Developmental Disorders of Language and Literacy: Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloe R.; Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila

    2010-01-01

    Language and literacy are cognitive skills of exceptional complexity. It is therefore not surprising that they are at risk of impairment either during development or as a result of damage (e.g. stroke) later in life. Impaired language and literacy can arise from a general learning impairment. However, two developmental disorders, specific language…

  19. Language Assessment and Development in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyster, Rhiannon J.; Kadlec, Mary Beth; Carter, Alice; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2008-01-01

    One of the primary diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is the presence of a language delay or impairment. Children with ASD are now being identified at significantly younger ages, and prior research has consistently found that early language skills in this population are heterogeneous and an important predictor…

  20. Language growth in children with heterogeneous language disorders: a population study.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Vamvakas, George; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school. A stratified sample (n = 529) received comprehensive assessment of language, nonverbal IQ, and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties at 5-6 years of age and 95% of the sample (n = 499) were assessed again at ages 7-8. Language growth was measured using both raw and standard scores in children with typical development, children with language disorder of unknown origin, and children with language disorders associated with a known clinical condition and/or intellectual disability. Overall, language was stable at the individual level (estimated ICC = 0.95) over the first three years of school. Linear mixed effects models highlighted steady growth in language raw scores across all three groups, including those with multiple developmental challenges. There was little evidence, however, that children with language disorders were narrowing the gap with peers (z-scores). Adjusted models indicated that while nonverbal ability, socioeconomic status and social, emotional and behavioural deficits predicted initial language score (intercept), none predicted language growth (slope). These findings corroborate previous studies suggesting stable language trajectories after ages 5-6 years, but add considerably to previous work by demonstrating similar developmental patterns in children with additional nonverbal cognitive deficits, social, emotional, and behavioural challenges, social disadvantage or clinical diagnoses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and

  1. Is Expressive Language Disorder an Accurate Diagnostic Category?

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose that the diagnostic category of “expressive language disorder” as distinct from a disorder of both expressive and receptive language might not be accurate. Method Evidence that casts doubt on a pure form of this disorder is reviewed from several sources, including the literature on genetic findings, theories of language impairments, and the outcomes of late talkers with expressive language delays. Areas of language that are problematic in production but not readily amenable to comprehension testing are also discussed. Conclusions The notion of “expressive language disorder” has been formalized in classification systems and is implicit if not explicit in the organization of many standardized tests. However, a close inspection of the evidence suggests that deficits in language expression are typically accompanied by limitations in language knowledge or difficulties processing language input. For this reason, the diagnostic category “expressive language disorder” should be used with considerable caution. This view has implications for both research and clinical practice. PMID:19029534

  2. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Eicher, John D; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, John D.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations. PMID:25448322

  4. HEARING, LANGUAGE, AND SPEECH DISORDERS. NINDB RESEARCH PROFILE NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Neurological Diseases and Blindness (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    AS PART OF HIS ANNUAL STATEMENT TO CONGRESS, THE DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES AND BLINDNESS DESCRIBES RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN SPEECH AND HEARING DISORDERS. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES INFORMATION CONCERNING THE PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS (HEARING, SPEECH, LANGUAGE, VOICE, AND READING) IN CHILDREN AND…

  5. Developmental Speech and Language Disorders: Hope through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents an overview of speech and language disorders including a description of symptoms, possible causes, identification, intervention, and current research. Description of the disorders includes examples of symptoms; the four components and the physical tools of speech; and the role of the brain, including its hemispheres,…

  6. Disordered Communication Processes Associated with Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton; And Others

    It has been observed that some American students develop disorders of communication when learning a foreign language by the audiolingual method. Such disorders take various forms - "word deafness," articulatory defects and deviations in vocal quality. A project to study these phenomena began in 1959 at Purdue University. One study examined the…

  7. Genetic Advances in the Study of Speech and Language Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, D.F.; Monaco, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Developmental speech and language disorders cover a wide range of childhood conditions with overlapping but heterogeneous phenotypes and underlying etiologies. This characteristic heterogeneity hinders accurate diagnosis, can complicate treatment strategies, and causes difficulties in the identification of causal factors. Nonetheless, over the last decade, genetic variants have been identified that may predispose certain individuals to different aspects of speech and language difficulties. In this review, we summarize advances in the genetic investigation of stuttering, speech-sound disorder (SSD), specific language impairment (SLI), and developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD). We discuss how the identification and study of specific genes and pathways, including FOXP2, CNTNAP2, ATP2C2, CMIP, and lysosomal enzymes, may advance our understanding of the etiology of speech and language disorders and enable us to better understand the relationships between the different forms of impairment across the spectrum. PMID:20955937

  8. Pragmatics and adult language disorders: past achievements and future directions.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Louise

    2007-05-01

    In this article, the current state of our knowledge of pragmatic disorders in adults with language impairment is assessed. A brief historical background of clinical pragmatics is presented, and the place of adult language pathology within the development of this field is discussed. A comprehensive review is undertaken of pragmatic deficits in adults with language impairments of diverse etiologies. Specifically, pragmatic deficits are examined in adults with left-hemisphere damage, often resulting in aphasia, and in adults with right-hemisphere damage, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders (principally, Alzheimer's disease). Although many pragmatic phenomena have been examined in these clinical populations, studies have also tended to neglect important areas of pragmatic functioning in adults with these disorders. Several such areas are identified within a wider discussion of how researchers and clinicians can best pursue future investigations of pragmatics in adults with language impairment.

  9. [Qualifying language disorders of schizophrenia through the speech therapists' assessment].

    PubMed

    Boucard, C; Laffy-Beaufils, B

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates a comprehensive assessment of language disorders in order to identify impaired and unaffected language abilities of individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance of the role of speech therapists in the treatment of schizophrenia. Speech therapy is especially thought to treat language disorders. However, to date, speech therapists have not been solicited in the treatment of schizophrenia, despite growing evidence supporting that schizophrenia is characterized by cognitive disorders such as impairments in memory, attention, executive functioning and language. In this article, we discuss the fact that elements of language and cognition are interactively affected and that cognition influences language. We then demonstrate that language impairments can be treated in the same way as neurological language impairments (cerebrovascular disease, brain injury), in order to reduce their functional outcome. Schizophrenia affects the pragmatic component of language with a major negative outcome in daily living skills [Champagne M, Stip E, Joanette Y. Social cognition deficit in schizophrenia: accounting for pragmatic deficits in communication abilities? Curr Psychiatry Rev:2006;(2):309-315]. The results of our comprehensive assessment also provide a basis for the design of a care plan. For this, subjects with schizophrenia were examined for language comprehension and language production with a focus on pragmatic abilities. In neurology, standardized tests are available that have been designed specifically to assess language functions. However, no such tests are available in psychiatry, so we gathered assessments widely used in neurology and examined the more relevant skills. In this article, each test we chose is described and particular attention is paid to the information they provided on impaired language abilities in schizophrenia. In this manner, we provide an accurate characterization of

  10. Listeners' Perceptions of Speech and Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Emily R.; Williams, Dale F.

    2008-01-01

    Using semantic differential scales with nine trait pairs, 445 adults rated five audio-taped speech samples, one depicting an individual without a disorder and four portraying communication disorders. Statistical analyses indicated that the no disorder sample was rated higher with respect to the trait of employability than were the articulation,…

  11. Prevalence and Type of Psychiatric Disorder and Developmental Disorders in Three Speech and Language Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Dennis P.; Baker, Lorian

    1987-01-01

    Six hundred children with communication disorders (mean age 5 years 7 months) were evaluated for psychiatric and developmental disorders. The two subgroups with language involvement had higher rates of both psychiatric and developmental disorders than children with pure speech involvement and different patterns of psychiatric diagnoses. (Author/DB)

  12. [Language disorders in children with morphologic abnormalities of the hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Agostini, G; Mancini, J; Chabrol, B; Villeneuve, N; Milh, M; George, F; Maurel, B; Girard, N

    2010-07-01

    Morphologic abnormalities of the hippocampal formations (MAHF) are more frequently observed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We wished to specify the types of disorders associated with these malformations based on a retrospective case series by studying the language of the children presenting these abnormalities. From the data of all the MRIs taken in the neuroradiology ward of our center over 16 months in patients under 18 years of age, we retrospectively selected the children with an MAHF, isolated or associated with other malformations. The MAHFs were defined and described according to criteria of shape or orientation defects of the hippocampal formations. We studied the files of the patients with isolated MAHF again. Those whose clinical presentation was compatible with language assessment were tested in a prospective approach. Out of 2208 MRIs from 1 January 2007 to 30 April 2008, 96 (4.3%) showed an MAHF, including 61 (64%) boys and 35 (36%) girls, aged from 2 months to 17 years. Eighty-two (85%) had associated abnormalities, mainly including cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum agenesis or defect, and abnormal ventricular frontal horns. Fourteen (15%) had an isolated MAHF: 2 on the left hemisphere, 2 on the right hemisphere, and 10 on both. Of these 14, 9 were compatible with language assessment. From the test results, we divided these children into 2 groups, depending on the type and severity of the impairment. Four had very serious language disorders as part of mental retardation or autistic disorders; 4 others had language disorders predominantly in expression and phonology, with weak to pathological visual memory. This study showed no potential relation between the lateralization of MAHF and language disorders, nor between the existence of epilepsy and the severity of the language disorders. Of these 14 children, 9 had behavior and autism spectrum disorders and 7 were epileptic. Even though language disorders are often part of a larger deficiency

  13. Using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition to Characterize Language in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volden, Joanne; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) was used to examine syntactic and semantic language skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to determine its suitability for use with this population. We expected that PLS-4 performance would be better in more…

  14. Language Development in Children with Language Disorders: An Introduction to Skinner's Verbal Behavior and the Techniques for Initial Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Language development in typically developing children has a very predictable pattern beginning with crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures along with the recognition of spoken words, comprehension of spoken words, and then one word utterances. This predictable pattern breaks down for children with language disorders. This article will discuss…

  15. Practitioner review: developmental language disorders: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Rapin, I

    1996-09-01

    Non-specialists can identify three types of developmental language disorder. (1) mixed receptive/expressive disorders, which impair phonology, syntax, and semantics. Children who understand nothing are nonverbal, in others speech is sparse, nonfluent, poorly intelligible, and agrammatic; (2) expressive disorders with adequate comprehension affect phonologic production predominantly. Children with verbal dyspraxia, the most severe variant, may also be nonverbal but comprehend well; (3) higher order processing disorders affect semantics, pragmatics, and discourse. Semantics and pragmatics are invariably affected in preschool autistic children in whom isolated expressive deficits do not occur. Etiology of developmental language disorders is predominantly genetic. Structural brain lesions detectable by neuroimaging are exceptional. Severe receptive deficits require a sleep EEG to detect subclinical epilepsy. Early educational intervention is both critical and efficacious.

  16. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  17. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  18. [Are language disorders in Alzheimer's disease simply aphasia?

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe

    Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by gradual aphasia, becoming more severe when the cognitive disorders are more marked. However, the quality of care provided to the patient can modulate the evolution of these language difficulties. Aphasia is linked to a human communication deficiency and can be limited by taking into account the phatic function of language to keep the channels of communication open. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Childhood Language Disorder and Social Anxiety in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, E B; Bao, Lin; Beitchman, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Language disorder is associated with anxiety and with social problems in childhood and adolescence. However, the relation between language disorder and adult social anxiety is not well known. This study examines social anxiety in early adulthood in a 26-year prospective longitudinal study following individuals identified with a communication disorder at age 5 and a control group. Social anxiety diagnoses and subthreshold symptoms were examined at ages 19, 25, and 31 using a structured diagnostic interview; social anxiety symptoms related to social interaction and social performance were also assessed dimensionally at age 31. Multiple imputation was used to address attrition. Compared to controls, participants with childhood language disorder had higher rates of subthreshold social phobia at ages 19 and 25 and endorsed higher levels of social interaction anxiety symptoms at age 31, with particular difficulty talking to others and asserting their perspectives. Childhood language disorder is a specific risk factor for a circumscribed set of social anxiety symptoms in adulthood, which are likely associated with communication challenges.

  20. Imitation and language abilities in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder without language delay.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Kleser, Christina; von Gontard, Alexander; von Gontardf, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Difficulties imitating gestures have been found in several studies in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that imitation abilities might be precursors of language abilities in young children with autism. No study on imitation and language abilities in adolescents with ASD has been performed to date. Fifteen male adolescents with ASD, 16 male and 13 female controls were compared regarding imitation abilities of upper and lower facial movements, and language skills as assessed by the pragmatic rating scale and the Aachen Aphasia test (AAT). Autism Spectrum Disorder subjects showed reduced imitation abilities of facial movements and non-meaningful combined hand-and-finger gestures. Regarding language, ASD subjects showed difficulties in AAT spontaneous speech measures and reduced pragmatic language abilities. Correlations of imitation and language measures differed between ASD, male and female controls. The weak and differential correlations of imitation and language measures in the three comparison groups might imply a differential organization of language and imitation networks in the three comparison groups. Pragmatic abilities, which are a central feature in ASD, were not related to imitation abilities. Therefore, imitation and language abilities in ASD might not be as closely correlated as previously expected.

  1. [Diagnostic accuracy of language tests and parent rating for identifying language disorders].

    PubMed

    Tippelt, S; Kühn, P; Grossheinrich, N; von Suchodoletz, W

    2011-07-01

    Until now German language tests have been rarely evaluated for their diagnostic accuracy. The goal of the study was to determine whether frequently used German language instruments are valid measures for identifying developmental language disorders in 3-year-old children. The language test SETK 3-5 (including the short version SSV) and the parent questionnaire SBE-3-KT were administered to 88 children with and without language impairment. The procedure of the selection of children enabled an extrapolation to general population. A language sample rating was used as a gold standard. Depending on case definition 6-22% of children were classified as language impaired by SETK 3-5, 9% by SSV and 15% by SBE-3-KT. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of SETK 3-5 for specified cut-offs were 35-93%, 86-97% and 41-58%, respectively. The corresponding values of SSV were 49%, 96%, 56% and of SBE-3-KT 92%, 93%, 59%. 3-year-old children with developmental language disorders can been identified with sufficient accuracy by means of SETK 3-5, an individual language test, as well as by SBE-3-KT, a parent questionnaire. However, the number of false positive classifications is relatively high. The hit rate of SSV, an individual short test, was too low for clinical use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. English Language Learners and Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers-Adkinson, Diana L.; Ochoa, Theresa A.; Weiss, Stacy L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides the reader with a framework for understanding the needs of students that have concurrent needs as English Language Learners and Emotionally Behavioral Disturbed. Issues related to effective assessment practices, service delivery, and appropriate intervention are discussed. (Contains 1 table.) [For complete volume, see…

  3. English Language Learners and Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers-Adkinson, Diana L.; Ochoa, Theresa A.; Weiss, Stacy L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides the reader with a framework for understanding the needs of students that have concurrent needs as English Language Learners and Emotionally Behavioral Disturbed. Issues related to effective assessment practices, service delivery, and appropriate intervention are discussed. (Contains 1 table.) [For complete volume, see…

  4. New genes for focal epilepsies with speech and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Samantha J; Morgan, Angela T; Perez, Eliane Roulet; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2015-06-01

    The last 2 years have seen exciting advances in the genetics of Landau-Kleffner syndrome and related disorders, encompassed within the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum (EAS). The striking finding of mutations in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit gene GRIN2A as the first monogenic cause in up to 20% of patients with EAS suggests that excitatory glutamate receptors play a key role in these disorders. Patients with GRIN2A mutations have a recognizable speech and language phenotype that may assist with diagnosis. Other molecules involved in RNA binding and cell adhesion have been implicated in EAS; copy number variations are also found. The emerging picture highlights the overlap between the genetic determinants of EAS with speech and language disorders, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and more complex developmental phenotypes.

  5. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Lebedeva, Tatiana V.; Zhukova, Marina A.; Prikhoda, Natalia A.; Korotaeva, Irina V.; Koposov, Roman A.; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development. PMID:27346924

  6. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder.

    PubMed

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Lebedeva, Tatiana V; Zhukova, Marina A; Prikhoda, Natalia A; Korotaeva, Irina V; Koposov, Roman A; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development.

  7. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  8. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  9. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  10. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  11. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  12. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  13. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of…

  14. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of…

  15. Management of developmental speech and language disorders: Part 1.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Anne; Bremner, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    The identification of developmental problems in a child's acquisition of speech, language and/or communication is a core activity in child surveillance. These are common difficulties with up to 15% of toddlers being 'late talkers' and 7% of children entering school with persisting impairments of their language development. These delays can confer disadvantages in the long term, adversely affecting language, cognition, academic attainment, behaviour and mental health. All children presenting with significant speech and language delay should be investigated with a comprehensive hearing assessment and be considered for speech and language therapy assessment. Socioeconomic adversity correlates with delayed language development. Clinical assessment should confirm that the presentation is definitely not acquired (see part 2) and will also guide whether the difficulty is primary, in which there are often familial patterns, or secondary, from a very wide range of aetiologies. Symptoms may be salient, such as the regression of communication in <3-year-olds which 'flags up' autism spectrum disorder. Further investigation will be informed from this clinical assessment, for example, genetic investigation for sex aneuploidies in enduring primary difficulties. Management of the speech and language difficulty itself is the realm of the speech and language therapist, who has an ever-increasing evidence-based choice of interventions. This should take place within a multidisciplinary team, particularly for children with more severe conditions who may benefit from individualised parental and educational supports.

  16. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  17. Neurogenomics of speech and language disorders: the road ahead

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is set to transform the discovery of genes underlying neurodevelopmental disorders, and so offer important insights into the biological bases of spoken language. Success will depend on functional assessments in neuronal cell lines, animal models and humans themselves. PMID:23597266

  18. Spelling well Despite Developmental Language Disorder: What Makes It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate the overlap between developmental language disorder (DLD) and developmental dyslexia, identified through spelling difficulties (SD), in Russian-speaking children. In particular, we studied the role of phoneme awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), pseudoword repetition (PWR), morphological (MA),…

  19. Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Topics All Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Korean (한국어) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Chinese - Traditional ( ...

  20. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  1. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method: Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined…

  2. Speech and Language Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgieva, Dobrinka; Cholakova, Maya

    This study of 148 Bulgarian children with mild intellectual disabilities investigated the incidence of various types of speech and language disorders in children with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire was given to the parents and relatives of the children requiring information about the pupils' pre-, peri-, and early postnatal…

  3. Diagnostic Differentiation of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisinger, Lisa M.; Cornish, Kim M.; Fombonne, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined diagnostic differentiation between school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). Standardized diagnostic instruments were used to investigate the relationship between severity of "autism triad" impairments and group membership. The Autism Diagnostic…

  4. Wrist Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Topics All Wrist Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  5. Gender and Agreement Processing in Children with Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether Russian-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are sensitive to gender agreement when performing a gender decision task. In Experiment 1, the presence of overt gender agreement between verbs and/or adjectival modifiers and postverbal subject nouns memory was varied. In Experiment 2, agreement…

  6. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  7. Neural Correlates of Pragmatic Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesink, C. M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Petersson, K. M.; van der Gaag, R. J.; Kan, C. C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from the voice with the content of a message. Using…

  8. Gender and Agreement Processing in Children with Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether Russian-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are sensitive to gender agreement when performing a gender decision task. In Experiment 1, the presence of overt gender agreement between verbs and/or adjectival modifiers and postverbal subject nouns memory was varied. In Experiment 2, agreement…

  9. Neural Correlates of Pragmatic Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesink, C. M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Petersson, K. M.; van der Gaag, R. J.; Kan, C. C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from the voice with the content of a message. Using…

  10. Diagnostic Differentiation of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisinger, Lisa M.; Cornish, Kim M.; Fombonne, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined diagnostic differentiation between school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). Standardized diagnostic instruments were used to investigate the relationship between severity of "autism triad" impairments and group membership. The Autism Diagnostic…

  11. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  12. Gesture, Play, and Language Development of Spanish-Speaking Toddlers with Developmental Language Disorders: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to (a) examine relationships between the symbolic and language skills of a mixed (developmental language disordered [DLD] and typical language [TL]) Spanish-speaking sample; (b) describe gesture, play, and language skills of DLD and TL groups; (c) compare the development between groups; and (d) explore…

  13. Gesture, Play, and Language Development of Spanish-Speaking Toddlers with Developmental Language Disorders: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to (a) examine relationships between the symbolic and language skills of a mixed (developmental language disordered [DLD] and typical language [TL]) Spanish-speaking sample; (b) describe gesture, play, and language skills of DLD and TL groups; (c) compare the development between groups; and (d) explore…

  14. [Dementia with motor and language disorders].

    PubMed

    Frédéric, Assal; Ghika, Joseph

    2016-04-20

    Memory is not the only core diagnostic criteria in Alzheimer's disease and many dementias are characterized by other cognitive deficits. Moreover dementias are often associated with multiple and complex motor signs. The first part of this reviewcovers parkinsonism in diffuse Lewy Body Disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, corticobasal syndrome, or motor deficit in the motoneurone disease-frontotemporal dementia spectrum. In the second part, primary progressive aphasia and its three variants including basic clinical evaluation are described. These complex clinical syndromes involving motor and language systems are important for the clinical practice since they are part of diagnostic criteria of several neurodegenerative diseases and can be considered as phenotypical markers of neurodegeneration.

  15. Cognitive pragmatics of language disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, G Albyn

    2007-05-01

    Cognitive pragmatics is the study of the mental structures and processes involved in the use of language in communicative contexts. Paradigms of cognitive psychology (off-line and on-line) have been applied to the study of the abilities to go beyond the literal (inference) and derive meaning in relation to context (e.g., metaphor and sarcasm). These pragmatic functions have been examined for the involvement of processes of meaning activation, embellishment, and revision. Clinical investigators have explored abilities and deficits in acquired aphasia, right hemisphere dysfunction, and closed head injury. This article reviews and provides some analysis of clinical studies that are consistent with the themes constituting cognitive pragmatics.

  16. The Stability of Primary Language Disorder: Four Years after Kindergarten Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Zhang, Xuyang; Buckwalter, Paula; O'Brien, Marlea

    2003-01-01

    The rates of change in the language status of children with language impairment unaccompanied by other developmental or sensory disorders (primary language disorder) were studied in a longitudinal sample of 196 children who were followed from kindergarten through 4th grade. Previous studies have shown that children with such language impairments…

  17. A Study of Three Mexican American Children Labeled Language-Disordered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Hortencia

    1987-01-01

    Three bilingual Mexican-American children labeled language disordered were observed at home and school. Linguistic, discourse, and social competencies differed between the two children not judged language disordered by their parents and the one child who was, suggesting that only the latter was truly language disordered. (21 references) (SV)

  18. Neurogenic Language Disorders in Children. International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabbro, Franco, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Language disorders in children are one of the most frequent causes of difficulties in communication, social interaction, learning and academic achievement. It has been estimated that over 5% of children present with some kind of language disorder. This volume illustrates the state of the art in neurogenic language disorders in children. The most…

  19. Neurogenic Language Disorders in Children. International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabbro, Franco, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Language disorders in children are one of the most frequent causes of difficulties in communication, social interaction, learning and academic achievement. It has been estimated that over 5% of children present with some kind of language disorder. This volume illustrates the state of the art in neurogenic language disorders in children. The most…

  20. New developments in the management of speech and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Harding, Celia; Gourlay, Sara

    2008-05-01

    Speech and language disorders, which include swallowing difficulties, are usually managed by speech and language therapists. Such a diverse, complex and challenging clinical group of symptoms requires practitioners with detailed knowledge and understanding of research within those areas, as well as the ability to implement appropriate therapy strategies within many environments. These environments range from neonatal units, acute paediatric wards and health centres through to nurseries, schools and children's homes. This paper summarises the key issues that are fundamental to our understanding of this client group.

  1. Spelling Well Despite Developmental Language Disorder: What Makes it Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate the overlap between Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) and Developmental Dyslexia, identified through spelling difficulties (SD), in Russian-speaking children. In particular, we studied the role of phoneme awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), pseudoword repetition (PWR), morphological (MA) and orthographic awareness (OA) in differentiating between children with DLD who have SD from children with DLD who are average spellers by comparing the two groups to each other, to typically developing children as well as children with SD but without spoken language deficits. One hundred forty nine children, aged 10.40 to 14.00, participated in the study. The results indicated that the SD, DLD, and DLD/SD groups did not differ from each other on PA and RAN Letters and underperformed in comparison to the control groups. However, whereas the children with written language deficits (SD and DLD/SD groups) underperformed on RAN Objects and Digits, PWR, OA and MA, the children with DLD and no SD performed similarly to the children from the control groups on these measures. In contrast, the two groups with spoken language deficits (DLD and DLD/SD) underperformed on RAN Colors in comparison to the control groups and the group of children with SD only. The results support the notion that those children with DLD who have unimpaired PWR and RAN skills are able to overcome their weaknesses in spoken language and PA and acquire basic literacy on a par with their age peers with typical language. We also argue that our findings support a multifactorial model of developmental language disorders (DLD). PMID:23860907

  2. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD. We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills. We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research. PMID:25610383

  3. Morphology in autism spectrum disorders: local processing bias and language.

    PubMed

    Vulchanova, Mila; Talcott, Joel B; Vulchanov, Valentin; Stankova, Margarita; Eshuis, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a detailed study of a case of linguistic talent in the context of autism spectrum disorder, specifically Asperger syndrome. I.A. displays language strengths at the level of morphology and syntax. Yet, despite this grammar advantage, processing of figurative language and inferencing based on context presents a problem for him. The morphology advantage for I.A. is consistent with the weak central coherence (WCC) account of autism. From this account, the presence of a local processing bias is evident in the ways in which autistic individuals solve common problems, such as assessing similarities between objects and finding common patterns, and may therefore provide an advantage in some cognitive tasks compared to typical individuals. We extend the WCC account to language and provide evidence for a connection between the local processing bias and the acquisition of morphology and grammar.

  4. Hearing Disorders and Deafness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Topics All Hearing Disorders and Deafness - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  5. Telerehabilitation, Virtual Therapists, and Acquired Neurologic Speech and Language Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2013-01-01

    Telerehabilitation (telererehab) offers cost effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer’s disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22851346

  6. Telerehabilitation, virtual therapists, and acquired neurologic speech and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2012-08-01

    Telerehabilitation (telerehab) offers cost-effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed.

  7. Autism, Language Disorder, and Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder: DSM-V and Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Simms, Mark D; Jin, Xing Ming

    2015-08-01

    • Based on strong research evidence (1), the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over the past decade, with a 2010 prevalence of 1:68 (1.5%) in children age 8 years. • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3), the most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) identifies two core dimensions for the diagnosis of ASD: social (social communication and social interaction) and nonsocial (restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities). • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3) (31) (32) (33) (34), DSM-V identifies social pragmatic communication disorder (SPCD) as a dissociable dimension of language and communication ability that affects how individuals use language for social exchanges. SPCD is often found in children with language impairments and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other genetic/neurologic conditions. • Based on strong research evidence (2) (26) (27) (28), childhood language disorders affect 7.4% of kindergarteners, and 50% to 80% of these children experience persistent language, academic, and social-emotional difficulties into their adult years, despite having normal nonverbal cognitive abilities. • Based primarily on consensus due to lack of relevant clinical studies, differential diagnosis of autism and language disorders may require a multidisciplinary evaluation that takes into account a child’s overall development, including cognitive, communication, and social abilities. Monitoring the response to appropriate interventions and trajectory of development over time may improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially in very young children.

  8. Left hemisphere diffusivity of the arcuate fasciculus: influences of autism spectrum disorder and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T P L; Heiken, K; Zarnow, D; Dell, J; Nagae, L; Blaskey, L; Solot, C; Levy, S E; Berman, J I; Edgar, J C

    2014-03-01

    There has been much discussion whether brain abnormalities associated with specific language impairment and autism with language impairment are shared or are disorder specific. Although white matter tract abnormalities are observed in both specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders, the similarities and differences in the white matter abnormalities in these 2 disorders have not been fully determined. Diffusion tensor imaging diffusion parameters of the arcuate fasciculus were measured in 14 children with specific language impairment as well as in 16 children with autism spectrum disorder with language impairment, 18 with autism spectrum disorder without language impairment, and 25 age-matched typically developing control participants. Language impairment and autism spectrum disorder both had (elevating) main effects on mean diffusivity of the left arcuate fasciculus, initially suggesting a shared white matter substrate abnormality. Analysis of axial and radial diffusivity components, however, indicated that autism spectrum disorder and language impairment differentially affect white matter microstructural properties, with a main effect of autism spectrum disorder on axial diffusivity and a main effect of language impairment on radial diffusivity. Although white matter abnormalities appear similar in language impairment and autism spectrum disorder when examining broad white matter measures, a more detailed analysis indicates different mechanisms for the white matter microstructural anomalies associated with language impairment and autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Early Language Milestones Predict Later Language, but not Autism Symptoms in Higher Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Wallace, Gregory L.; Powell, Kelly; Anselmo, Cheryl; Martin, Alex; Black, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Language ability is a known predictor of outcome in children with autism but plays a more controversial role for higher functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied the relationship between early language milestones and later structural language, adaptive functioning and autism symptoms in a sample of 76 children (mean age…

  10. Psycholinguistic Profiling Differentiates Specific Language Impairment from Typical Development and from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Thompson, Heather L.; Goldstein, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Practitioners must have confidence in the capacity of their language measures to discriminate developmental language disorders from typical development and from other common disorders. In this study, psycholinguistic profiles were collected from 3 groups: children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with…

  11. Psycholinguistic Profiling Differentiates Specific Language Impairment from Typical Development and from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Thompson, Heather L.; Goldstein, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Practitioners must have confidence in the capacity of their language measures to discriminate developmental language disorders from typical development and from other common disorders. In this study, psycholinguistic profiles were collected from 3 groups: children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with…

  12. Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…

  13. Are specific language impairment and dyslexia distinct disorders?

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Adlof, Suzanne M; Hogan, Tiffany P; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined phonological processing in a subsample of participants, including 21 children with dyslexia only, 43 children with SLI only, 18 children with SLI and dyslexia, and 165 children with typical language/reading development. Measures of phonological awareness and nonword repetition were considered. Study 1 showed limited but statistically significant overlap between SLI and dyslexia. Study 2 found that children with dyslexia or a combination of dyslexia and SLI performed significantly less well on measures of phonological processing than did children with SLI only and those with typical development. Children with SLI only showed only mild deficits in phonological processing compared with typical children. These results support the view that SLI and dyslexia are distinct but potentially comorbid developmental language disorders. A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with SLI when it occurs in the absence of dyslexia.

  14. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined phonological processing in a subsample of participants, including 21 children with dyslexia only, 43 children with SLI only, 18 children with SLI and dyslexia, and 165 children with typical language/reading development. Measures of phonological awareness and nonword repetition were considered. Results Study 1 showed limited but statistically significant overlap between SLI and dyslexia. Study 2 found that children with dyslexia or a combination of dyslexia and SLI performed significantly less well on measures of phonological processing than did children with SLI only and those with typical development. Children with SLI only showed only mild deficits in phonological processing compared with typical children. Conclusions These results support the view that SLI and dyslexia are distinct but potentially comorbid developmental language disorders. A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with SLI when it occurs in the absence of dyslexia. PMID:16478378

  15. Preschool language interventions for latino dual language learners with language disorders: what, in what language, and how.

    PubMed

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2015-05-01

    About a quarter of young children in the United States are dual language learners. The large majority are Latino children who are exposed to Spanish in their homes. The language needs of Latino dual language preschoolers are different from the needs of monolingual English-speaking children. As a group, they are likely to live in environments that put them at risk of delays in language development. This situation is direr for dual language preschoolers with language impairment. Recent findings from studies on interventions for Spanish-English preschoolers with language impairment suggest that a bilingual approach does not delay English vocabulary and oral language learning and promotes Spanish maintenance. Targets and strategies for different language domains are described. The effects of pullout versus push-in interventions for this population are preliminarily explored.

  16. Spelling well despite developmental language disorder: what makes it possible?

    PubMed

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Kornilov, Sergey A; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-10-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate the overlap between developmental language disorder (DLD) and developmental dyslexia, identified through spelling difficulties (SD), in Russian-speaking children. In particular, we studied the role of phoneme awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), pseudoword repetition (PWR), morphological (MA), and orthographic awareness (OA) in differentiating between children with DLD who have SD from children with DLD who are average spellers by comparing the two groups to each other, to typically developing children as well as children with SD but without spoken language deficits. One hundred forty-nine children, aged 10.40 to 14.00 years, participated in the study. The results indicated that the SD, DLD, and DLD/SD groups did not differ from each other on PA and RAN Letters and underperformed in comparison to the control groups. However, whereas the children with written language deficits (SD and DLD/SD groups) underperformed on RAN Objects and Digits, PWR, OA, and MA, the children with DLD and no SD performed similarly to the children from the control groups on these measures. In contrast, the two groups with spoken language deficits (DLD and DLD/SD) underperformed on RAN Colors in comparison to the control groups and the group of children with SD only. The results support the notion that those children with DLD who have unimpaired PWR and RAN skills are able to overcome their weaknesses in spoken language and PA and acquire basic literacy on a par with their age peers with typical language. We also argue that our findings support a multifactorial model of DLD.

  17. Case against Diagnosing Developmental Language Disorder by Default: A Single Case Study of Acquired Aphasia Associated with Convulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinac, Julie V.; Harper, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inform the diagnostic knowledge base for professionals working in the field of language disorders when classic symptoms, characteristics and sequences are not found. The information reveals the risk of diagnosis with a developmental language disorder (DLD) by default when no underlying cause can be readily identified.…

  18. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment.

    PubMed

    van Santen, Jan P H; Sproat, Richard W; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-10-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child's echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult's original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child's utterances.

  19. Connected Speech in Neurodegenerative Language Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, Veronica; Catricalà, Eleonora; Consonni, Monica; Chesi, Cristiano; Moro, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2017-01-01

    Language assessment has a crucial role in the clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of extended speech production is a precious source of information encompassing the phonetic, phonological, lexico-semantic, morpho-syntactic, and pragmatic levels of language organization. The knowledge about the distinctive linguistic variables identifying language deficits associated to different neurodegenerative diseases has progressively improved in the last years. However, the heterogeneity of such variables and of the way they are measured and classified limits any generalization and makes the comparison among studies difficult. Here we present an exhaustive review of the studies focusing on the linguistic variables derived from the analysis of connected speech samples, with the aim of characterizing the language disorders of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, including primary progressive aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A total of 61 studies have been included, considering only those reporting group analysis and comparisons with a group of healthy persons. This review first analyzes the differences in the tasks used to elicit connected speech, namely picture description, story narration, and interview, considering the possible different contributions to the assessment of different linguistic domains. This is followed by an analysis of the terminologies and of the methods of measurements of the variables, indicating the need for harmonization and standardization. The final section reviews the linguistic domains affected by each different neurodegenerative disease, indicating the variables most consistently impaired at each level and suggesting the key variables helping in the differential diagnosis among diseases. While a large amount of valuable information is already available, the review highlights the need of further work, including the development of automated methods, to

  20. Connected Speech in Neurodegenerative Language Disorders: A Review.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Veronica; Catricalà, Eleonora; Consonni, Monica; Chesi, Cristiano; Moro, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F

    2017-01-01

    Language assessment has a crucial role in the clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of extended speech production is a precious source of information encompassing the phonetic, phonological, lexico-semantic, morpho-syntactic, and pragmatic levels of language organization. The knowledge about the distinctive linguistic variables identifying language deficits associated to different neurodegenerative diseases has progressively improved in the last years. However, the heterogeneity of such variables and of the way they are measured and classified limits any generalization and makes the comparison among studies difficult. Here we present an exhaustive review of the studies focusing on the linguistic variables derived from the analysis of connected speech samples, with the aim of characterizing the language disorders of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, including primary progressive aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A total of 61 studies have been included, considering only those reporting group analysis and comparisons with a group of healthy persons. This review first analyzes the differences in the tasks used to elicit connected speech, namely picture description, story narration, and interview, considering the possible different contributions to the assessment of different linguistic domains. This is followed by an analysis of the terminologies and of the methods of measurements of the variables, indicating the need for harmonization and standardization. The final section reviews the linguistic domains affected by each different neurodegenerative disease, indicating the variables most consistently impaired at each level and suggesting the key variables helping in the differential diagnosis among diseases. While a large amount of valuable information is already available, the review highlights the need of further work, including the development of automated methods, to

  1. Language disorders and attention deficit disorders in young children referred for psychiatric services: analysis of prevalence and a conceptual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Love, A J; Thompson, M G

    1988-01-01

    Nearly two-thirds of a group of preschool children referred for psychiatric outpatient services were found to have language disorders when assessed by standardized procedures, a higher number than reported in previous studies. Significant interrelationships between language disorders and attention deficit disorders were found. Analyses of prevalence rates, gender ratios, and selected psychosocial factors led to reformulation of approaches to assessment and treatment of young children with severe psychiatric problems.

  2. ARTICULATION DISORDERS IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE IN CHILDREN WITH SPEECH PATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Dmitrić, Tanja; Veselinović, Mila; Mitrović, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Articulation is the result of speech organs and it means clean, clear and distinct pronunciation of voices in words. A prospective study included 24 children between 5 and 15 years of age, of both sexes. All children were monolingual, Serbian being their native language. The quality of articulation was tested with Triage articulation test. Neither omission nor distortion of plosives was observed in any of them, whereas substitution of plosives occurred in 12% of patients. Omission of affricates was not observed in any of the subjects, but substitution and distortion occurred in 29%, and 76% of subjects, respectively. Omission of fricatives was found in 29% subjects, substitution in 52%, and distortion in 82% of subjects. Omission and distortion of nasals was not recorded in any of the subjects, and substitution occurred in 6% of children. Omission of laterals was observed in 6%, substitution in 46% and distortion in 52% of subjects with articulation disorders. Discussion and Articulation disorders were observed not only in children diagnosed with dyslalia but in those with dysphasia and stuttering as well. Children with speech disorders articulate vowels best, then nasals and plosives. Articulation of fricatives and laterals was found to be most severely deviated, including all three disorders, i.e. substitution, omission and distortion. Spasms of speech muscles and vegetative reactions were also observed in this study, but only in children with stuttering.

  3. Sign Language Echolalia in Deaf Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron; Cooley, Frances; Meier, Richard P

    2017-06-10

    We present the first study of echolalia in deaf, signing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigate the nature and prevalence of sign echolalia in native-signing children with ASD, the relationship between sign echolalia and receptive language, and potential modality differences between sign and speech. Seventeen deaf children with ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) deaf children were video-recorded in a series of tasks. Data were coded for type of signs produced (spontaneous, elicited, echo, or nonecho repetition). Echoes were coded as pure or partial, and timing and reduplication of echoes were coded. Seven of the 17 deaf children with ASD produced signed echoes, but none of the TD deaf children did. The echoic children had significantly lower receptive language scores than did both the nonechoic children with ASD and the TD children. Modality differences also were found in terms of the directionality, timing, and reduplication of echoes. Deaf children with ASD sometimes echo signs, just as hearing children with ASD sometimes echo words, and TD deaf children and those with ASD do so at similar stages of linguistic development, when comprehension is relatively low. The sign language modality might provide a powerful new framework for analyzing the purpose and function of echolalia in deaf children with ASD.

  4. Social use of language in children with reactive attachment disorder and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Fareeha Amber; Slator, Louise; Skuse, David; Law, James; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2012-05-01

    Children with a diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) appear to show difficulties in social understanding. We aimed to compare the pragmatic language functioning of children with (RAD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Assessments were made in three groups of children aged 5-8 years, with verbal IQ estimates in the normal range: 35 with a RAD diagnosis, 52 with an ASD diagnosis and 39 with typical development. The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) was used to compare their pragmatic language skills, and ADI-R algorithms were used to compare autistic symptomatology, according to parent report. According to the CCC, the RAD group demonstrated significant problems in their use of context, rapport and social relationships with a degree of severity equivalent to children in the ASD comparison group. More than 60% of the group with RAD met ADI-R clinical criteria on the Use of Language and Other Social Communication Skills subscale, 46% on the Reciprocal Social Interaction subscale, and 20% had significant repetitive and stereotyped behaviours. Children with RAD appear to be at least as impaired as children with ASD in certain domains of social relatedness, particularly in their pragmatic language skills.

  5. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    PubMed

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  6. Longitudinal Analyses of Expressive Language Development Reveal Two Distinct Language Profiles among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime; Mesite, Laura; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia

    2014-01-01

    Although children with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show significant variation in language skills, research on what type(s) of language profiles they demonstrate has been limited. Using growth-curve analyses, we investigated how different groups of young children with ASD show increases in the size of their lexicon, morpho-syntactic production…

  7. Issues in Bilingualism and Heritage Language Maintenance: Perspectives of Minority-Language Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The author investigated the language practices of 10 bilingual, Chinese/English-speaking, immigrant mothers with their children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim was to understand (a) the nature of the language practices, (b) their constraints, and (c) their impact. Method: The author employed in-depth phenomenological interviews…

  8. Use of narratives to assess language disorders in an inpatient pediatric psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Patsy; Johnson, Carolyn; Manly, Patricia; Locke, Jake

    2014-04-01

    A large proportion of child psychiatry patients have undiagnosed language disorders. Adequately developed language is critical for psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapies. This study investigated (1) whether assessment of oral narratives would identify language impairments in this population undetected by assessment of only core language abilities, and (2) the extent to which measures of cognition, working memory, emotional distress, and social function differentially predict core language and narrative development. Results showed that (1) more than twice as many children were identified with language impairment when both narrative and core language assessment were used, and (2) core language comprehension and complex verbal working memory were the strongest predictors of narrative production, while core language comprehension, a less complex working-memory task, and social skills best predicted narrative comprehension. Emotional distress did not predict either. The results emphasize the importance of evaluating child psychiatry patients' language, using both core language and narrative measures.

  9. Speech and Language Skills of Parents of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Miscimarra, Lara; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared parents with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) to parents without known histories on measures of speech sound production, phonological processing, language, reading, and spelling. Familial aggregation for speech and language disorders was also examined. Method: The participants were 147 parents of children with…

  10. Speech and Language Skills of Parents of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Miscimarra, Lara; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared parents with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) to parents without known histories on measures of speech sound production, phonological processing, language, reading, and spelling. Familial aggregation for speech and language disorders was also examined. Method: The participants were 147 parents of children with…

  11. Prevalence of Language, Speech, and Hearing Disorders in an Urban Preschool Black Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James Monroe; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Speech and language assessment of 719 black preschool children with linguistically and culturally sensitive materials indicated that 10.6 percent failed the screenings. When full diagnostic evaluations were conducted, prevalence rates for the entire sample were 2.6 percent for language disorders, 1.5 percent for speech disorders, and 1.4 percent…

  12. An Invisible Disability--Language Disorders in High School Students and the Implications for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchell, Frederick; Hand, Linda

    This paper, written from an Australian perspective, examines the contribution of oral language disorders to the classroom performance of secondary students. Five brief case examples illustrate the effects of language disorders on social competence, ability to follow verbal instructions and routines, ability to cope with a bilingual background, and…

  13. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System in Preschool Classrooms with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Jessica R.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Sam L.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data…

  14. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  15. The Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Adolescents with a History of Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Simkin, Zoe; Botting, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, autism and specific language impairment (SLI) have been regarded as distinct disorders but, more recently, evidence has been put forward for a closer link between them: a common set of language problems, in particular receptive language difficulties and the existence of intermediate cases including pragmatic language…

  16. Phonological and Language Disorders in Children Who Stutter: Impact on Treatment Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    In the profession of speech-language pathology, it is commonly reported that children who stutter, as a group, are more likely to have phonological and language disorders than their non-stuttering peers. Some support for this belief comes from survey studies that have questioned speech-language pathologists about the children on their caseloads…

  17. Peeling the Onion of Auditory Processing Disorder: A Language/Curricular-Based Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…

  18. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System in Preschool Classrooms with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Jessica R.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Sam L.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data…

  19. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  20. Peeling the Onion of Auditory Processing Disorder: A Language/Curricular-Based Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…

  1. Maternal Gesture Use and Language Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in language and communication are an early-appearing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with delays in language and gesture evident as early as the first year of life. Research with typically developing populations highlights the importance of both infant and maternal gesture use in infants' early language development.…

  2. Comprehension of Spoken, Written and Signed Sentences in Childhood Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.

    1982-01-01

    Nine children suffering from Landau-Kleffner (L-K) syndrome and 25 children with developmental expressive disorders were tested for comprehension of English grammatical structures in spoken, written, and signed language modalities. L-K children demonstrated comprehension problems in all three language modalities and tended to treat language as…

  3. Atypical Lexical/Semantic Processing in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders without Early Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Robins, Diana; Kelley, Elizabeth; Swainson, Brook; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Although autism is associated with impaired language functions, the nature of semantic processing in high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) without a history of early language delay has been debated. In this study, we aimed to examine whether the automatic lexical/semantic aspect of language is impaired or intact in these…

  4. [Early development: some data about autism and language disorders].

    PubMed

    Martos Perez, J; Ayuda Pascual, R

    2004-02-01

    The early development of children who have been diagnosed as suffering from autism and children with specific language disorder (SLD) is still an area of research that receives little attention. There is a need for descriptive patterns of the early stages in the development of the two groups that foster the formation of reliable early diagnoses. Aims. In this study we attempt to determine the incidence of different symptoms in the first two years in the life of children who were later diagnosed as suffering from autism or SLD and to confirm or refute the data that suggests a pattern of onset of the disorder that differs from one group to the other. We compare the data concerning the development of a sample made up of 42 children with autism and 41 children with SLD, which was carried out by means of a retrospective analysis of the information obtained from the families in the evaluation and diagnosis processes that were conducted in our centre. More specifically, we compare information about the following variables: family history, parents' age at the time of pregnancy, parents' profession, position at birth and incidence by sex, information about prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects, eating and sleeping problems, the presence or absence of signs of passivity, traces of alarm during the first year, age of the child when the first suspicions appeared, symptoms or difficulties that are described, data linked to medical neurological explorations carried out and data related to motor development. Although there are numerous similarities in many of the variables studied in both groups, it seems that the earlier onset of symptoms, passivity and the absence of pointing behaviour are more frequent in the group with autism than in children with SLD. The latter present a specific difficulty in language, tantrums and poorer motor competencies. At present there is no single symptom in early development that is exclusive to any of the disorders described above, although it

  5. Gender and Agreement Processing in Children with Developmental Language Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether Russian-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are sensitive to gender agreement when performing a gender decision task. In Experiment 1, the presence of overt gender agreement between verbs and/or adjectival modifiers and post-verbal subject nouns memory was varied. In Experiment 2, agreement violations were introduced and the targets varied between words, pseudo-words, or pseudo-words with derivational suffixes. In both experiments, children with DLD did not differ from typically developing children in their reaction time or sensitivity to agreement features. In both groups, trials with feminine gender resulted in a higher error rate. Children with DLD displayed lower overall accuracy, which was related to differences in phonological memory in both experiments. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 group differences were not maintained after phonological memory was entered as a covariate. The results are discussed with respect to various processing and linguistic theories of DLD. PMID:23390959

  6. Gender and agreement processing in children with developmental language disorder.

    PubMed

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-03-01

    Two experiments tested whether Russian-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are sensitive to gender agreement when performing a gender decision task. In Experiment 1, the presence of overt gender agreement between verbs and/or adjectival modifiers and postverbal subject nouns memory was varied. In Experiment 2, agreement violations were introduced and the targets varied between words, pseudo-words, or pseudo-words with derivational suffixes. In both experiments, children with DLD did not differ from typically developing children in their reaction time or sensitivity to agreement features. In both groups, trials with feminine gender resulted in a higher error rate. Children with DLD displayed lower overall accuracy, which was related to differences in phonological memory in both experiments. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 group differences were not maintained after phonological memory was entered as a covariate. The results are discussed with respect to various processing and linguistic theories of DLD.

  7. [Clinical usefulness of the classifications of developmental language disorders].

    PubMed

    Monfort, Isabelle; Monfort, Marc

    2012-02-29

    There have been several proposals for the classification of language disorders in children; some of them are based on the desire to differentiate in terms of its possible cause, while others are based on the criteria for symptoms grouping ('syndromes'), in order to facilitate the diagnostic process and orientate some intervention programs. In the first part, there is an analysis of the advantages and limitations of the most popular classifications, pointing to the inaccuracy on description basis and to the inability to distinguish between several subgroups. In the second part, it is analysed the clinical purpose of using these nomenclatures. Finally, the idea of using a clinical tool is proposed, in order to include the severity criteria of symptoms in the differential diagnosis.

  8. Language in Low-Functioning Children with Autistic Disorder: Differences between Receptive and Expressive Skills and Concurrent Predictors of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on…

  9. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to differentiate cases of LI from ADHD; (b) the impact of co-occurring ADHD on children's LI; (c) cross-etiology comparisons of the nonlinguistic abilities of children with ADHD and specific LI (SLI); and (d) the extent to which ADHD contributes to educational and health disparities among individuals with LI. Results Evidence is presented demonstrating the value of using adjusted parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and targeted assessments of children's tense marking, nonword repetition, and sentence recall for differential diagnosis and the identification of comorbidity. Reports suggest that the presence of ADHD does not aggravate children's LI. The potential value of cross-etiology comparisons testing the necessity and sufficiency of proposed nonlinguistic contributors to the etiology of SLI is demonstrated through key studies. Reports suggest that children with comorbid ADHD+LI receive speech-language services at a higher rate than children with SLI. Conclusion The ADHD context is multifaceted and provides the management and study of LI with both opportunities and obstacles. PMID:26502026

  10. From temporal processing to developmental language disorders: mind the gap

    PubMed Central

    Protopapas, Athanassios

    2014-01-01

    The ‘rapid temporal processing’ and the ‘temporal sampling framework’ hypotheses have been proposed to account for the deficits in language and literacy development seen in specific language impairment and dyslexia. This paper reviews these hypotheses and concludes that the proposed causal chains between the presumed auditory processing deficits and the observed behavioural manifestation of the disorders are vague and not well established empirically. Several problems and limitations are identified. Most data concern correlations between distantly related tasks, and there is considerable heterogeneity and variability in performance as well as concerns about reliability and validity. Little attention is paid to the distinction between ostensibly perceptual and metalinguistic tasks or between implicit and explicit modes of performance, yet measures are assumed to be pure indicators of underlying processes or representations. The possibility that diagnostic categories do not refer to causally and behaviourally homogeneous groups needs to be taken seriously, taking into account genetic and neurodevelopmental studies to construct multiple-risk models. To make progress in the field, cognitive models of each task must be specified, including performance domains that are predicted to be deficient versus intact, testing multiple indicators of latent constructs and demonstrating construct reliability and validity. PMID:24324245

  11. Atypical functional lateralization of language in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Cohen, David N.; Courchesne, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Impaired language is a prominent behavioral marker of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but its neurobiological underpinnings are incompletely understood. We studied letter and category fluency in 14 high functioning ASD individuals and 14 age-matched controls. Each fluency condition was compared to self-paced repetition of the word “nothing.” Responses were recorded to monitor performance. In letter fluency, the ASD group had significantly greater activation than controls in the right frontal and right superior temporal lobe. Between-group differences were not observed in left prefrontal cortex. By examining functional asymmetry in frontal cortex, we found that the ASD group had significantly reduced lateralization of activation patterns in letter fluency compared to the controls. In category fluency, no between-group differences in lateralization were found, in light of greater bilateral activation in controls. These findings indicate reduced hemispheric differentiation for certain verbal fluency tasks in ASD, consistent with some previous evidence of atypical functional and structural asymmetries in autism. Abnormal functional organization may contribute to the language impairment seen in ASD. PMID:18555209

  12. The importance of right otitis media in childhood language disorders.

    PubMed

    Uclés, Paulino; Alonso, María Francisca; Aznar, Elena; Lapresta, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Studies relating chronic otitis media and language disorders in children have not reported consistent findings. We carried out the first selective study aimed at discerning the role of chronic right otitis media in children less than 3 years of age in language development. A total of 35 children were studied using a full linguistic protocol, auditory brainstem responses, and middle latency responses. Twelve children had a history of chronic exclusive right otitis media. Seventeen age-matched children were selected as controls. Also, three children having a history of chronic left otitis media were compared with three age-matched controls. Linguistic tests showed significant differences between patients and controls in phonetic, phonological, and syntax scores but not semantics. Correlation studies between linguistic scores and auditory evoked responses in the whole cohort showed a significant coefficient in phonetic and phonological domains. These results emphasize the causative effect of right ear chronic otitis media and indicate that it mainly impairs phonetic and phonological coding of sounds, which may have implications for prophylactic treatment of at-risk children.

  13. Bilingualism, Language Disorders and Intercultural Families in Contemporary Italy: Family Relations, Transmission of Language and Representations of Otherness.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Davide; Balottin, Umberto; Berlincioni, Vanna; Moro, Marie Rose

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to show how language disorders in children affect language transmission and the mixedness experience in intercultural families. To this end, it adopts a qualitative method of study based on the administration of ad hoc interviews to intercultural couples who consulted our Child Neuropsychiatry Service because of language disorders in their children. One of the main consequences, when the child of an intercultural couple presents a language disorder and a diagnostic process has to be initiated, may be interruption of the transmission of the second language, especially if it is the mother's language. The decision to do this, which may be taken on the advice of teachers and health professionals, but also because the parents themselves often attribute their child's language disorder to his bilingual condition, affects not only the relationship between the mother and her child, but also processes in the construction of parenthood and in the structuring of the child's personality and the plurality of his affiliations. A clear understanding of how the dialectic between the categories of "alien" and "familiar" is managed in these contemporary families, which have to reckon with the condition of otherness, is crucial for psychiatrists and psychotherapists working in settings in which cultural difference is an issue to consider.

  14. Language Disorders from a Developmental Perspective: Essays in Honor of Robin S. Chapman. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The last 25 years have witnessed an explosion of research at the intersection of typical language development and child language disorders. A pioneer in bringing these fields of study together is Robin S. Chapman, Emerita, University of Wisconsin. This contributed volume honors her with chapters written by former students and colleagues, who track…

  15. Language Disorders from a Developmental Perspective: Essays in Honor of Robin S. Chapman. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The last 25 years have witnessed an explosion of research at the intersection of typical language development and child language disorders. A pioneer in bringing these fields of study together is Robin S. Chapman, Emerita, University of Wisconsin. This contributed volume honors her with chapters written by former students and colleagues, who track…

  16. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): a new measure for spontaneous and expressive language of children with autism spectrum disorders and other communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of the OSEL is to provide developmental norms for use of language, the first step involves assessment of the scale's feasibility, validity, and reliability using a sample of 180 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Pilot data from the OSEL shows strong internal consistency, high reliabilities and validity. Once replicated with a large population-based sample and in special populations, the scale should be helpful in designing appropriate interventions for children with ASD and other communication disorders.

  17. Exploring the Feasibility of a Classroom-Based Vocabulary Intervention for Mainstream Secondary School Students with Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Hilary; Joffe, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge has been shown to be a predictor of academic success, posing a challenge for children and young people with language disorder. Language disorder can persist into adolescence and yet there is limited evidence on how to support the vocabulary skills of adolescents with language disorder in a mainstream setting. This article…

  18. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  19. Figurative language comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Kalandadze, Tamar; Norbury, Courtenay; Nærland, Terje; Næss, Kari-Anne B

    2016-11-01

    We present a meta-analysis of studies that compare figurative language comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and in typically developing controls who were matched based on chronological age or/and language ability. A total of 41 studies and 45 independent effect sizes were included based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Group matching strategy, age, types of figurative language, and cross-linguistic differences were examined as predictors that might explain heterogeneity in effect sizes. Overall, individuals with autism spectrum disorder showed poorer comprehension of figurative language than their typically developing peers (Hedges' g = -0.57). A meta-regression analysis showed that group matching strategy and types of figurative language were significantly related to differences in effect sizes, whereas chronological age and cross-linguistic differences were not. Differences between the autism spectrum disorder and typically developing groups were small and nonsignificant when the groups were matched based on the language ability. Metaphors were more difficult to comprehend for individuals with autism spectrum disorder compared with typically developing controls than were irony and sarcasm. Our findings highlight the critical role of core language skills in figurative language comprehension. Interventions and educational programmes designed to improve social communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder may beneficially target core language skills in addition to social skills.

  20. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  1. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  2. Defining Spoken Language Benchmarks and Selecting Measures of Expressive Language Development for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Rogers, Sally; Cooper, Judith; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; Paul, Rhea; Rice, Mabel; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Wetherby, Amy; Yoder, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this article are twofold: (a) to offer a set of recommended measures that can be used for evaluating the efficacy of interventions that target spoken language acquisition as part of treatment research studies or for use in applied settings and (b) to propose and define a common terminology for describing levels of spoken language ability in the expressive modality and to set benchmarks for determining a child’s language level in order to establish a framework for comparing outcomes across intervention studies. Method The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders assembled a group of researchers with interests and experience in the study of language development and disorders in young children with autism spectrum disorders. The group worked for 18 months through a series of conference calls and correspondence, culminating in a meeting held in December 2007 to achieve consensus on these aims. Results The authors recommend moving away from using the term functional speech, replacing it with a developmental framework. Rather, they recommend multiple sources of information to define language phases, including natural language samples, parent report, and standardized measures. They also provide guidelines and objective criteria for defining children’s spoken language expression in three major phases that correspond to developmental levels between 12 and 48 months of age. PMID:19380608

  3. Defining spoken language benchmarks and selecting measures of expressive language development for young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Rogers, Sally; Cooper, Judith; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; Paul, Rhea; Rice, Mabel; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Wetherby, Amy; Yoder, Paul

    2009-06-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (a) to offer a set of recommended measures that can be used for evaluating the efficacy of interventions that target spoken language acquisition as part of treatment research studies or for use in applied settings and (b) to propose and define a common terminology for describing levels of spoken language ability in the expressive modality and to set benchmarks for determining a child's language level in order to establish a framework for comparing outcomes across intervention studies. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders assembled a group of researchers with interests and experience in the study of language development and disorders in young children with autism spectrum disorders. The group worked for 18 months through a series of conference calls and correspondence, culminating in a meeting held in December 2007 to achieve consensus on these aims. The authors recommend moving away from using the term functional speech, replacing it with a developmental framework. Rather, they recommend multiple sources of information to define language phases, including natural language samples, parent report, and standardized measures. They also provide guidelines and objective criteria for defining children's spoken language expression in three major phases that correspond to developmental levels between 12 and 48 months of age.

  4. When words fail us: insights into language processing from developmental and acquired disorders.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-01-01

    Acquired disorders of language represent loss of previously acquired skills, usually with relatively specific impairments. In children with developmental disorders of language, we may also see selective impairment in some skills; but in this case, the acquisition of language or literacy is affected from the outset. Because systems for processing spoken and written language change as they develop, we should beware of drawing too close a parallel between developmental and acquired disorders. Nevertheless, comparisons between the two may yield new insights. A key feature of connectionist models simulating acquired disorders is the interaction of components of language processing with each other and with other cognitive domains. This kind of model might help make sense of patterns of comorbidity in developmental disorders. Meanwhile, the study of developmental disorders emphasizes learning and change in underlying representations, allowing us to study how heterogeneity in cognitive profile may relate not just to neurobiology but also to experience. Children with persistent language difficulties pose challenges both to our efforts at intervention and to theories of learning of written and spoken language. Future attention to learning in individuals with developmental and acquired disorders could be of both theoretical and applied value.

  5. The Genetic Basis of Thought Disorder and Language and Communication Disturbances in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Deborah L.; Coleman, Michael J.; Sung, Heejong; Ji, Fei; Matthysse, Steven; Mendell, Nancy R.; Titone, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Thought disorder as well as language and communication disturbances are associated with schizophrenia and are over-represented in clinically unaffected relatives of schizophrenics. All three kinds of dysfunction involve some element of deviant verbalizations, most notably, semantic anomalies. Of particular importance, thought disorder characterized primarily by deviant verbalizations has a higher recurrence in relatives of schizophrenic patients than schizophrenia itself. These findings suggest that deviant verbalizations may be more penetrant expressions of schizophrenia susceptibility genes than schizophrenia. This paper reviews the evidence documenting the presence of thought, language and communication disorders in schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives. This familial aggregation potentially implicates genetic factors in the etiology of thought disorder, language anomalies, and communication disturbances in schizophrenia families. We also present two examples of ways in which thought, language and communication disorders can enrich genetic studies, including those involving schizophrenia. PMID:20161689

  6. A Comparison of Receptive-Expressive Language Profiles between Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Kyeong In; Song, Seung Ha; Kim, Ka Lim; Oh, Seung Taek; Kim, Young Tae; Im, Woo Young; Song, Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that expressive language impairment is commonly less severe than receptive language impairment in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, this result is based on experiments in Western countries with Western language scales. This study tries to find whether the result above is applicable for toddlers in a non-Western country; more specifically, in Korea with non-Western language scales. Materials and Methods The participants were 166 toddlers aged between 20 months and 50 months who visited the clinic from December 2010 to January 2013. The number of toddlers diagnosed as ASD and developmental language delay (DLD) was 103 and 63, respectively. Language development level was assessed using Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), a Korean language scale. Using SELSI, each group was divided into 3 sub-groups. Moreover, the group difference by age was observed by dividing them into three age groups. Chi-square test and linear-by-linear association was used for analysis. Results Receptive language ability of the DLD group was superior to that of the ASD group in all age groups. However, expressive language ability in both groups showed no difference in all age groups. A greater proportion of expressive dominant type was found in ASD. The 20-29 months group in ASD showed the largest proportion of expressive language dominant type in the three age groups, suggesting that the younger the ASD toddler is, the more severe the receptive language impairment is. Conclusion These findings suggest that receptive-expressive language characteristics in ASD at earlier age could be useful in the early detection of ASD. PMID:25323912

  7. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with ASD and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of the OSEL is to provide developmental norms for use of language, the first step involves assessment of the scale’s feasibility, validity, and reliability using a sample of 180 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Pilot data from the OSEL shows strong internal consistency, high reliabilities and validity. Once replicated with a large population-based sample and in special populations, the scale should be helpful in designing appropriate interventions for children with ASD and other communication disorders. PMID:25022249

  8. Speech-language pathology findings in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Machado-Nascimento, Nárli; Melo E Kümmer, Arthur; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the scientific production on the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Speech-language Pathology and to methodologically analyze the observational studies on the theme. Systematic review of the literature conducted at the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (MEDLINE, USA), Literature of Latin America and the Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Brazil) and Spanish Bibliographic Index of Health Sciences (IBECS, Spain) using the descriptors: "Language", "Language Development", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", "ADHD" and "Auditory Perception". Articles published between 2008 and 2013. Inclusion criteria: full articles published in national and international journals from 2008 to 2013. Exclusion criteria: articles not focused on the speech-language pathology alterations present in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The articles were read in full and the data were extracted for characterization of methodology and content. The 23 articles found were separated according to two themes: Speech-language Pathology and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The study of the scientific production revealed that the alterations most commonly discussed were reading disorders and that there are few reports on the relationship between auditory processing and these disorders, as well as on the role of the speech-language pathologist in the evaluation and treatment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  9. Speech and language disorders in children from public schools in Belo Horizonte

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Campos, Fernanda Rodrigues; Friche, Clarice Passos; da Silva, Bárbara Suelen Vasconcelos; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; Goulart, Lúcia Maria Horta de Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of oral language, orofacial motor skill and auditory processing disorders in children aged 4-10 years and verify their association with age and gender. Methods: Cross-sectional study with stratified, random sample consisting of 539 students. The evaluation consisted of three protocols: orofacial motor skill protocol, adapted from the Myofunctional Evaluation Guidelines; the Child Language Test ABFW - Phonology; and a simplified auditory processing evaluation. Descriptive and associative statistical analyses were performed using Epi Info software, release 6.04. Chi-square test was applied to compare proportion of events and analysis of variance was used to compare mean values. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: Of the studied subjects, 50.1% had at least one of the assessed disorders; of those, 33.6% had oral language disorder, 17.1% had orofacial motor skill impairment, and 27.3% had auditory processing disorder. There were significant associations between auditory processing skills’ impairment, oral language impairment and age, suggesting a decrease in the number of disorders with increasing age. Similarly, the variable "one or more speech, language and hearing disorders" was also associated with age. Conclusions: The prevalence of speech, language and hearing disorders in children was high, indicating the need for research and public health efforts to cope with this problem. PMID:26300524

  10. [Speech and language disorders in children from public schools in Belo Horizonte].

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Campos, Fernanda Rodrigues; Friche, Clarice Passos; da Silva, Bárbara Suelen Vasconcelos; de Lima Friche, Amélia Augusta; Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; de Figueiredo Goulart, Lúcia Maria Horta

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of oral language, orofacial motor skill and auditory processing disorders in children aged 4-10 years old and verify their association with age and gender. Cross-sectional study with stratified, random sample consisting of 539 students. The evaluation consisted of three protocols: orofacial motor skill protocol, adapted from the Myofunctional Evaluation Guidelines; the Child Language Test ABFW--Phonology, and a simplified auditory processing evaluation. Descriptive and associative statistical analyses were performed using Epi Info software, release 6.04. Chi-square test was applied to compare proportion of events and analysis of variance was used to compare mean values. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Of the studied subjects, 50.1% had at least one of the assessed disorders; of those, 33.6% had oral language disorder, 17.1%, had orofacial motor skill impairment, and 27.3% had auditory processing disorder. There were significant associations between auditory processing skills' impairment, oral language impairment and age, suggesting a decrease in the number of disorders with increasing age. Similarly, the variable "one or more speech, language and hearing disorders" was also associated with age. The prevalence of speech, language and hearing disorders in children was high, indicating the need for research and public health efforts to cope with this problem. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Teasing out specific language impairment from an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Gupta, Vidya Bhushan; Angel, Alma Patricia Del; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2012-04-01

    Marcus is a handsome, sweet, 7½-year-old boy with a significant history of delayed development, specifically in speech and language skills, as well as difficulties with social interactions that have led other specialists to be concerned about a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder.He has been seen in our primary care practice since birth. He was born full-term after vaginal delivery weighing 6 pounds, 6 ounces. There were no pregnancy or delivery complications noted. Genetic testing revealed normal chromosomes, fragile X, and microarray testing. Marcus was a picky eater and good sleeper and had delays in toilet training.There is no family history of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, or substance abuse. Maternal grandmother and mother have a history of learning difficulties, and his father and a paternal uncle have a history of depression and anxiety. Marcus lives in a supportive environment with his mother, father, and sister.Marcus was noted to have significantly delayed language, stuttering, and immediate echolalia as a toddler. Gross and fine motor milestones were met on time, but he did not talk or follow directions until 4 to 5 years old. As a younger child, he would pretend to talk on the phone or mow the grass with a pretend lawn mower, but other household activities were not of interest to Marcus.Currently, he enjoys puzzles, reading, and board games. He likes to play with other children and can interact with familiar adults. Marcus is reported to initiate social interactions, although he has difficulty in understanding personal space. Imaginative play is preferred over other types. He seeks out adult attention and will bring objects over to an adult especially to share his perceived accomplishment. Marcus has difficulty in playing cooperatively with his sister.He is independent with activities of daily living. Marcus is noted to have auditory defensiveness including covering his ears to loud noises and becoming distressed

  12. 77 FR 5734 - New Medical Criteria for Evaluating Language and Speech Disorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Senses and Speech, Neurological, and Mental Disorders. Some of these listings describe language or speech... chance to comment on the proposed rules. List of Subjects in 20 CFR Part 404 Administrative practice...

  13. Reduced sensitivity to context in language comprehension: A characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders or of poor structural language ability?

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Melanie; Nadig, Aparna

    2016-02-18

    We present two experiments examining the universality and uniqueness of reduced context sensitivity in language processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), as proposed by the Weak Central Coherence account (Happé & Frith, 2006, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 25). That is, do all children with ASD exhibit decreased context sensitivity, and is this characteristic specific to ASD versus other neurodevelopmental conditions? Experiment 1, conducted in English, was a comparison of children with ASD with normal language and their typically-developing peers on a picture selection task where interpretation of sentential context was required to identify homonyms. Contrary to the predictions of Weak Central Coherence, the ASD-normal language group exhibited no difficulty on this task. Experiment 2, conducted in German, compared children with ASD with variable language abilities, typically-developing children, and a second control group of children with Language Impairment (LI) on a sentence completion task where a context sentence had to be considered to produce the continuation of an ambiguous sentence fragment. Both ASD-variable language and LI groups exhibited reduced context sensitivity and did not differ from each other. Finally, to directly test which factors contribute to reduced context sensitivity, we conducted a regression analysis for each experiment, entering nonverbal IQ, structural language ability, and autism diagnosis as predictors. For both experiments structural language ability emerged as the only significant predictor. These convergent findings demonstrate that reduced sensitivity to context in language processing is linked to low structural language rather than ASD diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    1.Lord C, Risi S, Pickles A. Trajectory of language development in autistic spectrum disorders. In: Rice M, Warren S, eds. Developmental Language...project will significantly contribute to the knowledge of underlying neurophysiology in language processing in ASD. We have successfully developed a...specific processing in nonverbal children with ASD, in comparison to verbal children with ASD and typically developing healthy comparison children

  15. A Nonverbal Intervention for the Severely Language Disordered Young Child: An Intensive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Diane Lynch

    Designing therapeutic approaches for language-disordered young children calls for the coordination of communication skills across the three developmental pathways: motor, social-emotional, and language-cognitive. The case study presented in this document examines the effectiveness of a dance-movement therapy intervention conducted over a 2-year…

  16. Clinical Characteristics Associated with Language Regression for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren A.; Campbell, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated correlates of language regression for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using archival data, children diagnosed with ASD (N = 114, M age = 41.4 months) were divided into four groups based on language development (i.e., regression, plateau, general delay, no delay) and compared on developmental, adaptive…

  17. Language Competence and Social Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to explore a model of communicative competence (Abbeduto & Nuccio, 1989) and identify whether its components could (a) predict pragmatic language difficulties for children with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) and (b) describe the semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language ability as well as the social skills of…

  18. The Impact of Bilingual Environments on Language Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Catherine; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The impact of bilingual exposure on language learning has not been systematically studied in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study compared the social abilities and language levels of children (mean age = 56 months) with ASDs from bilingual (n = 45) and monolingual (n = 30) environments. Bilingually-exposed children were subgrouped…

  19. Matrix Training of Receptive Language Skills with a Toddler with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Emily S. L.; Sainato, Diane M.; Goldstein, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Matrix training is a systematic teaching approach that can facilitate generalized language. Specific responses are taught that result in the emergence of untrained responses. This type of training facilitates the use of generalized language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a matrix training procedure with a toddler…

  20. Identifying Demographic and Language Profiles of Children with a Primary Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Irene P.; Scullion, Mary; Burns, Sarah; MacEvilly, Deirdre; Brosnan, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    As the language presentation of children with attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADHD) is highly complex, this study aims to delineate the profile of a cohort of 40 children with ADHD, aged between 9 and 12 years, attending a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). Speech and language therapists (SLTs) assessed the children on…

  1. Pragmatic Language Profiles of School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties.…

  2. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Kornilova, Tatiana V.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD) (M age = 10;67, SD = 2.84) and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of…

  3. The Oral and Written Language Scales: Is It Useful for Older Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Buckendorf, G. Robert; Haines, Kristin; Hall, Trevor A.; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2008-01-01

    Communication impairment is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little research attention has been devoted to establishing standardized methods for defining and identifying language impairment in children with known or suspected ASD. The present study examines the feasibility and utility of the Oral and Written Language Scales…

  4. Evidence for Distinct Cognitive Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2014-01-01

    Findings that a subgroup of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have linguistic capabilities that resemble specific language impairment (SLI) have led some authors to hypothesise that ASD and SLI have a shared aetiology. While considerable research has explored overlap in the language phenotypes of the two conditions, little research…

  5. Issues and Applications of Sensory Integration Theory and Treatment with Children with Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, Daria M.

    1999-01-01

    This review of sensory integration (SI) intervention with children who have language disorders discusses research which both supports and fails to support SI constructs and efficacy. Sections cover theory and principles of SI, assessment of sensory integrative dysfunction, SI therapy, and implications for language learning and academic success.…

  6. An Analysis of Naturalistic Interventions for Increasing Spontaneous Expressive Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Justin D.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca; Gast, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify naturalistic language interventions for increasing spontaneous expressive language (defined in this review as absence of verbal prompt or other verbalization from adults or peers) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Also, the methodological rigor and effectiveness of each study were evaluated…

  7. The Impact of Bilingual Environments on Language Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Catherine; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The impact of bilingual exposure on language learning has not been systematically studied in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study compared the social abilities and language levels of children (mean age = 56 months) with ASDs from bilingual (n = 45) and monolingual (n = 30) environments. Bilingually-exposed children were subgrouped…

  8. Levels of Text Comprehension in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): The Influence of Language Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but the level of processing at which comprehension is most vulnerable and the influence of language phenotype on comprehension skill is currently unclear. We explored comprehension at sentence and passage levels across language phenotypes. Children with ASD…

  9. The Role of Otitis Media in the Development of Expressive Language Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, C. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In a study of 50 normal children and 65 children with expressive language disorder (ELD), results showed no differences in the frequency, duration, or timing of episodes of otitis media. For children with ELD, there was a relationship between otitis media and expressive language improvement. (BC)

  10. Early Language Profiles in Infants at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudry, Kristelle; Chandler, Susie; Bedford, Rachael; Pasco, Greg; Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Many preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present relative lack of receptive advantage over concurrent expressive language. Such profile emergence was investigated longitudinally in 54 infants at high-risk (HR) for ASD and 50 low-risk controls, with three language measures taken across four visits (around 7, 14, 24, 38 months). HR…

  11. An Examination of Language Learning Disabilities in Youth with Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javorsky, James

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychiatric and language disorders in 96 youth (mean age 13) in a private psychiatric hospital. Over 33% of subjects exhibited significant deficits in both phonology and syntax, qualifying for a language learning disability diagnosis, but only 44% of this group were receiving special education services…

  12. Unidentified Language Deficits in Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollo, Alexandra; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Low language proficiency and problem behavior often co-occur, yet language deficits are likely to be overlooked in children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine prevalence and severity of the problem. Across 22 studies, participants included 1,171 children ages 5-13 with formally…

  13. Levels of Text Comprehension in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): The Influence of Language Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but the level of processing at which comprehension is most vulnerable and the influence of language phenotype on comprehension skill is currently unclear. We explored comprehension at sentence and passage levels across language phenotypes. Children with ASD…

  14. Identifying Demographic and Language Profiles of Children with a Primary Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Irene P.; Scullion, Mary; Burns, Sarah; MacEvilly, Deirdre; Brosnan, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    As the language presentation of children with attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADHD) is highly complex, this study aims to delineate the profile of a cohort of 40 children with ADHD, aged between 9 and 12 years, attending a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). Speech and language therapists (SLTs) assessed the children on…

  15. The Role of Otitis Media in the Development of Expressive Language Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, C. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In a study of 50 normal children and 65 children with expressive language disorder (ELD), results showed no differences in the frequency, duration, or timing of episodes of otitis media. For children with ELD, there was a relationship between otitis media and expressive language improvement. (BC)

  16. The Oral and Written Language Scales: Is It Useful for Older Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Buckendorf, G. Robert; Haines, Kristin; Hall, Trevor A.; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2008-01-01

    Communication impairment is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little research attention has been devoted to establishing standardized methods for defining and identifying language impairment in children with known or suspected ASD. The present study examines the feasibility and utility of the Oral and Written Language Scales…

  17. Matrix Training of Receptive Language Skills with a Toddler with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Emily S. L.; Sainato, Diane M.; Goldstein, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Matrix training is a systematic teaching approach that can facilitate generalized language. Specific responses are taught that result in the emergence of untrained responses. This type of training facilitates the use of generalized language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a matrix training procedure with a toddler…

  18. Research Review: Structural Language in Autistic Spectrum Disorder--Characteristics and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Structural language anomalies or impairments in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are theoretically and practically important, although underrecognised as such. This review aims to highlight the ubiquitousness of structural language anomalies and impairments in ASD, and to stimulate investigation of their immediate causes and…

  19. Language Differences at 12 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenby, DeWayne C.; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Huntington, Noelle; Prante, Matthew; Dale, Philip S.; Curtin, Suzanne; Henkel, Lisa; Iverson, Jana M.; Carver, Leslie; Dobkins, Karen; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tagavi, Daina; Nelson, Charles A., III; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about early language development in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed prospective data from 346 infants, some of whom were at high risk for developing ASD, to determine if language differences could be detected at 12 months of age in the infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Analyses…

  20. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  1. A Nonverbal Intervention for the Severely Language Disordered Young Child: An Intensive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Diane Lynch

    Designing therapeutic approaches for language-disordered young children calls for the coordination of communication skills across the three developmental pathways: motor, social-emotional, and language-cognitive. The case study presented in this document examines the effectiveness of a dance-movement therapy intervention conducted over a 2-year…

  2. Research Review: Structural Language in Autistic Spectrum Disorder--Characteristics and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Structural language anomalies or impairments in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are theoretically and practically important, although underrecognised as such. This review aims to highlight the ubiquitousness of structural language anomalies and impairments in ASD, and to stimulate investigation of their immediate causes and…

  3. [Influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Kai; Liu, Gui-Hua; Qian, Qin-Fang; Ge, Pin; Xie, Yan-Qin; Yang, Min-Yan; Wang, Zhang-Qiong; Ou, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The 1-3 Years Child Home Nurture Environment Scale, Gesell Developmental Scale, and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment Scale were used for the evaluation of 125 children with DLD. A total of 130 children with normal language development matched for age and sex were enrolled as control group. Compared with the control group, the DLD group had a significantly higher proportion of children in a bad home nurture environment and significantly lower scores of all domains of home nurture environment (P<0.05). In children with DLD, the home nurture environment score was positively correlated with the level of language development (r=0.536, P<0.01) and the score of ability domain in social emotion (r=0.397, P<0.01) and was negatively correlated with the scores of the domains of explicit behavior, covert behavior, and imbalance in social emotion (r=-0.455, -0.438, and -0.390 respectively, P<0.01). Home nurture environment had direct influence on language development in children with DLD and affected their language development via the mediating effect of social emotion. Home nurture environment influences language development and social emotion in children with DLD, and social emotion has a partial mediating effect between home nurture environment and language development.

  4. Issues in bilingualism and heritage language maintenance: perspectives of minority-language mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty

    2013-02-01

    The author investigated the language practices of 10 bilingual, Chinese/English-speaking, immigrant mothers with their children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim was to understand (a) the nature of the language practices, (b) their constraints, and (c) their impact. The author employed in-depth phenomenological interviews with thematic and narrative analyses to yield themes. Interviewees reported that they adopted language practices perceived to be advantageous to intervention access and wellness. They valued Chinese language but did not pursue its use if it was believed to hinder the children's overall development of English acquisition. All of the mothers believed that bilingualism made learning more challenging. Many believed that it caused confusion or exacerbated disabilities. These deficit views of bilingualism were commonly reinforced by professionals. All of the mothers were motivated to help their children learn English but had no assistance to do so. Practices were sustainable only when they were aligned with families' preferred communication patterns. There is an urgent need for practitioners to be better informed about issues related to intergenerational language practices in minority-language families. Language use between parents and children is a complex matter that is unique to each family. Parents need to be supported to make language use decisions that are self-enhancing and congruent with their families' needs.

  5. Comorbidity and WISC-III profiles of Greek children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Filippatou, Diamanto N; Livaniou, Eleni A

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to (a) examine the prevalence of ADHD and the comorbid difficulties in a sample of 114 children, 3.6 to 17.6 yr. of age (89 boys, 25 girls) referred to our Unit and (b) evaluate the discriminative ability of the WISC-III scores for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 22), Learning Disability (n = 50), and Language Disorder (n = 42). Analysis showed only 18% of 114 children had an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis. Multivariate analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function analysis were applied. Vocabulary and similarities were the best predictors for distinguishing between language disorders and the other two groups. Moreover, the Language Disorder group scored significantly lower on all the subtests while the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability groups scored lower on coding and information, respectively. Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability could not be accurately identified from the WISC-III test or their ACID profile.

  6. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  7. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  8. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  9. One Size Does Not Fit All: Improving Clinical Practice in Older Children and Adolescents with Language and Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the lead article for this clinical forum, Kamhi (2014) suggests ways that current knowledge on instructional practices in learning and language can be applied to clinical practice in language disorders. I propose that Kamhi's suggestions are in need of fine-tuning for older children and adolescents with language disorders. A…

  10. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  11. Using Spoken Language Benchmarks to Characterize the Expressive Language Skills of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ellawadi, Allison Bean; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Spoken language benchmarks proposed by Tager-Flusberg et al. (2009) were used to characterize communication profiles of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders and to investigate if there were differences in variables hypothesized to influence language development at different benchmark levels. The communication abilities of a large sample of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (N = 105) were characterized in terms of spoken language benchmarks. The toddlers were grouped according to these benchmarks to investigate whether there were differences in selected variables across benchmark groups at a mean age of 2.5 years. The majority of children in the sample presented with uneven communication profiles with relative strengths in phonology and significant weaknesses in pragmatics. When children were grouped according to one expressive language domain, across-group differences were observed in response to joint attention and gestures but not cognition or restricted and repetitive behaviors. The spoken language benchmarks are useful for characterizing early communication profiles and investigating features that influence expressive language growth.

  12. Using Spoken Language Benchmarks to Characterize the Expressive Language Skills of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spoken language benchmarks proposed by Tager-Flusberg et al. (2009) were used to characterize communication profiles of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders and to investigate if there were differences in variables hypothesized to influence language development at different benchmark levels. Method The communication abilities of a large sample of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (N = 105) were characterized in terms of spoken language benchmarks. The toddlers were grouped according to these benchmarks to investigate whether there were differences in selected variables across benchmark groups at a mean age of 2.5 years. Results The majority of children in the sample presented with uneven communication profiles with relative strengths in phonology and significant weaknesses in pragmatics. When children were grouped according to one expressive language domain, across-group differences were observed in response to joint attention and gestures but not cognition or restricted and repetitive behaviors. Conclusion The spoken language benchmarks are useful for characterizing early communication profiles and investigating features that influence expressive language growth. PMID:26254475

  13. Improving clinical practices for children with language and learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamhi, Alan G

    2014-04-01

    This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions, components of language therapy, grammar goals, and goal prioritization for students with language and learning difficulties. The gaps that exist between current knowledge about learning, language development, and clinical practice often do not receive as much attention as the gaps in the evidence base that addresses the efficacy and effectiveness of language intervention practices and service delivery models. Fortunately, clinicians do not have to wait for future intervention studies to apply their knowledge of learning and language development to clinical practices.

  14. [Verbal communication disorders and language disorders in cortical dementias (I). The current state of the art in research].

    PubMed

    Benedet, M J

    This is the first part of a research work into primary and secondary language disorders (LD) in the stages of minimum to mild pathological deterioration in the degenerative process of cortical dementias. AIMS. In this first part, in the light of recent models of symbolic computation of language processing, we review the most significant publications on the subject matter. We begin with an introduction to the historical development of the approaches used to deal with the subject. Following that, we briefly describe the components of the language processing system (LPS) in the light of symbolic computation models. We then analyse the publications dealing with those models. Our aim was to determine whether the LD reported in those publications are the result of a primary involvement of any of the LPS components, or whether they are only the result of disorders affecting other components of the cognitive system. In this case, the supposed LD would be secondary and thus a communication, but not language, disorder. Despite the important variations from one individual to another that have been systematically observed by different authors, it seems that only LD belonging to so called primary progressive aphasia are actually cases of this disorder. In all the other dementias in the above mentioned stages of the development process these disorders are secondary to the involvement of other subsystems of the LPS.

  15. [Early identification of children with developmental language disorders - when and how?].

    PubMed

    von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2011-11-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have a high risk for their cognitive, social, and emotional development. Therefore, they should be identified and treated as early as possible. This paper reviews the possibilities and limits of methods for such early identification. Language screenings during the first 3 years of life are described and appraised with respect to their diagnostic accuracy. The overview indicates that the current stage of language development can be estimated with high reliability by means of parent questionnaires. The possibility of identifying children with developmental language disorders early on is limited. Precursors and first steps of language acquisition correlate with later language abilities, although the relationship is weak and predicting further language development in a individual child is not possible. At the end of the second year of life, however, late talkers can be identified; these children are at risk of language impairment. But not until the end of the third year can sufficient detection of language-impaired children succeed. Parent questionnaires are the most reliable screening instruments for evaluating language abilities during the first 3 years.

  16. [Inferences and verbal comprehension in children with developmental language disorders].

    PubMed

    Monfort, Isabelle; Monfort, Marc

    2013-02-22

    We review the concept of inference in language comprehension -both oral and written- recalling the different proposals of classification. We analyze the type of difficulties that children might encounter in their application of the inferences, depending on the type of language or development pathology. Finally, we describe the proposals for intervention that have been made to enhance the ability to apply inferences in language comprehension.

  17. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  18. The Relationship between Psychopathology and Speech and Language Disorders in Neurologic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Shimon; Aronson, Arnold E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews findings that suggest a causal relationship between depression, anxiety, or conversion reaction and voice, speech, and language disorders in neurologic patients. The paper emphasizes the need to consider the psychosocial and psychopathological aspects of neurologic communicative disorders, the link between emotional and…

  19. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  20. Examining the Comorbidity of Language Impairment and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Language impairment (LI) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 relatively common developmental disorders that have been shown to have high rates of co-occurrence in a number of studies, and this phenomenon is also commonplace in the experience of many clinicians. Understanding this comorbidity, therefore, is central to building…

  1. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  2. Examining the Comorbidity of Language Impairment and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Language impairment (LI) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 relatively common developmental disorders that have been shown to have high rates of co-occurrence in a number of studies, and this phenomenon is also commonplace in the experience of many clinicians. Understanding this comorbidity, therefore, is central to building…

  3. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  4. Language disorders in children with unilateral hearing loss: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    José, Maria Renata; Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2014-04-01

    Introduction Childhood is a critical period for language development and maturation of the central auditory system. Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is considered a minimal impairment, and little is discussed regarding its impact on the development of language, communication, and school performance. Objectives A bibliographical survey of scientific articles published from 2001 to 2011 was performed to verify which language disorders can occur in children with UHL and which tests were performed to identify them. Data Synthesis Three databases were used: PubMed, Lilacs, and The Cochrane Library. As inclusion criteria, the articles should have samples of children with UHL, without other impairments, aged between 3 months and 12 years, and reference to language tests applied in this population. Out of 236 papers initially selected, only 5 met the inclusion criteria. In the articles studied, 12 tests were used for language assessment in children with UHL, out of which 9 were directed toward expressive language, and 3 toward receptive language. Children with UHL demonstrated lower scores on receptive and expressive language tests when compared with children with normal hearing. However, they obtained better scores on expressive language tests than children with bilateral hearing loss. Conclusion The findings of this survey showed that only a small number of studies used language tests in children with UHL or addressed language alterations resulting from this type of impairment. Therefore we emphasize the importance of investments in new studies on this subject to provide better explanations related to language difficulties presented by children with UHL.

  5. Evidence from imaging on the relationship between brain structure and developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, M

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses findings using various imaging techniques regarding the neurological underpinnings of developmental language and learning disorders. Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography implicates the left perisylvian regions in the processing of phonemes and auditory information, as had been predicted from lesion data and from neurobiological theory. The areas of the planum temporale and angular gyrus have been found to be compromised in children and adults with dyslexia or language impairment. Emerging evidence suggests that these differences are also present in members of families with a history of developmental language disorders, which provides support for a transmittable, biological factor involved in such disorders. Dynamic imaging procedures are beginning to provide an understanding of the relationship between structure and function in normal and abnormal language acquisition.

  6. Subtypes of language disorders in school-age children with autism.

    PubMed

    Rapin, Isabelle; Dunn, Michelle A; Dunn, Michael A; Allen, Doris A; Stevens, Michael C; Fein, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Cluster analysis of test scores on expressive phonology and comprehension of words and sentences in 7-9-year-old children with preschool diagnosis of Autistic Disorder yielded 4 clusters. Cluster 1 (N = 11): phonology and comprehension both low; Cluster 2 (N = 4): phonology low, near average comprehension; Cluster 3 (N = 40): average phonology, comprehension low to low average; Cluster 4 (N = 7): average or better phonology and comprehension. The clusters support two major types of language disorders in autism driven by impaired expressive phonology, each divisible by comprehension ability. The clusters refute a single language disorder in autism and are consonant with earlier-defined clinical subtypes.

  7. Update on the language disorders of individuals on the autistic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rapin, Isabelle; Dunn, Michelle

    2003-04-01

    Inadequate language is a defining feature of the autism spectrum disorders (autism). Autism is a behaviorally and dimensionally defined developmental disorder of the immature brain that has a broad range of severity and many etiologies, with multiple genes involved. Early studies, which focused on the language of verbal children on the autistic spectrum, emphasized aberrant features of their speech such as unusual word choices, pronoun reversal, echolalia, incoherent discourse, unresponsiveness to questions, aberrant prosody, and lack of drive to communicate. Persistent lack of speech of some individuals was attributed to the severity of their autism and attendant mental retardation rather than possible inability to decode auditory language. Clinical study of unselected children with autism indicated that the language deficits of preschoolers fall into two broad types, perhaps with subtypes, those that involve reception and production of phonology (sounds of speech) and syntax (grammar), and those that do not but involve semantics (meaning) and pragmatics (communicative use of language, processing, and production of discourse). Except for the preschoolers' universally deficient pragmatics and comprehension of speech, many of their language deficits parallel those of non-autistic preschoolers with developmental language disorders. There is now biological support for the clinical observation that young autistic children are language disordered as well as autistic. Recent electrophysiological studies disclose auditory input abnormalities in lateral temporal cortex even in verbal individuals on the autistic spectrum. Severe receptive deficits for phonology enhance the risk for epilepsy. Genetic studies indicate that linkage to chromosome 7q31-33 is limited to families with evidence for phonologic impairment as well as autism. Clearly, social and cognitive disorders alone provide an inadequate explanation for the range of language deficits in autism.

  8. The Source[R] for Bilingual Students with Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste

    This book is designed to help speech-language pathologists develop vocabulary and phonological awareness skills in bilingual students with language-learning disabilities (LLD). The book targets beginning through intermediate bilingual students in grades K-8. Part 1 of the book begins with teaching style strategies for teaching bilingual students…

  9. The genetic bases of speech sound disorders: evidence from spoken and written language.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Barbara A; Shriberg, Lawrence D; Freebairn, Lisa A; Hansen, Amy J; Stein, Catherine M; Taylor, H Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent findings suggesting a genetic susceptibility for speech sound disorders (SSD), the most prevalent communication disorder in early childhood. The importance of genetic studies of SSD and the hypothetical underpinnings of these genetic findings are reviewed, as well as genetic associations of SSD with other language and reading disabilities. The authors propose that many genes contribute to SSD. They further hypothesize that some genes contribute to SSD disorders alone, whereas other genes influence both SSD and other written and spoken language disorders. The authors postulate that underlying common cognitive traits, or endophenotypes, are responsible for shared genetic influences of spoken and written language. They review findings from their genetic linkage study and from the literature to illustrate recent developments in this area. Finally, they discuss challenges for identifying genetic influence on SSD and propose a conceptual framework for study of the genetic basis of SSD.

  10. Neural Correlates of Developmental Speech and Language Disorders: Evidence from Neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Frédérique; Mayes, Angela; Morgan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of speech and language arise out of a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and neural factors. Little is understood about the neural bases of these disorders. Here we systematically reviewed neuroimaging findings in Speech disorders (SD) and Language disorders (LD) over the last five years (2008-2013; 10 articles). In participants with SD, structural and functional anomalies in the left supramarginal gyrus suggest a possible deficit in sensory feedback or integration. In LD, cortical and subcortical anomalies were reported in a widespread language network, with little consistency across studies except in the superior temporal gyri. In summary, both functional and structural anomalies are associated with LD and SD, including greater activity and volumes relative to controls. The variability in neuroimaging approach and heterogeneity within and across participant samples restricts our full understanding of the neurobiology of these conditions- reducing the potential for devising novel interventions targeted at the underlying pathology.

  11. Tools and early management of language and swallowing disorders in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Flamand-Roze, Constance; Cauquil-Michon, Cécile; Denier, Christian

    2012-02-01

    The role of the stroke units in improving morbidity, mortality, and recovery from stroke is clearly demonstrated. However, acute management of language disorders in these specialized units remains controversial, and management of swallowing disorders is usually nonstandardized. The recent validation of a scale for rapid screening of language disorders (LAST [Language Screening Test]) in acute stroke patients should allow optimization of their detection and early management. Swallowing disorders should be screened and managed using a standardized protocol. Following early initial evaluation repeated on a daily basis, they justify tailored rehabilitation sessions, adaptation of food textures, team formation, and families' information. The use of these protocols implies the cooperation and coordination of the medical and paramedical teams and the daily presence of speech therapists. These aspects are crucial for patients in the stroke units to achieve full benefits from the management proposed in this paper, leading to diminution of complications and better long-term functional prognosis.

  12. Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Johanne; Genesee, Fred; Crago, Martha B.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more dual language learners enter the school system, now is the ideal time for this second edition of the bestselling textbook--essential for preparing speech language pathologists (SLPs) and educators to work with young children who are bilingual or learning a second language. This comprehensive, student-friendly text takes the…

  13. Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Johanne; Genesee, Fred; Crago, Martha B.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more dual language learners enter the school system, now is the ideal time for this second edition of the bestselling textbook--essential for preparing speech language pathologists (SLPs) and educators to work with young children who are bilingual or learning a second language. This comprehensive, student-friendly text takes the…

  14. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. 14 adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. PMID:20031197

  15. Language laterality in autism spectrum disorder and typical controls: a functional, volumetric, and diffusion tensor MRI study.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tracey A; Silver, Andrew M; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A; Dominick, Kelli C; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-02-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Merely misunderstood? Receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language in young children with disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Gremillion, Monica L; Martel, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity.

  17. Measuring Pragmatic Language in Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Comparing the Children's Communication Checklist-2 and the Test of Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volden, Joanne; Phillips, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2), a parent report instrument, with the Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL), a test administered to the child, on the ability to identify pragmatic language impairment in speakers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who had age-appropriate structural language skills. Method: Sixteen…

  18. Investigating eye movement patterns, language, and social ability in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Steven D; Linnell, Karina J; Heaton, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    Although all intellectually high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display core social and communication deficits, some develop language within a normative timescale and others experience significant delays and subsequent language impairment. Early attention to social stimuli plays an important role in the emergence of language, and reduced attention to faces has been documented in infants later diagnosed with ASD. We investigated the extent to which patterns of attention to social stimuli would differentiate early and late language onset groups. Children with ASD (mean age = 10 years) differing on language onset timing (late/normal) and a typically developing comparison group completed a task in which visual attention to interacting and noninteracting human figures was mapped using eye tracking. Correlations on visual attention data and results from tests measuring current social and language ability were conducted. Patterns of visual attention did not distinguish typically developing children and ASD children with normal language onset. Children with ASD and late language onset showed significantly reduced attention to salient social stimuli. Associations between current language ability and social attention were observed. Delay in language onset is associated with current language skills as well as with specific eye-tracking patterns.

  19. Effectiveness of a working memory intervention program in children with language disorders.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Victor; Hernandez, Sergio; Ramirez, Gustavo

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was twofold: first, to obtain a neuropsychological characterization of children with language disorders, and second, to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program on working memory. We used a pretest-instruction-posttest design, carefully identifying a sample of 32 children with language disorders whom we then evaluated for short-term verbal and visuospatial memory, verbal and visuospatial working memory, attention, processing speed, and lexical-semantic skills. We then implemented an intervention program on working memory consisting of 72 sessions of 15 minutes each, after which we repeated the neuropsychological assessment of these functions. Children with language disorders performed worse than children in the control group in all memory tasks evaluated and in the lexical-semantic processing task. After the intervention, children with language disorders showed a significant increase over their own previous performance in all variables. Children with language disorders show significant cognitive deficits and not just linguistic impairment. We offer conclusive findings on the effectiveness of the intervention program used. Finally, we obtained partial support for the existence of a causal link between improved performance on memory tasks and performance in a lexical-semantic task.

  20. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Befi-Lopes, Débora Maria; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing. To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech) encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory processing disorders and typical development through the mismatch negativity paradigm. It was a prospective study. 75 children (6-12 years) participated in this study: 25 children with specific language impairment, 25 with auditory processing disorders, and 25 with typical development. Mismatch negativity was obtained by subtracting from the waves obtained by the stimuli /ga/ (frequent) and /da/ (rare). Measures of mismatch negativity latency and two amplitude measures were analyzed. It was possible to verify an absence of mismatch negativity in 16% children with specific language impairment and 24% children with auditory processing disorders. In the comparative analysis, auditory processing disorders and specific language impairment showed higher latency values and lower amplitude values compared to typical development. These data demonstrate changes in the automatic discrimination of crucial acoustic components of speech sounds in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorders. It could indicate problems in physiological processes responsible for ensuring the discrimination of acoustic contrasts in pre-attentional and pre-conscious levels, contributing to poor perception. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. [Identifying language and communication disorders as part of the medical curriculum].

    PubMed

    Deuster, D; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A; Knief, A; Matulat, P; Bartha-Doering, L; Fiori, A; Schmidt, C-M

    2012-03-01

    Like hearing loss, language and speech disorders can also lead to impaired communication. Speech and language disorders can occur at any age, for example as a specific language impairment, stuttering, dysarthria, and aphasia. Hence, irrespective of their speciality, there is a high probability that physicians will at some point encounter communication-impaired patients, be required to classify their disorder and refer them for appropriate therapy. A new module entitled 'communication disorders' consisting of two teaching units was integrated in the practical course 'ENT--phoniatrics--pedaudiology' for undergraduate clinical students in 2008. The learning objective of the first unit was to identify and classify communication disorders, presented using sound and video data, by means of simple criteria. The module was evaluated on the basis of questionnaires completed by 164 students. On a scale of 1-7, the evaluation showed overall positive results with 6.54 (highest score) for professional competence and 5.32 (lowest score) for discussion. The overall score was 12.28 out of a possible maximum of 15 points. The ability to identify communication impairments is an important medical skill. Since communication disorders are common diseases we suggest that this skill be incorporated in the medical curriculum. Thus we have introduced a module for communication disorders; its evaluation by students shows a high level of satisfaction in each category. After developing specific diagnostic indicators students were able to independently describe and identify communication disorders.

  2. Fathers' and Mothers' Verbal Responsiveness and the Language Skills of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Flippin, Michelle; Watson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    In this observational study, we examined the interactions of 16 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents to investigate (a) differences in verbal responsiveness used by fathers and mothers in interactions with their children with ASD and (b) concurrent associations between the language skills of children with ASD and the verbal responsiveness of both fathers and mothers. Parent verbal responsiveness was coded from video recordings of naturalistic parent-child play sessions using interval-based coding. Child language skills were measured by the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition (Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002). For both fathers and mothers, parent verbal responsiveness was positively associated with child language skills. Mothers' responsiveness was also significantly associated with child cognition. After controlling for child cognition, fathers' verbal responsiveness continued to be significantly related to child language skills. Although other studies have documented associations between mothers' responsiveness and child language, this is the 1st study to document a significant concurrent association between child language skills of children with ASD and the verbal responsiveness of fathers. Findings of this study warrant the inclusion of fathers in future research on language development and intervention to better understand the potential contributions fathers may make to language growth for children with ASD over time as well as to determine whether coaching fathers to use responsive verbal strategies can improve language outcomes for children with ASD.

  3. Fathers' and Mothers' Verbal Responsiveness and the Language Skills of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this observational study, we examined the interactions of 16 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents to investigate (a) differences in verbal responsiveness used by fathers and mothers in interactions with their children with ASD and (b) concurrent associations between the language skills of children with ASD and the verbal responsiveness of both fathers and mothers. Method Parent verbal responsiveness was coded from video recordings of naturalistic parent–child play sessions using interval-based coding. Child language skills were measured by the Preschool Language Scale–Fourth Edition (Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002). Results For both fathers and mothers, parent verbal responsiveness was positively associated with child language skills. Mothers' responsiveness was also significantly associated with child cognition. After controlling for child cognition, fathers' verbal responsiveness continued to be significantly related to child language skills. Conclusions Although other studies have documented associations between mothers' responsiveness and child language, this is the 1st study to document a significant concurrent association between child language skills of children with ASD and the verbal responsiveness of fathers. Findings of this study warrant the inclusion of fathers in future research on language development and intervention to better understand the potential contributions fathers may make to language growth for children with ASD over time as well as to determine whether coaching fathers to use responsive verbal strategies can improve language outcomes for children with ASD. PMID:25836377

  4. Clinical characteristics associated with language regression for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lauren A; Campbell, Jonathan M

    2010-01-01

    We investigated correlates of language regression for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using archival data, children diagnosed with ASD (N = 114, M age = 41.4 months) were divided into four groups based on language development (i.e., regression, plateau, general delay, no delay) and compared on developmental, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and behavioral adjustment variables. Few overall differences emerged between groups, including similar non-language developmental history, equal risk for seizure disorder, and comparable behavioral adjustment. Groups did not differ with respect to autism symptomatology as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Language plateau was associated with better adaptive social skills as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Implications and study limitations are discussed.

  5. Atypical lexical/semantic processing in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders without early language delay.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Yoko; Robins, Diana; Kelley, Elizabeth; Swainson, Brook; Fein, Deborah

    2007-07-01

    Although autism is associated with impaired language functions, the nature of semantic processing in high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) without a history of early language delay has been debated. In this study, we aimed to examine whether the automatic lexical/semantic aspect of language is impaired or intact in these population. Eleven individuals with Asperger's Disorder (AS) or HFPDD-Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) and age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing individuals performed a semantic decision task in four conditions using an indirect priming paradigm. Semantic priming effects were found for near-semantically related word pairs in the controls, whereas this was not the case in the AS or HFPDDNOS participants. This finding suggests similarities in the underlying semantic processing of language across PDD subtypes.

  6. Children with mixed language disorder do not discriminate accurately facial identity when expressions change.

    PubMed

    Robel, Laurence; Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; Neveu, Xavier; Piana, Hélène; Perier, Antoine; Falissard, Bruno; Golse, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the recognition of pairs of faces (same or different facial identities and expressions) in two groups of 14 children aged 6-10 years, with either an expressive language disorder (ELD), or a mixed language disorder (MLD), and two groups of 14 matched healthy controls. When looking at their global performances, children with either expressive (ELD) or MLD have few differences from controls in either face or emotional recognition. At contrary, we found that children with MLD, but not those with ELD, take identical faces to be different if their expressions change. Since children with mixed language disorders are socially more impaired than children with ELD, we think that these features may partly underpin the social difficulties of these children.

  7. The interface between spoken and written language: developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    We review current knowledge about reading development and the origins of difficulties in learning to read. We distinguish between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading for meaning (reading comprehension). At a cognitive level, difficulties in learning to read appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. The development of decoding skills appears to depend critically upon phonological language skills, and variations in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming each appear to be causally related to problems in learning to read. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be critically dependent on a range of oral language comprehension skills (including vocabulary knowledge and grammatical, morphological and pragmatic skills).

  8. The interface between spoken and written language: developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    We review current knowledge about reading development and the origins of difficulties in learning to read. We distinguish between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading for meaning (reading comprehension). At a cognitive level, difficulties in learning to read appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. The development of decoding skills appears to depend critically upon phonological language skills, and variations in phoneme awareness, letter–sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming each appear to be causally related to problems in learning to read. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be critically dependent on a range of oral language comprehension skills (including vocabulary knowledge and grammatical, morphological and pragmatic skills). PMID:24324239

  9. Understanding Individual Differences in Language Development across the School Years. Language and Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce, Ed.; Nippold, Marilyn A., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the findings of a large-scale study of individual differences in spoken (and heard) language development during the school years. The goal of the study was to investigate the degree to which language abilities at school entry were stable over time and influential in the child's overall success in important aspects of…

  10. Neural Correlates of Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: When Language Conflicts with World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesink, Cathelijne M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with ASD, difficulties with language comprehension are most evident when higher-level semantic-pragmatic language processing is required, for instance when context has to be used to interpret the meaning of an utterance. Until now, it is unclear at what level of processing and for what type of context these difficulties in language…

  11. Fast Mapping Semantic Features: Performance of Adults with Normal Language, History of Disorders of Spoken and Written Language, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on a Word-Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Gutmann, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to test the word learning abilities of adults with typical language abilities, those with a history of disorders of spoken or written language (hDSWL), and hDSWL plus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (+ADHD). Methods: Sixty-eight adults were required to associate a novel object with a novel label, and then…

  12. Fast Mapping Semantic Features: Performance of Adults with Normal Language, History of Disorders of Spoken and Written Language, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on a Word-Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Gutmann, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to test the word learning abilities of adults with typical language abilities, those with a history of disorders of spoken or written language (hDSWL), and hDSWL plus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (+ADHD). Methods: Sixty-eight adults were required to associate a novel object with a novel label, and then…

  13. Data recycling: using existing databases to increase research capacity in speech-language development and disorders.

    PubMed

    Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Rogers, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This clinical forum was organized to provide a means for informing the research and clinical communities of one mechanism through which research capacity might be enhanced within the field of speech-language pathology. Specifically, forum authors describe the process of conducting secondary analyses of extant databases to answer questions of relevance to speech and language development and disorders. This prologue defines the concept of secondary analysis of databases and provides an overview of each of the articles that make up the forum. Researchers invested in addressing basic and applied problems of relevance to speech and language services in schools can make use of a variety of extant databases to increase research capacity.

  14. Reading comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: the role of oral language and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R G; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-04-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability. Further, we explore whether reading comprehension is additionally influenced by individual differences in social behaviour and social cognition in ASD. Adolescents with ASD aged 14-16 years completed assessments indexing word recognition, oral language, reading comprehension, social behaviour and social cognition. Regression analyses show that both word recognition and oral language explain unique variance in reading comprehension. Further, measures of social behaviour and social cognition predict reading comprehension after controlling for the variance explained by word recognition and oral language. This indicates that word recognition, oral language and social impairments may constrain reading comprehension in ASD.

  15. Levels of text comprehension in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD): the influence of language phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-11-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but the level of processing at which comprehension is most vulnerable and the influence of language phenotype on comprehension skill is currently unclear. We explored comprehension at sentence and passage levels across language phenotypes. Children with ASD and age-appropriate language skills (n = 25) demonstrated similar syntactic and semantic facilitation to typically developing peers. In contrast, few children with ASD and language impairments (n = 25) could read beyond the single word level. Those who could read sentences benefited from semantic coherence, but were less sensitive to syntactic coherence. At the passage level, the strongest predictor of comprehension was vocabulary knowledge. This emphasizes that the intimate relationship between language competence and both decoding skill and comprehension is evident at the sentence, as well as the passage level, for children with ASD.

  16. The effectiveness of direct instruction for teaching language to children with autism spectrum disorders: identifying materials.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Flores, Margaret M

    2009-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently demonstrate language delays (American Psychiatric Association 2000). This study investigated the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) language program implemented with elementary students with ASD. There is little research in the area of DI as a language intervention for students with ASD. This study examined the effectiveness of DI with regard to students' oral language skills, specifically the identification of materials of which objects were made. A single-subject changing criterion design was employed. A functional relation between DI and oral language skills was demonstrated through replication of skill increase over three criterion changes and across three students. The results and their implications are discussed further.

  17. Improving Clinical Practices for Children with Language and Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Method: Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions,…

  18. Language Deficits in Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Margaret M.

    The study was designed to determine if there was an identifiable pattern of language deficit in 10 children (6 to 12 years old) undergoing treatment in a hospital inpatient psychiatry ward for behavioral and emotional problems. Ss were administered the standard hearing and speech clinic test battery which included the Binet Memory for Sentences,…

  19. Improving Clinical Practices for Children with Language and Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Method: Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions,…

  20. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  1. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  2. Can autism, language and coordination disorders be differentiated based on ability profiles?

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Sarah N; Dyck, Murray J; Piek, Jan P; Hay, David; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2007-04-01

    Children with autistic disorder (AD), mixed receptive-expressive language disorder (RELD), or developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have impairments in common. We assess which abilities differentiate the disorders. Children aged 3-13 years diagnosed with AD (n = 30), RELD (n = 30), or DCD (n = 22) were tested on measures of language, intelligence, social cognition, motor coordination, and executive functioning. Results indicate that the AD and DCD groups have poorer fine and gross motor coordination and better response inhibition than the RELD group. The AD and DCD groups differ in fine and gross motor coordination, emotion understanding, and theory of mind scores (AD always lower), but discriminant function analysis yielded a non-significant function and more classification errors for these groups. In terms of ability scores, the AD and DCD groups appear to differ more in severity than in kind.

  3. Language disorders in victims of domestic violence in children's homes.

    PubMed

    Cobos-Cali, Martha; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, María Victoria; García, Ricardo

    2017-03-07

    Studies that deal with child maltreatment have become relevant during these past years. One important aspect to consider is the impact of maltreatment on the cognitive functioning and more precisely on language. Our objective is to analyze the different components in the comprehension and production of language in children victims of domestic abuse in Childreńs Homes. The sample consists of 104 participants divided in two groups. A group of children who have just been institutionalized due to domestic abuse (VG) (Age: 8 years 2 months with a standard deviation of 1, 5 years) without previous treatment; a group of comparison (CG) made up by children who have not been victim of domestic violence (Age: 8 years 6 months with a standard deviation of 2 years and a month), with similar characteristics of gender, age and schooling. The Child Neuropsychological Assessment by Matute, Rosselli, Ardila and Ostrosky (2007) was applied. This test includes metalinguistic, oral and written comprehension and expression skills. The VG group showed low scores in all components of the analyzed language with exception to the discourse, syllable and non-word dictation compared to the CG children. The alterations of the language observed in these children semantic suggest a lack of consolidation of phonological coding and a low use of code. From our findings an early language evaluation in these children can be of especial interest to apply timely intervention programs with the aim of diminishing the impact caused by domestic violence on school failure which is a frequent trait in these children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Language Disorders in Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    José, Maria Renata; Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Childhood is a critical period for language development and maturation of the central auditory system. Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is considered a minimal impairment, and little is discussed regarding its impact on the development of language, communication, and school performance. Objectives A bibliographical survey of scientific articles published from 2001 to 2011 was performed to verify which language disorders can occur in children with UHL and which tests were performed to identify them. Data Synthesis Three databases were used: PubMed, Lilacs, and The Cochrane Library. As inclusion criteria, the articles should have samples of children with UHL, without other impairments, aged between 3 months and 12 years, and reference to language tests applied in this population. Out of 236 papers initially selected, only 5 met the inclusion criteria. In the articles studied, 12 tests were used for language assessment in children with UHL, out of which 9 were directed toward expressive language, and 3 toward receptive language. Children with UHL demonstrated lower scores on receptive and expressive language tests when compared with children with normal hearing. However, they obtained better scores on expressive language tests than children with bilateral hearing loss. Conclusion The findings of this survey showed that only a small number of studies used language tests in children with UHL or addressed language alterations resulting from this type of impairment. Therefore we emphasize the importance of investments in new studies on this subject to provide better explanations related to language difficulties presented by children with UHL. PMID:25992090

  5. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  6. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Associations between Disorders of Behavior and Language in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…

  8. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  9. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Associations between Disorders of Behavior and Language in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…

  11. Early Pragmatic Language Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism: Implications for "DSM-5" Social Communication Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S.; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD…

  12. Early Pragmatic Language Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism: Implications for "DSM-5" Social Communication Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S.; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD…

  13. Teaching Language Organization to a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.; Gill, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This investigation determined the effects of a treatment programme, "The Expression Connection" (1991), on the language organization of a firstgrade male child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). The methodology consisted of teaching the child story grammar components and the associated syntax requisite of their use. Treatment was…

  14. Voice Disorder Management Competencies: A Survey of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists in Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Amy F.; DeVeney, Shari L.; Friehe, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this survey was to determine the self-perceived competence levels in voice disorders of practicing school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and identify correlated variables. Method: Participants were 153 master's level, school-based SLPs with a Nebraska teaching certificate and/or licensure who completed a survey,…

  15. Modelling Gesture Use and Early Language Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manwaring, Stacy S.; Mead, Danielle L.; Swineford, Lauren; Thurm, Audrey

    Background: Nonverbal communication abilities, including gesture use, are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about how common gestures may influence or be influenced by other areas of development. Aims: To examine the relationships between gesture, fine motor and language in young children with ASD compared with a…

  16. Right Hemisphere Contribution to Developmental Language Disorder: Neuroanatomical and Behavioral Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena; Boliek, Carol; Mahendra, Nidhi; Story, Jill; Glaspey, Kristen

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of both verbal and nonverbal deficits in adults with developmental language disorder (DLD). Comparison with adults without DLD revealed replicable differences between groups on both verbal and nonverbal tasks. Also, an association was found between performance on tests sensitive to facial affect and spatial…

  17. Adaptations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of English Language Learning Students with Autisim Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…

  18. Deployment and Validation of a Smart System for Screening of Language Disorders in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2013-01-01

    Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at primary-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart system that enhances the screening of language disorders in primary care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the system proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested system redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases. PMID:23752564

  19. Do Reciprocal Associations Exist between Social and Language Pathways in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Teresa A.; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Katholiki; Hanna, Steven; Janus, Magdelena; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Smith, Isabel M.; Mirenda, Pat; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Thompson, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in how developmental pathways interact dynamically in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) likely contribute in important ways to phenotypic heterogeneity. This study aimed to model longitudinal reciprocal associations between social competence (SOC) and language (LANG) pathways in young children with ASD. Methods:…

  20. Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase (GAMT) Deficiency: Late Onset of Movement Disorder and Preserved Expressive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Declan J.; Ryan, Stephanie; Salomons, Gajja; Jakobs, Cornelis; Monavari, Ahmad; King, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine biosynthesis, characterized by early-onset learning disability and epilepsy in most affected children. Severe expressive language delay is a constant feature even in the mildest clinical phenotypes. We report the clinical, biochemical, imaging, and treatment data of two…

  1. Familiarity Breeds Support: Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of Bullying of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Coniglio, Amy D.; Finke, Erinn H.; Boyle, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primary targets for bullies and victimization. Research shows school personnel may be uneducated about bullying and ways to intervene. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in schools often work with children with ASD and may have victims of bullying on their caseloads. These victims may feel most…

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Experience, Training, and Confidence Levels of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Allison M.; Plexico, Laura W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the graduate training experiences of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Comparisons were made between recent graduates (post 2006) and pre-2006 graduates to determine if differences existed in their academic and clinical experiences or their…

  3. Building a Model of Support for Preschool Children with Speech and Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Natalie; Ohi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Speech and language disorders impede young children's abilities to communicate and are often associated with a number of behavioural problems arising in the preschool classroom. This paper reports a small-scale study that investigated 23 Australian educators' and 7 Speech Pathologists' experiences in working with three to five year old children…

  4. The Clinical Practice of Speech and Language Therapists with Children with Phonologically Based Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Carla; Lousada, Marisa; Jesus, Luis M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) represent a large number of speech and language therapists' caseloads. The intervention with children who have SSD can involve different therapy approaches, and these may be articulatory or phonologically based. Some international studies reveal a widespread application of articulatory based approaches in…

  5. Fragile Spectral and Temporal Auditory Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Early Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Verhoeven, Judith; Wouters, Jan; Steyaert, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We investigated low-level auditory spectral and temporal processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and early language delay compared to matched typically developing controls. Auditory measures were designed to target right versus left auditory cortex processing (i.e. frequency discrimination and slow amplitude modulation (AM)…

  6. Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase (GAMT) Deficiency: Late Onset of Movement Disorder and Preserved Expressive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Declan J.; Ryan, Stephanie; Salomons, Gajja; Jakobs, Cornelis; Monavari, Ahmad; King, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine biosynthesis, characterized by early-onset learning disability and epilepsy in most affected children. Severe expressive language delay is a constant feature even in the mildest clinical phenotypes. We report the clinical, biochemical, imaging, and treatment data of two…

  7. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Language Impairments and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E.; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. Aims: To compare levels of emotional and…

  8. Reading Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Oral Language and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability.…

  9. Pharmacotherapy and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Tutorial for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Trisha L.; Hale, LaDonna S.; Crumrine, Daiquirie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to provide speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with general information regarding the most commonly prescribed medications for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; e.g., central nervous system stimulants, noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, antipsychotics,…

  10. Deployment and validation of a smart system for screening of language disorders in primary care.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2013-06-10

    Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at primary-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart system that enhances the screening of language disorders in primary care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the system proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested system redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases.

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Experience, Training, and Confidence Levels of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Allison M.; Plexico, Laura W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the graduate training experiences of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Comparisons were made between recent graduates (post 2006) and pre-2006 graduates to determine if differences existed in their academic and clinical experiences or their…

  12. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  13. Adaptations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of English Language Learning Students with Autisim Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…

  14. Instructor Language and Student Active Engagement in Elementary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparapani, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined how instructor variables relate to student performance measures for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to examine instructor language and student active engagement in general and special education classrooms for students with ASD. This study included participants (n = 196…

  15. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Language Impairments and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E.; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. Aims: To compare levels of emotional and…

  16. Reading Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Oral Language and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability.…

  17. Familiarity Breeds Support: Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of Bullying of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Coniglio, Amy D.; Finke, Erinn H.; Boyle, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primary targets for bullies and victimization. Research shows school personnel may be uneducated about bullying and ways to intervene. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in schools often work with children with ASD and may have victims of bullying on their caseloads. These victims may feel most…

  18. Inappropriate Word Extensions in the Speech of Young Language-Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kathy; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The frequency and type of inappropriate word extensions (i.e., use of ball for moon) in the spontaneous speech of nine young language disordered children (2.8 to 3.4 years old) were studied. The percentage of inappropriate word extensions of these children was comparable to that of normal children at the same level of linguistic development.…

  19. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-Speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether (i) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and (ii) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM)…

  20. Contributions of Skinner's Theory of Verbal Behaviour to Language Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gaige; Kohler, Kelly; Ross, Denise

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to describe the impact of applied behaviour analysis on language treatment for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) diagnoses. Specifically, this paper will describe Skinner's theory of verbal behaviour and its contributions to evidence-based treatments for communication deficits among individuals with…

  1. Do Reciprocal Associations Exist between Social and Language Pathways in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Teresa A.; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Katholiki; Hanna, Steven; Janus, Magdelena; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Smith, Isabel M.; Mirenda, Pat; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Thompson, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in how developmental pathways interact dynamically in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) likely contribute in important ways to phenotypic heterogeneity. This study aimed to model longitudinal reciprocal associations between social competence (SOC) and language (LANG) pathways in young children with ASD. Methods:…

  2. Fragile Spectral and Temporal Auditory Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Early Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Verhoeven, Judith; Wouters, Jan; Steyaert, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We investigated low-level auditory spectral and temporal processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and early language delay compared to matched typically developing controls. Auditory measures were designed to target right versus left auditory cortex processing (i.e. frequency discrimination and slow amplitude modulation (AM)…

  3. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Kang Uk; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to measure inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and factor solutions of the Korean version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). Methods The Korean version of the CLANG for assessing thought, language, and communication, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia were used to evaluate language disorder, formal thought disorder, positive and negative symptoms, manic symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, in 167 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The factor solution was obtained by the direct oblimin method. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cut-off score for discriminating schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Results Inter-rater reliability was considered moderate (intraclass coefficient=0.67, F=3.30, p=0.04), and test-retest reliability was considered high (r=0.94, p<0.001). Five factors, namely, pragmatics, disclosure, production, prosody, and association, were identified. An optimal cut-off score of 7 points with 84.5% sensitivity and 81.7% specificity was proposed for distinguishing schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the Korean version of the CLANG is a promising tool for evaluating language disorder in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26792040

  5. Pharmacotherapy and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Tutorial for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Trisha L.; Hale, LaDonna S.; Crumrine, Daiquirie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to provide speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with general information regarding the most commonly prescribed medications for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; e.g., central nervous system stimulants, noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, antipsychotics,…

  6. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

  7. Examination of Candidate Genes in Language Disorder: A Model of Genetic Association for Treatment Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jonathan; Camarata, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a model for studying genetic association of response to intervention in child language disorders. In addition to a theoretical overview and review of different approaches to studying candidate genes, a specific methodology for completing this type of analysis is presented. The goal of the analysis is to…

  8. School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge and Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofe, Erin E.; Plumb, Allison M.; Plexico, Laura W.; Haak, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') knowledge and perceptions of bullying, with an emphasis on autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: A 46-item, web-based survey was used to address the purposes of this investigation. Participants were recruited through e-mail and electronic…

  9. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  10. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Auditory Processing Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.; Wagstaff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare behavioral profiles associated with auditory processing disorder (APD) and specific language impairment (SLI) in school-age children. Method: The participants in this cross-sectional observational study were 64 children (mean age 10.1 years) recruited through clinician referrals. Thirty-five participants had a…

  11. Language Development among the Siblings of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2007-01-01

    Language development in 32 preschool siblings (aged 2-6 years) of children with diagnosed autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) was compared with that of a control group of 28 typical preschool children. Groups were matched by siblings' age, gender, maternal educational level and family income. The mean ages of the siblings group and the control group…

  12. The Clinical Practice of Speech and Language Therapists with Children with Phonologically Based Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Carla; Lousada, Marisa; Jesus, Luis M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) represent a large number of speech and language therapists' caseloads. The intervention with children who have SSD can involve different therapy approaches, and these may be articulatory or phonologically based. Some international studies reveal a widespread application of articulatory based approaches in…

  13. Voice Disorder Management Competencies: A Survey of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists in Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Amy F.; DeVeney, Shari L.; Friehe, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this survey was to determine the self-perceived competence levels in voice disorders of practicing school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and identify correlated variables. Method: Participants were 153 master's level, school-based SLPs with a Nebraska teaching certificate and/or licensure who completed a survey,…

  14. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  15. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  16. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Bruhin, M.; Vanbellingen, T.; Schumacher, R.; Pflugshaupt, T.; Annoni, J.M.; Müri, R.M.; Bohlhalter, S.; Nyffeler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. Methods The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. Results The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale. Conclusion The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke. PMID:27194999

  17. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.

  18. Assessing acquired language disorders in adults via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Theodoros, Deborah; Hill, Anne; Russell, Trevor; Ward, Elizabeth; Wootton, Richard

    2008-08-01

    Aphasia, a language disturbance, frequently occurs following acquired brain impairment in adults. Because management of aphasia is often long-term, provision of ongoing and equitable access to treatment creates a significant challenge to speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of assessing aphasia using standardized language assessments via an Internet-based videoconferencing system using a bandwidth of 128 kbits/sec. Thirty-two participants with aphasia due to stroke or traumatic brain injury were assessed simultaneously in either a face-to-face or online-led environment by two SLPs. Short forms of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE-3) and the Boston Naming Test (BNT, 2nd edition) were administered. An eight-item participant satisfaction questionnaire was completed by 15 participants assigned to the online-led assessment. Results failed to identify any significant differences between the 24 subtest scores of the BDAE-3 and the BNT scores obtained in the online and face-to-face test environments (p > 0.01). Weighted kappa statistics indicated moderate to very good agreement (0.59-1.00) between the two assessors for the 24 subtests and eight rating scales of the BDAE-3, the BNT, and for aphasia diagnosis. Good to very good inter- and intra-rater reliability for the online assessment was found across the majority of assessment tasks. Participants reported high overall satisfaction, comfort level, and audio and visual quality in the online environment. This study supports the validity and reliability of delivering standardized assessments of aphasia online and provides a basis for ongoing development of telerehabilitation as an alternate mode of service delivery to persons with aphasia.

  19. Reading and Language Disorders: The Importance of Both Quantity and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Dianne F.; Monaco, Anthony P.; Paracchini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Reading and language disorders are common childhood conditions that often co-occur with each other and with other neurodevelopmental impairments. There is strong evidence that disorders, such as dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment (SLI), have a genetic basis, but we expect the contributing genetic factors to be complex in nature. To date, only a few genes have been implicated in these traits. Their functional characterization has provided novel insight into the biology of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the lack of biological markers and clear diagnostic criteria have prevented the collection of the large sample sizes required for well-powered genome-wide screens. One of the main challenges of the field will be to combine careful clinical assessment with high throughput genetic technologies within multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:24705331

  20. Language Differences at 12 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, DeWayne C; Sideridis, Georgios D; Huntington, Noelle; Prante, Matthew; Dale, Philip S; Curtin, Suzanne; Henkel, Lisa; Iverson, Jana M; Carver, Leslie; Dobkins, Karen; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tagavi, Daina; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about early language development in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed prospective data from 346 infants, some of whom were at high risk for developing ASD, to determine if language differences could be detected at 12 months of age in the infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Analyses revealed lower receptive and expressive language scores in infants who later were diagnosed with ASD. Controlling for overall ability to understand and produce single words, a Rasch analysis indicated that infants who later developed ASD had a higher degree of statistically unexpected word understanding and production. At 12 months of age, quantitative and qualitative language patterns distinguished infants who later developed ASD from those who did not.

  1. The impact of bilingual environments on language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hambly, Catherine; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The impact of bilingual exposure on language learning has not been systematically studied in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study compared the social abilities and language levels of children (mean age = 56 months) with ASDs from bilingual (n = 45) and monolingual (n = 30) environments. Bilingually-exposed children were subgrouped based on simultaneous bilingual exposure from infancy (SIM, n = 24) versus sequential post-infancy bilingual exposure (SEQ, n = 21). Despite significantly different amounts of bilingual exposure across all groups (p = <0.001) and significantly stronger social interaction scores in the SIM group compared to the SEQ group on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Interpersonal subdomain (p = 0.025), there were no significant group differences in language level. Bilingually-exposed children with ASDs did not experience additional delays in language development.

  2. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  3. [Otoacoustic emissions as cochlear function analyser in children with language disorders].

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Tello, Silvia A; Gutiérrez-Farfán, Ileana; Chamlati-Aguirre, Laura E; Alatorre-Miguel, Efrén; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception that takes place in the cochlea is involved in the process of language. The objective was to describe the findings in transient otoacoustic emissions in children with language problems before and after 6 months of speech therapy. There were 17 children with language problems between 3 and 6 years of age diagnosed with anarthric language delay (expressive and mixed language disorder). They underwent medical history, otoscopy, intelligence level testing, initial language test, tympanometry of 226Hz, audiometry and transient otoacoustic emission test. We evaluated the 17 patients again after 6 months of attending speech therapy. The percentage of overall reproducibility of transient otoacoustic emissions in both ears was adequate to perform frequency analysis. We found a statistically significant difference (P≤0.01) in the frequency of 1kHz reproducibility when comparing results before and after therapy in the right ear. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) when comparing the results of audiometry at frequencies of 0.5, 1.5, 2, 4 and 8kHz in the right ear and a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the frequency of 3kHz in the left ear. The analysis of sound through the cochlea is involved in the process of language acquisition. A poor processing of speech sounds in the peripheral system could result in poor processing at the central level. Consequently, it is important to consider our results when making a diagnosis and carrying out rehabilitation treatment in children with language disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  4. Pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J; Hepburn, Susan

    2007-11-01

    To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties. Twenty-two parents of school-age children with ASD, 21 parents of school-age children with WS, and 19 parents of school-age typically developing children rated their child on the Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition (CCC-2; D. Bishop, 2003), a standardized pragmatic language assessment tool. Both clinical groups demonstrated impairment in overall communication and pragmatic language functioning, but children with WS performed significantly better on overall pragmatic language functioning, and the magnitude of the effect was medium. Profile examination revealed equivalent performances between ASD and WS on most CCC-2 subscales; however, significantly better performances on the Coherence, Stereotyped Language, Nonverbal Communication, and Social Relations subscales were observed in WS. The CCC-2 appears to provide an effective means to identify and characterize pragmatic language difficulties using a standardized approach in children with ASD and WS.

  5. [Specific developmental language disorder: a theoretical approach to its diagnosis, aetiology and clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rebolledo, R; Giraldo-Prieto, M; Hincapié-Henao, L; Lopera, F; Pineda, D A

    This article presents an updated review about the definition, diagnostic criteria, classifications, etiology and the evolution of the specific language impairment (SLI). The specific language impairment is characterized by a developmental language delay and an impaired language, that persist over time and it is not explained by sensorial, motor and mental disabilities, neither by psycopathological disorders, socio-emotional deprivation, nor brain injury. The diagnosis is based on exclusional criteria. Some researchers propose different classifications considering the children performance in language comprehension and language production. Genetical linkage to the FOXP2 gen in the SPCH1 region of the chromosome 7 and to the chromosomes 13, 16 y 19 has been reported. The neuroimage studies have shown alterations in the volume and perfusion of some brain structures related to language. The manifestations of SLI may change during the development of the children and may disturb the self-esteem, the academic performance and the social abilities. The variability in the linguistic and cognitive performance, and the variety in the etiological findings in children with SLI, don't allow to settle the affected population as an homogeneous group. Different theoretical positions have emerged as a consequence of this condition.

  6. Pragmatic Language Profiles of School-Age Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties. Method Twenty-two parents of school-age children with ASD, 21 parents of school-age children with WS, and 19 parents of school-age typically developing children rated their child on the Children’s Communication Checklist—Second Edition (CCC–2; D. Bishop, 2003), a standardized pragmatic language assessment tool. Results Both clinical groups demonstrated impairment in overall communication and pragmatic language functioning, but children with WS performed significantly better on overall pragmatic language functioning, and the magnitude of the effect was medium. Profile examination revealed equivalent performances between ASD and WS on most CCC–2 subscales; however, significantly better performances on the Coherence, Stereotyped Language, Nonverbal Communication, and Social Relations subscales were observed in WS. Conclusions The CCC–2 appears to provide an effective means to identify and characterize pragmatic language difficulties using a standardized approach in children with ASD and WS. PMID:17971496

  7. Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne; Crago, Martha B.

    2004-01-01

    This book dispels many myths about dual language development and answers key questions that might arise as you work with children and their parents. Student profiles, definitions of key terms, and "clinical implications" sections for selected chapters make this a valuable reference for in-practice SLPs and educators, an accessible resource for…

  8. Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne; Crago, Martha B.

    2004-01-01

    This book dispels many myths about dual language development and answers key questions that might arise as you work with children and their parents. Student profiles, definitions of key terms, and "clinical implications" sections for selected chapters make this a valuable reference for in-practice SLPs and educators, an accessible resource for…

  9. Language Disorders due to Posterior System Strokes - An Ignored Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, Şerefnur; EGE, Fahrettin; EKMEKÇİ, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The anterior system is primarily responsible for the clinical picture in a patient that presents with clinical aphasia. However, recent reports have shown that injuries to posterior structures, the cerebellum in particular, may have a role in language processing. Herein, we will look first at the linguistic role of the cerebellum in light of the literature, then of the thalamus and some described clinical syndromes, and finally, specific syndromes resulting from occipital lobe lesions, all of which are supported by the posterior vascular system. The human brain is such a complex organization that in addition to the thalamus and occipital cortex, we can see the involvement of the cerebellum in high cognitive functions. Posterior system strokes may lead to clinical findings of cognitive deficits, including neurolinguistic components. Determining these defects in stroke patients may precipitate changes in current management strategies. PMID:28360648

  10. Environmental Factors Influence Language Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Hausberger, Martine; Tordjman, Sylvie; Deleau, Michel; Lazartigues, Alain; Lemonnier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background While it is clearly admitted that normal behavioural development is determined by the interplay of genetic and environmental influences, this is much less the case for psychiatric disorders for which more emphasis has been given in the past decades on biological determinism. Thus, previous studies have shown that Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were not affected by parental style. However, animal research suggests that different behavioural traits can be differentially affected by genetic/environmental factors. Methodology/ Principal Findings In the present study we hypothesized that amongst the ASD, language disorders may be more sensitive to social factors as language is a social act that develops under social influences. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, we compared the early characteristics of sensori-motor and language development in a large sample of children with ASD (n = 162) with parents belonging to different levels of education. The results showed that children raised by parents with a high level of education displayed earlier language development. Moreover, they showed earlier first words and phrases if their mother was at a high level of education, which reveals an additional gender effect. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge this study may trigger important new lines of thought and research, help equilibrate social and purely biological perspectives regarding ASD and bring new hopes for environmentally based therapies. PMID:19357766

  11. Developmental disorders of speech and language: from genes to brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Functional and structural brain imaging studies of developmental disorders provide insights into their neural correlates and have potential to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype. We have used such techniques to investigate the neural correlates of two developmental disorders of speech and language, in which a genetic etiology is either known or strongly suspected. The first disorder is one shared by the affected members of the KE family who have a mutation in the FOXP2 gene. The brain structural and functional correlates of this disorder help clarify the nature of the behavioral impairment. They confirm that a deficit in auditory-motor learning of articulation patterns is core to the behavioral phenotype. In the second disorder, developmental stuttering, brain imaging data reveal functional abnormalities consistent with theories that it is caused by a basal ganglia deficit and structural differences consistent with an impairment in auditory-motor integration necessary for fluent speech. The common finding of basal ganglia abnormality in two developmental disorders of speech and language is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Community Health Workers perceptions in relation to speech and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Knochenhauer, Carla Cristina Lins Santos; Vianna, Karina Mary de Paiva

    2016-01-01

    To know the perception of the Community Health Workers (CHW) about the speech and language disorders. Cross-sectional study, which involved a questionnaire with questions related to the knowledge of CHW on speech and language disorders. The research was carried out with CHW allocated in the Centro Sanitary District of Florianópolis. We interviewed 35 CHW, being mostly (80%) female gender, with a average age of 47 years (standard deviation = 2.09 years). From the total number of interviewed professionals, 57% said that they knew the work of the speech therapist, 57% believe that there is no relationship between chronic diseases and speech therapy and 97% who think the participation of Speech, Hearing and Language Sciences is important in primary care. As for capacity development, 88% of CHW claim not to have had any training performed by a speech therapist, 75% of professionals stated they had done the training Estratégia Amamenta e Alimenta Brasil, 57% of the Programa Capital Criança and 41% of the Programa Capital Idoso. The knowledge of CHW about the work of a speech therapist is still limited, but the importance of speech and language disorders is recognized in primary care. The lack of knowledge, with regard to speech and language disorders, may be related to lack of qualification of the CHW in actions and/or continuing education courses that could clarify and educate these professionals to identify and better educate the population in their home visits. This study highlights the need for further research on training actions of these professionals.

  13. The Application of Timing in Therapy of Children and Adults with Language Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Dacewicz, Anna; Szymaszek, Aneta; Wolak, Tomasz; Senderski, Andrzej; Domitrz, Izabela; Oron, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A number of evidence revealed a link between temporal information processing (TIP) and language. Both literature data and results of our studies indicated an overlapping of deficient TIP and disordered language, pointing to the existence of an association between these two functions. On this background the new approach is to apply such knowledge in therapy of patients suffering from language disorders. In two studies we asked the following questions: (1) can the temporal training reduce language deficits in aphasic patients (Study 1) or in children with specific language impairment (SLI, Study 2)? (2) can such training ameliorate also the other cognitive functions? Each of these studies employed pre-training assessment, training application, post-training and follow-up assessment. In Study 1 we tested 28 patients suffering from post-stroke aphasia. They were assigned either to the temporal training (Group A, n = 15) in milliseconds range, or to the non-temporal training (Group B, n = 13). Following the training we found only in Group A improved TIP, accompanied by a transfer of improvement to language and working memory functions. In Study 2 we tested 32 children aged from 5 to 8 years, affected by SLI who were classified into the temporal training (Group A, n = 17) or non-temporal training (Group B, n = 15). Group A underwent the multileveled audio-visual computer training Dr. Neuronowski®, recently developed in our laboratory. Group B performed the computer speech therapy exercises extended by playing computer games. Similarly as in Study 1, in Group A we found significant improvements of TIP, auditory comprehension and working memory. These results indicated benefits of temporal training for amelioration of language and other cognitive functions in both aphasic patients and children with SLI. The novel powerful therapy tools provide evidence for future promising clinical applications. PMID:26617547

  14. Epigenetic crosstalk: a molecular language in human metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Jimenez, Celia P; Sandoval, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Technological breakthroughs are emphasizing the impact of epigenetic mechanisms in human health highlighting the importance of a fine-tune orchestration of DNA methylation, micro RNAs, histone modifications, and chromatin structure. Transcriptional regulators sense the concentration of intermediary metabolites associated to a wide variety of biological processes including the long-term imprinting and heritable DNA methylation. Recent epigenetic mechanisms associated with cholesterol and lipid homeostasis have a critical impact in the susceptibility, development and progression of complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver, obesity and metabolic syndrome. The heritability of epigenetic states emerge as an additional level of complexity where the extension of somatic as well as inherited epigenetic modifications may require a thoughtful reconsideration in many human diseases related with metabolic disorders.

  15. Practise patterns of Malaysian speech-language pathologists in managing children with speech and language delay/disorder.

    PubMed

    Joginder Singh, Susheel; Chan, Min Yen; Ahmad Rusli, Yazmin

    2016-12-01

    Children with speech and language delay/disorder (SLD) in the developing language stage (DLS) are one of the largest populations served by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in paediatric settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the practise patterns adopted by Malaysian SLPs when managing these children. A web-based questionnaire was developed to obtain information about SLPs' practises during assessment, planning and treatment. A total of 53 SLPs completed the questionnaire. When assessing the children, participants either always or usually involved parents, suggesting that they understood the importance of family involvement in services provided. When planning goals, the SLPs relied mostly on their clinical experience and less on research evidence. Participants reported that, most often, they employed a one-to-one approach when providing treatment. There was, however, great variation in the frequency of treatment provided, reflecting the different workplaces of participants. Generally, findings from this study indicated that some practises employed by Malaysian SLPs when managing children with SLD in the DLS are on par with the best practise guidelines, but there is still room for improvement in certain areas such as team collaboration and evidence-based practise. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  16. Maternal Gesture Use and Language Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in language and communication are an early-appearing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with delays in language and gesture evident as early as the first year of life. Research with typically developing populations highlights the importance of both infant and maternal gesture use in infants’ early language development. The current study explores the gesture production of infants at risk for autism and their mothers at 12 months of age, and the association between these early maternal and infant gestures and between these early gestures and infants’ language at 18 months. Gestures were scored from both a caregiver-infant interaction (both infants and mothers) and from a semi-structured task (infants only). Mothers of non-diagnosed high risk infant siblings gestured more frequently than mothers of low risk infants. Infant and maternal gesture use at 12 months was associated with infants’ language scores at 18 months in both low risk and non-diagnosed high risk infants. These results demonstrate the impact of risk status on maternal behavior and the importance of considering the role of social and contextual factors on the language development of infants at risk for autism. Results from the subset of infants who meet preliminary criteria for ASD are also discussed. PMID:23585026

  17. Brief report: pragmatic language in autism spectrum disorder: relationships to measures of ability and disability.

    PubMed

    Volden, Joanne; Coolican, Jamesie; Garon, Nancy; White, Julie; Bryson, Susan

    2009-02-01

    Pragmatic language skill is regarded as an area of universal deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but little is known about factors related to its development and how it in turn might contribute to skills needed to function in everyday contexts or to the expression of ASD-related symptoms. This study investigated these relationships in 37 high-functioning children with ASD. Multiple regression analyses revealed that structural language skills significantly predicted pragmatic language performance, but also that a significant portion of variance in pragmatic scores could not be accounted for by structural language or nonverbal cognition. Pragmatic language scores, in turn, accounted for significant variance in ADOS Communication and Socialization performance, but did not uniquely predict level of communicative or social adaptive functioning on the Vineland. These findings support the notion of pragmatic language impairment as integral to ASD but also highlight the need to measure pragmatic skills in everyday situations, to target adaptive skills in intervention and to intervene in functional, community-based contexts.

  18. Some evidence for distinctive language use by children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports early findings from a wider study that sought to test the hypothesis that differences in language use exist between children who have a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and their non-ADHD peers. Twenty-two, 8 to 12 year-old children (11 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 11 matched peers) comprised the community-based sample. There were nine boys and two girls in each group. All the children were ranked at least average for their language ability on standardised language testing. This case-control study used an approach derived from Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) to examine and then compare spoken and written elicited language samples. SFL was thought to be particularly suitable because of its potential to richly describe language in use while taking contextual variation into account. Statistically significant overall differences between the subject and the control groups were found for the measure of grammatical intricacy (GI). Further analyses revealed these differences to be largely attributed to differences between group scores for written material. Discussion explores the potential relevance of these findings to the clinical evaluation of language ability in young school-aged children who have been diagnosed with ADHD.

  19. Impaired Language Pathways in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, William W.; Sahin, Mustafa; Scherrer, Benoit; Peters, Jurriaan M.; Suarez, Ralph O.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Jeste, Shafali S.; Gregas, Matthew C.; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Nelson, Charles A.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between language pathways and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). An advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 42 patients with TSC and 42 age-matched controls. Using a validated automatic method, white matter language pathways were identified and microstructural characteristics were extracted, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Among 42 patients with TSC, 12 had ASD (29%). After controlling for age, TSC patients without ASD had a lower FA than controls in the arcuate fasciculus (AF); TSC patients with ASD had even a smaller FA, lower than the FA for those without ASD. Similarly, TSC patients without ASD had a greater MD than controls in the AF; TSC patients with ASD had even a higher MD, greater than the MD in those without ASD. It remains unclear why some patients with TSC develop ASD, while others have better language and socio-behavioral outcomes. Our results suggest that language pathway microstructure may serve as a marker of the risk of ASD in TSC patients. Impaired microstructure in language pathways of TSC patients may indicate the development of ASD, although prospective studies of language pathway development and ASD diagnosis in TSC remain essential. PMID:22661408

  20. Cognitive and linguistic profiles of specific language impairment and semantic-pragmatic disorder in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, H; Shaw-Ridley, G; Serfontein, J; Orelowitz, K; Monaghan, N

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the notion that the extent to which language-impaired children can become bilingual depends on the type of language impairment. Single-case studies were conducted on two 7-year-old bilingual children, who had both been exposed to English and Afrikaans consistently and regularly from an early age. The subjects presented with specific language impairment (SLI) and semantic-pragmatic disorder (SPD), respectively. They were assessed on a battery of cognitive and linguistic tests in both their languages. Results indicate that the SLI subject, who presented with a deficit in successive processing on the Cognitive Assessment System, had difficulty in acquiring the surface features of both languages. She developed much better proficiency in English than in Afrikaans, despite substantial exposure to the latter. The SPD subject, whose cognitive profile was characterised by planning and attention deficits, but a strength in successive processing, presented with equal proficiency in both languages. The theoretical and clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  1. Adolescent outcomes of children with early speech sound disorders with and without language impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Barbara A; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison A; Iyengar, Sudha K; Stein, Catherine M; Taylor, H Gerry

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the authors determined adolescent speech, language, and literacy outcomes of individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without comorbid language impairment (LI) and examined factors associated with these outcomes. This study used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants with SSD (n = 170), enrolled at early childhood (4-6 years) were followed at adolescence (11-18 years) and were compared to individuals with no histories of speech or language impairment (no SSD; n = 146) on measures of speech, language, and literacy. Comparisons were made between adolescents with early childhood histories of no SSD, SSD only, and SSD plus LI as well as between adolescents with no SSD, resolved SSD, and persistent SSD. Individuals with early childhood SSD with comorbid LI had poorer outcomes than those with histories of SSD only or no SSD. Poorer language and literacy outcomes in adolescence were associated with multiple factors, including persistent speech sound problems, lower nonverbal intelligence, and lower socioeconomic status. Adolescents with persistent SSD had higher rates of comorbid LI and reading disability than the no SSD and resolved SSD groups. Risk factors for language and literacy problems in adolescence include an early history of LI, persistent SSD, lower nonverbal cognitive ability, and social disadvantage.

  2. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system in preschool classrooms with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Jessica R; Sabatos-Devito, Maura G; Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Hume, Kara A; Odom, Sam L

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data on adult and child language. Standardized assessments were administered to obtain language, cognitive, and autism severity scores for participants. With a mean of over 5 hours of recording across two days several months apart, there was a mean of 3.6 child vocalizations per minute, 1.0 conversational turns (in which either the adult or child respond to the other within 5 seconds) per minute, and 29.2 adult words per minute. Two of the three LENA variables were significantly correlated with language age-equivalents. Cognitive age-equivalents were also significantly correlated with two LENA variables. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores and LENA variables were not significantly correlated. Implications for using the LENA system with children with ASD in the school environment are discussed.

  3. Regression of Language and Non-Language Skills in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilleur, A. -A. S.; Fombonne, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As part of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), there is a subgroup of individuals reported to have a different onset of symptom appearance consisting of an apparently normal early development, followed by a loss of verbal and/or non-verbal skills prior to 2 years of age. This study aims at comparing the symptomatology of…

  4. Regression of Language and Non-Language Skills in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilleur, A. -A. S.; Fombonne, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As part of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), there is a subgroup of individuals reported to have a different onset of symptom appearance consisting of an apparently normal early development, followed by a loss of verbal and/or non-verbal skills prior to 2 years of age. This study aims at comparing the symptomatology of…

  5. Teaching medical students about communication in speech-language disorders: Effects of a lecture and a workshop.

    PubMed

    Saldert, Charlotta; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of an interactive workshop involving speech-language pathology students on medical students' knowledge about communication in relation to speech-language disorders. Fifty-nine medical students received a lecture about speech-language disorders. Twenty-six of them also participated in a workshop on communication with patients with speech-language disorders. All students completed a 12-item questionnaire exploring knowledge and attitudes towards communication before and after the lecture or the workshop. The results from the two groups' self-ratings of confidence in knowledge were compared with expert-ratings of their ability to choose suitable communicative strategies. Both the lecture and the workshop increased the students' confidence in knowledge about speech-language disorders and how to support communication. Only the workshop group also displayed a statistically significant increase in expert-rated ability and changed their attitude regarding responsibility for the communication in cases of speech-language disorders. There were no statistically significant correlations between the student's own confidence ratings and the experts' ratings of ability. Increased confidence in knowledge from learning is not always reflected in actual knowledge in how to communicate. However, an interactive workshop proved to increase medical students' expert-rated ability and attitudes related to communication in cases of speech-language disorders.

  6. Evaluating a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Language Disorders Screening in a Nursery School

    PubMed Central

    Valero Duboy, Miguel Ángel; Torcal Loriente, Carmen; Pau de la Cruz, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background Early and effective identification of developmental disorders during childhood remains a critical task for the international community. The second highest prevalence of common developmental disorders in children are language delays, which are frequently the first symptoms of a possible disorder. Objective This paper evaluates a Web-based Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) whose aim is to enhance the screening of language disorders at a nursery school. The common lack of early diagnosis of language disorders led us to deploy an easy-to-use CDSS in order to evaluate its accuracy in early detection of language pathologies. This CDSS can be used by pediatricians to support the screening of language disorders in primary care. Methods This paper details the evaluation results of the “Gades” CDSS at a nursery school with 146 children, 12 educators, and 1 language therapist. The methodology embraces two consecutive phases. The first stage involves the observation of each child’s language abilities, carried out by the educators, to facilitate the evaluation of language acquisition level performed by a language therapist. Next, the same language therapist evaluates the reliability of the observed results. Results The Gades CDSS was integrated to provide the language therapist with the required clinical information. The validation process showed a global 83.6% (122/146) success rate in language evaluation and a 7% (7/94) rate of non-accepted system decisions within the range of children from 0 to 3 years old. The system helped language therapists to identify new children with potential disorders who required further evaluation. This process will revalidate the CDSS output and allow the enhancement of early detection of language disorders in children. The system does need minor refinement, since the therapists disagreed with some questions from the CDSS knowledge base (KB) and suggested adding a few questions about speech production and pragmatic

  7. Evaluating a web-based clinical decision support system for language disorders screening in a nursery school.

    PubMed

    Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Valero Duboy, Miguel Ángel; Torcal Loriente, Carmen; Pau de la Cruz, Iván

    2014-05-28

    Early and effective identification of developmental disorders during childhood remains a critical task for the international community. The second highest prevalence of common developmental disorders in children are language delays, which are frequently the first symptoms of a possible disorder. This paper evaluates a Web-based Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) whose aim is to enhance the screening of language disorders at a nursery school. The common lack of early diagnosis of language disorders led us to deploy an easy-to-use CDSS in order to evaluate its accuracy in early detection of language pathologies. This CDSS can be used by pediatricians to support the screening of language disorders in primary care. This paper details the evaluation results of the "Gades" CDSS at a nursery school with 146 children, 12 educators, and 1 language therapist. The methodology embraces two consecutive phases. The first stage involves the observation of each child's language abilities, carried out by the educators, to facilitate the evaluation of language acquisition level performed by a language therapist. Next, the same language therapist evaluates the reliability of the observed results. The Gades CDSS was integrated to provide the language therapist with the required clinical information. The validation process showed a global 83.6% (122/146) success rate in language evaluation and a 7% (7/94) rate of non-accepted system decisions within the range of children from 0 to 3 years old. The system helped language therapists to identify new children with potential disorders who required further evaluation. This process will revalidate the CDSS output and allow the enhancement of early detection of language disorders in children. The system does need minor refinement, since the therapists disagreed with some questions from the CDSS knowledge base (KB) and suggested adding a few questions about speech production and pragmatic abilities. The refinement of the KB will address

  8. Brief report: narratives of personal events in children with autism and developmental language disorders: unshared memories.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    Narrative analysis of personal events provides an opportunity for identifying autism specific issues related to language and social impairments. Eight personal events were elicited from three groups of school age children: 14 high-functioning with Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFA), 12 non-autistic with developmental language disorders (DLD), and 12 typically developing matched for chronological age and non-verbal IQ. The coding focused on narrative format (constituents) and style (coherence). The analyses indicate basic knowledge of conventional narrative format in all groups but a consistent lack of high-point in HFA children's stories interpreted as a consequence of their lack of social understanding of narrative. The results suggest novel interventions to foster autobiographical memory in HFA children which may assist in their self-awareness development.

  9. Parents' strategies to elicit autobiographical memories in autism spectrum disorders, developmental language disorders and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations.

  10. Parents’ Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents’ strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations. PMID:25312278

  11. Statistical word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-05-02

    Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of

  12. Joint attention, language, social relating, and stereotypical behaviours in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Delinicolas, Erin K; Young, Robyn L

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between abilities to initiate and respond to joint attention and symptoms of autism that have, and have not, been theoretically linked to joint attention. Participants were 51 boys and five girls with autistic disorder, aged between 2 years and 6 years 5 months. Measures of joint attention behaviours, language, social relating, and stereotypical behaviour were administered during a single assessment. As predicted, the correlations between joint attention and the two behaviours theoretically linked to joint attention (i.e. social relating and language) were significantly stronger than those between joint attention and the behaviour not theoretically linked (i.e. stereotypical behaviour). While causation cannot be inferred from this study, these results support the suggestion that difficulties with joint attention behaviours commonly found among children with autism are linked to language and social relating, beyond what might be expected simply due to their co-occurrence as symptoms.

  13. A systematic review of pragmatic language interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lauren; Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Joosten, Annette; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for evidence based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to limit the life-long, psychosocial impact of pragmatic language impairments. This systematic review identified 22 studies reporting on 20 pragmatic language interventions for children with ASD aged 0-18 years. The characteristics of each study, components of the interventions, and the methodological quality of each study were reviewed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 15 interventions. Results revealed some promising approaches, indicating that active inclusion of the child and parent in the intervention was a significant mediator of intervention effect. Participant age, therapy setting or modality were not significant mediators between the interventions and measures of pragmatic language. The long-term effects of these interventions and the generalisation of learning to new contexts is largely unknown. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. A systematic review of pragmatic language interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Joosten, Annette; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for evidence based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to limit the life-long, psychosocial impact of pragmatic language impairments. This systematic review identified 22 studies reporting on 20 pragmatic language interventions for children with ASD aged 0–18 years. The characteristics of each study, components of the interventions, and the methodological quality of each study were reviewed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 15 interventions. Results revealed some promising approaches, indicating that active inclusion of the child and parent in the intervention was a significant mediator of intervention effect. Participant age, therapy setting or modality were not significant mediators between the interventions and measures of pragmatic language. The long-term effects of these interventions and the generalisation of learning to new contexts is largely unknown. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28426832

  15. Early language profiles in infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Kristelle; Chandler, Susie; Bedford, Rachael; Pasco, Greg; Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Many preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present relative lack of receptive advantage over concurrent expressive language. Such profile emergence was investigated longitudinally in 54 infants at high-risk (HR) for ASD and 50 low-risk controls, with three language measures taken across four visits (around 7, 14, 24, 38 months). HR infants presented three outcome subgroups: ASD, other atypicality, and typical development. Reduced receptive vocabulary advantage was observed in HR infants by 14 months, but was maintained to 24 months only in ASD/other atypicality outcome subgroups while typically-developing HR infants regained a more normative profile. Few group differences appeared on a direct assessment of language and parent-reported functional communication. Processes of early development toward ASD outcome and in intermediate phenotypes are discussed.

  16. Risk Factors Associated With Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Clues to Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identifying risk factors associated with neurodevelopmental disorders is an important line of research, as it will lead to earlier identification of children who could benefit from interventions that support optimal developmental outcomes. The primary goal of this review was to summarize research on risk factors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method The review focused on studies of infants who have older siblings with ASD, with particular emphasis on risk factors associated with language impairment that affects the majority of children with ASD. Findings from this body of work were compared to the literature on specific language impairment. Results A wide range of risk factors has been found for ASD, including demographic (e.g., male, family history), behavioral (e.g., gesture, motor) and neural risk markers (e.g., atypical lateralization for speech and reduced functional connectivity). Environmental factors, such as caregiver interaction, have not been found to predict language outcomes. Many of the risk markers for ASD are also found in studies of risk for specific language impairment, including demographic, behavioral, and neural factors. Conclusions There are significant gaps in the literature and limitations in the current research that preclude direct cross-syndrome comparisons. Future research directions are outlined that could address these limitations. PMID:26502110

  17. Rhythmic auditory stimulation influences syntactic processing in children with developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Lauranne; Bedoin, Nathalie; Krifi-Papoz, Sonia; Herbillon, Vania; Roch, Didier; Léculier, Laure; Kotz, Sonja A; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be impaired not only in language processing (including syntax), but also in rhythm and meter perception. Our study tested the influence of external rhythmic auditory stimulation (i.e., musical rhythm) on syntax processing in children with specific language impairment (SLI; Experiment 1A) and dyslexia (Experiment 1B). Children listened to either regular or irregular musical prime sequences followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Performance of all children (SLI, dyslexia, and controls) in the grammaticality judgments was better after regular prime sequences than after irregular prime sequences, as shown by d' data. The benefit of the regular prime was stronger for SLI children (partial η2 = .34) than for dyslexic children (partial η2 = .14), who reached higher performance levels. Together with previous findings on deficits in temporal processing and sequencing, as well as with the recent proposition of a temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (U. A. Goswami, 2011, Temporal sampling framework for developmental dyslexia, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, pp. 3-10), our results point to potential avenues in using rhythmic structures (even in nonverbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing.

  18. Axon guidance pathways served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Lei, Huimeng; Yan, Zhangming; Sun, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Jianhong; Ma, Caihong; Xu, Qunyuan; Wang, Rui; Jarvis, Erich D; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-07-07

    Human and several nonhuman species share the rare ability of modifying acoustic and/or syntactic features of sounds produced, i.e. vocal learning, which is the important neurobiological and behavioral substrate of human speech/language. This convergent trait was suggested to be associated with significant genomic convergence and best manifested at the ROBO-SLIT axon guidance pathway. Here we verified the significance of such genomic convergence and assessed its functional relevance to human speech/language using human genetic variation data. In normal human populations, we found the affected amino acid sites were well fixed and accompanied with significantly more associated protein-coding SNPs in the same genes than the rest genes. Diseased individuals with speech/language disorders have significant more low frequency protein coding SNPs but they preferentially occurred outside the affected genes. Such patients' SNPs were enriched in several functional categories including two axon guidance pathways (mediated by netrin and semaphorin) that interact with ROBO-SLITs. Four of the six patients have homozygous missense SNPs on PRAME gene family, one youngest gene family in human lineage, which possibly acts upon retinoic acid receptor signaling, similarly as FOXP2, to modulate axon guidance. Taken together, we suggest the axon guidance pathways (e.g. ROBO-SLIT, PRAME gene family) served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Factors Associated With Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Clues to Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-02-01

    Identifying risk factors associated with neurodevelopmental disorders is an important line of research, as it will lead to earlier identification of children who could benefit from interventions that support optimal developmental outcomes. The primary goal of this review was to summarize research on risk factors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The review focused on studies of infants who have older siblings with ASD, with particular emphasis on risk factors associated with language impairment that affects the majority of children with ASD. Findings from this body of work were compared to the literature on specific language impairment. A wide range of risk factors has been found for ASD, including demographic (e.g., male, family history), behavioral (e.g., gesture, motor) and neural risk markers (e.g., atypical lateralization for speech and reduced functional connectivity). Environmental factors, such as caregiver interaction, have not been found to predict language outcomes. Many of the risk markers for ASD are also found in studies of risk for specific language impairment, including demographic, behavioral, and neural factors. There are significant gaps in the literature and limitations in the current research that preclude direct cross-syndrome comparisons. Future research directions are outlined that could address these limitations.

  20. Facilitating Transition from High School and Special Education to Adult Life: Focus on Youth with Learning Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Speech/Language Impairments.

    PubMed

    Ascherman, Lee I; Shaftel, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings. The role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist and the importance of advocacy for these youth are presented.

  1. The Efficacy of Treatment for Children with Developmental Speech and Language Delay/ Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Garrett, Zoe; Nye, Chad

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out of interventions for children with primary developmental speech and language delays/disorders. The data were categorized depending on the control group used in the study (no treatment, general stimulation, or routine speech and language therapy) and were considered in terms of the effects of intervention on…

  2. Story Grammar Ability in Children with and without Language Disorder: Story Generation, Story Retelling, and Story Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Donna DiSegna; Liles, Betty Z.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty language-impaired and 20 unimpaired children, aged 9-11, generated and retold stories and answered comprehension questions. The stories produced by language-disordered children contained fewer complete story episodes, fewer main and subordinate clauses per complete episode, and a lower frequency of use of story grammar components than those…

  3. Narrative Organization Skills in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Language Impairment: Application of the Causal Network Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Fei; Timler, Geralyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that the oral narratives of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are less organized than those of typically developing peers. Many studies, however, do not account for children's language abilities. Because language impairment (LI) is a frequent comorbid condition in children with ADHD, this exploratory…

  4. Brief Report: Ages of Language Milestones as Predictors of Developmental Trajectories in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Edmunds, Sarah R.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing early risk markers in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical for timely diagnosis and intervention. The purpose of this study was to extend previous findings regarding language milestones to a longitudinal design, in which ages of expressive language milestones (i.e., first words, first phrases) could serve as…

  5. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

  6. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  7. Associations between Language Development and Skin Conductance Responses to Faces and Eye Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Steven D.; Davis, Robert; Heaton, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Attention to social stimuli is associated with language development, and arousal is associated with the increased viewing of stimuli. We investigated whether skin conductance responses (SCRs) are associated with language development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a population that shows abnormalities in both attention to others and language…

  8. Adopted Children's Language Difficulties and Their Relation to Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder: FinAdo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Stolt, Suvi; Jalonen, Iina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential association between symptoms of reactive attachment disorder and language difficulties among internationally adopted children in Finland (the FinAdo study). The language difficulties were assessed using a standardised Five to Fifteen (FTF) parental questionnaire and the symptoms of reactive attachment disorder…

  9. Associations between Language Development and Skin Conductance Responses to Faces and Eye Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Steven D.; Davis, Robert; Heaton, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Attention to social stimuli is associated with language development, and arousal is associated with the increased viewing of stimuli. We investigated whether skin conductance responses (SCRs) are associated with language development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a population that shows abnormalities in both attention to others and language…

  10. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  11. Language Impairment and Early Social Competence in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of DSM-5 Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, T. A.; Szatmari, P.; Georgiades, K.; Hanna, S.; Janus, M.; Georgiades, S.; Duku, E.; Bryson, S.; Fombonne, E.; Smith, I. M.; Mirenda, P.; Volden, J.; Waddell, C.; Roberts, W.; Vaillancourt, T.; Zwaigenbaum, L.; Elsabbagh, M.; Thompson, A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment…

  12. Brief Report: Anomalous Neural Deactivations and Functional Connectivity during Receptive Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Functional MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karten, Ariel; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Neural mechanisms that underlie language disability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with reduced excitatory processes observed as positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses. However, negative BOLD responses (NBR) associated with language and inhibitory processes have been less studied in ASD. In this study,…

  13. Electroencephalographic Abnormalities during Sleep in Children with Developmental Speech-Language Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Fielder, Bronwyn; Collins, Kevin; Fisher, John; Keir, Eddie; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Nolan, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research has suggested a link between epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental speech-language disorder (DSLD). This study investigated the strength of this association by comparing the frequency of EEG abnormalities in 45 language-normal children (29 males, 16 females; mean age 6y 11mo, SD 1y 10mo, range…

  14. The Art of Common Ground: Emergence of a Complex Pragmatic Language Skill in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in pragmatic language are central to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we investigate common ground, a pragmatic language skill in which speakers adjust the contents of their speech based on their interlocutor's perceived knowledge, in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD), using an experimental narrative paradigm.…

  15. The Efficacy of Treatment for Children with Developmental Speech and Language Delay/ Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Garrett, Zoe; Nye, Chad

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out of interventions for children with primary developmental speech and language delays/disorders. The data were categorized depending on the control group used in the study (no treatment, general stimulation, or routine speech and language therapy) and were considered in terms of the effects of intervention on…

  16. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  17. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

  18. Characteristics, Assessment, and Treatment of Writing Difficulties in College Students with Language Disorders and/or Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students currently are enrolled in colleges and universities across the country with language disorders and/or learning disabilities (LLD). The majority of these students struggle with writing, creating a need to identify and provide them with writing intervention services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may provide this intervention;…

  19. The Impact of Nonverbal Ability on Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of Language Disorder: Evidence from a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Wray, Charlotte; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Vamvakas, George; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of "specific" language impairment traditionally required nonverbal IQ to be within normal limits, often resulting in restricted access to clinical services for children with lower NVIQ. Changes to DSM-5 criteria for language disorder removed this NVIQ requirement. This study sought to delineate the impact of varying…

  20. Utility of the Psychoeducational Profile-3 for Assessing Cognitive and Language Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Mandy L.; D'Entremont, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The Psychoeducational Profile-3's (PEP-3) ability to estimate cognitive and language skills of 136 children (20-75 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) across a range of functioning, and the association between the PEP-3 and ASD symptomatology was examined using retrospective data. PEP-3 cognitive and language measures were positively…

  1. Adopted Children's Language Difficulties and Their Relation to Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder: FinAdo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Stolt, Suvi; Jalonen, Iina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential association between symptoms of reactive attachment disorder and language difficulties among internationally adopted children in Finland (the FinAdo study). The language difficulties were assessed using a standardised Five to Fifteen (FTF) parental questionnaire and the symptoms of reactive attachment disorder…

  2. Brief Report: Ages of Language Milestones as Predictors of Developmental Trajectories in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Edmunds, Sarah R.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing early risk markers in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical for timely diagnosis and intervention. The purpose of this study was to extend previous findings regarding language milestones to a longitudinal design, in which ages of expressive language milestones (i.e., first words, first phrases) could serve as…

  3. Characteristics, Assessment, and Treatment of Writing Difficulties in College Students with Language Disorders and/or Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students currently are enrolled in colleges and universities across the country with language disorders and/or learning disabilities (LLD). The majority of these students struggle with writing, creating a need to identify and provide them with writing intervention services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may provide this intervention;…

  4. Language Impairment and Early Social Competence in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of DSM-5 Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, T. A.; Szatmari, P.; Georgiades, K.; Hanna, S.; Janus, M.; Georgiades, S.; Duku, E.; Bryson, S.; Fombonne, E.; Smith, I. M.; Mirenda, P.; Volden, J.; Waddell, C.; Roberts, W.; Vaillancourt, T.; Zwaigenbaum, L.; Elsabbagh, M.; Thompson, A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment…

  5. The Art of Common Ground: Emergence of a Complex Pragmatic Language Skill in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in pragmatic language are central to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we investigate common ground, a pragmatic language skill in which speakers adjust the contents of their speech based on their interlocutor's perceived knowledge, in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD), using an experimental narrative paradigm.…

  6. Electroencephalographic Abnormalities during Sleep in Children with Developmental Speech-Language Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Fielder, Bronwyn; Collins, Kevin; Fisher, John; Keir, Eddie; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Nolan, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research has suggested a link between epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental speech-language disorder (DSLD). This study investigated the strength of this association by comparing the frequency of EEG abnormalities in 45 language-normal children (29 males, 16 females; mean age 6y 11mo, SD 1y 10mo, range…

  7. Brief Report: Anomalous Neural Deactivations and Functional Connectivity during Receptive Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Functional MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karten, Ariel; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Neural mechanisms that underlie language disability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with reduced excitatory processes observed as positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses. However, negative BOLD responses (NBR) associated with language and inhibitory processes have been less studied in ASD. In this study,…

  8. The Impact of Nonverbal Ability on Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of Language Disorder: Evidence from a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Wray, Charlotte; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Vamvakas, George; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of "specific" language impairment traditionally required nonverbal IQ to be within normal limits, often resulting in restricted access to clinical services for children with lower NVIQ. Changes to DSM-5 criteria for language disorder removed this NVIQ requirement. This study sought to delineate the impact of varying…

  9. Language Ability Predicts Cortical Structure and Covariance in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sharda, Megha; Foster, Nicholas E V; Tryfon, Ana; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A R; Ouimet, Tia; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Evans, Alan C; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Lerch, Jason P; Lewis, John D; Hyde, Krista L

    2017-03-01

    There is significant clinical heterogeneity in language and communication abilities of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, no consistent pathology regarding the relationship of these abilities to brain structure has emerged. Recent developments in anatomical correlation-based approaches to map structural covariance networks (SCNs), combined with detailed behavioral characterization, offer an alternative for studying these relationships. In this study, such an approach was used to study the integrity of SCNs of cortical thickness and surface area associated with language and communication, in 46 high-functioning, school-age children with ASD compared with 50 matched, typically developing controls (all males) with IQ > 75. Findings showed that there was alteration of cortical structure and disruption of fronto-temporal cortical covariance in ASD compared with controls. Furthermore, in an analysis of a subset of ASD participants, alterations in both cortical structure and covariance were modulated by structural language ability of the participants, but not communicative function. These findings indicate that structural language abilities are related to altered fronto-temporal cortical covariance in ASD, much more than symptom severity or cognitive ability. They also support the importance of better characterizing ASD samples while studying brain structure and for better understanding individual differences in language and communication abilities in ASD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Communication and language: bidirectionality in interventions in children with autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    Monfort, I

    2009-02-27

    The relations between formal language skills and social skills are altered in a specific way in persons with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in a dimension that is very different to what occurs in other pathologies that affect the acquisition of such abilities. This should have implications in the models of intervention in the language of children with ASD. It is argued that with these children reference to 'normal' development is not sufficient: it is necessary to establish alternative models of language acquisition that take into account both the peculiarities of the cognitive, perceptive and social profile of children with ASD and the nature of the compensation mechanisms, whether they are spontaneous or induced. The development of language skills depends on the aptitudes for social communication, but it seems possible to take advantage of specifically linguistic skills (which are sometimes well preserved in children with ASD) to help improve social skills: this is what is meant by the bidirectionality that exists between language and communication.

  11. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, E.; Steinschneider, M.; Lee, W.; Lawson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7–15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. PMID:24548430

  12. Relations between language and cognition in native-signing children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron; Pyers, Jennie; Martin, Amber; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Two populations have been found to exhibit delays in theory of mind (ToM): deaf children of hearing parents and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Deaf children exposed to sign from birth by their deaf parents, however, show no such delay, suggesting that early language exposure is key to ToM development. Sign languages also present frequent opportunities with visual perspective-taking (VPT), leading to the question of whether sign exposure could benefit children with ASD. We present the first study of children with ASD exposed to sign from birth by their deaf parents. Seventeen native-signing children with a confirmed ASD diagnosis and a chronological- and mental age-matched control group of 18 typically developing (TD) native-signing deaf children were tested on American Sign Language (ASL) comprehension, two minimally verbal social cognition tasks (ToM and VPT), and one spatial cognition task (mental rotation). The TD children outperformed the children with ASD on ASL comprehension (p < 0.0001), ToM (p = 0.02), and VPT (p < 0.01), but not mental rotation (p = 0.12). Language strongly correlated with ToM (p < 0.01) and VPT (p < 0.001), but not mental rotation (p = ns). Native exposure to sign is thus insufficient to overcome the language and social impairments implicated in ASD. Contrary to the hypothesis that sign could provide a scaffold for ToM skills, we find that signing children with ASD are unable to access language so as to gain any potential benefit sign might confer. Our results support a strong link between the development of social cognition and language, regardless of modality, for TD and ASD children. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1304-1315. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dosage effects of X and Y chromosomes on language and social functioning in children with supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies: implications for idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Lopez, Katherine C; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N

    2012-10-01

     Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X and/or Y chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and pentasomy X/Y-aneuploidy. The current research sought to fill this gap in the literature and to examine dosage effects of X and Y chromosomes on language and social functioning. Participants included 110 youth with X/Y-aneuploidies (32 female) and 52 with typical development (25 female) matched on age (mean ∼12 years; range 4-22) and maternal education. Participants completed the Wechsler intelligence scales, and parents completed the children's communication checklist-2 and the social responsiveness scale to assess language skills and autistic traits, respectively. Both supernumerary X and Y chromosomes were related to depressed structural and pragmatic language skills and increased autistic traits. The addition of a Y chromosome had a disproportionately greater impact on pragmatic language; the addition of one or more X chromosomes had a disproportionately greater impact on structural language. Given that we link extra X chromosomes with structural language impairments and an extra Y chromosome with pragmatic language impairments, X/Y-aneuploidies may provide clues to genetic mechanisms contributing to idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Dosage effects of X and Y chromosomes on language and social functioning in children with supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies: Implications for idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Lopez, Katherine C.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X- and/or Y-chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and pentasomy X/Y-aneuploidy. The current research sought to fill this gap in the literature and to examine dosage effects of X- and Y-chromosomes on language and social functioning. Methods Participants included 110 youth with X/Y-aneuploidies (32 female) and 52 with typical development (25 female) matched on age (mean~12 years; range 4–22) and maternal education. Participants completed the Wechsler intelligence scales and parents completed the Children’s Communication Checklist-2 and the Social Responsiveness Scale to assess language skills and autistic traits, respectively. Results Both supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes were related to depressed structural and pragmatic language skills and increased autistic traits. The addition of a Y-chromosome had a disproportionately greater impact on pragmatic language; the addition of one or more X-chromosomes had a disproportionately greater impact on structural language. Conclusions Given that we link extra X-chromosomes with structural language impairments and an extra Y-chromosome with pragmatic language impairments, X/Y-aneuploidies may provide clues to genetic mechanisms contributing to idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22827287

  15. Why is it so hard to reach agreement on terminology? The case of developmental language disorder (DLD).

    PubMed

    V M Bishop, Dorothy

    2017-07-17

    A recent project entitled CATALISE used the Delphi method to reach a consensus on terminology for unexplained language problems in children. 'Developmental language disorder' (DLD) was the term agreed by a panel of 57 experts. Here I reflect on points of difficulty that arose when attempting to reach a consensus, using qualitative information from comments made by panel members to illustrate the kinds of argument used. One issue of debate was the use of labels, in particular the term 'disorder', which was seen as having both pros and cons. The potential for labels to stigmatize or create low expectations was a particular concern. However, labels could also ensure language problems were not trivialized and could help avoid stigma by providing an explanation for behaviours that might otherwise meet with disapproval. Further debate surrounded issues of how best to identify cases of disorder. Although it was agreed there should be a focus on cases with a poor prognosis, it was recognized that our knowledge of factors related to prognosis was still incomplete. Furthermore, there was a tension between use of standardized tests, which allow for a relatively objective and reliable assessment of language, and more qualitative observations, which can capture functional aspects of communication that are not always picked up on formal assessment. Debate also surrounded the issue of the relationship between DLD and other conditions. Some favoured drawing a distinction between DLD and language disorders associated with other conditions, and others regarded such distinctions as unnecessary. We concluded that it was misleading to assume co-occurring conditions were causes of language disorder, but it was helpful to distinguish DLD from cases of language disorder associated with 'differentiating conditions' that had a known or likely biomedical origin, including brain injury, sensorineural hearing loss, genetic syndromes, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder

  16. One size does not fit all: improving clinical practice in older children and adolescents with language and learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-04-01

    In the lead article for this clinical forum, Kamhi (2014) suggests ways that current knowledge on instructional practices in learning and language can be applied to clinical practice in language disorders. I propose that Kamhi's suggestions are in need of fine-tuning for older children and adolescents with language disorders. A one-size-fits-all approach to language intervention across a broad age range is untenable due to unique needs and capabilities of this older population. Three intervention goal priorities for older students are presented with supporting research: complex (multiclausal) sentences, verb structure, and expository text. Methodologies for teaching complex sentences are discussed next, including topics of content/form balance and treatment intensity. These goals and methods are designed to assist students with language disorders in the comprehension and production of complex language they encounter in school. Guidance for high-priority language intervention goals with older students comes from a consideration of language needs in academic settings and language weaknesses that persist in this population. Although current research offers support for these goals, less is known about methodological variables such as treatment intensity.

  17. Modelling gesture use and early language development in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, Stacy S; Mead, Danielle L; Swineford, Lauren; Thurm, Audrey

    2017-09-01

    Nonverbal communication abilities, including gesture use, are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about how common gestures may influence or be influenced by other areas of development. To examine the relationships between gesture, fine motor and language in young children with ASD compared with a comparison group using multiple measures and methods in a structural equation modelling framework. Participants included 110 children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group of 87 children (that included children with developmental delays (DD) or typical development (TD)), from 12 to 48 months of age. A construct of gesture use as measured by the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Caregiver Questionnaire (CQ) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), as well as fine motor from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was examined using second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A series of structural equation models then examined concurrent relationships between the aforementioned latent gesture construct and expressive and receptive language. A series of hierarchical regression analyses was run in a subsample of 36 children with ASD with longitudinal data to determine how gesture factor scores predicted later language outcomes. Across study groups, the gesture CFA model with indicators of gesture use from both the CQ (parent-reported) and ADOS (direct observation), and measures of fine motor provided good fit with all indicators significantly and strongly loading onto one gesture factor. This model of gesture use, controlling for age, was found to correlate strongly with concurrent expressive and receptive language. The correlations between gestures and concurrent language were similar in magnitude in both the ASD and non-ASD groups. In the longitudinal subsample of children with ASD, gestures at time 1 predicted later receptive (but not

  18. Genome-Wide Association and Exome Sequencing Study of Language Disorder in an Isolated Population

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Rakhlin, Natalia; Koposov, Roman; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Caglayan, Ahmet Okay; Magnuson, James S.; Mane, Shrikant; Chang, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Developmental language disorder (DLD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder associated with negative outcomes in different domains; the etiology of DLD is unknown. To investigate the genetic underpinnings of DLD, we performed genome-wide association and whole exome sequencing studies in a geographically isolated population with a substantially elevated prevalence of the disorder (ie, the AZ sample). METHODS: DNA samples were collected from 359 individuals for the genome-wide association study and from 12 severely affected individuals for whole exome sequencing. Multifaceted phenotypes, representing major domains of expressive language functioning, were derived from collected speech samples. RESULTS: Gene-based analyses revealed a significant association between SETBP1 and complexity of linguistic output (P = 5.47 × 10−7). The analysis of exome variants revealed coding sequence variants in 14 genes, most of which play a role in neural development. Targeted enrichment analysis implicated myocyte enhancer factor–2 (MEF2)-regulated genes in DLD in the AZ population. The main findings were successfully replicated in an independent cohort of children at risk for related disorders (n = 372). CONCLUSIONS: MEF2-regulated pathways were identified as potential candidate pathways in the etiology of DLD. Several genes (including the candidate SETBP1 and other MEF2-related genes) seem to jointly influence certain, but not all, facets of the DLD phenotype. Even when genetic and environmental diversity is reduced, DLD is best conceptualized as etiologically complex. Future research should establish whether the signals detected in the AZ population can be replicated in other samples and languages and provide further characterization of the identified pathway. PMID:27016271

  19. Evidence for Shared Deficits in Identifying Emotions from Faces and from Voices in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) have traditionally been conceptualized as distinct disorders, recent findings indicate that the boundaries between these two conditions are not clear-cut. While considerable research has investigated overlap in the linguistic characteristics of ASD and SLI,…

  20. Evidence for Shared Deficits in Identifying Emotions from Faces and from Voices in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) have traditionally been conceptualized as distinct disorders, recent findings indicate that the boundaries between these two conditions are not clear-cut. While considerable research has investigated overlap in the linguistic characteristics of ASD and SLI,…

  1. Comparison of Grammar in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: The Case of Binding in Williams Syndrome and Autism with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Modyanova, Nadya; Wexler, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether distinct neurodevelopmental disorders show distinct patterns of impairments in particular grammatical abilities and the relation of those grammatical patterns to general language delays and intellectual disabilities. We studied two disorders (autism and Williams syndrome [WS]) and two distinct properties (Principle…

  2. Lexical Processing Deficits in Children with Developmental Language Disorder: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Magnuson, James S.; Rakhlin, Natalia; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have been postulated to arise as sequelae of their grammatical deficits (either directly or via compensatory mechanisms) and vice versa. We examined event-related potential indices of lexical processing in children with DLD (n = 23) and their typically developing peers (n = 16) using a picture–word matching paradigm. We found that children with DLD showed markedly reduced N400 amplitudes in response both to auditorily presented words that had initial phonological overlap with the name of the pictured object and to words that were not semantically or phonologically related to the pictured object. Moreover, this reduction was related to behavioral indices of phonological and lexical but not grammatical development. We also found that children with DLD showed a depressed phonological mapping negativity component in the early time window, suggesting deficits in phonological processing or early lexical access. The results are partially consistent with the overactivation account of lexical processing deficits in DLD and point to the relative functional independence of lexical/phonological and grammatical deficits in DLD, supporting a multidimensional view of the disorder. The results also, although indirectly, support the neuroplasticity account of DLD, according to which language impairment affects brain development and shapes the specific patterns of brain responses to language stimuli. PMID:25997765

  3. Investigation of auditory processing disorder and language impairment using the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline N; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Schochat, Eliane

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated whether there are differences in the Speech-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response among children with Typical Development (TD), (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder (C)APD, and Language Impairment (LI). The speech-evoked Auditory Brainstem Response was tested in 57 children (ages 6-12). The children were placed into three groups: TD (n = 18), (C)APD (n = 18) and LI (n = 21). Speech-evoked ABR were elicited using the five-formant syllable/da/. Three dimensions were defined for analysis, including timing, harmonics, and pitch. A comparative analysis of the responses between the typical development children and children with (C)APD and LI revealed abnormal encoding of the speech acoustic features that are characteristics of speech perception in children with (C)APD and LI, although the two groups differed in their abnormalities. While the children with (C)APD might had a greater difficulty distinguishing stimuli based on timing cues, the children with LI had the additional difficulty of distinguishing speech harmonics, which are important to the identification of speech sounds. These data suggested that an inefficient representation of crucial components of speech sounds may contribute to the difficulties with language processing found in children with LI. Furthermore, these findings may indicate that the neural processes mediated by the auditory brainstem differ among children with auditory processing and speech-language disorders.

  4. Procedural learning in Parkinson's disease, specific language impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-10-01

    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p=0.010). This report demonstrates comparable levels of procedural learning impairment in developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment. However, in autism, procedural learning is spared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between cerebral hemisphere volume and receptive language functioning in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Pavawalla, Shital P; Fancher, Jill B; Naillon, Angela J; Hynd, George W

    2009-04-01

    Because poor comprehension has been associated with small cerebral volume and there is a high comorbidity between developmental dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific language impairment, the goal of this study was to determine whether cerebral volume is reduced in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in general, as some suggest, or whether the reduction in volume corresponds to poor receptive language functioning, regardless of the diagnosis. Participants included 46 children with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aged 8 to 12 years. Our results indicated that cerebral volume was comparable between those with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder overall. However, when groups were further divided into those with and without receptive language difficulties, children with poor receptive language had smaller volumes bilaterally as hypothesized. Nonetheless, the relationship between cerebral volume and receptive language was not linear; rather, our results suggest that small volume is associated with poor receptive language only in those with the smallest volumes in both dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  6. Telehealth Measures Screening for Developmental Language Disorders in Spanish-Speaking Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Guiberson, Mark

    2016-09-01

    This is the second of two studies that described the use of telehealth language screening measures for use with young Spanish-speaking children. The purpose of this study was to describe the classification accuracy of individual telehealth language screening measures as well as the accuracy of combinations of measures used with Spanish-speaking toddler-age children from rural and underserved areas of the country. This study applied an asynchronous hybrid telehealth approach that implemented parent-structured play activities with a standard set of stimuli, and interaction with a My First Words e-book. These interactions were recorded with a mini camcorder. In addition, a traditional pen and paper parent questionnaire measure was collected. Sixty-two mostly Spanish-speaking preschool-age children and their parents participated. Twenty-two children had developmental language disorders (DLDs) and 40 had typical language development. Although several of the individual measures were significantly and strongly associated with standardized language scores, only reported vocabulary had classification accuracy values that were desirable for screening for DLDs. An improvement was observed when reported vocabulary was combined with a number of different words children produced during interactions with parents. This research provides additional evidence showing the effectiveness of a hybrid telehealth model in screening the language development of Spanish-speaking children. More specifically, reported vocabulary combined with number of different words produced by a child can provide informative and accurate diagnostic information when screening Spanish-speaking toddler-age children for DLDs. These findings replicate the first study in showing that hybrid telehealth approaches that combine the use of video technology and traditional pen and paper surveys yield strong results, and may be a viable screening alternative when face-to-face access to a bilingual provider is not

  7. Intracellular distribution of a speech/language disorder associated FOXP2 mutant.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Akifumi; Matsuzaki, Ayumi; Momoi, Mariko Y; Fujita, Eriko; Tanabe, Yuko; Momoi, Takashi

    2007-02-23

    Although a mutation (R553H) in the forkhead box (FOX)P2 gene is associated with speech/language disorder, little is known about the function of FOXP2 or its relevance to this disorder. In the present study, we identify the forkhead nuclear localization domains that contribute to the cellular distribution of FOXP2. Nuclear localization of FOXP2 depended on two distally separated nuclear localization signals in the forkhead domain. A truncated version of FOXP2 lacking the leu-zip, Zn2+ finger, and forkhead domains that was observed in another patient with speech abnormalities demonstrated an aggregated cytoplasmic localization. Furthermore, FOXP2 (R553H) mainly exhibited a cytoplasmic localization despite retaining interactions with nuclear transport proteins (importin alpha and beta). Interestingly, wild type FOXP2 promoted the transport of FOXP2 (R553H) into the nucleus. Mutant and wild type FOXP2 heterodimers in the nucleus or FOXP2 R553H in the cytoplasm may underlie the pathogenesis of the autosomal dominant speech/language disorder.

  8. Intracellular distribution of a speech/language disorder associated FOXP2 mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Akifumi; Matsuzaki, Ayumi; Momoi, Mariko Y. . E-mail: mymomoi@jichi.ac.jp; Fujita, Eriko; Tanabe, Yuko; Momoi, Takashi

    2007-02-23

    Although a mutation (R553H) in the forkhead box (FOX)P2 gene is associated with speech/language disorder, little is known about the function of FOXP2 or its relevance to this disorder. In the present study, we identify the forkhead nuclear localization domains that contribute to the cellular distribution of FOXP2. Nuclear localization of FOXP2 depended on two distally separated nuclear localization signals in the forkhead domain. A truncated version of FOXP2 lacking the leu-zip, Zn{sup 2+} finger, and forkhead domains that was observed in another patient with speech abnormalities demonstrated an aggregated cytoplasmic localization. Furthermore, FOXP2 (R553H) mainly exhibited a cytoplasmic localization despite retaining interactions with nuclear transport proteins (importin {alpha} and {beta}). Interestingly, wild type FOXP2 promoted the transport of FOXP2 (R553H) into the nucleus. Mutant and wild type FOXP2 heterodimers in the nucleus or FOXP2 R553H in the cytoplasm may underlie the pathogenesis of the autosomal dominant speech/language disorder.

  9. The utility of Thin Slice ratings for predicting language growth in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2016-04-01

    Literature on "Thin Slice" ratings indicates that a number of personality characteristics and behaviors can be accurately predicted by ratings of very short segments (<5 min) of behavior. This study examined the utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and language gains over time. A total of 22 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder participated in a battery of developmental assessments and a video-taped therapist-child interaction at Time 1. They then participated in follow-up testing of language skills and a second therapist-child interaction 6 months later (Time 2). Groups of approximately 25 naïve undergraduate students provided impression ratings ("Thin Slice ratings") about each child's skills and behaviors during 2-min segments taken from the therapist-child interaction videos at each time point. Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 were highly correlated with child scores on several developmental assessments at Time 1. In addition, Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 predicted gain in parent-reported expressive vocabulary over the course of 6 months, over and above the predictive utility of Time 1 vocabulary size. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the concurrent and predictive validity of Thin Slice ratings in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  10. [Language and learning disorders in epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow sleep].

    PubMed

    Billard-Daudu, C

    2001-01-01

    Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy is usually evaluated on the basis of reduction in seizure frequency. However, in a number of cases, the effect of a drug in reducing EEG paroxysmal activity should be considered. This applies particularly to Landau-Kleffner syndrome and to the syndrome of continuous spike-waves during slow sleep. In developmental language disorders, EEG paroxysmal activity is present in almost 30% of the cases. Paroxysmal abnormalities are usually less frequent than what is observed in epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow sleep. Pathogenesis remains unknown and the relationship between EEG evolution and language improvement is not as clear as in Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

  11. Verbal problem-solving difficulties in autism spectrum disorders and atypical language development.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) adopt less efficient strategies than typically developing (TD) peers on the Twenty Questions Task (TQT), a measure of verbal problem-solving skills. Although problems with the TQT are typically associated with executive dysfunction, they have also been reported in children who are deaf, suggesting a role for atypical language development. To test the contribution of language history to ASD problem solving, TQT performance was compared in children with high-functioning autism (HFA), children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and TD children. The HFA group used significantly less efficient strategies than both AS and TD children. No group differences were evident on tests of question understanding, planning or verbal fluency. Potential explanations for differences in verbal problem-solving skill are discussed with reference to the development of inner speech and use of visual strategies in ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Applying technology to visually support language and communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Shane, Howard C; Laubscher, Emily H; Schlosser, Ralf W; Flynn, Suzanne; Sorce, James F; Abramson, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    The burgeoning role of technology in society has provided opportunities for the development of new means of communication for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This paper offers an organizational framework for describing traditional and emerging augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology, and highlights how tools within this framework can support a visual approach to everyday communication and improve language instruction. The growing adoption of handheld media devices along with applications acquired via a consumer-oriented delivery model suggests a potential paradigm shift in AAC for people with ASD.

  13. Specific language disorders and season of birth: underlying environmental factors or chance findings?

    PubMed

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Chiappedi, Matteo; Ballerini, Antonina; Seragni, Giorgio; Zanette, Michela; Conti, Chiara; Stefanini, Maria Chiara; Ferrari-Ginevra, Oreste; Spelta, Patrizia; Angelini, Lucia; Beghi, Ettore

    2012-01-01

    The medical records of 358 children and adolescents with specific language disorders (SLD; 122 girls and 236 boys) seen in rehabilitation centers from Northern and Central Italy were examined to compare season of birth in these cases to those of the Italian population. Exposure was calculated using univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to the Italian population, patients with SLD had a 1.67 (95% CI [1.35-2.07]) chance of birth in October-December. Independent predictors were younger age at inclusion and being firstborn. Different neurobiological hypotheses can be drawn to explain these findings.

  14. The impact of nonverbal ability on prevalence and clinical presentation of language disorder: evidence from a population study.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Wray, Charlotte; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Vamvakas, George; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Diagnosis of 'specific' language impairment traditionally required nonverbal IQ to be within normal limits, often resulting in restricted access to clinical services for children with lower NVIQ. Changes to DSM-5 criteria for language disorder removed this NVIQ requirement. This study sought to delineate the impact of varying NVIQ criteria on prevalence, clinical presentation and functional impact of language disorder in the first UK population study of language impairment at school entry. A population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures was used to estimate population prevalence. We surveyed state-maintained reception classrooms (n = 161 or 61% of eligible schools) in Surrey, England. From a total population of 12,398 children (ages 4-5 years), 7,267 (59%) were screened. A stratified subsample (n = 529) received comprehensive assessment of language, NVIQ, social, emotional and behavioural problems, and academic attainment. The total population prevalence estimate of language disorder was 9.92% (95% CI 7.38, 13.20). The prevalence of language disorder of unknown origin was estimated to be 7.58% (95% CI 5.33, 10.66), while the prevalence of language impairment associated with intellectual disability and/or existing medical diagnosis was 2.34% (95% CI 1.40, 3.91). Children with language disorder displayed elevated symptoms of social, emotional and behavioural problems relative to peers, F(1, 466) = 7.88, p = .05, and 88% did not make expected academic progress. There were no differences between those with average and low-average NVIQ scores in severity of language deficit, social, emotional and behavioural problems, or educational attainment. In contrast, children with language impairments associated with known medical diagnosis and/or intellectual disability displayed more severe deficits on multiple measures. At school entry, approximately two children in every class of 30 pupils will experience language disorder severe enough to hinder

  15. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K

    2015-02-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early language and communication development of infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shelley; Brian, Jessica; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Smith, Isabel; Bryson, Susan

    2006-04-01

    It is well recognized that delayed "first words" is among the most common presenting symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). However, data on earlier language and communication development in children with ASD are limited to retrospective reports from parents and from home videos. In this study, we prospectively collected parent report data on early communication and language development in 97 infant siblings of children with ASD and 49 low-risk controls. Parents completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory--Infant Form at 12 and 18 months. Analysis compared 3 groups defined on the basis of diagnostic assessment at 24 months: (1) siblings with ASD (n = 15), (2) siblings not meeting diagnostic criteria for ASD (n = 82), and (3) low-risk controls, none of whom had ASD (n = 49). Children with ASD showed delays in early language and communication compared with non-ASD siblings and controls. At 12 months, the ASD group was reported to understand significantly fewer phrases and to produce fewer gestures. At 18 months, they showed delays in their understanding of phrases, comprehension and production of single words, and use of gestures. Siblings not diagnosed with ASD also used fewer play-related gestures at 18 months than low-risk controls, even when children with identified language delays were excluded. Overall, this prospective study confirms that delays in communication and language development are apparent early in life in children with ASD, and emphasizes that developmental surveillance should include monitoring for delays in gesture, which may be among the earliest signs of ASD.

  17. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social‐cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non‐verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. Results: In the first model, parent‐reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non‐significant when gross motor skill, non‐verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Conclusions: Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross‐domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993–1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26692550

  18. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  19. A Statistical Test of the Validity of Diagnostic Categories Used in Childhood Language Disorders: Implications for Assessment Procedures. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, William S.; And Others

    This paper examines the validity of diagnostic categories frequently used to classify children with severe language disorders by determining the relationship of the categories to independently derived developmental, psychological, and medical variables. It is argued that the classification systems currently available too often fail to achieve the…

  20. The Language Phenotype of a Small Geographically Isolated Russian-Speaking Population: Implications for Genetic and Clinical Studies of Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Palejev, Dean; Koposov, Roman A.; Chang, Joseph T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the results of an epidemiological study of developmental language disorder (DLD) in an isolated rural Russian population. We report an atypically high prevalence of DLD across all age groups when contrasted with a comparison population. The results are corroborated by a set of comparisons of school-aged children from the…

  1. The Language Phenotype of a Small Geographically Isolated Russian-Speaking Population: Implications for Genetic and Clinical Studies of Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Palejev, Dean; Koposov, Roman A.; Chang, Joseph T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the results of an epidemiological study of developmental language disorder (DLD) in an isolated rural Russian population. We report an atypically high prevalence of DLD across all age groups when contrasted with a comparison population. The results are corroborated by a set of comparisons of school-aged children from the…

  2. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  3. Language disorder and retrospectively reported sexual abuse of girls: severity and disclosure.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, E B; Graham, Eva; Bao, Lin; Koyama, Emiko; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2017-10-01

    Despite emerging evidence for an association between communication disorders and maltreatment, little research has examined sexual abuse characteristics or disclosure experiences among individuals with language disorder (LD). Given that communication difficulties may constitute a barrier to disclosure, the disclosure experiences among individuals with and without communication difficulties may also differ. Five-year-old children identified with a language and/or speech disorder from a nonclinical community sample and a control group were followed to adulthood in a prospective longitudinal study. At age 31, participants completed a behaviorally specific questionnaire on experiences of sexual abuse and questionnaires on disclosure experiences and social reactions to disclosure. Due to low endorsement of sexual victimization among male participants and low sample size, results are reported for women only and exclude nine participants with speech disorder without LD. Participation rates were 28 of 40 in the LD cohort and 45 of 51 controls. Sexual victimization severity was defined using an index combining five indicators (duration, invasiveness, relationship to perpetrator, coercive tactics used, and number of perpetrators). Subthreshold sexual victimization was defined as a single, noncontact incident with a perpetrator unknown to the child; experiences with greater severity were classified as child sexual abuse. Among women who reported sexual victimization by age 18, invasiveness and overall severity were greater in the LD cohort than in the control cohort. Women in the LD cohort (43%) were more likely than controls (16%) to report child sexual abuse, excluding subthreshold experiences. There were no differences between cohorts in probability of disclosure, latency to disclosure, or social reactions. Women with a history of child LD in a nonclinical sample reported substantial child sexual abuse experiences. Implications for understanding associations between LD and

  4. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD.

  5. Early pragmatic language difficulties in siblings of children with autism: implications for DSM-5 social communication disorder?

    PubMed

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk, n = 188) or typical development (low-risk, n = 119) who were part of a prospective study of infants at risk for ASD; siblings without ASD outcomes were included in analyses. Pragmatic language skills were measured via the Language Use Inventory (LUI). At 36 months, the high-risk group had significantly lower parent-rated pragmatic language scores than the low-risk group. When defining pragmatic language impairment (PLI) as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the LUI, 35% of the high-risk group was identified with PLI versus 10% of the low-risk group. Children with PLI had higher rates of general language impairment (16%), defined as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the Receptive or Expressive Language subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, relative to those without PLI (3%), but most did not evidence general language impairments. Children with PLI had significantly higher ADOS scores than those without PLI and had higher rates of clinician-rated atypical clinical best estimate outcomes (49%) relative to those without PLI (15%). Pragmatic language problems are present in some siblings of children with ASD as early as 36 months of age. As the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD) is thought to occur more frequently in family members of individuals with ASD, it is possible that some of these siblings will meet criteria for SCD as they get older. Close monitoring of early pragmatic language development in young children at familial risk for ASD is warranted. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Early pragmatic language difficulties in siblings of children with autism: Implications for DSM-5 Social Communication Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S.; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A.J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Methods Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk, n=188) or typical development (low-risk, n=119) who were part of a prospective study of infants at risk for ASD; siblings without ASD outcomes were included in analyses. Pragmatic language skills were measured via the Language Use Inventory (LUI). Results At 36 months, the high-risk group had significantly lower parent-rated pragmatic language scores than the low-risk group. When defining pragmatic language impairment (PLI) as scores below the 10th percentile on the LUI, 35% of the high-risk group was identified with PLI versus 10% of the low-risk group. Children with PLI had higher rates of general language impairment (16%), defined as scores below the 10th percentile on the Receptive or Expressive Language subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, relative to those without PLI (3%), but most did not evidence general language impairments. Children with PLI had significantly higher ADOS scores than those without PLI and had higher rates of clinician-rated atypical clinical best estimate outcomes (49%) relative to those without PLI (15%). Conclusions Pragmatic language problems are present in some siblings of children with ASD as early as 36 months of age. Since the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD) is thought to occur more frequently in family members of individuals with ASD, it is possible that some of these siblings will meet criteria for SCD as they get older. Close monitoring of early pragmatic language development in young children at familial risk for ASD is warranted. PMID:25315782

  7. Assessment practices of Irish speech and language therapists in the evaluation of voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Ciarán

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that the evaluation of voice disorders ought to include extensive perceptual, psychometric, and instrumental measurements. This serves to encapsulate the wide-reaching effects of such a disorder, from the physical impairment in voice production to the psycho-social impact of having a dysphonic voice. In spite of this, no international gold standard exists by which voice disorders should be evaluated, and so speech and language therapists (SLTs) are often tasked with developing an assessment battery for use in their own clinics. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the evaluation of voice disorders by Irish SLTs on a national scale is suitably comprehensive, with particular reference to the guidelines published by the European Laryngological Society. A total of 49 SLTs working in a variety of settings responded anonymously to an electronic survey regarding their assessment practices. Results indicate that therapists are comprehensive in non-instrumental evaluation of voice, but lack both access to and training in instrumental assessment techniques.

  8. An Extension of the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis from Developmental Language Disorders to Mathematical Disability

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tanya M.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical disability (MD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting math abilities. Here, we propose a new explanatory account of MD, the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), which may further our understanding of the disorder. According to the PDH of MD, abnormalities of brain structures subserving the procedural memory system can lead to difficulties with math skills learned in this system, as well as problems with other functions that depend on these brain structures. This brain-based account is motivated in part by the high comorbidity between MD and language disorders such as dyslexia that may be explained by the PDH, and in part by the likelihood that learning automatized math skills should depend on procedural memory. Here, we first lay out the PDH of MD, and present specific predictions. We then examine the existing literature for each prediction, while pointing out weaknesses and gaps to be addressed by future research. Although we do not claim that the PDH is likely to fully explain MD, we do suggest that the hypothesis could have substantial explanatory power, and that it provides a useful theoretical framework that may advance our understanding of the disorder. PMID:27695426

  9. Peer Victimization Among Students With Specific Language Impairment, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The potential contributions of behavioral and verbal liabilities to social risk were examined by comparing peer victimization levels in children with specific language impairment (SLI) to those in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing (TD) children. Method Sixty children (age range: 7–8 years) participated in the study. Standardized verbal measures and parent ratings of behavioral difficulties were combined with children’s self-reports of their school and peer environments to examine the risk for negative peer experiences associated with clinical status. Results Clinical status was associated with elevated levels of victimization, especially for participants with SLI. A potential buffering effect for number of close friendships was found for participants with ADHD and TD participants, but not for participants with SLI. Peer victimization was associated with elevated levels of hyperactivity and stronger narrative skills for participants with SLI. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of peer victimization in the social adjustment of students with developmental language disorders. PMID:21844400

  10. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method Measures of nonword repetition, sentence recall, and tense marking were collected from 57 seven- to nine-year-old children. The performances of children with ADHD+LI status were compared with those of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical development (TD). Results ADHD status had no independent detrimental impact on the affected children's LIs (SLI = ADHD+LI < TD). A modest positive correlation was found between the severity of children's ADHD symptoms and their sentence recall performance, suggesting a tendency for affected children who had higher levels of ADHD symptoms to perform better than those children with lower levels. Conclusion These outcomes are difficult to reconcile with attention-deficit/information-processing accounts of the core deficits associated with SLI. Potential protective mechanisms associated with ADHD status are discussed. PMID:25381450

  11. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Kornilova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD); M age = 10.67, SD = 2.84, and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of syntactic complexity and evaluate their roles in RC comprehension by children with typical language and their peers with DLD. We administered a working memory and an RC comprehension (picture-choice) task, which contained subject- and object-gap center-embedded and right branching RCs. The TD group, but not adults, demonstrated the effects of gap, embedding, and case. Their lower accuracy relative to adults was not fully attributable to differences in working memory. The DLD group displayed lower than TD children overall accuracy, accounted for by their lower working memory scores. While the effect of gap and embedding on their performance was not different from what was found for the TD group, children with DLD exhibited a diminished effect of case, suggesting reduced sensitivity to morphological case markers as processing cues. The implications of these results to theories of syntactic complexity and core deficits in DLD are discussed. PMID:28626347

  12. School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge and Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Bullying.

    PubMed

    Ofe, Erin E; Plumb, Allison M; Plexico, Laura W; Haak, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') knowledge and perceptions of bullying, with an emphasis on autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A 46-item, web-based survey was used to address the purposes of this investigation. Participants were recruited through e-mail and electronic mailing lists for American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) special interest divisions 1 (Language, Learning, and Education) and 16 (School-Based Issues). Also, an embedded link to the survey was posted on the ASHA Community website and ASHA Facebook page. Participants demonstrated knowledge of many aspects of bullying research; however, they demonstrated weaknesses in others. All respondents agreed that SLPs should intervene in moments of bullying, but not all indicated that they feel comfortable intervening. Few participants indicated that their school district implemented antibullying campaigns specific to children with special needs, such as ASD. As recognized experts in working with children with communication deficits, including individuals with ASD, SLPs have the opportunity to play a key role in antibullying efforts. Results revealed, however, that school-based SLPs may benefit from more information on bullying in order to understand the nature, context, and extent of this issue, as well as ways in which to respond to bullying when it is observed.

  13. Clinical diagnostic and intervention studies of children with semantic-pragmatic language disorder.

    PubMed

    Adams, C

    2001-01-01

    The diagnosis of semantic-pragmatic language disorder (SPLD) has been the subject of a number of research studies over the last two decades. Classification and diagnostic debates, while illuminating, have done little to develop tools to improve services to these children. In this paper, two children whose communication difficulties are suggestive of an SPLD diagnosis but who have differing profiles are studied. Using existing models of psycholinguistics and pragmatics to guide assessment and intervention, the diversity of language and social communicative behaviours that are covered by the label SPLD are exemplified. Consideration is given to whether the term SPLD is appropriate for both children or whether Bishop's revision of the diagnosis to 'pragmatic language impairment' might be more useful. Methods of intervention and evaluation for semantic and pragmatic deficits in these two cases are described. It is argued that existing tools can enable accurate explanation and modelling of the communication of children with SPLD and that there is a role for intervention studies in helping to refine those tools, to improve therapies and to understand the nature of the condition more fully.

  14. The written language performance of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hom-Yi; Chen, Rou-An; Lin, Yu-Shiuan; Yang, Yu-Chi; Huang, Chiung-Wei; Chen, Sz-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Poor writing is common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the writing performance of children with ADHD has been rarely formally explored in Taiwan, so the purpose of this study was to investigate writing features of children with ADHD in Taiwan. There were 25 children with ADHD and 25 normal children involved in a standardization writing assessment - Written Language Test for Children, to assess their performance at the dictation, sentence combination, adding/deducting redical, cloze and sentence making subtests. The results showed that except for the score of the sentence combining subtest, the score of children with ADHD was lower than the normal student in the rest of the subtests. Almost 60% of ADHD children's scores were below the 25th percentile numbers, but only 20% for normal children. Thus, writing problems were common for children with ADHD in Taiwan, too. First, children with ADHD performed worse than normal children on the dictation and cloze subtests, showing the weaker abilities of retrieving correct characters from their mental lexicon. Second, children with ADHD performed worse on the adding/deducting redical subtest than normal children did. Finally, at the language level, the score of children with ADHD on the sentence combination subtest was not lower than normal children, implicating their normal grammatic competence. It is worth mentioning that Taiwanese children with ADHD ignore the details of characters when they are writing, a finding that is common across languages.

  15. Auditory hallucinations as primary disorders of syntax: an evolutionary theory of the origins of language.

    PubMed

    Crow, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    A theory of the evolutionary origins of language is built around: (1) the notion that language is a sapiens-specific capacity that arose in the speciation event that separated modern Homo sapiens from a prior hominid species, and (2) Broca's concept of asymmetry (subsequently recognised as a "torque" from right frontal to left occipital cortices) as the defining characteristic of the human brain. The four chambers of human association cortex thus created allow the separation of "thought" from the speech output and "meaning" from the speech input, these abstractions representing the associations in the nondominant hemisphere of the motor and sensory phonological representations in the dominant hemisphere. The nuclear symptoms of schizophrenia are conceived as manifestations of the breakdown of the boundaries between these four compartments, and as indicating the necessity of the separation of motor and sensory speech engrams as the basis for the speaker-hearer distinction. They further illustrate a requirement for a "deictic core" to the cerebral organisation of language as Mueller and Buehler proposed. In this sense the nuclear symptoms are disorders of the syntax of universal grammar.

  16. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interactive Cohort Identification of Sleep Disorder Patients Using Natural Language Processing and i2b2.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Kowatch, R; Lin, S; Splaingard, M; Huang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Nationwide Children's Hospital established an i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology & the Bedside) application for sleep disorder cohort identification. Discrete data were gleaned from semistructured sleep study reports. The system showed to work more efficiently than the traditional manual chart review method, and it also enabled searching capabilities that were previously not possible. We report on the development and implementation of the sleep disorder i2b2 cohort identification system using natural language processing of semi-structured documents. We developed a natural language processing approach to automatically parse concepts and their values from semi-structured sleep study documents. Two parsers were developed: a regular expression parser for extracting numeric concepts and a NLP based tree parser for extracting textual concepts. Concepts were further organized into i2b2 ontologies based on document structures and in-domain knowledge. 26,550 concepts were extracted with 99% being textual concepts. 1.01 million facts were extracted from sleep study documents such as demographic information, sleep study lab results, medications, procedures, diagnoses, among others. The average accuracy of terminology parsing was over 83% when comparing against those by experts. The system is capable of capturing both standard and non-standard terminologies. The time for cohort identification has been reduced significantly from a few weeks to a few seconds. Natural language processing was shown to be powerful for quickly converting large amount of semi-structured or unstructured clinical data into discrete concepts, which in combination of intuitive domain specific ontologies, allows fast and effective interactive cohort identification through the i2b2 platform for research and clinical use.

  18. Voice disorder outcome profile (V-DOP)-translation and validation in Tamil language.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Shenbagavalli; Boominathan, Prakash; Subramaniyan, Balasubramaniyan

    2014-11-01

    This study sought to translate and validate the voice disorder outcome profile (V-DOP) for Tamil-speaking populations. It was implemented in two phases: the English language V-DOP developed for an Indian population was first translated into Tamil, a south Indian Dravidian language. Five Tamil language experts verified the translated version for exactness of meaning and usage. The expert's comments and suggestions were used to select the questions for the final V-DOP, thus establishing content validity. Then the translated V-DOP was administered to 95 subjects (75 in clinical and 20 in nonclinical group) for reliability (item-total correlation) and validity (construct) measures. The overall Cronbach coefficient α for V-DOP was 0.89 whereas the mean total V-DOP score was zero for the nonclinical group and 104.28 for the clinical group (standard deviation = 64.71). The emotional and functional domains indicated a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.91 and r = 0.90 respectively), followed by the physical domain (r = 0.82) with the total scores. A significant, but moderate correlation was obtained across V-DOP domains (r = 0.50 to 0.60; P < 0.05 and 0.01) and between total score and overall severity of V-DOP (r = 0.62; P < 0.01). Thus the self-perception measuring V-DOP in Tamil is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating the impact of voice disorders in Tamil-speaking population.

  19. Phonological complexity in school-aged children who stutter and exhibit a language disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Lesley; LaSalle, Lisa R

    2015-03-01

    The Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure are two measures of the phonological complexity of a word. Other phonological measures such as phonological neighborhood density have been used to compare stuttered versus fluent words. It appears that in preschoolers who stutter, the length and complexity of the utterance is more influential than the phonetic features of the stuttered word. The present hypothesis was that in school-age children who stutter, stuttered words would be more phonologically complex than fluent words, when the length and complexity of the utterance containing them is comparable. School-age speakers who stutter were hypothesized to differ from those with a concomitant language disorder. Sixteen speakers, six females and ten males (M age=12;3; Range=7;7 to 19;5) available from an online database, were divided into eight who had a concomitant language disorder (S+LD) and eight age- and sex-matched speakers who did not (S-Only). When all stuttered content words were identified, S+LD speakers produced more repetitions, and S-Only speakers produced more inaudible sound prolongations. When stuttered content words were matched to fluent content words and when talker groups were combined, stuttered words were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in both the Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure and lower in density ("sparser") than fluent words. Results corroborate those of previous researchers. Future research directions are suggested, such as cross-sectional designs to evaluate developmental patterns of phonological complexity and stuttering plus language disordered connections. The reader will be able to: (a) Define and describe phonological complexity; (b) Define phonological neighborhood density and summarize the literature on the topic; (c) Describe the Index of Phonological Complexity (IPC) for a given word; (d) Describe the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) for a given word; (e) Summarize two findings

  20. What pediatricians should know about normal language development: ensuring cultural differences are not diagnosed as disorders.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S

    2003-07-01

    The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.

  1. Cost of speech-language interventions for children and youth with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Shield, Kevin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This study, which is part of a large economic project on the overall burden and cost associated with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in Canada, estimated the cost of 1:1 speech-language interventions among children and youth with FASD for Canada in 2011. The number of children and youth with FASD and speech-language disorder(s) (SLD), the distribution of the level of severity, and the number of hours needed to treat were estimated using data from the available literature. 1:1 speech-language interventions were computed using the average cost per hour for speech-language pathologists. It was estimated that ˜ 37,928 children and youth with FASD had SLD in Canada in 2011. Using the most conservative approach, the annual cost of 1:1 speech-language interventions among children and youth with FASD is substantial, ranging from $72.5 million to $144.1 million Canadian dollars. Speech-language pathologists should be aware of the disproportionate number of children and youth with FASD who have SLD and the need for early identification to improve access to early intervention. Early identification and access to high quality services may have a role in decreasing the risk of developing the secondary disabilities and in reducing the economic burden of FASD on society. PMID:24345001

  2. Cost of speech-language interventions for children and youth with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada.

    PubMed

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Shield, Kevin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study, which is part of a large economic project on the overall burden and cost associated with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in Canada, estimated the cost of 1:1 speech-language interventions among children and youth with FASD for Canada in 2011. The number of children and youth with FASD and speech-language disorder(s) (SLD), the distribution of the level of severity, and the number of hours needed to treat were estimated using data from the available literature. 1:1 speech-language interventions were computed using the average cost per hour for speech-language pathologists. It was estimated that ˜ 37,928 children and youth with FASD had SLD in Canada in 2011. Using the most conservative approach, the annual cost of 1:1 speech-language interventions among children and youth with FASD is substantial, ranging from $72.5 million to $144.1 million Canadian dollars. Speech-language pathologists should be aware of the disproportionate number of children and youth with FASD who have SLD and the need for early identification to improve access to early intervention. Early identification and access to high quality services may have a role in decreasing the risk of developing the secondary disabilities and in reducing the economic burden of FASD on society.

  3. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with “optimal outcomes” (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the average range or above on all measures and showed few differences from the TD group. The HFA group performed within the average range but showed significantly lower mean performance than the other groups on multiple language measures, even when controlling for VIQ. Results also indicate that OO individuals show strong language abilities in all areas tested, but that their language may show greater reliance on verbal memory. PMID:23982487

  4. A rating scale for the assessment of objective and subjective formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD).

    PubMed

    Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Fährmann, Paul; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Grosvald, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Nagels, Arne

    2014-12-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a core syndrome of schizophrenia. However, patients with other diagnoses, such as mania and depression amongst others, also present with FTD. We introduce a novel, comprehensive clinical rating scale, capturing the full variety of FTD phenomenology including subjective experiences. The 30-item Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) scale is based on a detailed review of the literature, encompassing all formal thought disorder symptoms reported from the early 20th century onwards. Objectively observable symptoms as well as subjective phenomena were included. Two hundred and ten participants (146 patients ICD-10 diagnoses: depression n=63, schizophrenia n=63, mania n=20; 64 healthy control subjects) were interviewed and symptoms rated with the TALD, TLC, HAMD, YMRS and SAPS/SANS. A principal component analyses was performed for the TALD to differentiate sub-syndromes. The principal component analysis revealed four FTD factors; objective and subjective as well as positive and negative factor dimensions. The correlation analyses with the TLC and the SAPS/SANS FTD sub-scores demonstrated the factor validity for the objective factors. The different diagnoses showed a distinct pattern of symptom severity in each of the factors, with mania patients exhibiting the highest value in the positive, objective dimension. The scale showed good psychometric results, which makes it a practicable, nosologically-open instrument for the detailed assessment of all FTD dimensions. The results strengthen the importance of subjective symptom assessment reported by the patient.

  5. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Richard R.; Kretschmer, Laura W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses language in use, focusing on English, including definitions of language as well as how it has been and how it should be taught inside and outside the classroom. Impact of this information on the process of evaluation of hearing-impaired students' language is also considered. (Author/PB)

  6. Factors Influencing School-Based Speech and Language Pathologists in the Selection of Communication Assessments for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Why We Do What We Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lorna T.

    2010-01-01

    Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) are collaborators in a diagnostic process that reflects an increasing number of referrals of children with autism spectrums disorders (ASD). Also, current practices leading to the remediation of speech and language disorders have come under scrutiny for limitations in effective carryover of targeted goals…

  7. Training a new generation of speech-language pathologists with competences in the management of literacy disorders and learning disabilities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kevin C P

    2014-01-01

    One of the recent developments in the education of speech-language pathology is to include literacy disorders and learning disabilities as key training components in the training curriculum. Disorders in reading and writing are interwoven with disorders in speaking and listening, which should be managed holistically, particularly in children and adolescents. With extensive training in clinical linguistics, language disorders, and other theoretical knowledge and clinical skills, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are the best equipped and most competent professionals to screen, identify, diagnose, and manage individuals with literacy disorders. To tackle the challenges of and the huge demand for services in literacy as well as language and learning disorders, the Hong Kong Institute of Education has recently developed the Master of Science Programme in Educational Speech-Language Pathology and Learning Disabilities, which is one of the very first speech-language pathology training programmes in Asia to blend training components of learning disabilities, literacy disorders, and social-emotional-behavioural-developmental disabilities into a developmentally and medically oriented speech-language pathology training programme. This new training programme aims to prepare a new generation of SLPs to be able to offer comprehensive support to individuals with speech, language, literacy, learning, communication, and swallowing disorders of different developmental or neurogenic origins, particularly to infants and adolescents as well as to their family and educational team.

  8. Factors Influencing School-Based Speech and Language Pathologists in the Selection of Communication Assessments for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Why We Do What We Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lorna T.

    2010-01-01

    Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) are collaborators in a diagnostic process that reflects an increasing number of referrals of children with autism spectrums disorders (ASD). Also, current practices leading to the remediation of speech and language disorders have come under scrutiny for limitations in effective carryover of targeted goals…

  9. The Influence of Maternal Language Responsiveness on the Expressive Speech Production of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Microanalysis of Mother-Child Play Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets…

  10. The Production of Pronouns in Dutch Children with Developmental Language Disorders: A Comparison between Children with SLI, Hearing Impairment, and Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Gerard W.; Kasparian, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The production of pronouns in spontaneous language was investigated in three groups of children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD): children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), children with hearing impairment (HI), and children with Down's syndrome (DS). The results were compared to the production of pronouns in typically developing…

  11. The Influence of Maternal Language Responsiveness on the Expressive Speech Production of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Microanalysis of Mother-Child Play Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets…

  12. Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting out Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic "specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds." Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder,…

  13. Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting out Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic "specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds." Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder,…

  14. Otolaryngology utilization of speech-language pathology services for voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Seth M; Dinan, Michaela A; Kim, Jaewhan; Roy, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    To examine the utilization of speech-language pathology (SLP) services by otolaryngology for outpatients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Retrospective analysis of a large, national, administrative US claims database. The study population included patients with a laryngeal/voice disorder based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008, seen by an otolaryngologist as an outpatient, and 12 months of follow-up. Data were collected on SLP evaluation and treatment and patient factors including age, gender, geographic region, employment status, initial laryngeal diagnosis, and laryngeal diagnosis change over 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with receipt of SLP evaluation and treatment. There were 91,898 unique patients who met study criteria. A total of 4,485 (4.9%) patients had an SLP evaluation, of whom 2,216 (49.4%) had at least one voice therapy session. Patient age, gender, geographic region, and laryngeal diagnosis were associated with increased likelihood of receiving SLP services. Patients whose final laryngeal diagnosis changed from their initial diagnosis had greater odds of having an SLP evaluation (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.31) compared to patients without laryngeal diagnosis change. SLP evaluation and treatment occurred in a minority of laryngeal/voice-disordered patients. Further study is needed to assess the impact of SLP services on the healthcare utilization of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. 2C. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. The impact of workplace factors on evidence-based speech-language pathology practice for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gladys; Trembath, David; Arciuli, Joanne; Togher, Leanne

    2013-08-01

    Although researchers have examined barriers to implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) at the level of the individual, little is known about the effects workplaces have on speech-language pathologists' implementation of EBP. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of workplace factors on the use of EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study sought to (a) explore views about EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with ASD, (b) identify workplace factors which, in the participants' opinions, acted as barriers or enablers to their provision of evidence-based speech-language pathology services, and (c) examine whether or not speech-language pathologists' responses to workplace factors differed based on the type of workplace or their years of experience. A total of 105 speech-language pathologists from across Australia completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The results indicate that, although the majority of speech-language pathologists agreed that EBP is necessary, they experienced barriers to their implementation of EBP including workplace culture and support, lack of time, cost of EBP, and the availability and accessibility of EBP resources. The barriers reported by speech-language pathologists were similar, regardless of their workplace (private practice vs organization) and years of experience.

  16. [Perception-production relations in substitution phonological processes in children with language disorders].

    PubMed

    Ygual-Fernández, Amparo; Cervera-Mérida, José Francisco

    2013-02-22

    It is generally agreed that the auditory perception skills of children with developmental language disorders are more limited than those of typically developing children. It is not easy to determine exactly how the capacity to discriminate and the capacity to pronounce phonemes influence each other in children with language disorders. For most authors, the inability to discriminate certain phonemes accurately causes a developmental delay in pronunciation, whereas others claim the influence is mutual. The aim of this study is to determine in which consonants perceptive difficulty is more likely to occur and in which cases there is a greater probability of difficulty when it comes to articulating them. The sample used in the study consisted of 86 children with a mean age of 4 years and 7 months. The phonological processes involved in simplifying speech were identified. Their errors were used as the basis on which to construct and apply a specific speech perception test. The relationship between the articulatory and perceptive skills of children with substitutive processes were analysed by means of two comparisons: first, in all the processes detected taken as a whole and, second, in the three most frequent substitutive processes. These analyses were carried out to determine whether the nature of the consonant implied a greater probability of perceptive difficulty. The findings provide information about a relation between the articulatory and perceptive skills, and about whether the nature of the consonant determines a higher probability of perceptive or articulatory difficulties. These results can be of value in the assessment, design and effectiveness of speech therapy programmes.

  17. Do reciprocal associations exist between social and language pathways in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Teresa A; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Katholiki; Hanna, Steven; Janus, Magdelena; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Smith, Isabel M; Mirenda, Pat; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Thompson, Ann

    2015-08-01

    Differences in how developmental pathways interact dynamically in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) likely contribute in important ways to phenotypic heterogeneity. This study aimed to model longitudinal reciprocal associations between social competence (SOC) and language (LANG) pathways in young children with ASD. Data were obtained from 365 participants aged 2-4 years who had recently been diagnosed with an ASD and who were followed over three time points: baseline (time of diagnosis), 6- and 12 months later. Using structural equation modeling, a cross-lagged reciprocal effects model was developed that incorporated auto-regressive (stability) paths for SOC (using the Socialization subscale of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2) and LANG (using the Preschool Language Scale-4 Auditory Comprehension subscale). Cross-domain associations included within-time correlations and lagged associations. SOC and LANG were highly stable over 12 months. Small reciprocal cross-lagged associations were found across most time points and within-time correlations decreased over time. There were no differences in strength of cross-lagged associations between SOC-LANG and LANG-SOC across time points. Few differences were found between subgroups of children with ASD with and without cognitive impairment. Longitudinal reciprocal cross-domain associations between social competence and language were small in this sample of young children with ASD. Instead, a pattern emerged to suggest that the two domains were strongly associated around time of diagnosis in preschoolers with ASD, and then appeared to become more independent over the ensuing 12 months. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Pitch Perception in Tone Language-Speaking Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Stella T T; Lam, Gary Y H; To, Carol K S

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced low-level pitch perception has been universally reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined whether tone language speakers with ASD exhibit this advantage. The pitch perception skill of 20 Cantonese-speaking adults with ASD was compared with that of 20 neurotypical individuals. Participants discriminated pairs of real syllable, pseudo-syllable (syllables that do not conform the phonotactic rules or are accidental gaps), and non-speech (syllables with attenuated high-frequency segmental content) stimuli contrasting pitch levels. The results revealed significantly higher discrimination ability in both groups for the non-speech stimuli than for the pseudo-syllables with one semitone difference. No significant group differences were noted. Different from previous findings, post hoc analysis found that enhanced pitch perception was observed in a subgroup of participants with ASD showing no history of delayed speech onset. The tone language experience may have modulated the pitch processing mechanism in the speakers in both ASD and non-ASD groups.

  19. Characterisation of CASPR2 deficiency disorder--a syndrome involving autism, epilepsy and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Rodenas-Cuadrado, Pedro; Pietrafusa, Nicola; Francavilla, Teresa; La Neve, Angela; Striano, Pasquale; Vernes, Sonja C

    2016-02-03

    Heterozygous mutations in CNTNAP2 have been identified in patients with a range of complex phenotypes including intellectual disability, autism and schizophrenia. However heterozygous CNTNAP2 mutations are also found in the normal population. Conversely, homozygous mutations are rare in patient populations and have not been found in any unaffected individuals. We describe a consanguineous family carrying a deletion in CNTNAP2 predicted to abolish function of its protein product, CASPR2. Homozygous family members display epilepsy, facial dysmorphisms, severe intellectual disability and impaired language. We compared these patients with previously reported individuals carrying homozygous mutations in CNTNAP2 and identified a highly recognisable phenotype. We propose that CASPR2 loss produces a syndrome involving early-onset refractory epilepsy, intellectual disability, language impairment and autistic features that can be recognized as CASPR2 deficiency disorder. Further screening for homozygous patients meeting these criteria, together with detailed phenotypic and molecular investigations will be crucial for understanding the contribution of CNTNAP2 to normal and disrupted development.

  20. Quantitative analysis of disfluency in children with autism spectrum disorder or language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Kyle; Ingham, Rosemary; Presmanes Hill, Alison; Papadakis, Katina; Kiss, Géza; van Santen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in social communication, particularly pragmatic language, are characteristic of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Speech disfluencies may serve pragmatic functions such as cueing speaking problems. Previous studies have found that speakers with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) speakers in the types and patterns of disfluencies they produce, but fail to provide sufficiently detailed characterizations of the methods used to categorize and quantify disfluency, making cross-study comparison difficult. In this study we propose a simple schema for classifying major disfluency types, and use this schema in an exploratory analysis of differences in disfluency rates and patterns among children with ASD compared to TD and language impaired (SLI) groups. 115 children ages 4–8 participated in the study (ASD = 51; SLI = 20; TD = 44), completing a battery of experimental tasks and assessments. Measures of morphological and syntactic complexity, as well as word and disfluency counts, were derived from transcripts of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). High inter-annotator agreement was obtained with the use of the proposed schema. Analyses showed ASD children produced a higher ratio of content to filler disfluencies than TD children. Relative frequencies of repetitions, revisions, and false starts did not differ significantly between groups. TD children also produced more cued disfluencies than ASD children. PMID:28296973